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# Double Integrals

## Let us discuss double integrals of function f (x, y ) defined on a rectangular

region a x b, c y d.

Double Integrals

## Let us discuss double integrals of function f (x, y ) defined on a rectangular

region a x b, c y d.
For a continuous function f (x, y ) on a rectangular region we define the
RR RbRb
integral f (x, y )dA (or a a f (x, y )dxdy ) as the volume of the solid
R
bounded by the region R and below the surface given by z = f (x, y ).

Double Integrals

## Let us discuss double integrals of function f (x, y ) defined on a rectangular

region a x b, c y d.
For a continuous function f (x, y ) on a rectangular region we define the
RR RbRb
integral f (x, y )dA (or a a f (x, y )dxdy ) as the volume of the solid
R
bounded by the region R and below the surface given by z = f (x, y ).
We approximate the said volume by methods of forming partitions of the
region R and summing the volumes of the almost rectangular pillars.

Double Integrals

## Let us discuss double integrals of function f (x, y ) defined on a rectangular

region a x b, c y d.
For a continuous function f (x, y ) on a rectangular region we define the
RR RbRb
integral f (x, y )dA (or a a f (x, y )dxdy ) as the volume of the solid
R
bounded by the region R and below the surface given by z = f (x, y ).
We approximate the said volume by methods of forming partitions of the
region R and summing the volumes of the almost rectangular pillars.
The integral is defined as the limit of this sum as we make our partition
finer.

Double Integrals

## Let us discuss double integrals of function f (x, y ) defined on a rectangular

region a x b, c y d.
For a continuous function f (x, y ) on a rectangular region we define the
RR RbRb
integral f (x, y )dA (or a a f (x, y )dxdy ) as the volume of the solid
R
bounded by the region R and below the surface given by z = f (x, y ).
We approximate the said volume by methods of forming partitions of the
region R and summing the volumes of the almost rectangular pillars.
The integral is defined as the limit of this sum as we make our partition
finer.
One can show that this limit exists if the function f (x, y ) is continuous.

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 1 / 37

Fubinis theorem

First version
If f (x, y ) is continuous throughout the region a x b, c y d (say
R ) then
ZZ Z b Z d Z d Z b
f (x, y )dA = f (x, y )dydx = f (x, y )dxdy
a c c a
R

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 2 / 37

Example

R3R2
Example. 0 0 (4 y 2 )dydx

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 3 / 37

Example

R3R2
Example. 0 0 (4 y 2 )dydx
Solution. We solve this by iterative process.

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 3 / 37

Example

R3R2
Example. 0 0 (4 y 2 )dydx
Solution.
R3R2 We solve this by iterative process.
(4 y 2 )dydx =
0 0

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 3 / 37

Example

R3R2
Example. 0 0 (4 y 2 )dydx
Solution.
R3R2 We solve this
R by iterative process.
(4 y 2 )dydx = 3 (4y 1 y 3 )|2 dx =
0 0 0 3 0

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 3 / 37

Example

R3R2
Example. 0 0 (4 y 2 )dydx
Solution.
R3R2 We solve this
R by iterative process.R
(4 y 2 )dydx = 3 (4y 1 y 3 )|2 dx = 3 16
= 16/3(x)|30 = 16
0 0 0 3 0 0 3 dx

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 3 / 37

Example

R3R2
Example. 0 0 (4 y 2 )dydx
Solution.
R3R2 We solve this
R by iterative process.R
(4 y 2 )dydx = 3 (4y 1 y 3 )|2 dx = 3 16
= 16/3(x)|30 = 16
0 0 0 3 0 0 3 dx

RIf 2we iterate with completing the integration for x first then we get
2 )(x)|3 dy =
0 (4 y 0

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 3 / 37

Example

R3R2
Example. 0 0 (4 y 2 )dydx
Solution.
R3R2 We solve this
R by iterative process.R
(4 y 2 )dydx = 3 (4y 1 y 3 )|2 dx = 3 16
= 16/3(x)|30 = 16
0 0 0 3 0 0 3 dx

RIf 2we iterate with completing the integration for x first then we get
2 )(x)|3 dy = 3 2 (4 y 2 )dy = 3 16/3 = 16
R
0 (4 y 0 0

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 3 / 37

Fubinis theorem general version

Theorem
Let f (x, y ) be a continuous function on a region R.
1 If the region R is given by a x b, g1 (x) y g2 (x), with g1 , g2
continuous on the interval [a, b], then

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 4 / 37

Fubinis theorem general version

Theorem
Let f (x, y ) be a continuous function on a region R.
1 If the region R is given by a x b, g1 (x) y g2 (x), with g1 , g2
continuous on the interval [a, b], then
ZZ Z b Z g2 (x)
f (x, y )dA = f (x, y )dydx.
a g1 (x)
R

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 4 / 37

Fubinis theorem general version

Theorem
Let f (x, y ) be a continuous function on a region R.
1 If the region R is given by a x b, g1 (x) y g2 (x), with g1 , g2
continuous on the interval [a, b], then
ZZ Z b Z g2 (x)
f (x, y )dA = f (x, y )dydx.
a g1 (x)
R

on [c, d], then

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 4 / 37

Fubinis theorem general version

Theorem
Let f (x, y ) be a continuous function on a region R.
1 If the region R is given by a x b, g1 (x) y g2 (x), with g1 , g2
continuous on the interval [a, b], then
ZZ Z b Z g2 (x)
f (x, y )dA = f (x, y )dydx.
a g1 (x)
R

## 2 If R is given by c y d, h1 (y ) x h2 (y ), with h1 , h2 continuous

on [c, d], then
ZZ Z d Z h2 (y )
f (x, y )dA = dxdy
c h1 (y )
R

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 4 / 37

Example

sin x
RR
Example. Calculate x dA where the region R is bounded by the x
R
axis and the lines x = 1, y = x.

