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region a x b, c y d.

Double Integrals

region a x b, c y d.

For a continuous function f (x, y ) on a rectangular region we define the

RR RbRb

integral f (x, y )dA (or a a f (x, y )dxdy ) as the volume of the solid

R

bounded by the region R and below the surface given by z = f (x, y ).

Double Integrals

region a x b, c y d.

For a continuous function f (x, y ) on a rectangular region we define the

RR RbRb

integral f (x, y )dA (or a a f (x, y )dxdy ) as the volume of the solid

R

bounded by the region R and below the surface given by z = f (x, y ).

We approximate the said volume by methods of forming partitions of the

region R and summing the volumes of the almost rectangular pillars.

Double Integrals

region a x b, c y d.

For a continuous function f (x, y ) on a rectangular region we define the

RR RbRb

integral f (x, y )dA (or a a f (x, y )dxdy ) as the volume of the solid

R

bounded by the region R and below the surface given by z = f (x, y ).

We approximate the said volume by methods of forming partitions of the

region R and summing the volumes of the almost rectangular pillars.

The integral is defined as the limit of this sum as we make our partition

finer.

Double Integrals

region a x b, c y d.

For a continuous function f (x, y ) on a rectangular region we define the

RR RbRb

integral f (x, y )dA (or a a f (x, y )dxdy ) as the volume of the solid

R

bounded by the region R and below the surface given by z = f (x, y ).

We approximate the said volume by methods of forming partitions of the

region R and summing the volumes of the almost rectangular pillars.

The integral is defined as the limit of this sum as we make our partition

finer.

One can show that this limit exists if the function f (x, y ) is continuous.

Fubinis theorem

First version

If f (x, y ) is continuous throughout the region a x b, c y d (say

R ) then

ZZ Z b Z d Z d Z b

f (x, y )dA = f (x, y )dydx = f (x, y )dxdy

a c c a

R

Example

R3R2

Example. 0 0 (4 y 2 )dydx

Example

R3R2

Example. 0 0 (4 y 2 )dydx

Solution. We solve this by iterative process.

Example

R3R2

Example. 0 0 (4 y 2 )dydx

Solution.

R3R2 We solve this by iterative process.

(4 y 2 )dydx =

0 0

Example

R3R2

Example. 0 0 (4 y 2 )dydx

Solution.

R3R2 We solve this

R by iterative process.

(4 y 2 )dydx = 3 (4y 1 y 3 )|2 dx =

0 0 0 3 0

Example

R3R2

Example. 0 0 (4 y 2 )dydx

Solution.

R3R2 We solve this

R by iterative process.R

(4 y 2 )dydx = 3 (4y 1 y 3 )|2 dx = 3 16

= 16/3(x)|30 = 16

0 0 0 3 0 0 3 dx

Example

R3R2

Example. 0 0 (4 y 2 )dydx

Solution.

R3R2 We solve this

R by iterative process.R

(4 y 2 )dydx = 3 (4y 1 y 3 )|2 dx = 3 16

= 16/3(x)|30 = 16

0 0 0 3 0 0 3 dx

RIf 2we iterate with completing the integration for x first then we get

2 )(x)|3 dy =

0 (4 y 0

Example

R3R2

Example. 0 0 (4 y 2 )dydx

Solution.

R3R2 We solve this

R by iterative process.R

(4 y 2 )dydx = 3 (4y 1 y 3 )|2 dx = 3 16

= 16/3(x)|30 = 16

0 0 0 3 0 0 3 dx

RIf 2we iterate with completing the integration for x first then we get

2 )(x)|3 dy = 3 2 (4 y 2 )dy = 3 16/3 = 16

R

0 (4 y 0 0

Fubinis theorem general version

Theorem

Let f (x, y ) be a continuous function on a region R.

1 If the region R is given by a x b, g1 (x) y g2 (x), with g1 , g2

continuous on the interval [a, b], then

Fubinis theorem general version

Theorem

Let f (x, y ) be a continuous function on a region R.

1 If the region R is given by a x b, g1 (x) y g2 (x), with g1 , g2

continuous on the interval [a, b], then

ZZ Z b Z g2 (x)

f (x, y )dA = f (x, y )dydx.

a g1 (x)

R

Fubinis theorem general version

Theorem

Let f (x, y ) be a continuous function on a region R.

1 If the region R is given by a x b, g1 (x) y g2 (x), with g1 , g2

continuous on the interval [a, b], then

ZZ Z b Z g2 (x)

f (x, y )dA = f (x, y )dydx.

a g1 (x)

R

on [c, d], then

Fubinis theorem general version

Theorem

Let f (x, y ) be a continuous function on a region R.

1 If the region R is given by a x b, g1 (x) y g2 (x), with g1 , g2

continuous on the interval [a, b], then

ZZ Z b Z g2 (x)

f (x, y )dA = f (x, y )dydx.

a g1 (x)

R

on [c, d], then

ZZ Z d Z h2 (y )

f (x, y )dA = dxdy

c h1 (y )

R

Example

sin x

RR

Example. Calculate x dA where the region R is bounded by the x

R

axis and the lines x = 1, y = x.

Example

sin x

RR

Example. Calculate x dA where the region R is bounded by the x

R

axis and the lines x = 1, y = x.

Solution. Let us first integrate with respect to y ,

Example

sin x

RR

Example. Calculate x dA where the region R is bounded by the x

R

axis and the lines x = 1, y = x.

