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15 - 16
T he Technolog y

Our purpose is to direct and

guide research to address short
and long term needs of the
deciduous fruit industry.
Chairmans Report General Managers Report Communications
Pg 1 Pg 3 Pg 10


HORTGRO Science: T he Process Timeline

Pg 2 Pg 8
Crop Production Post-Har vest
Pg 23 Pg 49

Breeding and Evaluation Crop Protection Appendix

Pg 13 Pg 37 Pg 60
Stephen Rabe

PLEASE READ THIS! 2. L ong Term Research Strategy Charl project that focuses on water productivity
Stander and Matthew English making every drop count, and will have an
PROFI L E 3. Communication Strategy Stephen Rabe impact on water allocation.
Hopefully the additional prompt in the
and Louis von Broembsen
Stephen is the Director of heading will get more to read the content of
4. Funding Strategy William Myburgh and I will not go into too much detail as the report
Ag ri Ser vices at Fruit- my Chairmans report as we have made a
ways. He also fulf ils a Joseph Hendricks following this will contain all the relevant
concerted effort to focus on communication
role as chairperson of the 5. Operational Excellence Strategy research information and we are conscious of
and I am proud of the content being generated
HORTGRO Science advi- G Smuts. the following quote by Winston Churchill, This
from within HORTGRO Science and I will try
sor y council. report, by its very length, defends itself against
to do my part in promoting this effort. If you
If any member would like to contribute or add the risk of being read. To mitigate this risk I
would like an example of this please refer
to the content of these initiatives, please contact propose you choose one of the programs; crop
to the 2016 Technical symposium summary
a committee member to take the conversation protection, crop production or post-harvest and
report, visit - in which
further. focus on this to get the value captured in the
a concise executive gumboot summary has
various reports.
been made of the presentations.
The year 2016 will be remembered by the
drought that persisted across all regions of Last but not least I would like to thank all
To ensure we maintain the focus of the
our industry and I am afraid the consequence who participate and give of their time
Advisory committee as well as operational
of this will still be felt in certain areas for at and knowledge in ensuring we remain
management on carrying through on our
least 2 years. This has prompted the research focussed on the needs of the levy payers. To
strategic initiatives we have allocated
community to pay attention to the impact of HORTGRO Science management, on behalf
committee members as custodians for the
Communication climate change on the way we manage our of all producers, our heartfelt thanks for the
various initiatives and they are responsible to
resources going forward. commitment and passion displayed by Hugh
interact with management and report back at
5 Initiatives A project titled: Quantifying water use of and his team.
meetings on progress made, the
high performing commercial apple orchards
5 initiatives together with the custodians are
Climate change in the winter rainfall area of South Africa has
as follows:
been initiated in conjunction with the Water
1. Industry Future Vision Louis von
Drought Research Commission (WRC). This is a critical
Broembsen and Linde du Toit

1 | HORTGRO Science
It is through the foresight of my
predecessors that Stellenbosch
University is in this unique posi-
tion as they have always strived
to maintain a strong department
with close interaction with the in- Levy
dustries it serves. It is important 706 Pome Fruit Producers
to maintain this interaction as the 0.3% of GDP
925 stone fruit producers
four year academic programme
0.7% of GDP Experential Learning
trains students for a professional Universitiess
career and the training therefore Research Institutes
needs to be very relevant to Sustainable growth
industry. The biggest danger for Farm Gate Development
an academic department is to Profit Knowledge
lose senior academic staff as
Sustainable farming
it takes time for younger aca- Feeding the world
demics to find their feet in both
academia and industry. Careful HORTGRO Science
succession planning is therefore Facilitates
important. Also the pressure
Round Table Research Projects
from the University is towards
academic output and academics Total Projects 109
are not rewarded for working (61 Pome / 38 Stone)
closely with industry on industry New Projects 21
related problems. (Pome 13 / Stone 8)
GDP Annually
Stone R2.28 billion
Pome R8.2 billion
Human Capital

Prof Karen T heron

Chair in Applied P re-Har vest
Deciduous Fruit Research at
Stellenbosch University

Annual Report | 2
Hugh Campbell
IN TRODUCTION level, so we have stretched our tent pegs and network of over 200 experts who contribute to
further strengthened the communications team. the research process. Researchers, technical
We are continually challenged to create and advisors, technical experts, growers and many
PROFI L E 2015/16 is a year where a number of strategic
service platforms that adequately meet the more who give up many hours to contribute to
changes were introduced. A cultivar acquisition
practical requirements of our different target the overall technical and research aspects that
strategy was crafted to relook at the way we
Hugh is the General Man- audiences bearing in mind that our key focus are dealt with within HORTGRO Science. Over
ager of HORTGRO Science secure new cultivars for the stone and pome fruit
is on the grower. A welcomed addition to this 100 research projects are reviewed by peer
and also sits on various industries. This process has catalysed a relook
annual report is the HORTGRO Science Tech work group members and technical advisory
boards within the decidu- at the breeding programme that is funded by
ous fruit industr y. book which is a compendium of the technical committees. In addition, we get hugely valuable
the industry at the ARC. All breeding projects
publications published in 2015. Please spend inputs from the participants of our 30 odd
were terminated at the end of March 2016 and
some time reviewing each programme that is workgroups, each focusing on a different aspect
interim budgets were accepted for the period 1
reported on. The executive summary of each but contributing to the greater whole. Thank you.
April 2016 to end March 2017. From 2017,
project will give you an overview of the projects
selected programmes will be initiated to address
that are being funded.
the key gaps that have been identified. Part
of the strategy talks to the introduction of an PERSONNEL/MA NA GEMENT
independent cultivar evaluation scheme which
The purpose of HORTGRO Science is:
has as its primary objective the thorough HORTGRO Science was saddened to lose
To generate and transfer the knowledge,
evaluation of local and imported cultivars in the extensive expertise of Dr Mariana Jooste.
technology and practices required to mitigate,
order to minimize the risk to growers. Rootstocks Mariana has made a considerable contribution
avoid or overcome threats/risks, and to
Cultivar acquisition will also be evaluated under the independent to the area of post-harvest research
exploit opportunities, that impact the on-going
strategies evaluation scheme. HORTGRO Science made particularly on stone fruit.
economic sustainability of South African
Science communications a shift a few years ago when it appointed
pome and stone producers while ensuring the
a communications specialist, Elise-Marie Dr Juanita Heunis, who worked alongside Dr
development and retention of skills.
HORTGRO Science Steenkamp to head up our communication Ken Pringle for many years in the Department
Tech Book programme. As noted in the communications of Conservation Ecology and Entomology
Network of experts report, this aspect has grown to a HORTGRO at Stellenbosch University, has emigrated to
We would be amiss if we did not thank the
3 | HORTGRO Science
Australia. We wish both well in their future The staff seconded to Stellenbosch application. In addition, the focus of the
endeavours. University: RESEARCH PROJECTS / FUNDING new THRIP is on agroprocessing only
Dr Ken Pringle (5/8 appointment) which could affect the type of projects that
The staff of HORTGRO Science are Department of Conservation Ecology and Funding, along with people (capacity) and infra- we would be able to present to THRIP for
anticipating their pending move to upgraded Entomology structure are the critical elements of a successful funding;
offices at Welgevallen - Stellenbosch Dr Shelley Johnson - Department of research programme. Funding is a limiting Western Cape Department of Agriculture
Universities Department of AgriSciences Conservation Ecology and Entomology factor in the smaller industries like peaches (WCDA) (1% of funding). WCDA are the
experimental farm. An office hub has been Fruit Research at the Department of and nectarines where there is very little funding primary funders of the Confronting Climate
created to accommodate agricultural industries Horticultural Science, Stellenbosch available for research projects as the breeding Change Initiative. The wine, table grape
who work with the university. University: programme takes up 53% of the project fund- and citrus industries are co-funders of
Prof Karen Theron ing. HORTGRO Science receives its primary this project.
Personnel of HORGRO Science: Contract positions funded through funding from the grower levy from SAAPPA and International Atomic Energy Agency
Hugh Campbell General Manager research projects: SASPA. 54% of the standard levy for pome fruit (IAEA). The focus of the IAEA is on the
Richard Hurndall - Research and Laura Allderman Dormancy projects and 55% of the stone fruit levy is channelled to utilisation of sterile insect release for the
Technology Manager & Programme Dr Marelize De Villiers FCM projects research and development. The following is a control of key pests and related research.
Manager: Post-Harvest list of the primary funding resource of HORT- Other industries (6% of funds). A number
Prof Wiehann Steyn Programme The research process is managed on a GRO Science: of projects are co-funded by other
Manager: Crop Production (Extraordinary programme as follows: SAAPPA & SASPA levy funds (39% of funds) industries (mostly pome fruit, stone fruit,
Associate Professor in the Department Parliamentary Grant (32% of funding) dried fruit, canning fruit, as well as the
of Horticultural Science, Stellenbosch 1. Genetic optimisation (Breeding): - channelled through the ARC from the table grape, citrus and wine industry).
University) Ken Tobutt from the ARC leads the stone Department of Agriculture, Forestry and
Matthew Addison Programme and pome fruit breeding and evaluation Fisheries (DAFF). All projects at the ARC Figure 1 on the following page indicates the
Manager: Crop Protection (based at the programme. Strategic direction for this are co-funded; funding leverage for pome and stone fruit. For
Department of Conservation Ecology and programme is provided by the Fruit Route The Post-Harvest Innovation Fund (PHI) every R1 of industry funding (levy) invested in
Entomology, Stellenbosch University) Advisory Committee. (6% of funding). This fund is part of the a project, R1,56 is leveraged from alternative
Elise-Marie Steenkamp Group 2. Sustainable farming: sector innovation fund, one of the funding funding sources.
Communications Manager. A Crop Production Prof Wiehann Steyn. programmes at the Department of Science
Communications Department was Crop Protection Matthew Addison. and Technology (DST). PHI focuses on
created within HORTGRO with Elise- 3. Product integrity (Post-Harvest) post-harvest research within the fruit and
Maries moving to run the department. A Richard Hurndall. vegetable industries. This funding cycle
portion of her time is allocated back to 4. Market Alignment and a ends at the end of December 2016;
HORTGRO Science. Sustainable Supply Chain - Lindi National Research Fund (NRF) is funded
Dane McDonald Science Benic, in her capacity as HORTGRO through DST and provides bursaries;
Communications Specialist. Manager of Trade and Market Access, Technology and Human Resources for
Theresa Sonnenberg Research leads the market alignment programme. Industry Programme (THRIP) funding (15%
Administrator. 5. Communications programme - Elise- of the funding) this is a Department of
Dr Xolani Siboza Regional Fruit Marie Steenkamp. Trade and Industry (DTI) initiative focused
Production Researcher. on the training of students. The DTI has
Dr Daleen Stenekamp Applied changed the rules and management of
Researcher: Crop Protection positioned at THRIP funding. Previously the universities
Stellenbosch University and research institution applied to THRIP
Terence Asia Technical Assistant: for funds. This has changed and the
Crop Protection positioned at Stellenbosch industry is now required to make the
Annual Report | 4
The following table gives an overview of the research institutions utilised in 2015/16


2015/16 2014/15 2013/14 2012/13
ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij 29 30 36 36
6% PHI ARC Breeding 20 21 21 21

1% WCDOA ARC Research Projects 09 09 15 15

Stellenbosch University 33 34 39 38
US Horticulture 12 14 16 15

US Pathology 5 5 5 5

US Entomology 14 14 18 18

FUNDING ALLOCATIONS 2015/16 - FIG 2 US Engineering 1 1

US Soil Science 1
16% ARC BREEDING HORTGRO Science Technical Services 18 15 20 20

21% UNIV STELL ExperiCo 18 19 16 15

CA Science 1 1 1
Nemlab 2 1 1 1
Blue North 1 1 1 1
14% RESEARCH POSTS University of Pretoria 2 2 1 1


UP - Soil Science 1 1
CSIR 1 1 1 1
10% EXPERICO Westcape Biotech 1 1

12% PROG / PROJECT MAN / TECH SERVICE Consultants 4 5

C Jarmain 1

P Stassen 3 3

K Bouwer 1 1
TOTAL 109 110 116 114

5 | HORTGRO Science
The average cost per project went up in 2015/16 by 4%. These figures must be viewed with caution as 2015/16 INVESTMENT PER RESEARCH INVESTMENT FOCUS AREA - FIG 5
the reasons for a project cost increase are multiple.
R145 597 R165 907 R127 693 R119 920 R144 196 R154 408 R160 379
R160 000
R140 000
R100 000