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 5 / 37

Example

sin x
RR
Example. Calculate x dA where the region R is bounded by the x
R
axis and the lines x = 1, y = x.
Solution. Let us first integrate with respect to y ,

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 5 / 37

Example

sin x
RR
Example. Calculate x dA where the region R is bounded by the x
R
axis and the lines x = 1, y = x.
Solution. Let us first integrate with respect to y , we get
Z 1 Z x
sin x
( dy )dx =
0 0 x

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 5 / 37

Example

sin x
RR
Example. Calculate x dA where the region R is bounded by the x
R
axis and the lines x = 1, y = x.
Solution. Let us first integrate with respect to y , we get
Z 1 Z x
sin x
( dy )dx =
0 0 x
Z 1
sin x x
= ( y ) dx
0 x 0

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 5 / 37

Example

sin x
RR
Example. Calculate x dA where the region R is bounded by the x
R
axis and the lines x = 1, y = x.
Solution. Let us first integrate with respect to y , we get
Z 1 Z x
sin x
( dy )dx =
0 0 x
Z 1
sin x x
= ( y ) dx
0 x 0
Z 1 Z 1
sin x
= xdx = sin xdx = cos x|10 = cos 1 + 1
0 x 0

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 5 / 37

Example

sin x
RR
Example. Calculate x dA where the region R is bounded by the x
R
axis and the lines x = 1, y = x.
Solution. Let us first integrate with respect to y , we get
Z 1 Z x
sin x
( dy )dx =
0 0 x
Z 1
sin x x
= ( y ) dx
0 x 0
Z 1 Z 1
sin x
= xdx = sin xdx = cos x|10 = cos 1 + 1
0 x 0

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 5 / 37

Example cont

R1 sin x
If we try to integrate with x first then we have to integrate 0 x dx

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 6 / 37

Example cont

R1 sin x
If we try to integrate with x first then we have to integrate 0 x dx
which requires the indefinite integral sinx x
R

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 6 / 37

Example cont

R1 sin x
If we try to integrate with x first then we have to integrate 0 x dx
which requires the indefinite integral sinx x
R

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 6 / 37

Example

R 1 R y2
Example. Find the integral 0 0 3y 3 e xy dxdy .

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 7 / 37

Example

R 1 R y2
Example. Find the integral 0 0 3y 3 e xy dxdy .
Solution. Z 1 Z y2 Z 1h
3 xy e xy iy 2
3y e dxdy = 3y 3 dy
0 0 0 y 0

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 7 / 37

Example

R 1 R y2
Example. Find the integral 0 0 3y 3 e xy dxdy .
Solution. Z 1 Z y2 Z 1h
3 xy e xy iy 2
3y e dxdy = 3y 3 dy
0 0 0 y 0
Z 1
3
= (3y 2 e y 3y 2 )dy
0

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 7 / 37

Example

R 1 R y2
Example. Find the integral 0 0 3y 3 e xy dxdy .
Solution. Z 1 Z y2 Z 1h
3 xy e xy iy 2
3y e dxdy = 3y 3 dy
0 0 0 y 0
Z 1
3
= (3y 2 e y 3y 2 )dy
0

3
= ey y 3 = e 2

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 7 / 37

Example

Example. Find the integral of f (u, v ) = v u over the triangular region
of the first quadrant of uv plane by the line u + v = 1

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 8 / 37

Example

Example. Find the integral of f (u, v ) = v u over the triangular region
of the first quadrant of uv plane by the line u + v = 1
Solution. Let us first find the limits. Let us integrate with respect to u
first,

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 8 / 37

Example

Example. Find the integral of f (u, v ) = v u over the triangular region
of the first quadrant of uv plane by the line u + v = 1
Solution. Let us first find the limits. Let us integrate with respect to u
first, so we have to find the limits of u as functions of v ,

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 8 / 37

Example

Example. Find the integral of f (u, v ) = v u over the triangular region
of the first quadrant of uv plane by the line u + v = 1
Solution. Let us first find the limits. Let us integrate with respect to u
first, so we have to find the limits of u as functions of v , we get
u = 0, uv = 1 v .

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 8 / 37

Example

Example. Find the integral of f (u, v ) = v u over the triangular region
of the first quadrant of uv plane by the line u + v = 1
Solution. Let us first find the limits. Let us integrate with respect to u
first, so we have to find the limits of u as functions of v , we get
u = 0, uv = 1 v .
And v ranges from 0 to 1.

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 8 / 37

Example

Example. Find the integral of f (u, v ) = v u over the triangular region
of the first quadrant of uv plane by the line u + v = 1
Solution. Let us first find the limits. Let us integrate with respect to u
first, so we have to find the limits of u as functions of v , we get
u = 0, uv = 1 v .
And v ranges from 0 to 1. So the integral turns out to be:

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 8 / 37

Example

Example. Find the integral of f (u, v ) = v u over the triangular region
of the first quadrant of uv plane by the line u + v = 1
Solution. Let us first find the limits. Let us integrate with respect to u
first, so we have to find the limits of u as functions of v , we get
u = 0, uv = 1 v .
And v ranges from 0 to 1. So the integral turns out to be:
Z 1 Z 1v

(v u)dudv =
0 0

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 8 / 37

Example

Example. Find the integral of f (u, v ) = v u over the triangular region
of the first quadrant of uv plane by the line u + v = 1
Solution. Let us first find the limits. Let us integrate with respect to u
first, so we have to find the limits of u as functions of v , we get
u = 0, uv = 1 v .
And v ranges from 0 to 1. So the integral turns out to be:
Z 1 Z 1v

(v u)dudv =
0 0
Z 1h
2 3 i1v
= vu u 2 dv
0 3 0

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 8 / 37

Example

Example. Find the integral of f (u, v ) = v u over the triangular region
of the first quadrant of uv plane by the line u + v = 1
Solution. Let us first find the limits. Let us integrate with respect to u
first, so we have to find the limits of u as functions of v , we get
u = 0, uv = 1 v .
And v ranges from 0 to 1. So the integral turns out to be:
Z 1 Z 1v