Solution. Let us first integrate with respect to y , we get

Z 1 Z x

sin x

( dy )dx =

0 0 x

Example

sin x

RR

Example. Calculate x dA where the region R is bounded by the x

R

axis and the lines x = 1, y = x.

Solution. Let us first integrate with respect to y , we get

Z 1 Z x

sin x

( dy )dx =

0 0 x

Z 1

sin x x

= ( y ) dx

0 x 0

Example

sin x

RR

Example. Calculate x dA where the region R is bounded by the x

R

axis and the lines x = 1, y = x.

Solution. Let us first integrate with respect to y , we get

Z 1 Z x

sin x

( dy )dx =

0 0 x

Z 1

sin x x

= ( y ) dx

0 x 0

Z 1 Z 1

sin x

= xdx = sin xdx = cos x|10 = cos 1 + 1

0 x 0

Example

sin x

RR

Example. Calculate x dA where the region R is bounded by the x

R

axis and the lines x = 1, y = x.

Solution. Let us first integrate with respect to y , we get

Z 1 Z x

sin x

( dy )dx =

0 0 x

Z 1

sin x x

= ( y ) dx

0 x 0

Z 1 Z 1

sin x

= xdx = sin xdx = cos x|10 = cos 1 + 1

0 x 0

Example cont

R1 sin x

If we try to integrate with x first then we have to integrate 0 x dx

Example cont

R1 sin x

If we try to integrate with x first then we have to integrate 0 x dx

which requires the indefinite integral sinx x

R

Example cont

R1 sin x

If we try to integrate with x first then we have to integrate 0 x dx

which requires the indefinite integral sinx x

R

Example

R 1 R y2

Example. Find the integral 0 0 3y 3 e xy dxdy .

Example

R 1 R y2

Example. Find the integral 0 0 3y 3 e xy dxdy .

Solution. Z 1 Z y2 Z 1h

3 xy e xy iy 2

3y e dxdy = 3y 3 dy

0 0 0 y 0

Example

R 1 R y2

Example. Find the integral 0 0 3y 3 e xy dxdy .

Solution. Z 1 Z y2 Z 1h

3 xy e xy iy 2

3y e dxdy = 3y 3 dy

0 0 0 y 0

Z 1

3

= (3y 2 e y 3y 2 )dy

0

Example

R 1 R y2

Example. Find the integral 0 0 3y 3 e xy dxdy .

Solution. Z 1 Z y2 Z 1h

3 xy e xy iy 2

3y e dxdy = 3y 3 dy

0 0 0 y 0

Z 1

3

= (3y 2 e y 3y 2 )dy

0

3

= ey y 3 = e 2

Example

Example. Find the integral of f (u, v ) = v u over the triangular region

of the first quadrant of uv plane by the line u + v = 1

Example

Example. Find the integral of f (u, v ) = v u over the triangular region

of the first quadrant of uv plane by the line u + v = 1

Solution. Let us first find the limits. Let us integrate with respect to u

first,

Example

Example. Find the integral of f (u, v ) = v u over the triangular region

of the first quadrant of uv plane by the line u + v = 1

Solution. Let us first find the limits. Let us integrate with respect to u

first, so we have to find the limits of u as functions of v ,

Example

Example. Find the integral of f (u, v ) = v u over the triangular region

of the first quadrant of uv plane by the line u + v = 1

Solution. Let us first find the limits. Let us integrate with respect to u

first, so we have to find the limits of u as functions of v , we get

u = 0, uv = 1 v .

Example

Example. Find the integral of f (u, v ) = v u over the triangular region

of the first quadrant of uv plane by the line u + v = 1

Solution. Let us first find the limits. Let us integrate with respect to u

first, so we have to find the limits of u as functions of v , we get

u = 0, uv = 1 v .

And v ranges from 0 to 1.

Example

Example. Find the integral of f (u, v ) = v u over the triangular region

of the first quadrant of uv plane by the line u + v = 1

Solution. Let us first find the limits. Let us integrate with respect to u

first, so we have to find the limits of u as functions of v , we get

u = 0, uv = 1 v .

And v ranges from 0 to 1. So the integral turns out to be:

Example

Example. Find the integral of f (u, v ) = v u over the triangular region

of the first quadrant of uv plane by the line u + v = 1

Solution. Let us first find the limits. Let us integrate with respect to u

first, so we have to find the limits of u as functions of v , we get

u = 0, uv = 1 v .

And v ranges from 0 to 1. So the integral turns out to be:

Z 1 Z 1v

(v u)dudv =

0 0

Example

Example. Find the integral of f (u, v ) = v u over the triangular region

of the first quadrant of uv plane by the line u + v = 1

Solution. Let us first find the limits. Let us integrate with respect to u

first, so we have to find the limits of u as functions of v , we get

u = 0, uv = 1 v .

And v ranges from 0 to 1. So the integral turns out to be:

Z 1 Z 1v

(v u)dudv =

0 0

Z 1h

2 3 i1v

= vu u 2 dv

0 3 0

Example

Example. Find the integral of f (u, v ) = v u over the triangular region

of the first quadrant of uv plane by the line u + v = 1

Solution. Let us first find the limits. Let us integrate with respect to u

first, so we have to find the limits of u as functions of v , we get

u = 0, uv = 1 v .