R80 000
Each research investment area or research the projects have a black project leader, similar
R60 000
programme is discussed in more detail within this to last year. What is encouraging is that 34%
R40 000 report. Please refer to the relevant chapter of this of our projects involve the training of students
report for a summary of each research project at post-graduate level and as noted below, 41
R20 000 funded during the 2015/16 financial year. post-graduate students are currently registered on
HORTGRO Science projects. 49% of our post-
graduate students are black. We are encouraged
2009/2010 2010/2011 2011/2012 2012/2013 2013/2014 2014/2015 2015/2016
RE SEARCH CA PA CITY A ND by these figures and are looking forward to
seeing these post-graduate students landing in
TRANSF ORMATION industry in different positions. A new initiative
was launched this year with the Deciduous
There is a great need in the industry to develop
Fruit Development Chamber (DFDC) whereby a
Funding allocation per research investment focus area: well rounded technical people who can serve
specific day focusing on the emerging grower
The following graphs give a representation of the funding allocation per programme. in different technical positions across the
was introduced into the HORTGRO Science
specialist field of crop protection, soil science
Technical symposium. The symposium was also
POME and horticulture. During this past year we have
expanded into a 5 day event. The Western
experienced lot of movement within the technical
2015/16 INVESTMENT PER RESEARCH INVESTMENT FOCUS AREA - FIG 4 Cape Department of Agriculture was instrumental
field. It is equally important to ensure that we
in the process and also assisted in funding
develop the next generation of researchers. It
16% GENETIC POOL OPTIMISATION (BREEDING) the costs of all the emerging growers from the
must be emphasised that it is critical that we
Western Cape to attend the symposium. What is
18% SUSTAINABLE FARMING (CROP PROTECTION) retain and grow the different departments of
encouraging is that 20% of the total participants
agriculture within our universities as we will
who attend the symposium were emerging
35% SUSTAINABLE FARMING (CROP PRODUCTION) not be able to produce the right quality of
growers. Emerging growers from Mpumalanga,
graduates if we do not have the skilled scientists
Free State and the Eastern Cape also attended
25% PRODUCT INTEGRITY THROUGH THE SUPPLY CHAIN and lecturers in place. Currently 44% of the
the symposium. Funds were made available
(POST-HARVEST) research projects have a female as the project
by HORTGRO and HORTGRO Science to fund
MARKET ALIGNMENT (MARKET ACCESS) leader (down from 53% last year) and 22% of
Annual Report | 6
these growers. This initiative will be developed greater exposure to our researchers, technical Crouch (prize for being Researcher of the evaluation of NIR as an early detection method
further in 2017. An exciting new APP has community and growers. Year 2014). for mealines
been developed with funding from HORTGRO
Science and the Post-Harvest Innovation Fund April 2016: The 3rd International July 2016: Sonwabo Booi, Stone HORTGRO SCIENCE BEST POPULAR
(PHI). This user-friendly APP focuses on the post- Symposium Fruit Fly (TEAM) - Tephritid fruit rootstock breeder at the ARC visit ARTICLE 2015
harvest aspect of stone fruit and will become an Workers of Europe, Africa and the to Dr Michael McKenry (Nematologist) Awarded to Saskia von Diest, Cheryl Lennox and
important resource to all growers and anyone Middle East took place in Stellenbosch. at Kearney Agricultural Research and William MacHardy
involved in the supply chain. 41 post-graduate International and local researchers took Extension Centre, California, USA was Article Shredding leaves in autumn lowers apple
students are funded through bursaries supplied part in this symposium. There was good partly sponsored by HORTGRO Science. scab levels in the next season
by research projects. During the reporting year, attendance by the local technical fraternity. Published in the June/July 2015 issue of SAFJ.
PHI funded a number of bursaries on projects HORTGRO Science was a co-sponsor of August 2016:
related to post-harvest. The full value of these this event. HORTGRO Science funded a one week HORTGRO SCIENCE BEST VISUAL
bursaries amount to R3 967273.This excludes visit of Marc Trapman from Germany COMMUNICATION (PHOTOGRAPHY)
specific bursaries funded through HORTGRO that May 2016: Prof Wiehann Steyn and an expert on RIMpro, an apple scab 2015
focus more on undergraduate students. (HORTGRO Science) and Prof Karen Theron management system. Work sessions and Awarded shared by Adriaan Theron and Imke
(Chair in pre-harvest applied deciduous fruit site visits were held with the researchers Kritzinger
research at Stellenbosch University) were involved in the project on Evaluating
invited by IRTA (Research and Technology, an ascospore release forecasting model HORTGRO SCIENCE BEST VISUAL
Food and Agriculture) in Barcelona, Spain COMMUNICATION AWARD (VIDEO)
O VERS EAS VI S I TS to visit their research facilities and meet
and orchard disease monitoring methods
for improving apple scab management. 2015
A ND I NTERNAT IO N AL with numerous researchers and commercial Workshops were held with the technical Awarded to Caro Kapp
SYMP OS I UM / E V E N TS entities in Spain. Funded by external funds. industry along with growers.
HORTGRO Science supported a number of inter- June 2016: The ISHS VIII International September 2016: The ISHS Xl Orchard INNOVATION AWARD 2016
national visits and funded or co-funded a number Post-Harvest Symposium in Spain was Systems 2016 International Symposium Awarded to Prof Piet Stassen
of visits and events in South Africa that created attended by Richard Hurndall and Dr Ian held in Bologna. A strong contingent of
South Africans attended this event that was HORTGRO SCIENCE/PROF DAAN
held in South Africa four years ago. STRYDOM STUDENT AWARD 2016
AWARDS Awarded to Trevan Flynn
The following awards were made during the ENVIROPAEDIA ECO-LOGIC AWARDS
2015/16 year. HORTGRO Science would like Bronze Award in the category Climate Change
POST - GRADUATE STUDENTS MSc PhD POSTDoc TOTAL to congratulate the award winners. (sponsored by the Department of Environmental
Affairs) awarded to the Confronting Climate
White Male 4 4 8 HORTGRO SCIENCE BEST FINAL REPORT Change Initiative
White Female 6 5 2 13 2015
Awarded to Elke Crouch Project: The influence
Black Male 4 10 2 16 of cell number and size (indirectly cell division)
Black Female 1 3 4 and cell wall bound and free Ca2+ on the
development of Forelle pear. As well as the
TOTAL 15 22 4 41

7 | HORTGRO Science
HORTGRO 1. Packhouse Action
S C I ENC E Group meeting 2. Post-
Har vest Technical Advisor y
TI MEL I NE Committee meeting (TAC) 1. Pome Fr uit Joint Market
3. Researcher T hank-You For um ( JMF) 2. Stone
Breakfast at Mont Marie in Fr uit JMF 3. Dormancy
Stellenbosch 4. HORTGRO Workgroup 4. Scoping of
Science Advisor y Council 5. Independent Evaluation of
Crop Production TAC Cultivars 5. Stone & Pome
OCT 6. CA and Post-Har vest DE C fr uit training meeting
2015 Group meeting 7. SA Pink 2015 6. Meeting of the Noordelike
Lady Association meeting steenvr ug studiegroep

1. Patholog y Peer Work 1. Langkloof Seminar &

Group (PWG) meets NOV F ield day 2. Project Rebirth JAN
2. Entomolog y PWG 2015 of National Fresh Produce 2016
meets 3. Soil Science and Markets Steering Committee
Horticulture PWG meets meeting Pretoria 3. Crop
4. AFB meeting with Alan Protection TAC 4. Meet with
W inde 5. Forelle Producers Western Cape Dept of Agric
Association meeting 6. Post- Research Director 5. CPAG
Har vest PWG (Crop Protection Advisor y
Group) 6. SAFJ Strateg y
session 7. Stone Fr uit
Tree Die-back Workshop

Annual Report | 8
1. Packhouse Action Group 1. Pome Fr uit Joint Market
meeting 2. Stone Fr uit JMF For um ( JMF) 2. Stone
3. Posthar vest PWG and TAC Fr uit JMF 3. Dormancy
4. Pome fr uit JMF 5. Project Workgroup 4. Scoping of
Rebirth of National Fresh Independent Evaluation of
Produce Markets Steering Cultivars 5. Stone & Pome
F EB Committee meeting APR fr uit training meeting
2016 Pretoria 6. Oak Valley 2016 6. Meeting of the Noordelike
OoF Orchard walk steenvr ug studiegroep

1. Orchard of the Future 1. Stone Fr uit JMF 2.

workgroup 2. Stone fr uit MA R IPM meeting 3. Fr uitfly M AY
JMF 3. Irrigation and 2016 symposium TEAM 2016 2016
Nutrition workgroup 4. Pome Stellenbosch 4. Green
Fr uit JMF 5. Soil Health Economy - Pome fr uit
Workgroup 6. Rootstock 5. FCM Task Group 6. Chair
Evaluation Committee in Deciduous Fr uit pre
meeting 7. Rootstock and har vest research - review
Nurser y Tree workgroup
8. Stone Fr uit JMF
9. National Markets visit -
Jhb, Pretoria, Durban

9 | HORTGRO Science
1. Prophyta Short Course
2. T TAC Meeting 3. IPM
1.Posthar vest PWG Meeting 4. Apple Replant
2. Posthar vest TAC mini-symposium 5. Cover
3. Patholog y PWG Crop F ield day 6. Soil health
4. Entomolog y PWG workshop with international
5. 6th International partners 7. H Campbell,
Biofumigation Symposium K T heron, W Steyn, and
in Stellenbosch 6. Crop X Sibosa visist breeding
Protection TAC 7. Soil programmes, nurseries
J UN Science and Horticulture A UG and plant improvent
2016 PWGs 8. Crop 2016 organisations in Belgium
Production TAC and T he Netherlands

1. HORTGRO Science 1. PAG meeting 2. Free

Technical Symposium JU L State Apple Symposium SEP
2. Pome Fr uit JMF 3. Richard 2016 3. HORTGRO Science 2016
Hurndall attends ISHS Advisor y Council Meeting
Posthar vest Symposium 4. Confronting Climate
in Spain 4. DAFF Special Change Steering Committee
programme at ARC 5. Marc Trapman visit:
5. CA Tour Elgin 6. Western RimPro and fusi management
Cape Drought Dialogue
meeting 7. DAFF Pretoria

Annual Report | 10
Elise-Marie Steenkamp

You dont really understand something spin-offs we have had from the newsletter fruit APP is also on track and our launch
Group communications
manager at HORTGRO. unless you can explain it to your had high value in terms of Public Relations date is in the first quarter of 2017.
grandmother. - Albert Einstein (PR).
Sharing a magazine with other industry
In March Stone Fruit Growers asked for a partners is never easy - therefore the SAFJ
HORTGRO Sciences communication resurrection of the Timely Hints fact file. To remains a challenge. We focused on producing
programme has undergone another major shift this end we engaged with various experts what is within our control; quality content, with
this year, when it merged with HORTGROs and our first TH edition hit our growers in a high-standard of visual aid. The HORTGRO
Communications Department. To this end, August this year. So far the feedback has Science website is our shop window to the
Dane McDonald, joined the Stellenbosch been positive. world. Our news items are presented on the
team in April 2016 as the resident science opening page, we have different research
communicator. HORTGROs communications In an attempt to address the continuing sections, and an archive where SAFJ articles
team now has more capacity and better skill challenges with the South African Fruit dating back to 2010 can be found. For
sets than ever before. In terms of communicating Journal (SAFJ), we have initiated a HORTGRO Science events we have an online
science our strategy and goals stayed the HORTGRO Science Tech Book, which will registration system with a self-generating
same. We remain focused on the needs of our be available with the Annual Report. The invoice-system as well as an e-commerce
growers, thereby producing quality content, first Tech Book will be a compilation of all option, enabling registrants to pay-online. The
timeous dissemination, and the integration of the technical and science-related articles that Facebook page has seen organic growth
information on various platforms. In order to were published in 2015. A similar edition of more than 100% over the past year. At the
Grower needs keep up with the latest developments in the field will be made available for the 2016 articles. time of writing we have 477 likes, with 61%
and whenever an opportunity arises, we make of fans being male and 37% female. Our fan
New projects it a priority to attend science communication Designed a rootstock evaluation pamphlet. base stretches from Malaysia, India, Saudi
workshops, seminars and round tables. New Arabia, UK to the USA. About 28% of our fans
South African projects this year were: FruitLook collaboration: 6 part series with are between 25 34 years of age. In the past
Fruit Journal
A monthly newsletter which was well infographics. year we also uploaded a total of 35 videos
Online media received within our community. The media The development of a post-harvest stone onto YouTube. The three most viewed slots

11 | HORTGRO Science

were: 2016 at Vyeboom, a False Codling Moth

Pruning Apricot Trees (860 views) Seminar, we facilitated an Apple Replant
Orchard Management Weed control Disease mini-symposium, and hosted a
(344 views) Packhouse Action Group workshop.
Pruning Plum Trees (140 views)
A total of 13 Fresh Notes were sent out during
The HORTGRO Science Technical Symposium the past year, addressing industry challenges
2016 mushroomed into a five day event, with like heat damage, drought conditions, internal
the first day focusing specifically on the needs browning, irrigation principles and Maximum
of New Growers. Also new to the symposium Residue Limit (MRL) notifications. HORTGRO
was the Post-Harvest Day. Overall the Science also released 6 press releases to the
symposium was a tremendous success, as was general media. All the stories were picked up
attested by the record attendance figures over by national and international media groupings.
the five days and the positive feedback we
received. Media thought leader, Max du Preez,
opened the symposium. Our three international
guest speakers were, Dr Walter Guerra, head
of the Pomology Department at Laimburg
Research Centre in South-Tyrol, and Professor
Prof Elias Fereres of the Department of Plant
Production at the University of Cordoba, Spain,
and Prof Michael Reid, UC Davis, USA.

We also hosted a Crop Production Seminar in

the Langkloof in December 2015, as well as
a Cover Crop Information Day in September

Annual Report | 12
The ARCs Breeding & Evaluation prog rammes
for apples, pears, apricots, peaches and plums
that are partly funded by industr y pay particular
attention to adaptability to warm winters
and resistance to pests and diseases, as well
as to yield and fruit quality, in the case of
scion cultivars, and to ease of propagation and
orchard per formance, in the case of rootstocks.
P rog ress is reviewed each winter by Culdevco,
ARCs licensee, and in the spring by the Fruit
Route Steering Group. And promising Phase
2 selections are displayed at periodic Fruit
Exhibitions held at the Infruitec campus.

13 | HORTGRO Science
Ken Tobutt

PROFI L E Progress in the various breeding and acidity in apple. However, NRF has currently breeding in May 2016. Sonwabo Booi secured
evaluation projects to develop tree-fruit cultivars suspended THRIP funding which is of great KIC funding to visit the USA to enhance his
Ken is a specialist research- for the South African industry is summarized concern as it impinges not only on our efforts knowledge of nematode resistance in October
er in Crop Development at in the following abstracts (and readers are to develop marker-assisted breeding but also 2016.
the Ag ricultural Research welcome to contact project leaders for more on the training of students.
Council. information). Rather than review these here, Two new policies announced by HORTGRO
I want to mention some of the ancillary and Staff member Trevor Koopman completed his Science, representing SAAPPA and SASPA,
complementary work that is being undertaken PhD studies on apple scab and defended his are already affecting the Phase 1 and Phase 2
and also some other context. PhD thesis in October 2016. And training of breeding programmes. From next year, Phase
students continued. Solomon Nladi should 2 & 3 will be planted on commercial farms and
Once more, the THRIP project allowed soon complete his PhD thesis on pear mapping the recording of the trials managed by a private
progress in the area of molecular genetics and Lawrence Kwalimba and Thembeka company paid by ARC and Culdevco as the
which increasingly underpins modern breeding Nyawo their MSc theses on fingerprinting IP holders. And the Phase 1 seedling blocks
programmes with student inputs funded and characterising the stone-fruit germplasm will be managed and planted by commercial
variously by HORTGRO Science, ARC-PDP, collections. Zama Mbulawa is continuing her entities though the breeding and selection for
NRF-PDP and THRIP. Microsatellites were used PhD and Khethani Mhelembe commenced his, a refocused set of objectives will still be the
to check germplasm accessions for trueness both on mapping and understanding traits in responsibility of the ARC breeders. Furthermore,
Genetic studies to name and to tag several interesting traits in apple. The collaborations with the Stellenbosch the contract between ARC and Culdevco is due
pear and to start similar work in apple. And University Departments of Plant Pathology, for renewal or termination. It will be interesting
Reskilling and training known function gene markers were designed Genetics and Horticultural Sciences, which to see how matters work out. As ever, we thank
or optimised to genotype accessions or, provide the co-supervisors, are invaluable. the industries for their financial support and
Student prog ress potentially, seedlings with respect to e.g. cling- also for their provision of plant material,
stone vs freestone in peach, incompatibility A highlight was the invitation extended to information and advice.
P rog ramme sustainibility in plum and apricot, or high versus low fruit Taaibos Human to speak in Turkey on pear

Annual Report | 14
C SMITH - Phase 2 evaluations of peach and
Concluded in 2016
BREEDING AND nectarine cultivars in the Winter rainfall region.
K TOBUTT - Three studentships to apply
molecular markers to the pome-fruit and stone- C SMITH - Phase 2 evaluations of plum cultivars
fruit breeding programmes. in the Winter rainfall region.
P roject List
T KOOPMAN - Determination of apple scab C SMITH - Phase 2 evaluations of apricot
races occurring in South African apple growing cultivars in the Winter rainfall region.
regions to underpin breeding for resistance.
I MEINTJIES - Evaluation of stone fruit in the
Summer rainfall area.