(v u)dudv =
0 0
Z 1h
2 3 i1v
= vu u 2 dv
0 3 0
Z 1
2 3
= (v v 2 (1 v ) 2 )dv
0 3

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 8 / 37

Example

Example. Find the integral of f (u, v ) = v u over the triangular region
of the first quadrant of uv plane by the line u + v = 1
Solution. Let us first find the limits. Let us integrate with respect to u
first, so we have to find the limits of u as functions of v , we get
u = 0, uv = 1 v .
And v ranges from 0 to 1. So the integral turns out to be:
Z 1 Z 1v

(v u)dudv =
0 0
Z 1h
2 3 i1v
= vu u 2 dv
0 3 0
Z 1
2 3
= (v v 2 (1 v ) 2 )dv
0 3
1 1 4 5 1
1
= v 2 v 3 + (1 v ) 2 =
2 3 15 0 10
Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 8 / 37
Example

R 0 R v
Example Sketch the region and evaluate the integral: 2 v 2dpdv .

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 9 / 37

Example

R 0 R v
Example Sketch the region and evaluate the integral: 2 v 2dpdv .
Example. The integral is.

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 9 / 37

Example

R 0 R v
Example Sketch the region and evaluate the integral: 2 v 2dpdv .
Example. The integral is.
Z 0 Z v Z 0 h iv
2dpdv = 2p dv
2 v 2 v

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 9 / 37

Example

R 0 R v
Example Sketch the region and evaluate the integral: 2 v 2dpdv .
Example. The integral is.
Z 0 Z v Z 0 h iv
2dpdv = 2p dv
2 v 2 v
Z 0 h1 i0
= (4v )dv = 4 v2 =8
2 2 2

Example

## Example. Find the volume of the space enclosed by the paraboloid

z = x 2 + y 2 and below by the triangle enclosed by the lines
y = x, x = 0, x + y = 2 in the xy plane.

Example

## Example. Find the volume of the space enclosed by the paraboloid

z = x 2 + y 2 and below by the triangle enclosed by the lines
y = x, x = 0, x + y = 2 in the xy plane.
Solution. The volume is by definition given by the integral (x 2 + y 2 )dA
RR
R
where the region R is stated as above.

Example

## Example. Find the volume of the space enclosed by the paraboloid

z = x 2 + y 2 and below by the triangle enclosed by the lines
y = x, x = 0, x + y = 2 in the xy plane.
Solution. The volume is by definition given by the integral (x 2 + y 2 )dA
RR
R
where the region R is stated as above.
Let us say that we want to first integrate with respect to y then let us find
the limits of y as functions of x.

Example

## Example. Find the volume of the space enclosed by the paraboloid

z = x 2 + y 2 and below by the triangle enclosed by the lines
y = x, x = 0, x + y = 2 in the xy plane.
Solution. The volume is by definition given by the integral (x 2 + y 2 )dA
RR
R
where the region R is stated as above.
Let us say that we want to first integrate with respect to y then let us find
the limits of y as functions of x.
The limits are y = x and y = 2 x, and x varies from 0 to 1.

Example

## Example. Find the volume of the space enclosed by the paraboloid

z = x 2 + y 2 and below by the triangle enclosed by the lines
y = x, x = 0, x + y = 2 in the xy plane.
Solution. The volume is by definition given by the integral (x 2 + y 2 )dA
RR
R
where the region R is stated as above.
Let us say that we want to first integrate with respect to y then let us find
the limits of y as functions of x.
The limits are y = x and = 2 x, and x varies from 0 to 1. So the
R 1 yR 2x
integral to be found is 0 x (x 2 + y 2 )dydx.

Example

## Example. Find the volume of the space enclosed by the paraboloid

z = x 2 + y 2 and below by the triangle enclosed by the lines
y = x, x = 0, x + y = 2 in the xy plane.
Solution. The volume is by definition given by the integral (x 2 + y 2 )dA
RR
R
where the region R is stated as above.
Let us say that we want to first integrate with respect to y then let us find
the limits of y as functions of x.
The limits are y = x and = 2 x, and x varies from 0 to 1. So the
R 1 yR 2x
integral to be found is 0 x (x 2 + y 2 )dydx.
Z 1h
1 3 i2x
= y + x 2y dx
0 3 x

Example

## Example. Find the volume of the space enclosed by the paraboloid

z = x 2 + y 2 and below by the triangle enclosed by the lines
y = x, x = 0, x + y = 2 in the xy plane.
Solution. The volume is by definition given by the integral (x 2 + y 2 )dA
RR
R
where the region R is stated as above.
Let us say that we want to first integrate with respect to y then let us find
the limits of y as functions of x.
The limits are y = x and = 2 x, and x varies from 0 to 1. So the
R 1 yR 2x
integral to be found is 0 x (x 2 + y 2 )dydx.
Z 1h
1 3 i2x
= y + x 2y dx
0 3 x
Z 1
7 1 
= 2x 2 x 3 + (2 x)3 dx
0 3 3

h2 7 1 i1
= x 3 x 4 (2 x)4
3 3 12 0

h2 7 1 i1
= x 3 x 4 (2 x)4
3 3 12 0

4
=
3

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 11 / 37

How to find the limits of integration

Given a region R in the following steps we can find the limits of the
integration.

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 12 / 37

How to find the limits of integration

Given a region R in the following steps we can find the limits of the
integration. If we want to integrate first with respect to y then :

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 12 / 37

How to find the limits of integration

Given a region R in the following steps we can find the limits of the
integration. If we want to integrate first with respect to y then :
1 Sketch the region and label the curves bounding the region.

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 12 / 37

How to find the limits of integration

Given a region R in the following steps we can find the limits of the
integration. If we want to integrate first with respect to y then :
1 Sketch the region and label the curves bounding the region.
2 Find the y limits.