And v ranges from 0 to 1. So the integral turns out to be:

Z 1 Z 1v

(v u)dudv =

0 0

Z 1h

2 3 i1v

= vu u 2 dv

0 3 0

Z 1

2 3

= (v v 2 (1 v ) 2 )dv

0 3

Example

Example. Find the integral of f (u, v ) = v u over the triangular region

of the first quadrant of uv plane by the line u + v = 1

Solution. Let us first find the limits. Let us integrate with respect to u

first, so we have to find the limits of u as functions of v , we get

u = 0, uv = 1 v .

And v ranges from 0 to 1. So the integral turns out to be:

Z 1 Z 1v

(v u)dudv =

0 0

Z 1h

2 3 i1v

= vu u 2 dv

0 3 0

Z 1

2 3

= (v v 2 (1 v ) 2 )dv

0 3

1 1 4 5 1

1

= v 2 v 3 + (1 v ) 2 =

2 3 15 0 10

Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 8 / 37

Example

R 0 R v

Example Sketch the region and evaluate the integral: 2 v 2dpdv .

Example

R 0 R v

Example Sketch the region and evaluate the integral: 2 v 2dpdv .

Example. The integral is.

Example

R 0 R v

Example Sketch the region and evaluate the integral: 2 v 2dpdv .

Example. The integral is.

Z 0 Z v Z 0 h iv

2dpdv = 2p dv

2 v 2 v

Example

R 0 R v

Example Sketch the region and evaluate the integral: 2 v 2dpdv .

Example. The integral is.

Z 0 Z v Z 0 h iv

2dpdv = 2p dv

2 v 2 v

Z 0 h1 i0

= (4v )dv = 4 v2 =8

2 2 2

Example

z = x 2 + y 2 and below by the triangle enclosed by the lines

y = x, x = 0, x + y = 2 in the xy plane.

Example

z = x 2 + y 2 and below by the triangle enclosed by the lines

y = x, x = 0, x + y = 2 in the xy plane.

Solution. The volume is by definition given by the integral (x 2 + y 2 )dA

RR

R

where the region R is stated as above.

Example

z = x 2 + y 2 and below by the triangle enclosed by the lines

y = x, x = 0, x + y = 2 in the xy plane.

Solution. The volume is by definition given by the integral (x 2 + y 2 )dA

RR

R

where the region R is stated as above.

Let us say that we want to first integrate with respect to y then let us find

the limits of y as functions of x.

Example

z = x 2 + y 2 and below by the triangle enclosed by the lines

y = x, x = 0, x + y = 2 in the xy plane.

Solution. The volume is by definition given by the integral (x 2 + y 2 )dA

RR

R

where the region R is stated as above.

Let us say that we want to first integrate with respect to y then let us find

the limits of y as functions of x.

The limits are y = x and y = 2 x, and x varies from 0 to 1.

Example

z = x 2 + y 2 and below by the triangle enclosed by the lines

y = x, x = 0, x + y = 2 in the xy plane.

Solution. The volume is by definition given by the integral (x 2 + y 2 )dA

RR

R

where the region R is stated as above.

Let us say that we want to first integrate with respect to y then let us find

the limits of y as functions of x.

The limits are y = x and = 2 x, and x varies from 0 to 1. So the

R 1 yR 2x

integral to be found is 0 x (x 2 + y 2 )dydx.

Example

z = x 2 + y 2 and below by the triangle enclosed by the lines

y = x, x = 0, x + y = 2 in the xy plane.

Solution. The volume is by definition given by the integral (x 2 + y 2 )dA

RR

R

where the region R is stated as above.

Let us say that we want to first integrate with respect to y then let us find

the limits of y as functions of x.

The limits are y = x and = 2 x, and x varies from 0 to 1. So the

R 1 yR 2x

integral to be found is 0 x (x 2 + y 2 )dydx.

Z 1h

1 3 i2x

= y + x 2y dx

0 3 x

Example

z = x 2 + y 2 and below by the triangle enclosed by the lines

y = x, x = 0, x + y = 2 in the xy plane.

Solution. The volume is by definition given by the integral (x 2 + y 2 )dA

RR

R

where the region R is stated as above.

Let us say that we want to first integrate with respect to y then let us find

the limits of y as functions of x.

The limits are y = x and = 2 x, and x varies from 0 to 1. So the

R 1 yR 2x

integral to be found is 0 x (x 2 + y 2 )dydx.

Z 1h

1 3 i2x

= y + x 2y dx

0 3 x

Z 1

7 1

= 2x 2 x 3 + (2 x)3 dx

0 3 3

h2 7 1 i1

= x 3 x 4 (2 x)4

3 3 12 0

h2 7 1 i1

= x 3 x 4 (2 x)4

3 3 12 0

4

=

3

How to find the limits of integration

Given a region R in the following steps we can find the limits of the

integration.

