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Retinoblastoma Treatment Guidelines

Retinoblastoma Treatment Guidelines - Retinoblastoma is an eye cancer that is


typically seen in children, but can also be experienced by adults. Retinoblastoma
attacks the eye retina or the retina located at the inner wall of the eye. Retinoblastoma
can affect one or both eyes. Most of these diseases occur in children under 5 years old.

Causes of Retinoblastoma

The human retina is formed by cells called retinoblas. Cancer occurs due to genetic
mutations that make retinoblas continue to reproduce until tumors grow on the retina.
This cancer can grow into all parts of the eye to spread to other body parts, such as the
brain and spinal cord.
The risk factors of Retinoblastoma

The occurrence of genetic mutations in Retinoblastoma disease is unknown in most


cases, but it is possible that a child having this disease because it is derived from a
parent. Retinoblastoma derived heresiter called retinoblastoma. Retinoblastoma this
type usually affects both eyes and can thrive even from a very young age.

Retinoblastoma that is not caused by genetic mutations generally occurs by chance


and only on one eye. While retinoblastoma in adults can also be triggered by diabetes
or other eye diseases there is a history in the family health record.
Symptoms and complications of Retinoblastoma

Common symptoms of retinoblastoma can be leukokoria, which are white on the pupil
when exposed to the light. There can also be cross-eyed, swollen eyes and red eyes.
Immediately see a doctor if a child's eye condition worsened, such as red eye are not
improved.
This disease can cause blindness and other types of cancer in children who suffered
from retinoblastoma. Cancer may recur in healthy eyes or other body parts. People
with retinoblastoma will be advised to do regular eye health checks, before and after
treatment to minimize the recurrence of retinoblastoma.

Diagnosis of Retinoblastoma

A series of tests need to be done. An eye specialist can provide a diagnosis of


retinoblastoma patients. The doctor will use a special ophthalmoscope to see clearly,
whether there is a tumor in the retina of the patient. The eye examination can be
performed with anesthesia to get more accurate results.
The doctor also may recommend imaging tests to find out how many cancer cells that
have spread and whether the cancer has spread to other body parts. Imaging tests
suggested to detect cancer cells include an ultrasound, CT scan, and MRI. Your doctor
may refer to a cancer specialist, genetic counselor, or the surgeon during the treatment
process.

If you have a history of retinoblastoma, ask your doctor about when your child should
begin to undergo regular eye examinations. However, children with retinoblastoma
will more often have regular checkups and can last up to 5 years.

Retinoblastoma Stadium

Stages of retinoblastoma are distinguished by size, rate of spread, and location of the
cancer. This stage will affect the type of treatment procedures. Retinoblastoma is
diagnosed at an early stage will have a level of greater treatment success.
The stages of retinoblastoma deployment starting from when the cancer cells are
found in one or both eyes and has not spread to tissues outside the eye. This stage is
called intraocular retinoblastoma. The next condition is when the cancer has spread
beyond the eye or other parts of the body. This condition means that the cancer has
entered the stage of extraocular retinoblastoma. Recurrent retinoblastoma occurs after
treatment ended and Retinoblastoma happen again in the eyes of the patient or spread
to other body parts.
Retinoblastoma Treatment

The doctor will look at the extent of the severity of the patient. Next will be
determined whether the blindness is avoidable or the need for removal of the eye will
be replaced with an artificial eye.
One way to treat Retinoblastoma is the use of laser therapy (laser photocoagulation).
Therapeutic laser light can be used to destroy blood vessels that nourish the tumor and
cause the death of cancer cells.

Other treatment options are with cryotherapy or cold therapy. This therapy uses very
cold liquid nitrogen to freeze the cancer cells before it is removed. This freezing
process and removal can be done several times during the maintenance procedure.
This process is carried out until the cancer cells die. In addition, there is a heat therapy
which is the opposite of cold therapy. Termoterapi using ultrasonic waves,
microwaves, or lasers to direct heat and kill cancer cells.

Chemotherapy drugs and radiation therapy (radiotherapy) may also include means
used to kill cancer cells Retinoblastoma. If chemotherapy uses drugs to kill cancer
cells, then radiation therapy uses X-ray radiation to do so. Internal radiation or
brachytherapy using tools that are placed near the tumor to reduce the risk exposure of
healthy tissue from radiation. For patients with severe retinoblastoma, external
radiation therapy can be done to provide greater exposure to radiation. Compared to
internal therapy, the therapy can risk damaging healthy tissue.

Eye removal surgery is done when the tumor size was too large and / or tumor could
not be treated with other treatments. Surgical removal of the eye consists of several
stages beginning with the removal of the infected eye cancer called enucleation. After
that, an artificial ball (implant) is installed and connected with the eye muscles. The
muscle tissue will adapt to the eye tissue healing process as a child, so will the eyes of
the implant can move like natural eye although he can not see.
The new artificial eye will be installed a few weeks after the operation and put
together implants eyes behind the eyelids. In addition to impacting the child's vision,
this surgical procedure also has the side effect of bleeding and infection.

Children who are diagnosed with retinoblastoma must be addressed before the stage
of cancer is difficult to treat and cause vision loss. Post-treatment tests and
examinations should be undertaken continuously, especially for children with genetic
mutations derivative.

Prevention of retinoblastoma
While most cases of retinoblastoma not yet have a definite precautions,
routine eye examinations that begins at birth can detect retinoblastoma faster.
Typically, regular visits to the pediatrician in the early years of a child is born, already
includes an eye examination. The doctor will check for signs of degenerative disease
including signs of tumors in the eye. Routine eye examinations for adults to do at least
once a year to monitor the eye health and reduce the risk of cancer recurrence.

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