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 12 / 37

How to find the limits of integration

Given a region R in the following steps we can find the limits of the
integration. If we want to integrate first with respect to y then :
1 Sketch the region and label the curves bounding the region.
2 Find the y limits. Look at a vertical line through (x, 0)

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 12 / 37

How to find the limits of integration

Given a region R in the following steps we can find the limits of the
integration. If we want to integrate first with respect to y then :
1 Sketch the region and label the curves bounding the region.
2 Find the y limits. Look at a vertical line through (x, 0) the y values as
a function of x as the line enters and leaves the region

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 12 / 37

How to find the limits of integration

Given a region R in the following steps we can find the limits of the
integration. If we want to integrate first with respect to y then :
1 Sketch the region and label the curves bounding the region.
2 Find the y limits. Look at a vertical line through (x, 0) the y values as
a function of x as the line enters and leaves the region are the limits.

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 12 / 37

How to find the limits of integration

Given a region R in the following steps we can find the limits of the
integration. If we want to integrate first with respect to y then :
1 Sketch the region and label the curves bounding the region.
2 Find the y limits. Look at a vertical line through (x, 0) the y values as
a function of x as the line enters and leaves the region are the limits.
3 The x limits of integration are the extreme x values of the region.

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 12 / 37

How to find the limits of integration

Given a region R in the following steps we can find the limits of the
integration. If we want to integrate first with respect to y then :
1 Sketch the region and label the curves bounding the region.
2 Find the y limits. Look at a vertical line through (x, 0) the y values as
a function of x as the line enters and leaves the region are the limits.
3 The x limits of integration are the extreme x values of the region.
The method is similar if we want to integrate with respect to x first, we
simply choose horizontal lines to find the x limits as functions of y .

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 12 / 37

Example

R 1 R 42x
Example. Reverse the order of the integration 0 2 dydx.

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 13 / 37

Example

R 1 R 42x
Example. Reverse the order of the integration 0 2 dydx.
Solution. First we sketch the region and find the limits of x as functions
of y

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 13 / 37

Example

R 1 R 42x
Example. Reverse the order of the integration 0 2 dydx.
Solution. First we sketch the region and find the limits of x as functions
of y
First the limits of y are 2 y 4.

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 13 / 37

Example

R 1 R 42x
Example. Reverse the order of the integration 0 2 dydx.
Solution. First we sketch the region and find the limits of x as functions
of y
First the limits of y are 2 y 4.
Then the limits of x are bounded by the lines x = 0 and x = 12 (4 y ).

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 13 / 37

Example

R 1 R 42x
Example. Reverse the order of the integration 0 2 dydx.
Solution. First we sketch the region and find the limits of x as functions
of y
First the limits of y are 2 y 4.
Then the limits of x are bounded by the lines x = 0 and x = 12 (4 y ).
R 4 R 1 (4y )
So the reversed integral is 2 02 dxdy .

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 13 / 37

Example

R 32 R 94x 2
Example. Reverse the order of the integral in 0 0 16xdydx.

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 14 / 37

Example

R 32 R 94x 2
Example. Reverse the order of the integral in 0 0 16xdydx.
Solution. First sketch the region.

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 14 / 37

Example

R 32 R 94x 2
Example. Reverse the order of the integral in 0 0 16xdydx.
Solution. First sketch the region.
Then find the limits of y ,

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 14 / 37

Example

R 32 R 94x 2
Example. Reverse the order of the integral in 0 0 16xdydx.
Solution. First sketch the region.
Then find the limits of y , 0 y 9.

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 14 / 37

Example

R 3 R 94x 2
Example. Reverse the order of the integral in 02 0 16xdydx.
Solution. First sketch the region.
Then find the limits of y , 0 y 9.
Then the note that any horizontal line is bounded by the curves x = 0 and
y = 9 4x 2

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 14 / 37

Example

R 3 R 94x 2
Example. Reverse the order of the integral in 02 0 16xdydx.
Solution. First sketch the region.
Then find the limits of y , 0 y 9.
Then the note that any horizontal line is
bounded by the curves x = 0 and
y = 9 4x so the x limits are 0 x 9y
2
2 .

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 14 / 37

Example

R 3 R 94x 2
Example. Reverse the order of the integral in 02 0 16xdydx.
Solution. First sketch the region.
Then find the limits of y , 0 y 9.
Then the note that any horizontal line is
bounded by the curves x = 0 and
y = 9 4x so the x limits are 0 x 9y
2
2 .
R 9 R 9y
So the reversed integral is 0 0 2 16xdxdy

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 14 / 37

Example

R1Rx
Example. Evaluate the integral 0 0 x 2 e xy dydx.

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 15 / 37

Example

R1Rx
Example. Evaluate the integral 0 0 x 2 e xy dydx.
Solution. Lets iterate the integral.

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 15 / 37

Example

R1Rx
Example. Evaluate the integral 0 0 x 2 e xy dydx.
Solution. Lets iterate the integral. We get the integral
Z 1Z x
x 2 e xy dydx
0 0

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 15 / 37

Example

R1Rx
Example. Evaluate the integral 0 0 x 2 e xy dydx.
Solution. Lets iterate the integral. We get the integral
Z 1Z x
x 2 e xy dydx
0 0

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 15 / 37

Example

R1Rx
Example. Evaluate the integral 0 0 x 2 e xy dydx.
Solution. Lets iterate the integral. We get the integral
Z 1Z x
x 2 e xy dydx
0 0

Z 1
2
(xe x x)dx
0

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 15 / 37

Example

R1Rx
Example. Evaluate the integral 0 0 x 2 e xy dydx.
Solution. Lets iterate the integral. We get the integral
Z 1Z x
x 2 e xy dydx
0 0

Z 1
2
(xe x x)dx
0

e 2
=
2

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 15 / 37

Integral over an unbounded region

RR1 1
Example. Compute the integral 1 e x x 3 y dydx.