W PIETERSE - Planting and maintenance of
All conducted at ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij
germplasm of pome fruit, stone fruit and
APPLE alternative deciduous fruit crops
J KRIEL - Breeding high quality disease
resistant apples for first and second economies. PLUM
J DE KLERK & C SMITH - Determination of
PEAR cross pollinators for plum varieties.
T HUMAN - Breeding of pear cultivars.
PEACH S BOOI - Evaluation of newly bred stone fruit
W PIETERSE - Breeding of peaches and rootstock hybrids.
nectarines for commercial and emerging
E LOTZ - Cold storage characteristics of new
PLUM, PEACH, APRICOT cultivars and selections.
S BOOI - Breeding of new peach rootstocks.
*Carl Horstmann left in August 2016 and plum
PLUM and apricot breeding will be managed by
C HRSTMANN* - Breeding of Japanese plums Werner Pieterse until the new project leader is
for commercial and emerging farmers. appointed.
Jannie de Klerk passed away in February
C HRSTMANN* - Breeding of apricot cultivars
for commercial and emerging farmers.

K SOEKER - Phase II evaluation of apple

K SOEKER - Phase II evaluation of pears in the
Western Cape

15 | HORTGRO Science
B R EEDI NG HI GH Q UALITY 9,000 of the resulting 15,000 seeds were establish these seedlings in evaluation blocks
sown. Based on microsatellite fingerprinting and, once they start bearing, select the best
D ISEAS E RES I S TAN T APPLE S data produced earlier in 2014/15, a selections for further evaluation in Phase 2.
FO R FI RS T AND S E C O N D dendrogram was generated which indicated COMMERCIA L A ND
ECO NOMI ES that approximately 200 of the ARC Infruitec- Key Results EMERGING FA RMERS
Nietvoorbijs pome fruit accessions matched Budwood of 13 Phase 1 selections and one
those of the same name at the UKs National Inter-Phase selection promoted for further
J Kriel evaluation the previous year were supplied
W Pieterse
Apple Collection at Brogdale, whereas there
were discrepancies for about 40 of the ARC to SAPO. Seventeen new selections were
Objectives & Rationale Objectives & Rationale
accessions and another 70 were not held at selected in Phase 1 orchards at Drostersnes.
ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbijs apple breeding The ARC peach and nectarine breeding
Brogdale. Furthermore, the characterisation Small fruit samples of each selection were
programme aims to provide South African programme focuses on developing cultivars
of apple cultivars with respect to the ACS1 harvested, cold stored for eight weeks and
growers with a range of cultivars that are easy with good cold storage ability adapted to the
gene involved in ethylene production allowed evaluated. One selection was earmarked
to grow and easy to sell on the home market South African growing conditions and fruit
the breeding programme to choose parents by Culdevco for further evaluation and all
and overseas, i.e. that are well adapted, quality traits aligned to the demands of the
that will yield seedlings homozygous for the the other selections were discarded. This
reliably cropping, and disease-resistant with target markets fresh, dried and canning,
recessive allele associated with long storage. best selection, P16-16, had blushed fruit,
excellent appearance and eating quality and which include emerging farmers. This sets it
Two students are continuing with their Ph.D. harvested on 2 March, with good appearance
good storage ability. apart from foreign breeding programmes.
studies. and attractive colour, good texture and taste,
scoring 20/30. Cross pollinations produced
Methods Methods
Conclusion / Discussion 2 083 seeds, comprising 73% for blush, 0.1%
The breeding involves maintaining gene-banks, Crosses are made and seedlings selected,
The refocusing of the programme is continuing for green and 26% for future genetic studies.
hybridizing parents with desirable traits, mostly on the basis of fruit quality.
and particular attention needs to be paid to About 2 792 seedlings generated last year will
screening and selecting Phase 1 seedlings from
the enhancement of the genebanks and the be kept in plastic bags under shade netting
large populations and promoting the best to Key Results
application of molecular markers. for future plantings. Using seedling progenies
Phase 2 and is underpinned by appropriate Seven peach and seven nectarine selections
at Drostersnes for his study on mapping the
complementary genetic studies and student identified in 2014 were propagated. The
blush trait, Solomon Ntladi, a PhD student, is
training. breeding programme is in a transition phase
busy completing his thesis for the Stellenbosch
and has experienced trying times and no
Key Results BR EEDING OF P EAR University.
new selections were made in the period
Budwood of thirteen selections from Phase 1 C ULTIVARS Conclusion / Discussion
under review. Seeds were collected from
orchards at Drostersnes short-listed in 2015 two open pollinations and ~ 170 seedlings
A total of 17 new selections were initially
was provided to SAPO to raise trees for were raised. Pollen of eight accessions was
T Human selected in Phase 1 (nine blush, five green/
Phase 2. Nearly 3,500 seedlings in Phase received from CRA-FRU, Italy and will be used
yellow and three fully red) and, in conjunction
1 were assessed for crop, visual appeal, in crosses. The PhD project of Mr Pieterse on
Objectives & Rationale with Culdevco, one selection was promoted for
and season and seven were harvested for the characterisation of stone-fruit genotypes
The aim of this project is to provide the further evaluation.
assessment of storage performance; only in terms of carotenoid profiles and associated
South African pear industry with new, locally
one full red selection was short-listed for fruit quality traits is ongoing and fruit samples
adapted cultivars especially with blushed skin.
promotion to Phase 2. Thirty cross-pollinations are being analysed with techniques adapted
were made e.g. to combine fruit quality from methods developed by Prof M. Viviers
with lower chilling requirement or to raise laboratory.
The project uses conventional breeding
progenies for genetic studies e.g. into
techniques to generate genetic variation,
scab and woolly aphid resistance; about

Annual Report | 16
Conclusion / Discussion Key Results Conclusion / Discussion
The peach breeding programme is in a From 16 ARC-bred selections, 457 cuttings
B REEDING J APA NESE PLU MS Due to the various constraints experienced
transition phase, with new models on the table were rooted and from nine commercial during the 2015/2016 season, no progress
to develop and evaluate new cultivars and to rootstock cultivars, 267 cuttings were rooted, F OR COMMERCIA L A ND could be made in evaluating and selecting
revitalise the programme. resulting in a total of 724 cuttings. About 247 EMERGING FA RMERS from Phase I orchards. Several crosses were
rooted cuttings from ARC-bred selections and successfully performed and the seedlings
140 rooted cuttings from commercial cultivars generated according to the breeding objectives
C Hrstmann
were recovered. A total of eight ARC-bred of the programme. The THRIP funded research
B R EEDI NG OF N E W PE AC H selections and six commercial rootstocks
Objectives & Rationale
has progressed well and will bring significant
R O OTS TOC KS F O R THE F IR S T were successfully screened for resistance to a
This project aims to breed yellow, red, and
benefits to the breeding programme.
combination of ring and root-knot nematodes.
A ND S EC OND E C O N O M Y black Japanese plums to extend the range
A progeny with a total of 68 seedlings was
and season of cultivars, that are easy to grow
also screened for resistance to both nematodes
and sell, supported by staying abreast of the
S Booi to select resistant seedlings. Two cross BREEDING A PRICOT
latest developments in breeding and molecular
combinations were performed, resulting in
genetics of stone-fruit research. CU LTIVA RS FOR
Objectives & Rationale 780 flowers pollinated and 340 fruits were
This project aims to provide the South African harvested from the trees.
Stone-Fruit Industry with new, low-chill stone-
Traditional breeding practices and genebank
fruit rootstocks resistant/tolerant to various Conclusion / Discussion
maintenance are complemented by THRIP-
stresses. The objectives for the current study From the eight ARC-bred selections screened, C Hrstmann
funded molecular marker work to fingerprint
were to screen for resistance to a combination six were found to be resistant to root-knot
germplasm and move towards marker-assisted
of ring nematode (Criconemoide xenoplax) nematodes, one tolerant and one susceptible. Objectives & Rationale
and root-knot (Meloidogyne javanica) under For ARC-bred rootstock selections and This project aims to breed yellow and blushed
glasshouse conditions and to perform hand commercial rootstock cultivars inoculated apricots to extend the range and season of
Key Results
cross pollinations. with ring nematodes, very low ring nematode cultivars, that are easy to grow and sell, while
Budwood from the six promising selections
populations were observed in the soil, which staying abreast of the latest developments in
of the previous season was collected and
Methods suggests that the soil environment or soil breeding and molecular genetics of stone-fruit
provided to SAPO for propagation; however,
In May 2015, cuttings from 16 ARC-bred temperature around the roots was not suitable research.
the poor quality of the budwood available
hybrids and nine commercial rootstock cultivars for the ring nematode population to increase.
from Bien Donn reduced the success
were rooted for resistance screening trials in This was evident in our positive host rootstock Methods
of propagation. Due to the same poor
2016 under standard nursery conditions at cultivar Atlas, which had the lowest average Traditional breeding practices and genebank
conditions that affected the quality of the
Bien Donn Research Farm. Eight ARC-bred ring nematode counts of all the plants in that maintenance are complemented by THRIP-
budwood, no selections could be made from
stone-fruit rootstock selections, mostly plums, screening trial. Guardian, the standard funded molecular marker work to fingerprint
Phase I confidently during the 2015/2016
peach and interspecies plus six commercial commercial rootstock which is known to be germplasm and move towards marker-assisted
season. Hand pollinations and open
rootstock cultivars were screened for nematode tolerant to ring nematodes had the highest selection.
pollinated sources yielded 1894 embryos.
resistance in the Nematode Glasshouse at average ring nematode counts in the soil.
As part of the complementary THRIP project,
Bien Donn Research Farm along with a Key Results
fingerprinting and S-allele genotyping of the
progeny from a controlled cross from Soldonne Budwood from the 13 promising selections
gene bank and certain advanced selections
x Supergold (apricot) with 64 seedlings. of the previous season was collected and
is near to completion. The breeder made
Controlled hand pollinations to raise at least provided to SAPO for propagation; however
several presentations on the plum breeding
1000 new seedlings for screening were the poor quality of the budwood available
programme, including to the XI Southern
performed. from Bien Donn may impact the success of
African Plant Breeders Association Symposium.

17 | HORTGRO Science
propagation for some of the selections. Due Methods years, 15 of these will be discarded. Twenty
new Phase 2 selections were planted at Elgin
to the same poor conditions that affected the Selections from Phase 1 are planted in
quality of the budwood, no selections could be replicated trials and assessed for cropping and Experimental Farm in 2015.
made from Phase I with confidence during the fruit characters after storage.
2015/2016 season. Hand pollinations and CAP E Conclusion / Discussion
open pollinated sources have yielded 1107 Key Results Feedback from industry contacts during
embryos. As part of the complementary THRIP A total of 33 selections were harvested from orchard walks and exhibitions has been very
M Soeker
project, fingerprinting and S-allele genotyping Phase 2 orchards at Elgin Experimental Farm informative and early input on new pear
of the gene bank and certain advanced and evaluated and tested for cold storage selections has been positive. P07-3 shows the
Objectives & Rationale
selections is in the final stages of completion. ability at the Post-Harvest Division at ARC most promise after three years of evaluation
The project aims to evaluate locally bred pear
The breeder made several presentations on Infruitec-Nietvoorbij. Of these, seven stored and will be closely monitored in subsequent
selections and industry standard cultivars to
the apricot breeding programme at, among well, nine showed average storage ability, nine evaluations. Bud-wood was collected and
identify new pears suitable for local as well as
others, the XI Southern African Plant Breeders were below average, seven had no storage delivered to SAPO in early 2015 to make 400
overseas markets.
Association Symposium. potential and one needed to be re-evaluated trees which will be planted in semi-commercial
due to decay. The best selections, after quality trials by different growers in 2016.
Conclusion / Discussion assessment, from each category were: 4-68-
Selections from the ARC Phase I breeding
Due to the many constraints experienced 34, striped, 57%; 4-63-66R, bi-colour, 79%;
programme are planted in replicated trials and
during the 2015/2016 season, no significant 4-13-23R, full red, 72% and 4-61-35, low
assessed for cropping and fruit characters after
progress could be made in evaluating and chill, 81%. Fifty-eight ARC bred selections were PH A SE 2 EVA LU ATIONS OF
selecting from Phase I orchards. Several identified for removal after the 2016 season, PEA CH A ND NECTA RINE
crosses were successfully performed and as they had been evaluated for four years
seedlings were generated according to the but were not good enough to be promoted
breeding objectives of the programme. The to Phase 3. Twelve new selections were
A total of 56 selections and cultivars were RA INFA LL REGION
harvested from Phase II plots and evaluated
THRIP funded research has progressed well planted at Elgin in September 2015. Design
and tested for cold storage ability at the Post-
and will bring significant benefits to the and optimisation of Malic acid markers are
Harvest Division at ARC-Infruitec Nietvoorbij W Smith
breeding programme. underway and are yielding promising results.
after eight weeks in cold storage. Of these,
Once they are fully optimised, most promising Objectives & Rationale
13 selections stored well, 28 did not store
Phase 2 selections as well as the germplasm The project evaluates locally-bred ARC peach
well, four were below average, seven were
will be genotyped. and nectarine selections adapted to South
average and 4 need to be re-evaluated. The
PHAS E I I EVAL U ATIO N O F best selections for each of the product types African growing conditions for the export,
A PP L ES I N THE W E S TE R N Conclusion / Discussion
were as follows: P07-3, blush, scoring 84% canning and drying industries.