How to find the limits of integration

Given a region R in the following steps we can find the limits of the

integration. If we want to integrate first with respect to y then :

How to find the limits of integration

Given a region R in the following steps we can find the limits of the

integration. If we want to integrate first with respect to y then :

1 Sketch the region and label the curves bounding the region.

How to find the limits of integration

Given a region R in the following steps we can find the limits of the

integration. If we want to integrate first with respect to y then :

1 Sketch the region and label the curves bounding the region.

2 Find the y limits.

How to find the limits of integration

Given a region R in the following steps we can find the limits of the

integration. If we want to integrate first with respect to y then :

1 Sketch the region and label the curves bounding the region.

2 Find the y limits. Look at a vertical line through (x, 0)

How to find the limits of integration

Given a region R in the following steps we can find the limits of the

integration. If we want to integrate first with respect to y then :

1 Sketch the region and label the curves bounding the region.

2 Find the y limits. Look at a vertical line through (x, 0) the y values as

a function of x as the line enters and leaves the region

How to find the limits of integration

Given a region R in the following steps we can find the limits of the

integration. If we want to integrate first with respect to y then :

1 Sketch the region and label the curves bounding the region.

2 Find the y limits. Look at a vertical line through (x, 0) the y values as

a function of x as the line enters and leaves the region are the limits.

How to find the limits of integration

Given a region R in the following steps we can find the limits of the

integration. If we want to integrate first with respect to y then :

1 Sketch the region and label the curves bounding the region.

2 Find the y limits. Look at a vertical line through (x, 0) the y values as

a function of x as the line enters and leaves the region are the limits.

3 The x limits of integration are the extreme x values of the region.

How to find the limits of integration

Given a region R in the following steps we can find the limits of the

integration. If we want to integrate first with respect to y then :

1 Sketch the region and label the curves bounding the region.

2 Find the y limits. Look at a vertical line through (x, 0) the y values as

a function of x as the line enters and leaves the region are the limits.

3 The x limits of integration are the extreme x values of the region.

The method is similar if we want to integrate with respect to x first, we

simply choose horizontal lines to find the x limits as functions of y .

Example

R 1 R 42x

Example. Reverse the order of the integration 0 2 dydx.

Example

R 1 R 42x

Example. Reverse the order of the integration 0 2 dydx.

Solution. First we sketch the region and find the limits of x as functions

of y

Example

R 1 R 42x

Example. Reverse the order of the integration 0 2 dydx.

Solution. First we sketch the region and find the limits of x as functions

of y

First the limits of y are 2 y 4.

Example

R 1 R 42x

Example. Reverse the order of the integration 0 2 dydx.

Solution. First we sketch the region and find the limits of x as functions

of y

First the limits of y are 2 y 4.

Then the limits of x are bounded by the lines x = 0 and x = 12 (4 y ).

Example

R 1 R 42x

Example. Reverse the order of the integration 0 2 dydx.

Solution. First we sketch the region and find the limits of x as functions

of y

First the limits of y are 2 y 4.

Then the limits of x are bounded by the lines x = 0 and x = 12 (4 y ).

R 4 R 1 (4y )

So the reversed integral is 2 02 dxdy .

Example

R 32 R 94x 2

Example. Reverse the order of the integral in 0 0 16xdydx.

Example

R 32 R 94x 2

Example. Reverse the order of the integral in 0 0 16xdydx.

Solution. First sketch the region.

Example

R 32 R 94x 2

Example. Reverse the order of the integral in 0 0 16xdydx.

Solution. First sketch the region.

Then find the limits of y ,

Example

R 32 R 94x 2

Example. Reverse the order of the integral in 0 0 16xdydx.

Solution. First sketch the region.

Then find the limits of y , 0 y 9.

Example

R 3 R 94x 2

Example. Reverse the order of the integral in 02 0 16xdydx.

Solution. First sketch the region.

Then find the limits of y , 0 y 9.

Then the note that any horizontal line is bounded by the curves x = 0 and

y = 9 4x 2

Example

R 3 R 94x 2

Example. Reverse the order of the integral in 02 0 16xdydx.

Solution. First sketch the region.

Then find the limits of y , 0 y 9.

Then the note that any horizontal line is

bounded by the curves x = 0 and

y = 9 4x so the x limits are 0 x 9y

2

2 .

Example

R 3 R 94x 2

Example. Reverse the order of the integral in 02 0 16xdydx.

Solution. First sketch the region.

Then find the limits of y , 0 y 9.

Then the note that any horizontal line is

bounded by the curves x = 0 and

y = 9 4x so the x limits are 0 x 9y

2

2 .

R 9 R 9y

So the reversed integral is 0 0 2 16xdxdy

Example

R1Rx

Example. Evaluate the integral 0 0 x 2 e xy dydx.

Example

R1Rx

Example. Evaluate the integral 0 0 x 2 e xy dydx.

Solution. Lets iterate the integral.

Example

R1Rx

Example. Evaluate the integral 0 0 x 2 e xy dydx.

Solution. Lets iterate the integral. We get the integral

Z 1Z x

x 2 e xy dydx

0 0

Example

R1Rx

Example. Evaluate the integral 0 0 x 2 e xy dydx.

Solution. Lets iterate the integral. We get the integral

Z 1Z x

x 2 e xy dydx

0 0

Example

R1Rx

Example. Evaluate the integral 0 0 x 2 e xy dydx.

Solution. Lets iterate the integral. We get the integral

Z 1Z x

x 2 e xy dydx

0 0

Z 1

2

(xe x x)dx

0

Example

Example. Evaluate the integral 0 0 x 2 e xy dydx.

Solution. Lets iterate the integral. We get the integral

Z 1Z x

x 2 e xy dydx

0 0

Z 1

2

(xe x x)dx

0

e 2

=

2

Integral over an unbounded region

RR1 1

Example. Compute the integral 1 e x x 3 y dydx.

Integral over an unbounded region

RR1

Example. Compute the integral 1 e x x 13 y dydx.