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 16 / 37

Integral over an unbounded region

RR1
Example. Compute the integral 1 e x x 13 y dydx.
Solution. Just as in the single variable case we define this integral as the
limit Z tZ 1
1
lim 3
dydx.
t 1 e x x y

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 16 / 37

Integral over an unbounded region

RR1
Example. Compute the integral 1 e x x 13 y dydx.
Solution. Just as in the single variable case we define this integral as the
limit Z tZ 1
1
lim 3
dydx.
t 1 e x x y
And the integral comes to Z t
1
dx =
1 x2

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 16 / 37

Integral over an unbounded region

RR1
Example. Compute the integral 1 e x x 13 y dydx.
Solution. Just as in the single variable case we define this integral as the
limit Z tZ 1
1
lim 3
dydx.
t 1 e x x y
And the integral comes to Z t
1
dx =
1 x2
h 1 it 1
= +1
x 1 t

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 16 / 37

Integral over an unbounded region

RR1
Example. Compute the integral 1 e x x 13 y dydx.
Solution. Just as in the single variable case we define this integral as the
limit Z tZ 1
1
lim 3
dydx.
t 1 e x x y
And the integral comes to Z t
1
dx =
1 x2
h 1 it 1
= +1
x 1 t
As we pass through the limit we get 1.

Example

e y 3 dydx
R3R1
1
0 x/3
R R (x+2y )
0 xe dxdy
2
0

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 17 / 37

Integral of function of polar coordinates

The double integrals of function given in polar form is little different than
the functions given in Cartesian coordinate systems.

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 18 / 37

Integral of function of polar coordinates

The double integrals of function given in polar form is little different than
the functions given in Cartesian coordinate systems.
If A differentiable function f (r , ) is given in polar coordinates over the
region R which lies between the angels

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 18 / 37

Integral of function of polar coordinates

The double integrals of function given in polar form is little different than
the functions given in Cartesian coordinate systems.
If A differentiable function f (r , ) is given in polar coordinates over the
region R which lies between the angels 1 2

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 18 / 37

Integral of function of polar coordinates

The double integrals of function given in polar form is little different than
the functions given in Cartesian coordinate systems.
If A differentiable function f (r , ) is given in polar coordinates over the
region R which lies between the angels 1 2 and the radius
bounded as g1 (1 ) r g2 (2 ) where g1 (), g2 () are continuous
functions.

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 18 / 37

Integral of function of polar coordinates

The double integrals of function given in polar form is little different than
the functions given in Cartesian coordinate systems.
If A differentiable function f (r , ) is given in polar coordinates over the
region R which lies between the angels 1 2 and the radius
bounded as g1 (1 ) r g2 (2 ) where g1 (), g2 () are continuous
functions. RR
Then the integral f (r , )dA is defined as the integral
R

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 18 / 37

Integral of function of polar coordinates

The double integrals of function given in polar form is little different than
the functions given in Cartesian coordinate systems.
If A differentiable function f (r , ) is given in polar coordinates over the
region R which lies between the angels 1 2 and the radius
bounded as g1 (1 ) r g2 (2 ) where g1 (), g2 () are continuous
functions. RR
Then the integral f (r , )dA is defined as the integral
R
Z 2 Z g2 (2 )
f (r , )r drd
1 g1 (1 )

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 18 / 37

Integral of function of polar coordinates

The double integrals of function given in polar form is little different than
the functions given in Cartesian coordinate systems.
If A differentiable function f (r , ) is given in polar coordinates over the
region R which lies between the angels 1 2 and the radius
bounded as g1 (1 ) r g2 (2 ) where g1 (), g2 () are continuous
functions. RR
Then the integral f (r , )dA is defined as the integral
R
Z 2 Z g2 (2 )
f (r , )r drd
1 g1 (1 )

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 18 / 37

How to find the limits of integrals in polar coordinates

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 19 / 37

How to find the limits of integrals in polar coordinates

## 1 First sketch the region given.

2 Imagine a ray from the origin entering and leaving the region, the
point of entrance as a function of is the lower limit

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 19 / 37

How to find the limits of integrals in polar coordinates

## 1 First sketch the region given.

2 Imagine a ray from the origin entering and leaving the region, the
point of entrance as a function of is the lower limit and the point of
departure as a function of is the upper limit.

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 19 / 37

How to find the limits of integrals in polar coordinates

## 1 First sketch the region given.

2 Imagine a ray from the origin entering and leaving the region, the
point of entrance as a function of is the lower limit and the point of
departure as a function of is the upper limit.
3 Find the extreme angles of the points of the region, the smallest is
the lower limit,

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 19 / 37

How to find the limits of integrals in polar coordinates

## 1 First sketch the region given.

2 Imagine a ray from the origin entering and leaving the region, the
point of entrance as a function of is the lower limit and the point of
departure as a function of is the upper limit.
3 Find the extreme angles of the points of the region, the smallest is
the lower limit, the largest is the upper limit of the integral.

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 19 / 37

Changing integrals from Cartesian to polar coordinates

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 20 / 37

Changing integrals from Cartesian to polar coordinates

## 1 First substitute x = r cos , y = r sin .

2 Then substitute dydx with r drd.

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 20 / 37

Changing integrals from Cartesian to polar coordinates

## 1 First substitute x = r cos , y = r sin .

2 Then substitute dydx with r drd.
3 Find the polar limits of the region from the sketch using the method
described above.

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 20 / 37

Example.
R6Ry
Example. Find the integral by changing to polar coordinates: 0 0 xdxdy

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 21 / 37

Example.
R6Ry
Example. Find the integral by changing to polar coordinates: 0 0 xdxdy
Solution. First let us sketch the region.

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 21 / 37

Example.
R6Ry
Example. Find the integral by changing to polar coordinates: 0 0 xdxdy
Solution. First let us sketch the region. Let us find the limits in polar
coordinates.

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 21 / 37

Example.
R6Ry
Example. Find the integral by changing to polar coordinates: 0 0 xdxdy
Solution. First let us sketch the region. Let us find the limits in polar
coordinates. The angle is in the domain 4 2 .

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 21 / 37

Example.
R6Ry
Example. Find the integral by changing to polar coordinates: 0 0 xdxdy
Solution. First let us sketch the region. Let us find the limits in polar
coordinates. The angle is in the domain 4 2 .
The radius is bounded below by 0 and above by sin6 .