CA P E Feedback from industry contacts during

for consumer traits; P05-12, full red, scoring
orchard walks and exhibitions identified Methods
73%; P07-28, green, scoring 69%; and P05-
selections to be closely watched in the coming Fruit samples were harvested each week from
17, green/yellow, 74%. Thirteen selections
M Soeker seasons. Selection 4-57-69 has been fast November 2015 to February 2016 at Bien
were sent for canning during the season,
tracked and trees have been propagated for Donn and Robertson Research Farms. No
none of which made it to final evaluation.
Objectives & Rationale planting later this year. Industry consultants selections were added to the evaluation site on
Three selections made it to the final drying
The project aims to evaluate ARC bred apple also provided valuable information on orchard Uitkomst, a commercial farm in Ceres, due to
evaluation, and P06-4 scored 75% with good
selections in order to identify well adapted and management practices which are being down scaling on the farm. The samples were
drying ability. Thirty entries scored low marks
promising apples which produce heavy crops implemented to improve the overall productivity subjected to cold storage, canning and drying
(<60%) in the past season during quality
of quality fruit acceptable to all market places, of Elgin Research Farm. trials at the Post-Harvest and Wine Technology
assessments of fresh produce and, after
locally as well as overseas. Division. Representative fruit samples were
comparison of evaluation data of the last five
also collected to evaluate their external and
Annual Report | 18
internal traits and the data captured on the MS the second economy projects in the Cultivar Methods
Access data base. Development Division. There was regular Fruit samples were harvested each week from
PHA SE 2 EVAL UATIONS OF November 2015 to February 2016 at Bien
liaison with the deciduous fruit industry and
Key Results PLUM CULTIVARS IN THE technical support as well as technology transfer Donn and Robertson Research Farms, as
Nine peach and ten nectarine selections W IN TER RAINFAL L REGION was provided. well as at a commercial farm in Montagu.
scored 80% (cut-off point) in the cold The samples were subjected to cold storage,
storage evaluation. One peach selection Conclusion / Discussion canning and drying trials at the Post-Harvest
C Smith
obtained 70% or higher in the final canning Horticultural and post-harvest evaluations and Wine Technology Division. Representative
evaluation. Three peach and one nectarines as well as the fruit exhibitions will continue fruit samples were also collected to evaluate
Objectives & Rationale
selection scored 70% in the final drying in 2016/17, although at a smaller scale their external and internal traits and the data
The project evaluates ARC bred plum selections
evaluation. At the request of Culdevco, because a large numbers of selections have captured on the MS Access data base.
adapted to South African growing conditions
several promising selections were given been removed from evaluation due to poor
for the export industry.
special attention regarding their horticultural performance. If available, new selections Key Results
traits. Four fruit exhibitions were held at will be planted at the three evaluation sites. Three selections scored 80% (cut-off point)
ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij and were attended Selections not performing well after three in the cold storage evaluation. None of the
Fruit samples were harvested each week
by approximately 96 people from the fruit years of evaluation will be removed from the selections submitted for canning evaluation
from November 2015 to February 2016 at
industry. Several meetings were held with evaluation blocks at Bien Donn and Robertson scored 70% (cut-off percentage). No selection
Bien Donn and Robertson Research Farms
Culdevco and its clients with regard to new Research Farms. Approximately 67 selections obtained more than 70% in the drying
as well as at a commercial farm, Uitkomst
peach and nectarine varieties and planting have been identified for removal during the evaluation. At the request of Culdevco,
in Ceres. The fruit samples were subjected
guidelines. Continuous support was given winter of 2016. several promising selections were given
to cold storage trials at single and double
to the second economy projects in the Crop special attention regarding their horticultural
temperature regimes at the Post-Harvest and
Development Division. Postscript traits. One fruit exhibition was held at ARC
Wine Technology Division. Representative fruit
This report is in honour Mr Jannie de Klerk who Infruitec-Nietvoorbij and was attended by
samples were also collected to evaluate their
Conclusion / Discussion passed away on 15th February 2016. Jannie approximately 61 people from the fruit
external and internal traits and the data was
Post-harvest and horticultural evaluations as was an integral part of the phase 2 stone fruit industry. Several meetings were held with
captured on the MS Access data base.
well as the fruit exhibitions will continue in Evaluation projects for almost ten years, as Culdevco and its clients with regard to new
2016/17. New selections will be planted at well as project leader of the Plum Pollination apricot varieties and planting guidelines.
Key Results
the Bien Donn and Robertson evaluation sites. project, 000206-Y5 he will be missed by all. Continuous support was given to the second
Four red skin and no yellow skin selections
Selections that did not perform well after three May you rest in peace. economy projects in the Cultivar Development
scored 80% (cut-off point) in either the single
years of evaluation will be removed from the Division.
or double temperature regimes or both in
evaluation blocks at Bien Donn and Robertson
the cold storage evaluation. Two new plum
Research Farms. Approximately 377 peach Conclusion / Discussion
and nectarine selections have been identified
selections were planted at Bien Donn and
P HASE 2 EVALU ATIONS OF Post-harvest and horticultural evaluations as
Robertson Research Farms. At the request
for removal during the winter of 2016.
of Culdevco, several promising selections
AP RICOT CULT IVA RS IN TH E well as the fruit exhibitions will continue in

were given special attention regarding their WINTE R RAIN FA LL REGION 2016/17. If available, new selections will
be planted at only two evaluation sites at BD
horticultural traits. Three fruit exhibitions
and RB. Selections not performing well after
were held at ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij and
C Smith three years of evaluation will be removed
were attended by a total of approximately
from the evaluation blocks at Bien Donn and
96 people from the fruit industry. Several
Objectives & Rationale Robertson Research Farms. The evaluation site
meetings were held with Culdevco and its
The project evaluates ARC bred apricot selections at Uitkomst in Ceres will be evaluated for the
clients with regard to new plum varieties and
adapted to South African growing conditions for last time in 2016/17.
planting guidelines. Support was given to
the export, canning and drying industries.

19 | HORTGRO Science
transfer was provided in terms of presentations Methods
to students at the Potchefstroom College of Accessions are maintained in field genebanks
EVAL UATI ON OF S TO N E - Agriculture on the 9th of April, Tshwane at Bien Donn, Drostersnes and Elgin Research
FR UI T I N THE SUMME R University of Technology on the 8th of May and Farms, typically two or three trees per MOLECU LA R MA RKERS
R A INFAL L AREA Unisa on the 26th of August 2015. A talk on accession. TO TH E POME-FRU IT
promising stone fruit selections for the summer A ND STONE-FRU IT
rainfall region was broadcast via radio bulletin Key Results
I Meintjies
over RSG Elsenburg forum on Saturday 19 The plantings were maintained and three
September 2015. new additions to the pear genebank, were ESPECIA LLY, TO V ERIFY A ND
Objectives & Rationale
The project aims to evaluate and release new
planted, i.e. Celina, an early blush cultivar CH A RA CTERISE GERMPLA SM
Conclusion / Discussion bred in Sweden, Kent (VK-RF) reported to
peach, nectarine, plum and apricot selections
The Phase 2 and Phase 3 evaluations and fruit have dull red fruit and red leaves, and P.
in the summer rainfall regions, which are better K Tobutt
exhibitions on the co-evaluator sites should regelii a species new to South Africa. Several
adapted to the various microclimates than the
continue. Final decisions in cooperation apple crosses made to raise progenies for
existing range of commercial cultivars, and to Objectives & Rationale
with Culdevco need to be taken on the 19 novel genetic studies were repeated in spring
fill gaps in the harvesting season. The aim of this project was to use molecular
promising selections in order to create a short 2015 and include those made for combining
markers for verifying and characterising the
list for possible cultivar releases to the summer different ACS and ACO allelotypes for future
Methods ARC tree-fruit germplasm collections. This
rainfall producers. Special attention should marker-assisted selection. The accessions in
Fruit samples were harvested weekly from will greatly enhance the efficiency of these
be given to the selections already planted in the pome and stone fruit genebanks are being
October to January at the three trial sites programmes and their likelihood of delivering
phase 3 semi commercial blocks at the co- fingerprinted.
in Mookghopong (Limpopo), Bufland Farm, improved new cultivars that are easy to
evaluator sites.
and Pro-Plum Farm, and Groblersdal, grow and easy to sell and it will aid the
Conclusion / Discussion
(Mpumalanga), Collette Farm, and subjected integration of molecular tools into the breeding
The fingerprinting of the stone fruit genebanks
to horticultural evaluation, whereafter the data programmes. The work was formulated as
is nearing completion, and the data generated
were captured on a MS Access database.
PLANTING AND should yield valuable information to the
three projects to be undertaken by research
students, registered at Stellenbosch University,
Key Results MAINTE NANCE OF E XISTING breeders when planning crosses for genetic
who were trained in the application of
studies and cultivar development. Interesting,
Observations were conducted on 532 Phase AN D NEW GE RMP L ASM OF molecular markers to the genetic improvement
new additions were made to the pear
2 selections at the three evaluation sites at PO M E F RUIT AND STONE genebank with a view to future research and
of tree-fruit.
Groblersdal Collette Farm, at Mookghopong
F R U IT genetic studies; the novel traits of P. regelii
Bufland Farm and at Mookghopong, Pro-Plum Methods
should be further explored for possible
Farm and 117 peach and 103 nectarine DNA was extracted from young leaves of
introgression into the existing pear germplasm.
harvested and evaluated. Currently there W Pieterse accessions in the apple, pear, apricot, plum,
are 19 promising selections (11 peach, 8 peach and almond collections. Samples
nectarine) which will be re-evaluated in the Objectives & Rationale were amplified with about 10 microsatellite
2016 season. Possible promotion to Phase The main objective is to maintain a clonal primer pairs per crop to generate fingerprints
3 will be discussed in collaboration with genebank of existing and newly imported which were used to check for trueness to
Culdevco. A further seven newly identified cultivars, selections and species of pome type. Primers for the ACS1 locus in apple,
selections (six peach and one nectarine) and stone fruits, important to South African involved in ripening, the S incompatibility
from the ARC breeding programme were horticulture or research and especially as locus in apricot and plum, and the endoPG
planted in the Phase 2 evaluation trial blocks a source of breeding material for the ARC locus in peach, determining flesh texture and
at Modimole, Ginger Gypsy Farm, and at programmes to develop improved deciduous stem adhesion, were re-designed and used to
Mookghopong, Bufland Farm. Technology fruit cultivars. establish the genotypes at these loci.

Annual Report | 20
Key Results to the post of apricot and plum breeder. 30 (Flavour Star) could not be determined
Some 500 apples, 200 pears, 120 apricots, Thembeka Nyawo and Lawrence Kwalimba conclusively. Methods
70 plums, 210 peaches and 30 almonds in are about to submit their dissertations on In May 2015, cuttings from 10 ARC-bred
the ARC collections were fingerprinted. In stone-fruit. So ARC, in collaboration with Conclusion / Discussion hybrids and 3 commercial rootstock cultivars
addition, the apples were genotyped for the Stellenbosch University, has helped train the It is recommended that the cross-pollination were assessed for rooting ability under
ACS1 gene, the apricots and plums for the S next generation of geneticists. Very sadly trial with the selection PR06-30 should be standard nursery conditions at Bien Donn
gene and the peaches for the endoPG gene. Fetsang Moima passed away in May 2013. repeated with the cultivar Songold as Research Farm. A third harvest from a field
The data are being incorporated into the pollinator or/and with other cultivars known trial planted at Bien Donn Research Farm
breeding programmes. The fingerprinting methodology and some of to be compatible by molecular techniques that in 2011 was evaluated for its production
the reference data have already been used to bloom at the same time. potential in late 2015.
Conclusion / Discussion check the identity of various rootstocks for the
The fingerprinting of the ARC tree-fruit industry. It also recommended that due to personnel Key Results
collections allows the false accessions to change, all further research as from Seven out of the 10 ARC-bred rootstock
be grubbed and costly mistakes in the 2017/2018 be performed under Project selections had more than 70% rooting ability
use of incorrect material to be avoided in 000197 Breeding of Japanese plums. after two rooting tests. For three harvest
future. Knowledge of triploids in the case D E TE RMINATION OF CROSS seasons, Pioneer plum trees on two of the
of pome-fruit, which rarely set viable seed, PO LL INATORS F OR P L UM Postscript ARC-bred rootstock selections (peach x almond
will allow the breeders to avoid unproductive
VARIE TIES This report is in honour Mr Jannie de Klerk who hybrids) showed good production potential but
crosses. The genotyping with respect to the passed away on 15th February 2016. Jannie were not significatly better than the standard
agronomic genes will help the breeders design was an integral part of the phase 2 stone fruit commercial plum rootstock Marianna.
appropriate crosses for the industry sponsored J de Klerk Evaluation projects for almost ten years, as
breeding programmes and, along with the well as project leader of the Plum Pollination Conclusion / Discussion
primers, pave the way for marker-assisted Objectives & Rationale project, 000206-Y5 he will be missed by all. Two peach x almond hybrid rootstock
selection which is increasingly being adopted The goal of this project is to test the pollination May you rest in peace. selections performed very well with the
by breeding programmes overseas. All in all requirements (cross- and/or self-pollination) of Pioneer plum scion variety and may be
this project has helped bring the ARC tree-fruit promising ARC bred Japanese plum selections expected to do well with peach and nectarine
breeding programmes into the marker-assisted in Phase 3, as well as newly released cultivars in scion varieties also. Additionally, ARC-bred
age enhancing the quality of the germplasm order to update the existing plum cross-pollination EVAL UATION OF NEW LY rootstock selections that were promoted from
collections and developing markers that will be chart with the new information obtained. B RED STONE FRU IT the Phase I breeding programme to Phase II for
useful for screening progenies.
ROOTSTOCK H YBRIDS having multiple resistances and good rooting
ability are available for trialling with plum and
However, it should be noted that the The commercial cultivar Songold was tested F OR F IRST AND SECOND peach scion varieties under field conditions
fingerprinting and molecular characterisation as a possible cross pollinator for the selection ECONOMY to evaluate their production potential in
of the tree-fruit gene-banks is not a one off. PR06-30 (PBR and VL application cv Flavour comparison with commercial rootstocks
New accessions are added from time to time, Star), by placing bouquets in adjacent trees.
S Booi
the collections are re-propagated periodically The circumference of both trees was measured
and primers for new traits become available. before the trial started.
Objectives & Rationale
The objective of the project is to access ARC-
Khethani Mhelembe completed his MSc on the Key Results
bred rootstock selections for rooting ability
fingerprinting and characterizing of the pome- Visible fruit set was observed, but due to
under nursery conditions and to evaluate
fruit genebanks and has now commenced a unanticipated events accurate data were
rootstock selections planted under field
PhD on mapping a novel trait in apple. Carl not captured and the suitability of Songold
conditions at Bien Donn Research Farm.
Horstmann transferred from his PhD studentship as compatible cross pollinator for PR06-