Solution. Just as in the single variable case we define this integral as the

limit Z tZ 1

1

lim 3

dydx.

t 1 e x x y

Integral over an unbounded region

RR1

Example. Compute the integral 1 e x x 13 y dydx.

Solution. Just as in the single variable case we define this integral as the

limit Z tZ 1

1

lim 3

dydx.

t 1 e x x y

And the integral comes to Z t

1

dx =

1 x2

Integral over an unbounded region

RR1

Example. Compute the integral 1 e x x 13 y dydx.

Solution. Just as in the single variable case we define this integral as the

limit Z tZ 1

1

lim 3

dydx.

t 1 e x x y

And the integral comes to Z t

1

dx =

1 x2

h 1 it 1

= +1

x 1 t

Integral over an unbounded region

RR1

Example. Compute the integral 1 e x x 13 y dydx.

Solution. Just as in the single variable case we define this integral as the

limit Z tZ 1

1

lim 3

dydx.

t 1 e x x y

And the integral comes to Z t

1

dx =

1 x2

h 1 it 1

= +1

x 1 t

As we pass through the limit we get 1.

Example

e y 3 dydx

R3R1

1

0 x/3

R R (x+2y )

0 xe dxdy

2

0

Integral of function of polar coordinates

The double integrals of function given in polar form is little different than

the functions given in Cartesian coordinate systems.

Integral of function of polar coordinates

The double integrals of function given in polar form is little different than

the functions given in Cartesian coordinate systems.

If A differentiable function f (r , ) is given in polar coordinates over the

region R which lies between the angels

Integral of function of polar coordinates

The double integrals of function given in polar form is little different than

the functions given in Cartesian coordinate systems.

If A differentiable function f (r , ) is given in polar coordinates over the

region R which lies between the angels 1 2

Integral of function of polar coordinates

The double integrals of function given in polar form is little different than

the functions given in Cartesian coordinate systems.

If A differentiable function f (r , ) is given in polar coordinates over the

region R which lies between the angels 1 2 and the radius

bounded as g1 (1 ) r g2 (2 ) where g1 (), g2 () are continuous

functions.

Integral of function of polar coordinates

The double integrals of function given in polar form is little different than

the functions given in Cartesian coordinate systems.

If A differentiable function f (r , ) is given in polar coordinates over the

region R which lies between the angels 1 2 and the radius

bounded as g1 (1 ) r g2 (2 ) where g1 (), g2 () are continuous

functions. RR

Then the integral f (r , )dA is defined as the integral

R

Integral of function of polar coordinates

The double integrals of function given in polar form is little different than

the functions given in Cartesian coordinate systems.

If A differentiable function f (r , ) is given in polar coordinates over the

region R which lies between the angels 1 2 and the radius

bounded as g1 (1 ) r g2 (2 ) where g1 (), g2 () are continuous

functions. RR

Then the integral f (r , )dA is defined as the integral

R

Z 2 Z g2 (2 )

f (r , )r drd

1 g1 (1 )

Integral of function of polar coordinates

The double integrals of function given in polar form is little different than

the functions given in Cartesian coordinate systems.

If A differentiable function f (r , ) is given in polar coordinates over the

region R which lies between the angels 1 2 and the radius

bounded as g1 (1 ) r g2 (2 ) where g1 (), g2 () are continuous

functions. RR

Then the integral f (r , )dA is defined as the integral

R

Z 2 Z g2 (2 )

f (r , )r drd

1 g1 (1 )

How to find the limits of integrals in polar coordinates

How to find the limits of integrals in polar coordinates

2 Imagine a ray from the origin entering and leaving the region, the

point of entrance as a function of is the lower limit

How to find the limits of integrals in polar coordinates

2 Imagine a ray from the origin entering and leaving the region, the

point of entrance as a function of is the lower limit and the point of

departure as a function of is the upper limit.

How to find the limits of integrals in polar coordinates

2 Imagine a ray from the origin entering and leaving the region, the

point of entrance as a function of is the lower limit and the point of

departure as a function of is the upper limit.

3 Find the extreme angles of the points of the region, the smallest is

the lower limit,

How to find the limits of integrals in polar coordinates

2 Imagine a ray from the origin entering and leaving the region, the

point of entrance as a function of is the lower limit and the point of

departure as a function of is the upper limit.

3 Find the extreme angles of the points of the region, the smallest is

the lower limit, the largest is the upper limit of the integral.

Changing integrals from Cartesian to polar coordinates

Changing integrals from Cartesian to polar coordinates

2 Then substitute dydx with r drd.

Changing integrals from Cartesian to polar coordinates

2 Then substitute dydx with r drd.

3 Find the polar limits of the region from the sketch using the method

described above.

Example.

R6Ry

Example. Find the integral by changing to polar coordinates: 0 0 xdxdy

Example.

R6Ry

Example. Find the integral by changing to polar coordinates: 0 0 xdxdy

Solution. First let us sketch the region.

Example.

R6Ry

Example. Find the integral by changing to polar coordinates: 0 0 xdxdy

Solution. First let us sketch the region. Let us find the limits in polar

coordinates.

Example.

R6Ry

Example. Find the integral by changing to polar coordinates: 0 0 xdxdy

Solution. First let us sketch the region. Let us find the limits in polar

coordinates. The angle is in the domain 4 2 .

Example.