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 21 / 37

Example.
R6Ry
Example. Find the integral by changing to polar coordinates: 0 0 xdxdy
Solution. First let us sketch the region. Let us find the limits in polar
coordinates. The angle is in the domain 4 2 .
The radius is bounded below by 0 and above by sin6 .
So the integral becomes:
Z Z 6
2 sin
r cos rdrd

4
0

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 21 / 37

Example.
R6Ry
Example. Find the integral by changing to polar coordinates: 0 0 xdxdy
Solution. First let us sketch the region. Let us find the limits in polar
coordinates. The angle is in the domain 4 2 .
The radius is bounded below by 0 and above by sin6 .
So the integral becomes:
Z Z 6
2 sin
r cos rdrd

4
0

63
Z
2 cos d
=
3
4
sin3

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 21 / 37

Example.
R6Ry
Example. Find the integral by changing to polar coordinates: 0 0 xdxdy
Solution. First let us sketch the region. Let us find the limits in polar
coordinates. The angle is in the domain 4 2 .
The radius is bounded below by 0 and above by sin6 .
So the integral becomes:
Z Z 6
2 sin
r cos rdrd

4
0

63
Z
2 cos d
=
3
4
sin3

63 h 1 i 2
=
3 2 sin2 4
= 36
.
Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 21 / 37
Example
Example.
R R (xFind the integral by changing to the polar coordinates:
2 +y 2 )
0 0 e dxdy .

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 22 / 37

Example
Example.
R R (xFind the integral by changing to the polar coordinates:
2 +y 2 )
0 0 e dxdy .
Solution. The region is clearly the first quadrant.

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 22 / 37

Example
Example.
R R (xFind the integral by changing to the polar coordinates:
2 +y 2 )
0 0 e dxdy .
Solution. The region is clearly the first quadrant. so the limits of the
angel is 0 2 .

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 22 / 37

Example
Example.
R R (xFind the integral by changing to the polar coordinates:
2 +y 2 )
0 0 e dxdy .
Solution. The region is clearly the first quadrant. so the limits of the
angel is 0 2 . The limits of the radius is clearly between 0 and .

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 22 / 37

Example
Example.
R R (xFind the integral by changing to the polar coordinates:
2 +y 2 )
0 0 e dxdy .
Solution. The region is clearly the first quadrant. so the limits of the
angel is 0 2 . The limits of the radius is clearly between 0 and .
So the integral becomes:

Z
2
Z
2
= e r rdrd
0 0

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 22 / 37

Example
Example.
R R (xFind the integral by changing to the polar coordinates:
2 +y 2 )
0 0 e dxdy .
Solution. The region is clearly the first quadrant. so the limits of the
angel is 0 2 . The limits of the radius is clearly between 0 and .
So the integral becomes:

Z
2
Z
2
= e r rdrd
0 0

Z h 2 i
2
= 1/2 e r d
0 0

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 22 / 37

Example
Example.
R R (xFind the integral by changing to the polar coordinates:
2 +y 2 )
0 0 e dxdy .
Solution. The region is clearly the first quadrant. so the limits of the
angel is 0 2 . The limits of the radius is clearly between 0 and .
So the integral becomes:

Z
2
Z
2
= e r rdrd
0 0

Z h 2 i
2
= 1/2 e r d
0 0

=
4

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 22 / 37

Example
Example.
R R (xFind the integral by changing to the polar coordinates:
2 +y 2 )
0 0 e dxdy .
Solution. The region is clearly the first quadrant. so the limits of the
angel is 0 2 . The limits of the radius is clearly between 0 and .
So the integral becomes:

Z
2
Z
2
= e r rdrd
0 0

Z h 2 i
2
= 1/2 e r d
0 0

=
4
Try the integral in Cartesian coordinate form.

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 22 / 37

Example
Example.
R R (xFind the integral by changing to the polar coordinates:
2 +y 2 )
0 0 e dxdy .
Solution. The region is clearly the first quadrant. so the limits of the
angel is 0 2 . The limits of the radius is clearly between 0 and .
So the integral becomes:

Z
2
Z
2
= e r rdrd
0 0

Z h 2 i
2
= 1/2 e r d
0 0

=
4
Try the integral in Cartesian coordinate form. This shows the power of
polar coordinates in dealing with certain types of functions.

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 22 / 37

Example
Example.
R R (xFind the integral by changing to the polar coordinates:
2 +y 2 )
0 0 e dxdy .
Solution. The region is clearly the first quadrant. so the limits of the
angel is 0 2 . The limits of the radius is clearly between 0 and .
So the integral becomes:

Z
2
Z
2
= e r rdrd
0 0

Z h 2 i
2
= 1/2 e r d
0 0

=
4
Try the integral in Cartesian coordinate form. This shows the power of
polar coordinates in dealing with certain types of functions. Namely the
radially symmetric functions.
Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 22 / 37
Area

## Cartesian and Polar

RR
The area of a region R in Cartesian coordinate is dxdy .
R

Area

## Cartesian and Polar

RR
The area of a region R in Cartesian coordinate is dxdy .
R RR
The area of a region R in polar coordinates is defined as rdrd.
R

Area

## Cartesian and Polar

RR
The area of a region R in Cartesian coordinate is dxdy .
R RR
The area of a region R in polar coordinates is defined as rdrd.
R

It will be clear later why these two definitions do give the same quantity.

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 23 / 37

Example. Find the area of one leaf of the rose r = 12 cos 3.

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 24 / 37

Example. Find the area of one leaf of the rose r = 12 cos 3.

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 24 / 37

Example. Find the area of one leaf of the rose r = 12 cos 3.

## Solution. First let us find the limits of the region.

The angle between a leaf in the first quadrant is given by the solutions of
the equation 12 cos 3 = 0.

10

5 5 10

10

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 24 / 37

Example. Find the area of one leaf of the rose r = 12 cos 3.

## Solution. First let us find the limits of the region.

The angle between a leaf in the first quadrant is given by the solutions of
the equation 12 cos 3 = 0.