21 | HORTGRO Science
experienced in the Western Cape. Key Results Differences in the ABC 2 gene region of the
Apple scab samples were collected from fungus could be associated with variation in
Conclusion / Discussion the Koue Bokkeveld, Elgin, and Lower and virulence.
CHARAC TERI S TIC S O F N E W Storage data and recommendations on the Upper Langkloof regions during the 2014/15
CU LTI VARS AND S E LE C TIO N S cold storage ability of 223 samples were and 2015/16 growing seasons for race
made to the relevant researchers of the identification. Ten differential cultivars were
Crop Development division of ARC Infruitec- inoculated with mixed inoculum and it was
E Lotz
Nietvoorbij. found that the Rvi1 and Rvi12 resistance
genes are overcome by the South African
Objectives & Rationale
isolates. The Rvi10 gene was overcome by
Good cold storage ability is a pre-requisite for all
the 2015/16 Koue Bokkeveld isolates. Apple
South African export fruit cultivars. New selections
D E TE RMINATION OF AP P L E scab isolates were genotyped in 2012/13 and
from the ARC Breeding programme are evaluated
for cold storage ability during the evaluation S C A B RACE S OCCURRING 2013/14 with six and seven SSR markers.

phase of these new selections. IN SOUTH AF RICAN AP P L E Genotyping results were the same for both
growing seasons and indicated that minor
G R OWING REGIONS TO population differences exist between the Ceres
UN DERP IN B RE EDING F OR and Langkloof populations and moderate
Each sample is stored according to a fruit kind
specific cold storage protocol, designed in R E SISTANCE differences between the Elgin and other
populations. Thus the Ceres and the Langkloof
consultation with stakeholders. Appropriate
populations are more closely related to each
maturity and quality evaluations are performed T Koopman other. Migration of apple scab isolates occurs
according to protocol. Data (for example
between regions. Four different haplotypes
harvesting maturity, maturity after storage, Objectives & Rationale
were found in the fungal isolates for the
quality defects and general comments, etc.) We sought to determine which races of apple
barcoding sequence ITS and six for the ABC2
are stored in MS Excel. Data is also integrated scab (Venturia inaequalis) occur in the different
virulence factor.
into the database of the Cultivar Development apple growing regions of South Africa and also
programme together with production data of investigate the population genetic structure and the
Conclusion / Discussion
new selections. Photographs of fruit at final pathogenicity and virulence of the pathogen on
Inoculation of differential apple cultivars with
evaluation are also recorded. different apple cultivars.
apple scab isolates from the four growing
regions showed that the Rvi1 and Rvi12
Key Results Methods
resistant genes are ineffective in all four
Fruit were received from 27 October 2015 Apple differential cultivars with different
regions and the Rvi10 in the Koue Bokkeveld.
to 15 March 2016. A total number of resistance genes against apple scab have been
Single spore isolates also showed differences
223 fruit samples were received for cold imported. Apple scab samples were collected
in virulence and could only infect certain
storage during the 2015/16 season. Data from four different apple growing regions.
cultivars, consistent with research work
and recommendations were compiled in MS Single spored cultures were established and
reported in Europe. Collection of the apple
Excel datasheets and shared with Cultivar the differential cultivars were inoculated
scab samples from the four apple growing
Development researchers. Feedback aimed with mixed inoculum to determine the races.
regions enabled a population genetic study
at improving production practices (decay, Fingerprinting of apple scab isolates was
which indicated differences in the apple scab
insect damage and harvesting maturity) were undertaken with seven SSR markers to
fungal populations between the different
also shared. The incidence of decay was determine differences between isolates from the
climatic regions and also indicated that the
lower than the previous few seasons. This can different apple growing regions.
fungus adapted to the regions over time.
be attributed to lower than normal rainfall

Annual Report | 22
Research within the Crop P roduction prog ramme
addresses cur rent problems experienced by fruit
g rowers, but is also future-directed research
has a long lead time and it is important to build
capacity and conduct research for solutions that
we will need in the future. In this sense, the
Crop P roduction research strateg y is directed
and aligned with the requirements and key risks
to the Orchard of the Future. Hence, farming
eff iciency (of which rootstocks, plant quality and
orchard eff iciency are key components) as well
as water- and climate-related research are the
strategic priorities of this prog ramme.

23 | HORTGRO Science
P rof Wiehann Steyn

The Crop Production research programme induced disorders while the second project will occur prior to bud break in spring and again
Wiehann is the Crop is structured into seven themes namely; assess the effect of the lack of winter chill on after harvest in autumn. Four years ago,
P roduction P rog ramme Dormancy, Farming efficiency, Irrigation fruit maturity and quality. We are also funding Tulbagh growers during a HORTGRO Science
Manager at HORTGRO and Nutrition, Rootstocks and Nursery tree three new pear rootstock evaluation plantings visit to the area, lamented the absence of a
Science and holds an ex- quality, Soil Health, Summer Climate, and as well as co-funding two stone fruit rootstock chemical thinning agent for stone fruit. Prof
traordinar y appointment
Yield. Research strategy for each theme is plantings that are aimed at commercial Karen Therons results indicate that ACC is a
within the Department of
Horticultural Science at determined by a workgroup (a workgroup per evaluation of ARC-bred, potentially nematode very effective thinning agent for plums and also
Stellenbosch University. theme) consisting out of fruit growers, technical tolerant rootstocks. We foresee that nursery for some peach cultivars. Based on Karens
advisors and researchers. When considering tree quality as a key determinant of the success research, Philagro is currently registering
research strategy, the workgroups always keep of the Orchard of the Future will receive ACC for use in chemical thinning in South
in mind the changes we need to make to our much more attention in future. Screening of Africa. Laura Allderman studied the dormancy
orchards to remain internationally competitive rootstocks will be stepped up. A set of key progression patterns of commercial stone
as well as profitable. They also consider rootstock parameters were determined and the fruit rootstocks and have found considerable
the major future risks, as identified within new cost effective and much more focussed differences in when the rootstocks become
the overarching research strategy that may rootstock evaluation strategy that was drafted dormant, how much chilling they may require
jeopardise our profitability. in 2015/16 will now be implemented. and also when they exit dormancy. This has
Irrigation and climate-related research will considerable implication for choice of scion
What does the future hold for research within remain a focus. and rootstock combinations in different areas
7 Themes the Crop Production programme in 2016/17? in terms of synchronicity between scion and
In line with our Orchard of the Future priorities, In terms of completed research, the most rootstock growth activity.
Orchard of the Future HORTGRO Science, with input from the interesting finding was the peak in white root
Crop Production TAC, has identified two new growth that Dr Elmi Ltze observed in mature
Rootstock evaluation
projects. The effects (benefits and negatives) apple orchards in both Elgin, Grabouw,
of nets on plums will be assessed with the aim Vyeboom, and Villiersdorp (EGVV) and Ceres.
Completed research
to increase fruit quality and decrease heat- Convention had it that root flushes in apple

Annual Report | 24
Received in 2016 Due 2017 XOLANI SIBOZA - Rest breaking programmes
CROP for warm winter regions
WILLIE KOTZE - Establish the effect of CARLO COSTA - Screening of apple rootstocks APPLE
rest breaking agents on vegetative and
for resistance to Woolly Apple Aphid ESM LOUW/ LAURA ALLDERMAN -
reproductive development of apples in the
P roject List
Koue Bokkeveld/ Witzenberg valley. Investigating the effects of different autumn
temperatures on endodormancy progression.
PLUM, PEACH, APRICOT WIEHANN STEYN - Heat stress in plums.
LAURA ALLDERMAN - Determining the chill APPLE
requirement of important stone fruit rootstocks APPLE, PEAR
available to the South African fruit industry.
sunburn in pome fruit. Determining the dormancy progression
APPLE, PEAR of commercial apple cultivars and clones
KAREN THERON - Mechanical thinning of PEACH, NECTARINE available to the South African industry.
pome fruit. NICKY TAYLOR - Stone fruit phenology and
physiology in the Northern Province as related APPLE
APPLE to orchard practices and productivity. SEBINAZI DZIKITI - Quantifying water use of
ELMI LTZE - Apple root dynamics.
high performing commercial apple orchards in
PLUM, PEACH, NECTARINE, APRICOT the winter rainfall area of South Africa.
XOLANI SIBOZA - NAA and Ethephon to
PIET STASSEN - Tolerance and susceptibility
of commercial stone fruit rootstocks for plant increase return bloom in apples and pears.
parasitic nematodes. STEPHANIE MIDGLEY - Establishing quantitative
XOLANI SIBOZA - Chemical thinning of apples. relationships between water relations, growth,
MARIANA JOOSTE - The effect of climate on yield and quality of high performing apple
split pit in plums. PEAR orchards
XOLANI SIBOZA - Chemical thinning of pears.
stone fruit.
of irrigation on the performance of young
apple trees in newly established orchards
* Note that Soil health projects have been moved
to the Crop Protection Programme
THERESA VOLSCHENK - Evaporation of high
APPLE performance apple tree orchards.
ESM LOUW - Using the shoot assay to screen
combinations and sequential application of
XOLANI SIBOZA - Apple rootstock evaluation
existing and possible new rest breaking agents
at Paardekloof, Witzenberg Valley.
in apples.

XOLANI SIBOZA - Apple rootstock evaluation
ESM LOUW - Physiological dynamics of
at Helderwater, Langkloof.
dormancy in apple buds grown in areas with
insufficient cold.
25 | HORTGRO Science
XOLANI SIBOZA - Apple rootstock evaluation
Approved for 2017
at Oak Valley Estate, Grabouw.
APPLE E LOUW - Quantifying the impact of
XOLANI SIBOZA - Apple rootstock evaluation insufficient winter chill on apple dormancy and
at Brevlei, Grabouw. production.

PIET STASSEN - Evaluation of plum rootstocks XOLANI SIBOZA - Pear rootstock evaluation in
Wolseley: Cheeky at La Plaisante.
PIET STASSEN - Evaluation of peach rootstocks.
XOLANI SIBOZA - Pear rootstock evaluation in
Wolseley: Forelle at La Plaisante.
PIET STASSEN - Evaluation of apricot
rootstocks. XOLANI SIBOZA - Pear rootstock evaluation in
Vyeboom: Packhams Triumph.
PETRUS VERMEULEN - Apple replant rootstock PLUM
trials for determining a screening technique IWAN LABUSCHAGNE - Evaluation of plum
rootstocks for the South African fruit industry in
APPLE association with IP owners at Simondium.
JOHAN FOURIE - *Effect of different cover
crop management practices on the soil and PEACH, NECTARINE
IWAN LABUSCHAGNE - Evaluation of peach
performance of apple trees.
and nectarine rootstocks for the South African
fruit industry in association with IP owners at
SHEILA STOREY - *Nematode community
structure and function as a bio-indicator of the PLUM
effects of soil amendments on soil health. KAREN THERON - Effect of nets on growth,
yield and fruit quality as well economic
feasibility in plums.
ANDR MEYER - *Validation of an enzyme-
based soil alteration index for testing soil
health in local apple orchard soils.

STEPHANIE MIDGLEY - Acclimation of apple
peel to light and temperature and the effect
thereof on red colour development and
tolerance to sunburn.

Annual Report | 26
data could unfortunately not be assessed. all rest breaking agents where equally effective from the DA were then clustered using Wards
0.5% Dormex plus 4% oil was effective in Agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC).
ESTABL I S HI NG THE E FF E C T 2012: Lift at 4% seemed to increase and 2011 and 2013 while 4% Lift was effective Univariate clustering was also performed on
O F RES T BREAKIN G condense vegetative bud break in Cripps in 2012 and 2013. The cumulative effect the means of the individual variables (criteria)
A GE NTS ON VEG E TATIV E Pink, while 3% and 6% oil were able to of treatments over the three years started for each rootstock. The 2 locations were
A ND REPRODUCTIV E condense flowering. Production was not having a positive effect on yield in 2013/14, analysed separately.
affected by treatments. No treatment effects possibly by increasing bearing positions.
D EV EL OPMENT O F APPLE S IN were observed on Golden Delicious. Based on these results, we recommend that Key Results
T H E K OUE BOK K E V E LD AN D Koue Bokkeveld growers seriously consider the Dormancy progressions varied tremendously
W ITZENBERG VALLE Y 2013: 4% Lift advanced the onset, condensed application of rest breaking agents. between rootstocks. Rootstocks entered and
and increased vegetative bud break. 0.5% exited dormancy over an extended period of
Dormex + 4% Oil and 6% oil also increased time and the depth of dormancy varied from
W Kotze
final vegetative bud break compared to the 26 to 112 days to bud break. Three distinct

Objectives & Rationale

control. 0.5% Dormex + 4% oil seemed to DE TERMINING TH E dormancy patterns were identified viz. rapid

The objectives of this project were to establish

advance the onset of flowering compared to
CHIL L REQUIREMENT OF entrance/slow exit, slow entrance/rapid exit
3% oil and 4% Lift. 6% oil increased yield and and equal entrance and exit. The different
the effect of rest breaking agents on the duration
yield efficiency compared to 4% Lift and the
IMP ORTANT STONE FRU IT dormancy patterns were used to distinguish
of bud break and flowering, effectiveness of
control. 3% oil also increased yield efficiency ROOTSTOCKS AVA ILA BLE TO between high and low chill rootstocks. High
chemical thinning, variance in fruit harvest
maturity and long term yield of Golden Delicious
compared to the control. Treatments did not THE SOUTH AFRICA N FRU IT chill rootstocks enter dormancy early, go into