R6Ry

Example. Find the integral by changing to polar coordinates: 0 0 xdxdy

Solution. First let us sketch the region. Let us find the limits in polar

coordinates. The angle is in the domain 4 2 .

The radius is bounded below by 0 and above by sin6 .

Example.

R6Ry

Example. Find the integral by changing to polar coordinates: 0 0 xdxdy

Solution. First let us sketch the region. Let us find the limits in polar

coordinates. The angle is in the domain 4 2 .

The radius is bounded below by 0 and above by sin6 .

So the integral becomes:

Z Z 6

2 sin

r cos rdrd

4

0

Example.

R6Ry

Example. Find the integral by changing to polar coordinates: 0 0 xdxdy

Solution. First let us sketch the region. Let us find the limits in polar

coordinates. The angle is in the domain 4 2 .

The radius is bounded below by 0 and above by sin6 .

So the integral becomes:

Z Z 6

2 sin

r cos rdrd

4

0

63

Z

2 cos d

=

3

4

sin3

Example.

R6Ry

Example. Find the integral by changing to polar coordinates: 0 0 xdxdy

Solution. First let us sketch the region. Let us find the limits in polar

coordinates. The angle is in the domain 4 2 .

The radius is bounded below by 0 and above by sin6 .

So the integral becomes:

Z Z 6

2 sin

r cos rdrd

4

0

63

Z

2 cos d

=

3

4

sin3

63 h 1 i 2

=

3 2 sin2 4

= 36

.

Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 21 / 37

Example

Example.

R R (xFind the integral by changing to the polar coordinates:

2 +y 2 )

0 0 e dxdy .

Example

Example.

R R (xFind the integral by changing to the polar coordinates:

2 +y 2 )

0 0 e dxdy .

Solution. The region is clearly the first quadrant.

Example

Example.

R R (xFind the integral by changing to the polar coordinates:

2 +y 2 )

0 0 e dxdy .

Solution. The region is clearly the first quadrant. so the limits of the

angel is 0 2 .

Example

Example.

R R (xFind the integral by changing to the polar coordinates:

2 +y 2 )

0 0 e dxdy .

Solution. The region is clearly the first quadrant. so the limits of the

angel is 0 2 . The limits of the radius is clearly between 0 and .

Example

Example.

R R (xFind the integral by changing to the polar coordinates:

2 +y 2 )

0 0 e dxdy .

Solution. The region is clearly the first quadrant. so the limits of the

angel is 0 2 . The limits of the radius is clearly between 0 and .

So the integral becomes:

Z

2

Z

2

= e r rdrd

0 0

Example

Example.

R R (xFind the integral by changing to the polar coordinates:

2 +y 2 )

0 0 e dxdy .

Solution. The region is clearly the first quadrant. so the limits of the

angel is 0 2 . The limits of the radius is clearly between 0 and .

So the integral becomes:

Z

2

Z

2

= e r rdrd

0 0

Z h 2 i

2

= 1/2 e r d

0 0

Example

Example.

R R (xFind the integral by changing to the polar coordinates:

2 +y 2 )

0 0 e dxdy .

Solution. The region is clearly the first quadrant. so the limits of the

angel is 0 2 . The limits of the radius is clearly between 0 and .

So the integral becomes:

Z

2

Z

2

= e r rdrd

0 0

Z h 2 i

2

= 1/2 e r d

0 0

=

4

Example

Example.

R R (xFind the integral by changing to the polar coordinates:

2 +y 2 )

0 0 e dxdy .

Solution. The region is clearly the first quadrant. so the limits of the

angel is 0 2 . The limits of the radius is clearly between 0 and .

So the integral becomes:

Z

2

Z

2

= e r rdrd

0 0

Z h 2 i

2

= 1/2 e r d

0 0

=

4

Try the integral in Cartesian coordinate form.

Example

Example.

R R (xFind the integral by changing to the polar coordinates:

2 +y 2 )

0 0 e dxdy .

Solution. The region is clearly the first quadrant. so the limits of the

angel is 0 2 . The limits of the radius is clearly between 0 and .

So the integral becomes:

Z

2

Z

2

= e r rdrd

0 0

Z h 2 i

2

= 1/2 e r d

0 0

=

4

Try the integral in Cartesian coordinate form. This shows the power of

polar coordinates in dealing with certain types of functions.

Example

Example.

R R (xFind the integral by changing to the polar coordinates:

2 +y 2 )

0 0 e dxdy .

Solution. The region is clearly the first quadrant. so the limits of the

angel is 0 2 . The limits of the radius is clearly between 0 and .

So the integral becomes:

Z

2

Z

2

= e r rdrd

0 0

Z h 2 i

2

= 1/2 e r d

0 0

=

4

Try the integral in Cartesian coordinate form. This shows the power of

polar coordinates in dealing with certain types of functions. Namely the

radially symmetric functions.

Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 22 / 37

Area

RR

The area of a region R in Cartesian coordinate is dxdy .

R

Area

RR

The area of a region R in Cartesian coordinate is dxdy .

R RR

The area of a region R in polar coordinates is defined as rdrd.

R

Area

RR

The area of a region R in Cartesian coordinate is dxdy .

R RR

The area of a region R in polar coordinates is defined as rdrd.

R

It will be clear later why these two definitions do give the same quantity.

Example. Find the area of one leaf of the rose r = 12 cos 3.