10

5 5 10

10

Himadri
Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 24 / 37
Example. Find the area of one leaf of the rose r = 12 cos 3.

## Solution. First let us find the limits of the region.

The angle between a leaf in the first quadrant is given by the solutions of
the equation 12 cos 3 = 0.

10

5 5 10

10

Himadri
Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 24 / 37
Example. Find the area of one leaf of the rose r = 12 cos 3.

## Solution. First let us find the limits of the region.

The angle between a leaf in the first quadrant is given by the solutions of
the equation 12 cos 3 = 0.

10

5 5 10

10

Himadri
Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 24 / 37
Example. Find the area of one leaf of the rose r = 12 cos 3.

## Solution. First let us find the limits of the region.

The angle between a leaf in the first quadrant is given by the solutions of
the equation 12 cos 3 = 0.

10

5 5 10

10

Himadri
Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 24 / 37
Example cont.

122
Z
6
=2 cos2 3d
2 0

Example cont.

Z
122 6
=2 cos2 3d
2 0
Z
122 6
=2 1 + cos 6d
4 0

Example cont.

Z
122 6
=2 cos2 3d
2 0
Z
122 6
=2 1 + cos 6d
4 0

= 12

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 25 / 37

Example. Find the integral:

Z 2Z 1(x1)2
x +y
dydx
0 0 x2 + y2

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 26 / 37

Example. Find the integral:

Z 2Z 1(x1)2
x +y
dydx
0 0 x2 + y2

Solution. First let us sketch the region and find the limits in polar
coordinate.

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 26 / 37

Example. Find the integral:

Z 2Z 1(x1)2
x +y
dydx
0 0 x2 + y2

Solution. First let us sketch the region and find the limits in polar
coordinate.

0.5

0.5 1 1.5 2

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 26 / 37

The integral turns out to be:

Z
2
Z 2 cos
(sin + cos )drd
0 0

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 27 / 37

The integral turns out to be:

Z
2
Z 2 cos
(sin + cos )drd
0 0

= +1
2

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 27 / 37

Example. Find the integral:

Z ln2 Z (ln2)2 y 2
x 2 +y 2
e dxdy
0 0

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 28 / 37

Example. Find the integral:

Z ln2 Z (ln2)2 y 2
x 2 +y 2
e dxdy
0 0

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 28 / 37

Example. Find the integral:

Z ln2 Z (ln2)2 y 2
x 2 +y 2
e dxdy
0 0

Solution. Let us find the limits in polar coordinates first: The integral
becomes: Z Z ln2
2
re r drd
0 0

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 28 / 37

Example. Find the integral:

Z ln2 Z (ln2)2 y 2
x 2 +y 2
e dxdy
0 0

Solution. Let us find the limits in polar coordinates first: The integral
becomes: Z Z ln2
2
re r drd
0 0

= (2ln2 1)/2

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 28 / 37

Notes on integrating in polar coordinates

## Changing to polar coordinates simplifies the integral if the integrand

function is radially symmetric.

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 29 / 37

Notes on integrating in polar coordinates

## Changing to polar coordinates simplifies the integral if the integrand

function is radially symmetric.
Changing to the polar coordinates splits the integral by separating the
variables.

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 29 / 37

Notes on integrating in polar coordinates

## Changing to polar coordinates simplifies the integral if the integrand

function is radially symmetric.
Changing to the polar coordinates splits the integral by separating the
variables.
The integral is already given in polar coordinates.

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 29 / 37

Properties of double integrals
If f (x, y ) and g (x, y ) are continuous functions then:
RR RR
1 Constant multiple: cf (x, y )dA = c f (x, y ) for any number c.
R R

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 30 / 37

Properties of double integrals
If f (x, y ) and g (x, y ) are continuous functions then:
RR RR
1 Constant multiple: cf (x, y )dA = c f (x, y ) for any number c.
R R
2 Sum and difference:
ZZ ZZ ZZ
(f (x, y ) g (x, y ))dA = f (x, y )dA g (x, y )dA
R R R

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 30 / 37

Properties of double integrals
If f (x, y ) and g (x, y ) are continuous functions then:
RR RR
1 Constant multiple: cf (x, y )dA = c f (x, y ) for any number c.
R R
2 Sum and difference:
ZZ ZZ ZZ
(f (x, y ) g (x, y ))dA = f (x, y )dA g (x, y )dA
R R R
RR RR
3 Domination: f (x, y )dA g (x, y ) if f (x, y ) g (x, y ) on R.
R R

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 30 / 37

Properties of double integrals
If f (x, y ) and g (x, y ) are continuous functions then:
RR RR
1 Constant multiple: cf (x, y )dA = c f (x, y ) for any number c.
R R
2 Sum and difference:
ZZ ZZ ZZ
(f (x, y ) g (x, y ))dA = f (x, y )dA g (x, y )dA
R R R
RR RR
3 Domination: f (x, y )dA g (x, y ) if f (x, y ) g (x, y ) on R.
R R
ARRparticular case of the above is when g (x, y ) = 0, we get
f (x, y )dA 0
R

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 30 / 37

Properties of double integrals
If f (x, y ) and g (x, y ) are continuous functions then:
RR RR
1 Constant multiple: cf (x, y )dA = c f (x, y ) for any number c.
R R
2 Sum and difference:
ZZ ZZ ZZ
(f (x, y ) g (x, y ))dA = f (x, y )dA g (x, y )dA
R R R
RR RR
3 Domination: f (x, y )dA g (x, y ) if f (x, y ) g (x, y ) on R.
R R
ARRparticular case of the above is when g (x, y ) = 0, we get
f (x, y )dA 0
R
4 Additivity:
ZZ ZZ ZZ
f (x, y )dA = f (x, y )dA + f (x, y )dA
R R1 R2

## if R is the union of disjoint regions R1 and R2 .

Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 30 / 37
Example. Find the region R on the x, y plane that maximizes the integral
2 2
RR
R (4 x y )dydx.