and Cripps Pink apples in the Koue Bokkeveld

significantly affect cumulative yield over the
INDUSTRY deep dormancy and exit dormancy late. The
2013 and 2014 harvests. Fruit size was not opposite is true of low chill rootstocks. The
and Witzenberg Valley.
affected while effects on maturity were slight. DA, AHC and Univariate clustering were also
Treatments did not affect the flower cluster L Allderman used to cluster rootstocks into high and low
density in 2014. chill. Where rootstocks were present at both
The following rest breaking treatments were Objectives & Rationale locations, they always fell into the same cluster
applied to the same Cripps Pink and Golden The dormancy progression and chill requirements
4% Lift and 0.5% Dormex + 4% oil advanced pattern. Maridon, SAPO778, Viking, GF677,
Delicious apple trees from winter 2011 of stone fruit rootstocks were assessed to better
the onset of vegetative bud break in Golden Atlas, Tetra, Garnem, Cadaman, Kuban86,
through to winter 2013: 3% oil, 6% oil, 4% Lift understand their depth and patterns of dormancy.
Delicious. Lift also increased bud break and Krymsk6, Krymsk7 and Tsukuba clustered
and, 0.5% Dormex + 4% oil. Rest breaking This information is vital when choosing rootstock
decreased the percentage latent buds. 3% oil into the higher chill group while Kakamas,
treatments were compared to an untreated /scion combinations best suited to the low chill
increased yield and yield efficiency compared Marianna, Flordaguard, Felinem, Monegro,
control in terms of vegetative and reproductive and varied growing conditions prevalent in South
to the control. Treatments did not significantly Chuche Picudo, Guardian and Penta clustered
bud break, bloom duration, yield, fruit maturity Africa.
affect cumulative yield over the 2013 and into the lower group. Many of the rootstocks
and fruit quality.
2014 harvests. Trees that received 4% Lift that showed early exit from dormancy did not
as well as 0.5% Dormex and 4% oil over the Methods cluster into the lowest maximum dormancy
Key Results Fifty nine dormancy progressions and 15 chill
preceding three years showed increased flower cluster. Caution must therefore be observed
Richardson chill units (May-Aug) exceeded requirement (CR) calculations were generated
cluster density in 2014 compared to other when categorising a variety as high or low
1600 in all three years and would therefore be over 2 years from 2 different locations using
treatments. chill solely on blossom or bud break date.
considered to be sufficient for apple production standard forcing laboratory procedures. High chill rootstocks increased the chill
without the need for rest breaking application A 2-line model was fitted to each of the
Conclusion / Discussion requirement of low chill scions. Suckering or
Despite accumulation of >1,600 Richardson dormancy progressions and nine variables, poor growth and chlorosis occurs when exit
2011: 0.5% Dormex in combination with identified from the estimated regression
chill units, rest breaking treatment improved from dormancy of the rootstock and scion are
4% oil condensed both vegetative and parameters, were used in a discriminant
bud break in all three years in Cripps Pink not synchronised.
reproductive bud break in both cultivars. Yield analysis (DA). The discriminant plot factors
and in two years in Golden Delicious. Not
27 | HORTGRO Science
The majority of calculated CRs seemed rather Methods was reduced to acceptable levels, while fruit Gala orchards were on lighter, sandy soils and
irrational. Under South African climatic From 2013 until 2015 the mechanical string size was improved in Forelle but not Cripps the other orchards on heavier, clayey soils. The
conditions, determination of maximum thinners, viz. Darwin 300, BAUM, and Red. Results showed that when thinning second objective was to determine the effect of
dormancy for shoot collection proved difficult. Bloom Bandit, were evaluated. These mechanically, the aim should be to remove cover crops on white root growth in the young,
Furthermore, the variability of maximum machines are used to thin trees during full between 25% and 50% of flowers clusters in non-bearing Corder Gala orchard. The third
dormancy between locations and seasons bloom and reduce the number of flowers Forelle and 50% of flowers clusters in Cripps objective comprised quantifying root growth of a
as well as certain methodology constraints before fruit set. The aim of the trials was to Red. These levels of thinning gave the best young, non-bearing and mature, bearing orchard
prevented accurate CR calculation. reduce fruit set and therefore hand thinning results in terms of the remaining hand thinning (both Golden Delicious) in the Koue Bokkeveld
requirement, while increasing fruit size and requirements and improved return bloom in with special attention to the 2015/16 winter flush.
Conclusion / Discussion quality, maintaining yield and return bloom. Forelle. We, however, only evaluated full
Under conditions of inadequate chill, the A range of tractor speeds and rotational rates cluster thinning and not within cluster thinning, Methods
method widely used to determine CR as an were evaluated with the Darwin 300 on which might also occur during mechanical Root growth dynamics were quantified using
absolute value is neither accurate nor reliable. Forelle pears and Cripps Pink apples, while thinning. a mini-rhizotron approach. Acrylic butyrate
The dormancy of rootstocks must rather be the BAUM was evaluated only on Cripps Pink tubes (1.05 m) were installed parallel to the
assessed generally using both Dormancy apples. The hand-held Bloom Bandit was Conclusion / Discussion tree row, 40 cm from the base of individual
Progression and CR data over numerous evaluated on Forelle, Cripps Pink, Fuji and Variable results were obtained with tractor trees at an angle of approximately 45. A
locations and seasons before rootstocks are Cripps Red. Thinning intensities of 25%, 50% driven thinning machines due to orchards not root scanner (CI-600, CID Bioscience, Inc,
categorised as low or high chill. and 75% of clusters or flowers was applied to well adapted to mechanisation. The Bloom WA USA) was used to obtain images of root
mature Forelle and Cripps Red trees during Bandit gave promising results and can be an growth in four segments/windows per tube.
full bloom. alternative to chemical thinning. In the EGVV area, the phenological phases
were also recorded. Yield (two seasons) and
MEC HANI C AL T HIN N IN G O F Key Results photosynthesis (one season) was recorded for

PO ME FRUI T The tractor-driven mechanical thinning devices Golden Delicious, and photosynthesis for one
gave erratic results. The most consistent AP P L E ROOT DYNA MICS season for Corder Gala orchards and related
results on Forelle were obtained using the to white root peaks. Continuous logging
K Theron Darwin 300 at 5.2 kmh-1 and 300 rpm, capacitance probes were installed in these
while the BAUM gave no consistent results.
E Ltze sites to quantify soil temperatures and moisture.
Objectives & Rationale The unreliability of results were due to South
Thinning is an important practice in pome fruit Objectives & Rationale
African pome fruit orchards currently being Key Results
production which aims to ensure an optimal yield Root growth of deciduous fruit trees occurs in
unsuitable for tractor-driven mechanical The timing of root growth flushes was distinctly
of high quality, large sized fruit as well as an two main growth flushes per season according
thinning machines. The Forelle orchard periodic and similar for the bearing orchards,
adequate return bloom. In South Africa, pome to literature typically during spring and
trained to a Palmette system was the most irrespective of the different scions and soil
fruit thinning is generally done by means of autumn. The timing and duration of these flushes
suited for thinning, which is reflected in the types, but the duration and magnitude of the
chemicals, with follow-up hand thinning. When can be influenced by various factors, e.g. soil
more positive results obtained, but further flushes differed. The main peak of white roots
thinning is effective, set and thus the hand thinning environment, irrigation, rootstock, tree age and
improvements are possible. The Bloom Bandit occurred in winter, with a smaller peak early
requirement should be reduced. This is important climate. No root studies to quantify the timing and
effectively thinned pear and apple trees and summer. The white root growth pattern of the
as labour cost associated with hand thinning is duration of root flushes of apple trees under local,
increased fruit size without a decrease in yield young, non-bearing orchard clearly differed
high and continually rising. Chemical thinning is commercial conditions are available. In this study
or return bloom. More time is spent on thinning from the mature orchards in that roots were
weather dependent and can be environmentally we quantified white root dynamics for mature,
with the device compared to tractor-driven produced in various quantities throughout the
harmful, which has led to a shift towards bearing trees (Golden Delicious, Cripps Pink),
machines and this should be taken into account growing season with no consistent white root
environmentally acceptable methods of thinning young, bearing trees (Fuji on M793), and a
when considering using the Bloom Bandit. growth during winter. Minimum winter soil
such as mechanical thinning. young, non-bearing Corder Gala orchard on M7
Variable effects were seen on fruit set, yield temperatures, especially at 60 cm soil depth
in the EGVV area. The Cripps Pink and Corder
(5 - 12C), are conducive to root growth and
Annual Report | 28
is reflected in a peak growth period from We have also compared the results in pots to Conclusion / Discussion Methods
May to August in the bearing trees. As the results in a commercial orchard situation where It is clear that there is no commercial rootstock Best subset regressions were performed to
establishment of the cover crops only occurred ring nematodes occur. that can be described as resistant to ring determine if the incidence of broken stones
late during 2015, the effect of cover crops on nematodes. All results agree that the rootstock at harvest could be predicted in Laetitia.
white root development was never observed. Key Results Marianna is a good host to ring nematodes CT scans were performed on Laetitia and
Ceres data confirmed white root growth during From the results it is clear that all rootstocks and others like Maridon, Flordaguard, Songold fruit from 21 days after full bloom
winter for both young and bearing trees. used sustain high numbers of ring nematodes. Cadaman, Atlas and Garnem must also be (dafb) until stone hardening was completed. A
The rootstocks Marianna, Flordaguard, Atlas suspected to fall in the higher host status randomised complete block design with eight
Conclusion / Discussion and Garnem have statistically significant group. The rootstocks Kakamas seedling blocks per treatment were used to determine
The winter white root growth peak in EGVV higher numbers of ring nematodes than the and GF 677 are good hosts to root-knot the effect of Ca(NO3)2 and K2O3Si on broken
and Ceres is unique and differs from literature. other rootstocks used, except Guardian. nematodes, Guardian and Atlas are resistant stones compared to a control.
Soil temperatures at these sites were conducive The rootstocks GF 677, Maridon, 5A-5- with Marianna, Maridon, Flordaguard,
to continuous white root growth during May 34, 7B-25-21 and Viking are in the 50% Garnem and Viking resistant/immune to Key Results
to August. The effect of this energy requiring range when Marianna is defined as 100%. root-knot nematodes. Correctly performed Growing area did not affect broken
activity should be investigated further with The rootstock GF 677 is significantly more pot experiments can provide valuable results stones, but seasonal climatic factors had
reference to possible impact on dormancy sensitive than Kakamas seedling to root-knot about the host status of stone fruit rootstocks an important influence on broken stone
release and nutrient application. nematodes. Both GF 677 and Kakamas to ring and root-knot nematodes. To evaluate incidence. Generally lower temperatures
seedling rootstocks are more sensitive for the influence of rootstocks on the performance during early spring cause less competition
root-knot nematodes than Marianna, Maridon, of the scion (yield, fruit weight), long term between the growing plant organs and aid
Flordaguard, 5A-5-34, 7B-25-21, Garnem field experiments are necessary. Such results in the development of larger fruit, which are
T O LERANC E AN D and Viking. To correlate these results with from field trials (not shown here) indicate that more vulnerable to stone breakage. Rapid
field data, soil samples were taken in a plum Marianna, Maridon, GF 677 and Flordaguard lengthwise fruit growth during the early parts
SUS C EP TI BI L I TY O F orchard with several rootstocks, during 2008 are negatively affected if ring nematode of the stone hardening period pulls the stone
CO MMERC I AL STO N E F R UIT (after plant), 2012 and 2014. During 2014 numbers are higher than 500/300 cm. apart at the interface between the parts of the
R O OTS TOC KS F O R PLAN T- the ring nematode numbers in the root zone Performances of trees on Atlas, Garnem and stone that have started to lignify and the parts
PA RAS I TI C NEM ATO D E S of Marianna was significantly higher than Cadaman are less affected. that are still soft. Also, stones with higher
those in the root zone of other rootstocks. moisture content (due to wet conditions early
There was a high increasing tendency in in the season) tend to be more susceptible
P Stassen ring numbers from 2012 to 2014 in the root to breaks, especially if this is coupled with
zones of Marianna, Maridon, Tsukuba 5 as A STUDY OF BROKEN increased growth of the mesocarp, which was
Objectives & Rationale
We evaluated high potential stone fruit rootstocks
well as GF 677 whilst the rootstocks Chuche-
STONES IN J A PA NESE PLU MS observed in terms of lengthwise fruit growth.
Picudo, Atlas and Flordaguard showed a However, data from more seasons are needed
for their host status to ring (Criconemoides decrease. Ring nematode numbers in the to accurately predict the incidence of broken
xenoplax) and root-knot (Meloidogne spp.) root zone of Viking, SAPO 778 clonal and M Jooste stones at harvest.
nematodes. seedling never increased above the 500 ring
nematodes/300cm described as damaging. Objectives & Rationale CT scans indicated that the tip of the stone
Methods Results from California indicate that the The effect of growing area and season on the at the stylar end started to lignify first for all
We evaluated different pot sizes, inoculation rootstocks Flordaguard, Cadaman and Atlas incidence of broken stones, why cultivars differ in the tested cultivars. It seems that Laetitia and
periods as well as different potting mediums. have a higher than 100% (Nemaguard defined their susceptibility to broken stones, and if calcium Sapphire (susceptible to stone breakage)
The best results were achieved using 2400 ml as 100%) rating with Garnem also showing a and silicate treatments can reduce stone breakage form more endocarp cells in warmer springs
pots, steam sterilised 2:1 fine bark to medium tendency to be high. in Japanese plums were studied. which causes the stones to be more rigid
textured sand. Inoculated trees must stay in and more susceptible to stone breakage
a glass house at 25C for at least 6 months.

29 | HORTGRO Science
if coupled with rapid radial fruit growth at this stage, thus further trials should be Keisie peach but would not currently be
before the stone has hardened completely. conducted. The Darwin 300 reduced hand recommended for Sandvliet or on nectarines.
Songold (less susceptible to broken stones)
C HE MICAL THINNING OF thinning significantly without reducing the yield The reason for the differences observed in
forms a complete endocarp irrespective of S TONE F RUIT significantly. Combining the Darwin 300 response to ACC between cling peaches and
spring temperatures. However, the enzymes with ACC 600 l.L-1 in African Rose gave plums on the one hand, and nectarines on the
responsible for lignification are influenced by K Theron promising results with regard to hand thinning other, cannot currently be explained.
spring temperatures. Hence, the cultivar has requirement and fruit size, without reducing
a more flexible stone, resisting stone breakage Objectives & Rationale yield efficiency significantly. No leaf drop
in a warmer spring when lignification is less Thinning of stone fruit, just as in any other was observed on Japanese plums, except in
pronounced and forms a much more rigid deciduous fruit crop, plays an important role the pilot trial when applications were made at SCREENING OF A PPLE
stone in a cooler spring when lignification is high temperatures, which should therefore be
upregulated. Hence, susceptible cultivars will
in producing fruit of the right size and quality.
Hand thinning is highly labour intensive and
have more broken stones after warm springs, time consuming, thus an alternative method of
but less after cool springs while non-susceptible thinning is important to the industry. Chemical ACC was effective as thinning agent in cling A PPLE A PH ID
cultivars will have broken stone incidence after and mechanical thinning either alone or in peaches. In Keisie, the results were positive
a cool spring with negligible levels after a combination could be the alternative. during both seasons, and ACC reduced the
C Costa
warm spring. hand thinning requirement without reducing
Methods yield efficiency. The recommended rate of ACC
Objectives & Rationale
Neither foliar Ca(NO3)2 and K2O3Si, Two chemicals, 1-aminocyclopropane-1- for Keisie is 600 l.L-1. Slight leaf drop was
The objective of this years work was to obtain
post-harvest Ca(NO3)2, nor root K2O3Si carboxylic acid (ACC) and 6-benzyladenine observed. In Sandvliet, there was a significant
and prepare the remainder of the range of
applications had an effect on the incidence of (6-BA) were evaluated on Japanese plums, reduction in fruit set, without reducing the
Geneva and standard apple rootstocks via
broken stones. cling peaches and nectarines. In addition, the required hand thinning. The reduction in fruit
micro-propagation for pot trials under controlled
Darwin 300, a mechanical string thinner, set led to a significant reduction in yield.
conditions in order to determine their comparative
Conclusion / Discussion was also included in trials on early maturing Severe leaf drop was observed, indicating that
resistance and/or tolerance to woolly apple aphid
Data from more seasons and/or farms are Alpine nectarine and African Rose plum. cultivars differ in sensitivity to ACC.
needed to accurately predict the incidence In all trials the objective was to reduce the
of broken stones at harvest. Higher spring required hand thinning during commercial In nectarines, ACC only thinned Turquoise
temperatures cause greater endocarp density hand thinning without compromising on yield but not Alpine or August Red at the rates
Methodology entails the bulking up of plants
in susceptible cultivars, and, if coupled and fruit quality. and phenological stage used, again indicating
via micropropagation from mother plants,
with rapid radial fruit growth, will lead to a cultivar differences in sensitivity. In Turquoise,
rooting of genotypes, establishment and
higher incidence of broken stones. Neither Key Results the highest ACC rate (500 l.L-1) reduced
hardening off under greenhouse conditions,
calcium nor silicate treatments can currently In Japanese plums we reduced the hand fruit set per tagged shoot, as well as the hand
then transplanting into larger bags and
be recommended to reduce broken stones in thinning requirement significantly with both thinning requirement, but this rate also reduced
transferring to netted shade-house for
plums. the ACC thinning and mechanical thinning the total yield. The Darwin 300 evaluated
inoculation with WAA samples collected in
strategies. Regarding ACC, cultivars differed on Alpine reduced fruit set significantly and
specific orchards. Trees at least 40 cm high
in their sensitivity to the chemical and the the hand thinning requirement without reducing
are inoculated with WAA to ensure accurate
recommended rate will differ for cultivars. ACC yield efficiency, indicating that mechanical
measure of resistance and tolerance.
consistently reduced the required hand thinning thinning is a viable option in nectarines. Slight
linearly with increasing rate. The recommended leaf drop was observed in all nectarine trials.
Key Results
rate of ACC for African Rose is 600 l.L-1 To date we have succeeded in establishing
and for Laetitia 400 l.L-1. For Fortune a Conclusion / Discussion
the originally selected 24 genotypes in vitro,
recommended rate could not be determined ACC was successful in thinning plums and
two of which are recalcitrant and still in the