Example. Find the area of one leaf of the rose r = 12 cos 3.

Example. Find the area of one leaf of the rose r = 12 cos 3.

The angle between a leaf in the first quadrant is given by the solutions of

the equation 12 cos 3 = 0.

10

5 5 10

10

Example. Find the area of one leaf of the rose r = 12 cos 3.

The angle between a leaf in the first quadrant is given by the solutions of

the equation 12 cos 3 = 0.

10

5 5 10

10

Himadri

Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 24 / 37

Example. Find the area of one leaf of the rose r = 12 cos 3.

The angle between a leaf in the first quadrant is given by the solutions of

the equation 12 cos 3 = 0.

10

5 5 10

10

Himadri

Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 24 / 37

Example. Find the area of one leaf of the rose r = 12 cos 3.

The angle between a leaf in the first quadrant is given by the solutions of

the equation 12 cos 3 = 0.

10

5 5 10

10

Himadri

Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 24 / 37

Example. Find the area of one leaf of the rose r = 12 cos 3.

The angle between a leaf in the first quadrant is given by the solutions of

the equation 12 cos 3 = 0.

10

5 5 10

10

Himadri

Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 24 / 37

Example cont.

122

Z

6

=2 cos2 3d

2 0

Example cont.

Z

122 6

=2 cos2 3d

2 0

Z

122 6

=2 1 + cos 6d

4 0

Example cont.

Z

122 6

=2 cos2 3d

2 0

Z

122 6

=2 1 + cos 6d

4 0

= 12

Example. Find the integral:

Z 2Z 1(x1)2

x +y

dydx

0 0 x2 + y2

Example. Find the integral:

Z 2Z 1(x1)2

x +y

dydx

0 0 x2 + y2

Solution. First let us sketch the region and find the limits in polar

coordinate.

Example. Find the integral:

Z 2Z 1(x1)2

x +y

dydx

0 0 x2 + y2

Solution. First let us sketch the region and find the limits in polar

coordinate.

0.5

0.5 1 1.5 2

The integral turns out to be:

Z

2

Z 2 cos

(sin + cos )drd

0 0

The integral turns out to be:

Z

2

Z 2 cos

(sin + cos )drd

0 0

= +1

2

Example. Find the integral:

Z ln2 Z (ln2)2 y 2

x 2 +y 2

e dxdy

0 0

Example. Find the integral:

Z ln2 Z (ln2)2 y 2

x 2 +y 2

e dxdy

0 0

Example. Find the integral:

Z ln2 Z (ln2)2 y 2

x 2 +y 2

e dxdy

0 0

Solution. Let us find the limits in polar coordinates first: The integral

becomes: Z Z ln2

2

re r drd

0 0

Example. Find the integral:

Z ln2 Z (ln2)2 y 2

x 2 +y 2

e dxdy

0 0

Solution. Let us find the limits in polar coordinates first: The integral

becomes: Z Z ln2

2

re r drd

0 0

= (2ln2 1)/2

Notes on integrating in polar coordinates

function is radially symmetric.

Notes on integrating in polar coordinates

function is radially symmetric.

Changing to the polar coordinates splits the integral by separating the

variables.

Notes on integrating in polar coordinates

function is radially symmetric.

Changing to the polar coordinates splits the integral by separating the

variables.

The integral is already given in polar coordinates.

Properties of double integrals

If f (x, y ) and g (x, y ) are continuous functions then:

RR RR

1 Constant multiple: cf (x, y )dA = c f (x, y ) for any number c.

R R

Properties of double integrals

If f (x, y ) and g (x, y ) are continuous functions then:

RR RR

1 Constant multiple: cf (x, y )dA = c f (x, y ) for any number c.

R R

2 Sum and difference:

ZZ ZZ ZZ

(f (x, y ) g (x, y ))dA = f (x, y )dA g (x, y )dA

R R R

Properties of double integrals

If f (x, y ) and g (x, y ) are continuous functions then:

RR RR

1 Constant multiple: cf (x, y )dA = c f (x, y ) for any number c.

R R

2 Sum and difference:

ZZ ZZ ZZ

(f (x, y ) g (x, y ))dA = f (x, y )dA g (x, y )dA

R R R

RR RR

3 Domination: f (x, y )dA g (x, y ) if f (x, y ) g (x, y ) on R.

R R

Properties of double integrals

If f (x, y ) and g (x, y ) are continuous functions then:

RR RR

1 Constant multiple: cf (x, y )dA = c f (x, y ) for any number c.

R R

2 Sum and difference:

ZZ ZZ ZZ

(f (x, y ) g (x, y ))dA = f (x, y )dA g (x, y )dA

R R R

RR RR

3 Domination: f (x, y )dA g (x, y ) if f (x, y ) g (x, y ) on R.

R R

ARRparticular case of the above is when g (x, y ) = 0, we get

f (x, y )dA 0

R

Properties of double integrals

If f (x, y ) and g (x, y ) are continuous functions then:

RR RR

1 Constant multiple: cf (x, y )dA = c f (x, y ) for any number c.

R R

2 Sum and difference:

ZZ ZZ ZZ

(f (x, y ) g (x, y ))dA = f (x, y )dA g (x, y )dA

R R R

RR RR

3 Domination: f (x, y )dA g (x, y ) if f (x, y ) g (x, y ) on R.

R R

ARRparticular case of the above is when g (x, y ) = 0, we get

f (x, y )dA 0

R

4 Additivity:

ZZ ZZ ZZ

f (x, y )dA = f (x, y )dA + f (x, y )dA

R R1 R2

Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 30 / 37

Example. Find the region R on the x, y plane that maximizes the integral

2 2

RR

R (4 x y )dydx.