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 31 / 37

Example. Find the region R on the x, y plane that maximizes the integral
2 2
RR
R (4 x y )dydx.
Solutions. The region must be x 2 + y 2 < 4.

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 31 / 37

Example. Find the integral by converting to a double integral
Z 2
(tan1 x tan1 x))dx
0

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 32 / 37

Example. Find the integral by converting to a double integral
Z 2
(tan1 x tan1 x))dx
0
R x 1
Solution First let us write the integrand as an integral as x 1+y 2
.

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 32 / 37

Example. Find the integral by converting to a double integral
Z 2
(tan1 x tan1 x))dx
0
R x 1
Solution First let us write the integrand as an integral as x 1+y 2
.
Then we have to integrate
Z 2 Z x
1
dydx
0 x 1 + y2

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 32 / 37

Example. Find the integral by converting to a double integral
Z 2
(tan1 x tan1 x))dx
0
R x 1
Solution First let us write the integrand as an integral as x 1+y 2
.
Then we have to integrate
Z 2 Z x
1
dydx
0 x 1 + y2

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 32 / 37

Example. Find the integral by converting to a double integral
Z 2
(tan1 x tan1 x))dx
0
R x 1
Solution First let us write the integrand as an integral as x 1+y 2
.
Then we have to integrate
Z 2 Z x
1
dydx
0 x 1 + y2

We sketch the region. Note that we have to write the region as disjoint
union of the region y 2 and the region y 2.

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 32 / 37

Example. Find the integral by converting to a double integral
Z 2
(tan1 x tan1 x))dx
0
R x 1
Solution First let us write the integrand as an integral as x 1+y 2
.
Then we have to integrate
Z 2 Z x
1
dydx
0 x 1 + y2

We sketch the region. Note that we have to write the region as disjoint
union of the region y 2 and the region y 2.
The final integral is
Z 2Z y Z 2 Z 2
1 1
2
dxdy + dxdy
y 1 + y y 1 + y2
0
2

Example

Example

## Integrate the following by changing to the polar coordinates:

R1R1 y
0 x x 2 +y 2 dydx

Example

## Integrate the following by changing to the polar coordinates:

R1R1 y
0 x x 2 +y 2 dydx
R 1 R y /3
0 y /3
y dxdy
2 2
x +y

Triple Integrals

## A triple integral or a space integral is integral of a function of three

variables over a domain given in three space.

Triple Integrals

## A triple integral or a space integral is integral of a function of three

variables over a domain given in three space. First let us discuss how to
find the limits of a triple integral:

Triple Integrals

## A triple integral or a space integral is integral of a function of three

variables over a domain given in three space. First let us discuss how to
find the limits of a triple integral:
First sketch the region in three space.

Triple Integrals

## A triple integral or a space integral is integral of a function of three

variables over a domain given in three space. First let us discuss how to
find the limits of a triple integral:
First sketch the region in three space.
Find the z limits by imagining a line passing through (x, y ) and is
parallel to the z axis entering and leaving the region,

Triple Integrals

## A triple integral or a space integral is integral of a function of three

variables over a domain given in three space. First let us discuss how to
find the limits of a triple integral:
First sketch the region in three space.
Find the z limits by imagining a line passing through (x, y ) and is
parallel to the z axis entering and leaving the region, the z
coordinates are the z limits as functions of x, y .

Triple Integrals

## A triple integral or a space integral is integral of a function of three

variables over a domain given in three space. First let us discuss how to
find the limits of a triple integral:
First sketch the region in three space.
Find the z limits by imagining a line passing through (x, y ) and is
parallel to the z axis entering and leaving the region, the z
coordinates are the z limits as functions of x, y .
Find the projection of the domain on the x, y plane.

Triple Integrals

## A triple integral or a space integral is integral of a function of three

variables over a domain given in three space. First let us discuss how to
find the limits of a triple integral:
First sketch the region in three space.
Find the z limits by imagining a line passing through (x, y ) and is
parallel to the z axis entering and leaving the region, the z
coordinates are the z limits as functions of x, y .
Find the projection of the domain on the x, y plane. Find the x and y
limits as discussed in the double integrals in accordance of your order
of integral.

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 34 / 37

Example.

Example. Find the limits of the domain in the first octant bounded by the
plane y + z = 2 and the cylinder x = 4 y 2 .

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 35 / 37

Example.

Example. Find the limits of the domain in the first octant bounded by the
plane y + z = 2 and the cylinder x = 4 y 2 .
Solution. First let us sketch the region.

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 35 / 37

Example.

Example. Find the limits of the domain in the first octant bounded by the
plane y + z = 2 and the cylinder x = 4 y 2 .
Solution. First let us sketch the region.

Example.

## Example. Find the limits of the region cut by the cylinder x 2 + y 2 = 1

and the planes z = y , z = 0.

Example.

## Example. Find the limits of the region cut by the cylinder x 2 + y 2 = 1

and the planes z = y , z = 0.
Solution.

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 36 / 37

Example. Rewrite the integral
Z 1Z 1 Z 1y
dzdydx
1 x2 0

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 37 / 37

Example. Rewrite the integral
Z 1Z 1 Z 1y
dzdydx
1 x2 0

In the form:
1 dydzdx

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 37 / 37

Example. Rewrite the integral
Z 1Z 1 Z 1y
dzdydx
1 x2 0

In the form:
1 dydzdx
2 dydxdz

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 37 / 37

Example. Rewrite the integral
Z 1Z 1 Z 1y
dzdydx
1 x2 0

In the form:
1 dydzdx
2 dydxdz
3 dxdydz

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 37 / 37

Example. Rewrite the integral
Z 1Z 1 Z 1y
dzdydx
1 x2 0

In the form:
1 dydzdx
2 dydxdz
3 dxdydz
4 dxdzdy

## Himadri Mukherjee Mathematics I October 2, 2015 37 / 37

Example. Rewrite the integral
Z 1Z 1 Z 1y
dzdydx
1 x2 0

In the form:
1 dydzdx
2 dydxdz
3 dxdydz
4 dxdzdy
5 dzdxdy