Annual Report | 30
proliferation stage, while 22 have passed the of apple shoots after treatment with Dormex sample processing is current under way. The
rooting stage and 21 have been transplanted and oil. Secondly we aim to determine the hormone studies have not yet produced a
into planting bags for inoculation with WAA rest breaking capabilities of nitric oxide in the
P HYSIOL OGICA L DYNA MICS reliable protocol and we are currently looking
in spring 2016. Three important rootstock presence of oil as Dormex alternative. OF DORMANCY IN A PPLE at improving the recovery from the extraction
selections, CG5087, CG007 and CG5935, B UDS GROWN IN A REA S process.
were found to be contaminated by bacteria Methods WITH INSUF FICIENT COLD
while in the rooting phase under micro- We used a laboratory shoot assay to test Conclusion / Discussion
propagation but could be cleaned up. Autumn the efficacy of a range of vigour enhancing The 2015 respiration results show that
inoculation below ground in 2015 was found compounds (hormones and N-containing) E Louw the respiration pathway preference of the
to be unsuccessful, whereas above-ground through visual assessment after exposing buds from Elgin and Koue Bokkeveld are
inoculation has risks of attack by parasitic treated shoots to forcing conditions. Similarly, Objectives & Rationale significantly different after bud swell.
wasp. the budbreak ability of alternative RBA that We are investigating three physiological
produce NO will be assessed. aspects (respiration, oxidative stress and
Conclusion / Discussion hormone concentration) of apple buds
The work plan has already been extended by Key Results produced under inadequate winter chilling to EVA LU ATE REST BREA KING
gain fundamental knowledge on the changes
two years because of difficulty in propagating The vigour enhancing compounds that were PROGRA MMES FOR WA RM
some of the selections. Another six months will tested showed budbreak percentages ranging brought about by such typical South African
be required to complete the work (screening from 52-98%, outperforming the commercial
of the 21 selections). A final report will be standard (50%) and shoots that received no
submitted in 2017. RBA (20%). The top performers were 100mg/L Methods X Siboza
Promalin, 50g/L Urea and 100mg/l Maxcel. Dormant apple buds from two contrasting
NaNO2+AsA and KNO3 tested statistically climatic regions, Elgin (insufficient winter chill) Objectives & Rationale
similar to the commercial standard. NaNO2 and Koue Bokkeveld (sufficient winter chill) are The objective of this project is to determine
U SING THE S HO O T AS S AY TO treatment showed a noticeable dose response. compared in terms of their respiration rate and the effectiveness RBA programmes to alleviate
four different respiration pathways throughout
SCR EEN C OMBI N ATIO N S AN D delayed foliation symptoms in the EGVV area
Conclusion / Discussion the winter period. Similar testing is also done and assess effects on yield, fruit size (by
SEQ UENTI AL AP PLIC ATIO N during the commercial application of RBAs to facilitating thinning) and fruit maturity.
All the growth enhancing compounds
O F EXI S TI NG AN D PO S S IBLE performed equally or better than the fully investigate the mechanisms of rest breaking.
NEW RES T BRE AK IN G chilled shoots. We recommend that 100mg/L Method development is underway to describe Methods
differences in the oxidative stress, hormone
A GENTS I N AP PLE S Maxcel, 100mg/L Promalin and 50g/L Urea The following rest breaking treatments were
or variations thereof are used in whole tree concentrations and movement and membrane applied in 2015.
trials in 2017. We furthermore recommend content of such buds. Fuji:
E Louw that 1M KNO3, 1mM NaNO2+AsA and 0.4M 1. 3% Dormex
NaNO2 or variations thereof are considered in Key Results 2. 0.5 % Dormex + 3% Oil
Objectives & Rationale whole tree trials in 2017. Buds from Elgin lack an increase in the TCA 3. 1% Dormex & 7 days later with 5%
The use of rest breaking agents (RBA) is cycle after bud swell but increase the PPP and
essential for successful budburst in areas ALT pathways compared to buds from Koue Oil:
with insufficient winter chill. Dormex and Bokkeveld. This pattern is mimicked when 1. 0.5% Lift + 1% Oil + 1% KNO3 + 0.5%
oil, the current industry standard, is coming RBA is used - untreated shoots continue to Dormex
under scrutiny for its hazardous effects on lack in TCA cycle capacity while increasing 2. 2% LB Urea + 2% KNO3 & 7 days later
man and environment. The first objective of PPP and ALT. The lipid analysis method was
the study is to investigate the use of growth optimised to assist with the membrane studies
enhancing compounds to restore the vigour that have been added to the project and

31 | HORTGRO Science
with 0.5% Dormex + 3% Oil to week 16 whilst the Koue Bokkeveld went (25C, continues light) and monitored
endodormant without any additional cold. until 50% budbreak. From this dormancy
IN VE STIGATING THE progression curves were constructed. The data
Reinders Golden Delicious: Both Elgin and Koue Bokkeveld buds showed
1. 1% Dormex + 4% Oil E F F ECTS OF DIF F E RENT decreasing endodormancy levels in response generation is ongoing.
2. 3% Dormex AUT UMN TE MP E RATURE S to heatwave and sub-zero conditions but
3. 1% Dormex & 7 days later with 0.5% O N E NDODORMANCY increasing the levels once exposed to the cold Key Results
Dormex + 4% Oil front treatment. The (very) preliminary data shows that the
PR OGRE SSION scions from Elgin have a significantly lower
4. 0.5% Lift + 1.5% Oil + 1% KNO3 + 0.5%
Dormex Conclusion / Discussion endodormancy level compared to their
E Louw & L Allderman It is still too early to make any conclusions counterparts grown in the Koue Bokkeveld. The
Key Results based on this preliminary data. maximum dormancy levels recorded to date
The different rest breaking treatments were Objectives & Rationale confirm that some cultivars, Golden Delicious
equally effective in terms of bud break and did In this study we are exploring the induction and Granny Smith, tend to have a shallower
not affect yield in Fuji. 3% Dormex had a slight of endodormancy by exposing Elgin and endodormacy compared to Galas and Fuji,
negative effect on fruit size. Effects on fruit Koue Bokkeveld buds to low temperatures DETERMINING TH E irrespective of the climatic area.
maturity were not of horticultural significance. for various time periods and monitoring DORMANCY PROGRESSION
their endodormancy progression. We also Conclusion / Discussion
investigate the effect of short term exposure to
OF COMMERCIA L A PPLE The shoot collection needed for the construction
Bud break was generally poor and not
differentially affected by the different rest harsh environmental conditions by simulating CULTIVARS AND CLONES of dormancy curves typically runs until end of
breaking applications in Golden Delicious a heat wave, a cold front and sudden sub- AVAIL AB L E TO TH E SOU TH September and shoot monitoring deep into
Reinders. Treatments did not differ in yield zero conditions. Information from this aims to AF RICAN INDU STRY October, thus at the time of the submission
and fruit maturity, but fruit from the treatment increase our understanding of how temperature of this report the data generation was not
containing 0.5% Lift and 1% KNO3 seemed to influences induction of dormancy. complete and therefor no discussion or
be slightly greener in peel colour. E Louw & L Allderman conclusions can be presented.
Conclusion / Discussion Shoots from Royal Beaut trees grown in two Objectives & Rationale
Rest breaking application were equally different climatic areas were collected weekly Plotting the dormancy progressive curves
effective in Fuji and apparently equally and exposed to temperatures varying from 4 of some of the commercial apple cultivars, QU A NTIFYING WATER U SE
ineffective in improving bud break in Golden to14C for different time periods (1 14 days) all in one season, can provide very useful OF H IGH PERFORMING
information to producers considering new
Delicious Reinders in 2015. and then forced (25C, continues light) to
plantings, especially if matched to the
grow while monitoring the budbreak pattern.
The effect of harsh environmental conditions dormancy levels of the rootstock (study already ORCH A RDS IN TH E WINTER
were tested by exposing Cripps Pink shoots completed). Comparing the performance in RA INFA LL A REA OF SOU TH
to 1 day of either 4C, 30C or -4C before two climatically different areas also adds to the A FRICA
exposing them to forcing conditions. pool of knowledge of the way scions react to
chill accumulation.
Key Results
S Dzikiti
Data generation and analysis was not yet Methods
Shoots from 22 different apple clones (10 Objectives & Rationale
complete at time of reporting. Buds from
different cultivars) were collected every 14 Apple production in South Africa is
Elgin reacted to low temperatures in week 8
days from two climatic areas (Elgin and Koue entirely dependent on irrigation. In recent
compared to the buds from the Koue Bokkeveld
Bokkeveld) starting in Feb 2016. The samples years, orchards yielding up to 120 t/ha
that started to go endodormant in week 5.
were exposed to standard forcing conditions are becoming common. There is also no
The Elgin buds reacted to low temperature up

Annual Report | 32
information on water use by young, non- rate decreased after harvest. Post-harvest distribution, of young apple trees in newly
bearing apple orchards. This study seeks to
E S TAB L ISHING stomatal conductance remained high in the established orchards on gravelly soils which are
close this information gap by quantifying the afternoon. Before harvest, medium crop load wide-spread in apple-growing regions of South
water use of high yielding apple orchards from Q UA NTITATIVE stimulated higher root growth, but after harvest Africa.
planting to full-bearing. R E LATIONSHIP S B ETWE EN the high crop load treatment showed stronger
WATE R REL ATIONS, root growth. Trees under low irrigation had Methods
G R OWTH, YIEL D AND stronger root growth after harvest. A well-prepared gravelly soil (to be planted
The actual amount of water transpired by October 2016) has been identified at Oak
apple orchards was measured in the EGVV Q UA L ITY OF HIGH Conclusion / Discussion Valley Estate, Grabouw. The soil has been
region during the 2015/16 season. Two non- PE RF ORMING COMMERCIAL High crop load appears to use more water - surveyed and classified after which samples
bearing Cripps Red and Golden Delicious APP L E ORCHARDS further analysis required. Water loss through were taken for physical and chemical analyses.
orchards as well as two high yielding full- transpiration decreases after harvest. A strong An irrigation system has been designed and will
bearing Golden Delicious and Cripps Pink fruit sink inhibits root growth. A medium fruit be installed shortly for watering the fifteen plots
orchards were used. Tree transpiration was S Midgley sink allows more root growth pre-harvest (as of the field trial. Equipment for the measurement
measured using sap flow gauges. Orchard well as more shoot growth, especially under of soil water content and soil temperature was
evapotranspiration (ET) was monitored using Objectives & Rationale
high irrigation) but a lesser root response ordered and is currently being calibrated before
three methods namely; 1) the open path eddy In this study we are exploring the induction
after harvest. Low irrigation volume resulted installation.
covariance, 2) soil water balance, and 3) high of endodormancy by exposing Elgin and
in higher post-harvest root growth based on
resolution remote sensing data from Fruitlook. Koue Bokkeveld buds to low temperatures
excess available carbohydrates used towards Key Results
for various time periods and monitoring
seeking water. The Kroonstad soil of the trial site is spatially
Key Results their endodormancy progression. We also
uniform and matches the requirements specified
The full-bearing Golden Delicious orchard investigate the effect of short term exposure to
for the experiment. Further work such as soil
transpired 7 660 m3/ha/season compared harsh environmental conditions by simulating
analyses and instrument calibration is still in
with 6 550 m3/ha/season for Cripps a heat wave, a cold front and sudden sub- THE EF F ECT OF IRRIGATION progress while irrigation treatments will only
zero conditions. Information from this aims to
Pink. The non-bearing Cripps Red orchard ON THE P E RF ORMA NCE start in October 2016.
transpired 1 330 compared to 1 550 m3/ha/ increase our understanding of how temperature
influences induction of dormancy. OF Y OUNG APPLE TREES
season for non-bearing Golden Delicious. Conclusion / Discussion
Daily orchard scale ET peaked close to 9.0 mm
IN NEWLY ESTA BLISH ED All preparatory work to create the necessary
for full-bearing Golden Delicious compared Methods ORCHARDS infrastructure for the irrigation trial is on time,
to less than 6.0 mm/d in non-bearing Cripps We established combined treatments of two
within budget and according to specification
Red. Model ET predictions were within 10% crop loads and three irrigation volumes in
at the moment. Treatments and the concomitant
a high-yielding Golden Delicious orchard. J van Zyl & E Hoffman
of the seasonal ET estimates from Fruitlook for monitoring of soil water status, soil temperature,
the full-bearing orchards although substantial Measurements were performed from December-
root growth and plant response will only start in
March of midday stem water potential (SWP), Objectives & Rationale
deviations were observed for the non-bearing October 2016.
leaf gas exchange, stem and fruit diameter Apple trees in newly established orchards
fluctuations, and fruit, shoot and root growth. must fill their allotted space as soon as
Fruit number, yield, and fruit quality and possible in order to be profitable. Soil water
Conclusion / Discussion
maturity were determined at harvest. status and root growth are believed to be
Water use rates were strongly related to
major determining factors in achieving
canopy size. The full-bearing orchards in
Key Results such a favourable effect. The objective of
EGVV used similar amounts of water to those
High crop loads led to lower SWP later in the this study is therefore to determine the most
in Koue Bokkeveld.
season. Photosynthesis, stomatal conductance effective irrigation schedule for the optimum
and root growth increased while transpiration performance, including root growth and root