Example. Find the region R on the x, y plane that maximizes the integral

2 2

RR

R (4 x y )dydx.

Solutions. The region must be x 2 + y 2 < 4.

Example. Find the integral by converting to a double integral

Z 2

(tan1 x tan1 x))dx

0

Example. Find the integral by converting to a double integral

Z 2

(tan1 x tan1 x))dx

0

R x 1

Solution First let us write the integrand as an integral as x 1+y 2

.

Example. Find the integral by converting to a double integral

Z 2

(tan1 x tan1 x))dx

0

R x 1

Solution First let us write the integrand as an integral as x 1+y 2

.

Then we have to integrate

Z 2 Z x

1

dydx

0 x 1 + y2

Example. Find the integral by converting to a double integral

Z 2

(tan1 x tan1 x))dx

0

R x 1

Solution First let us write the integrand as an integral as x 1+y 2

.

Then we have to integrate

Z 2 Z x

1

dydx

0 x 1 + y2

Example. Find the integral by converting to a double integral

Z 2

(tan1 x tan1 x))dx

0

R x 1

Solution First let us write the integrand as an integral as x 1+y 2

.

Then we have to integrate

Z 2 Z x

1

dydx

0 x 1 + y2

We sketch the region. Note that we have to write the region as disjoint

union of the region y 2 and the region y 2.

Example. Find the integral by converting to a double integral

Z 2

(tan1 x tan1 x))dx

0

R x 1

Solution First let us write the integrand as an integral as x 1+y 2

.

Then we have to integrate

Z 2 Z x

1

dydx

0 x 1 + y2

We sketch the region. Note that we have to write the region as disjoint

union of the region y 2 and the region y 2.

The final integral is

Z 2Z y Z 2 Z 2

1 1

2

dxdy + dxdy

y 1 + y y 1 + y2

0

2

Example

Example

R1R1 y

0 x x 2 +y 2 dydx

Example

R1R1 y

0 x x 2 +y 2 dydx

R 1 R y /3

0 y /3

y dxdy

2 2

x +y

Triple Integrals

variables over a domain given in three space.

Triple Integrals

variables over a domain given in three space. First let us discuss how to

find the limits of a triple integral:

Triple Integrals

variables over a domain given in three space. First let us discuss how to

find the limits of a triple integral:

First sketch the region in three space.

Triple Integrals

variables over a domain given in three space. First let us discuss how to

find the limits of a triple integral:

First sketch the region in three space.

Find the z limits by imagining a line passing through (x, y ) and is

parallel to the z axis entering and leaving the region,

Triple Integrals

variables over a domain given in three space. First let us discuss how to

find the limits of a triple integral:

First sketch the region in three space.

Find the z limits by imagining a line passing through (x, y ) and is

parallel to the z axis entering and leaving the region, the z

coordinates are the z limits as functions of x, y .

Triple Integrals

variables over a domain given in three space. First let us discuss how to

find the limits of a triple integral:

First sketch the region in three space.

Find the z limits by imagining a line passing through (x, y ) and is

parallel to the z axis entering and leaving the region, the z

coordinates are the z limits as functions of x, y .

Find the projection of the domain on the x, y plane.

Triple Integrals

variables over a domain given in three space. First let us discuss how to

find the limits of a triple integral:

First sketch the region in three space.

Find the z limits by imagining a line passing through (x, y ) and is

parallel to the z axis entering and leaving the region, the z

coordinates are the z limits as functions of x, y .

Find the projection of the domain on the x, y plane. Find the x and y

limits as discussed in the double integrals in accordance of your order

of integral.

Example.

Example. Find the limits of the domain in the first octant bounded by the

plane y + z = 2 and the cylinder x = 4 y 2 .

Example.

Example. Find the limits of the domain in the first octant bounded by the

plane y + z = 2 and the cylinder x = 4 y 2 .

Solution. First let us sketch the region.

Example.

Example. Find the limits of the domain in the first octant bounded by the

plane y + z = 2 and the cylinder x = 4 y 2 .

Solution. First let us sketch the region.

Example.

and the planes z = y , z = 0.

Example.

and the planes z = y , z = 0.

Solution.

Example. Rewrite the integral

Z 1Z 1 Z 1y

dzdydx

1 x2 0

Example. Rewrite the integral

Z 1Z 1 Z 1y

dzdydx

1 x2 0

In the form:

1 dydzdx

Example. Rewrite the integral

Z 1Z 1 Z 1y

dzdydx

1 x2 0

In the form:

1 dydzdx

2 dydxdz

Example. Rewrite the integral

Z 1Z 1 Z 1y

dzdydx

1 x2 0

In the form:

1 dydzdx

2 dydxdz

3 dxdydz

Example. Rewrite the integral

Z 1Z 1 Z 1y

dzdydx

1 x2 0

In the form:

1 dydzdx

2 dydxdz

3 dxdydz

4 dxdzdy

Example. Rewrite the integral

Z 1Z 1 Z 1y

dzdydx

1 x2 0

In the form:

1 dydzdx

2 dydxdz

3 dxdydz

4 dxdzdy

5 dzdxdy

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