33 | HORTGRO Science
optimum for these periods. Key Results Methods
MM109/M9 and G778 trees appear more More dwarfing (M9 Emla, M9 Nic29, G222,
Conclusion / Discussion yield efficient than would be expected for M7, MM109/M9, MM109/G222, M793/
H IGH P ERFORMAN C E APPLE Means to address problems with their size. However, on a cautionary note, M9, M793/G222, G778/M9, and G778/
T R EE ORC HARD S evapotranspiration estimates using the daily the scion diameter of the MM109/M9 trees is G222) and more vigorous rootstocks (M7,
soil water balance need to be researched. measured higher above the ground compared G202, G778, M793, MM109, and G228)
Soil water status should be taken into account to other rootstocks. In winter 2017, we will were grouped together in two adjacent, but
T Volschenk
in interpretation and reporting of tree measure the diameter of all trees at the same separate plantings. Trees were planted during
physiological and yield responses and/ or height as MM109/M9. M9 RN29 seems to spring 2013 using randomised complete block
Objectives & Rationale
evapotranspiration data collected through eddy be most yield efficient of the most dwarfing designs for both plantings.
Information on orchard water use is crucial
covariance and sap flow techniques. rootstocks while Lancep trees are stunted and
for irrigation scheduling and on-farm water.
underperforming. Pink colour development Key Results
The WRC/HORTGRO study proposes a multi-
and fruit maturity generally decreased with Our data show that M9 Emla, G778/M9,
disciplinary approach to establish water use
increasing rootstock vigour. MM109/M9, M9 Nic 29, G228 and G202
by high performing orchards and orchards at
different growth stages and to develop models
APP L E ROOTSTOCK rootstocks are precocious and yield efficient.

to extrapolate the results of the study to other E VAL UATION IN THE Conclusion / Discussion However, it should be noted that these are
G778 gives trees that are of similar size as
apple cultivars and growing regions. W ITZ ENB ERG VAL L EY preliminary findings. The expected negative
MM109 but seems more productive. G228 relationship between tree size, as indicated by
also appears to be an improvement over the scion diameter, and precocity was observed.
X Siboza similarly-sized to slightly larger M793. In this
Determine soil physical properties (texture,
trial, M793 and MM109 show comparatively Conclusion / Discussion
chemical status, soil water retention curves)
Objectives & Rationale poor performance. The trial has been harvested for the first
of four orchards. Install and calibrate soil
The objective of this trial is to assess various time and it is still too early to make solid
water content sensors, monitor soil water
new dwarfing, semi-dwarfing and semi- conclusions.
content throughout the season and calculate
vigorous apple rootstocks from the GENEVA
evapotranspiration according to a soil water
range against the industry standards M793, E VAL UATION OF NEW
balance for unstressed young non-bearing
Cripps Red (CR) and full-bearing Golden
M7, M25 and MM109. The performance of AP P L E ROOTSTOCKS A ND
Delicious (GD) apple orchards in EGVV.
different M9 sub-clones is also assessed.
Key Results
Trees grafted to Rosy Glow were planted (HE L DERWATER) INTERSTEM COMBINATIONS
CR and GD orchard ET reached a maximum
during December 2010 at Paardekloof, IN GRA BOU W ( OA K VA LLEY)
of c. 7.6 and c. 9.2 mm/d, respectively, on
Witzenberg Valley. Dwarfing and semi-
sandy loam soils. In GD, maximum tree and X Siboza
vigorous rootstocks were grouped together X Siboza
work row ET amounted to c. 7.3 mm/d and
in two adjacent plots that are managed
2.6 mm/d, respectively. Maximum ET in the Objectives & Rationale
separately. Cepiland, G222, CG3007, Objectives & Rationale
ridged CR tree row was c. 7.4 mm/d, 1.6 The objective of this project is to assess the
Lancep, M793, M7, MM106, MM109/M9 The objective of this project is to assess various
mm/d in the non-irrigated work row (cover various new apple rootstocks (most from the
and M9 RN29 were planted in 5 blocks at 4 new apple rootstocks (mostly from the Geneva
crop) and 1.4 mm/d in the bare non-irrigated Cornell Geneva range) that have recently
x 1.25 m spacing as the more dwarfing site range) that have recently become available
area. Excessively wet conditions at the GD become available against the industry
while G222, G228, G778, CG934, M25, against the industry standard M793, M7 and
orchard during midsummer, or water deficit standard M793, M7 and MM109. The use of
M793, Maruba and MM109 were planted MM109. The use of G222 and M9 Emla as
during December and January at the CR G222 and M9 Emla as potential interstems will
in 6 blocks at 4 x 1.5 m spacing as the more potential interstems will also be assessed.
orchard may have decreased ET below the also be assessed.
vigorous site.

Annual Report | 34
Methods of ring nematodes, trees on GF 677, Atlas
More dwarfing (M9 Emla, M9 Nic29, and Cadaman perform the best. On high
GA222, M7, MM109/M9, MM109/G222, potential soil with moderate numbers of several
M793/M9, M793/G222, G778/M9, APP L E ROOTSTOCKS AND ROOTSTOCKS nematodes, trees on GF 677, Viking, Atlas and
G778/G222) and more vigorous rootstocks IN TERSTEM COMB INATIONS Marianna perform well in terms of yield, fruit
(M7, G202, G778, M793, MM109, G228) IN GRAB OUW (B RE VL E I) P Stassen weight and yield efficiency.
were grouped together in two adjacent,
but separate plantings. With hindsight, Objectives & Rationale
G202 should have formed part of the more X Siboza
The main objectives for this project are: to
dwarfing planting. Trees were planted during evaluate high potential imported and local EVA LU ATION OF PEA CH
Objectives & Rationale
spring 2013 using randomised complete rootstocks on different soil types and climatic ROOTSTOCKS
block designs for both plantings. We The objective of this project is to assess the
conditions and to make recommendations that
measured scion diameter, tree height and various new apple rootstocks (most from the
can complement yield and fruit quality of plum
number of shoots during winter 2016 as a Cornell Geneva range) that have recently P Stassen
measure of tree growth. become available against the industry
standard M793, M7 and MM109. The use of Objectives & Rationale
G222 and M9 Emla as potential interstems will The main objective of this project is to evaluate
Key Results All experimental layouts are randomised
also be assessed. high potential imported and local rootstocks on
These results are based on the first harvest complete block designs with different rootstocks
different soil types.
(3rd leaf). Trees on all rootstocks have planted in 10 blocks in single tree plots.
grown well with about 30 cm separating Methods
More dwarfing (M9 Emla, NIC29, G222, Methods
the tallest and the shortest trees in both Key Results
M7, MM109/M9, MM109/G222, M793/ Five trials have been planted in different climatic
the more dwarfing and the more vigorous On calcareous sandy soil with high numbers
M9, M793/G222, G778/M9, and G778/ conditions, soil textures, containing various
planting. The first yield has been very good of ring nematodes, African Delight on Atlas
G222) and more vigorous rootstocks (M7, numbers and types of nematodes. All trial layouts
and fruit quality was excellent. The expected performs well in terms of yield, fruit weight
G202, G778, M793, MM109, and G228) are randomised complete blocks designs.
negative relationship between tree size and and yield efficiency, but not significantly better
yield efficiency was observed. The industry were grouped together in two adjacent, but
than trees on GF 677 in terms of fruit weight.
separate plantings. Trees were planted during Key Results
standard M793, MM109 and M7 rootstocks Cadaman is less yield efficient. Fruit weight of
spring 2013 using randomised complete block On high potential calcareous soils, the effect of
seem to be of lower precocity than some trees on Marianna and Maridon suffers because
designs for both plantings. Trunk diameter and nematodes, especially ring, is less damaging. No
of the Geneva rootstocks of comparable of the high ring nematode numbers.
height increases were assessed as a measure significant differences in terms of yield and fruit
size and also compared to more dwarfing
of tree growth during winter 2016. weight occur between Alpine trees on Cademan,
rootstocks. Interstem trees on G778 also On high potential soil with a pH (KCl) of 7.2 and
Garnem, Atlas, GF 677 and Viking.
seem to be more productive than expected ring, spiral and root-lesion nematodes, African
for their size. Key Results
Rose on GF 677, Atlas, Marianna and Viking
Trees have shown relatively good growth. On high potential soil with low nematode
perform well in terms of yield and fruit weight,
The trend of Geneva rootstocks being thinner numbers, Artic Star trees on Atlas, Cadaman,
Conclusion / Discussion whilst no significant difference occurs between
than M-range rootstocks of the same height Viking and Garnem had the highest cumulative
This was the first yield of these trees and Atlas, Marianna and Viking for yield efficiency.
continued in 2015/16. M7 seems to impart yield over four harvest seasons.
therefore too early for any conclusions. Over a three-year period, Laetitia on Viking and
more vigour amongst trees in the more
SAPO 778 performed well in terms of yield, fruit
dwarfing planting. On high potential, non-calcareous soil where
weight and yield efficiency on high potential soil
high numbers (600/300 ml soil) of ring
with high numbers of ring nematodes.
Conclusion / Discussion nematodes occur, no significant differences were
The trial will be harvested for the first time in found between Cascade trees on Garnem, Atlas,
Conclusion / Discussion
2016/17 (4th leaf). It is still too early to make Cademan and Kakamas seedling in terms of
On calcareous sandy soil with high numbers
any conclusions. yield and fruit weight.
35 | HORTGRO Science
were planted in McGregor and Bonnievale variation in apple rootstock genotypes regarding
On high potential soil with low ring (193/300 during 2013. Rustic trees on Atlas, Viking, resistance/tolerance to ARD.
ml soil), root-lesion nematodes, no significant Cadaman, GF 677, SAPO 778, Guardian,
differences occur between Summersun trees on Marianna, Maridon and Tsukuba 4 with a Methods
Atlas, SAPO 788 clonal and seedling, Guardian Royal interstem are evaluated against Royal Rootstocks from the Cornell Geneva range TEMPERATU RE A ND TH E
and Viking in terms of yield, fruit weight and seedling. (CG3007, G778, G202) and standard EFFECT TH EREOF
yield efficiency. industry rootstocks (M793, M7, MM109) were
Key Results investigated under ARD conditions in field trials
High risk (95.3%) sandy soil with rising water Three years after planting the trees at Tevrede, in Elgin.
S Midgley
tables in winter, containing ring (106), root-lesion Bonnievale show no significant difference in
Objectives & Rationale
(169) and spiral (169) nematodes/300 ml soil, trunk circumference between trees on Royal Key Results
As for 2015, with the addition of assessing sun-
Summertime trees had a high % dieback due to seedling as standard and on Atlas, Viking, From the percentage increase in trunk and
exposed and shaded canopy positions. We also
Leucostoma and Botryosphaeria infections. Cadaman and GF 677 with a Royal interstem. total shoot growth, as well as plant weight
aimed to determine whether peel acclimation to
Analysis show low to moderate numbers of measurements with termination of the trial, it was
low temperature decreases the colour response at
Conclusion / Discussion root-lesion nematodes in these soils. clear that rootstock tolerance was site specific,
Soil texture, climatic and abiotic conditions with possibly the exception of MM109 that
as well as plant-parasitic nematodes play an At Thornvilla, trees on Royal seedling, Atlas, seemed to be most susceptible to ARD in both
important role in rootstock performance in terms Viking, Cadaman, Guardian, GF 677 and sites. However, this is in contrast to the previous
Shaded or sun-exposed canopy position was
of yield, fruit weight as well as tolerance to stress SAPO 778 (all with a Royal interstems) do round of field trials (2010-2012) which found
added in the light/heat stress trials. Peel discs from
conditions. not differ significantly in trunk circumference MM109 to be the only rootstock that consistently
Rosy Glow on nine rootstocks were exposed to
from each other. No signs of breakage at the showed tolerance to ARD conditions in the field.
six temperature treatments under moderately high
bud-union occur thus far. High numbers of ring
light, and colour changes measured over a 72-
nematodes occur in this soil. Conclusion / Discussion
EVA L UATI ON OF APR IC O T It is clear that rootstock tolerance is site specific.
hour period. Evaporative cooling was conducted
on Cripps Pink at temperatures above 28C for
R O OTS TOC K S Conclusion / Discussion MM109 seemed to be most susceptible to
different periods from mid-summer to harvest, and
Due to pollination problems that was ARD at both sites, but was the only rootstock
colour development assessed.
experience with Rustic in commercial orchards that consistently showed tolerance to ARD in
P Stassen
during 2014, cross-pollinators and flower previous field trials (2010-2012. Soil chemical
Key Results
bouquets was introduced in these orchards. No and nutrient status was similar for the various
Objectives & Rationale As in 2015, there were no rootstock effects on
fruit-set occurred during the rootstocks, therefore not affecting plant growth.
The aim of this project is to identify rootstocks on-tree physiological parameters. Duration of
2015 season. Lesion nematode counts were highest for G222
for apricot trees to optimise the performance of stress exposure, the recovery period, and canopy
and MM109 (Vergelegen), the more susceptible
the scion cultivar. Breakage at the bud union is position all influenced photostress and visible peel
rootstocks at this site. Parasitic nematodes were
an important aspect when selecting rootstocks damage in both cultivars. Rosy Glow showed
indicated to have a site specific role as part of
for apricots. Currently, only apricot seedling
lower sensitivity to peel damage on CG3007
(Royal and Soldonne) are compatible with and higher sensitivity on Rosy Glow own roots,
apricot scion cultivars. This puts a limitation
TR IAL S F OR DE TERMINING A M793 and CG778. In covered Golden Delicious
on the choice of rootstocks available to cover S C RE ENING TECHNIQUE peels stressed for one hour, shade fruit were
aspects like high pH, nematode infested soil more sensitive than sun-exposed fruit on CG228
and horticultural traits. and CG778. Innate ability to develop red colour
P Vermeulen
increased from 16C to 25C, but remained
Methods high at 31C in CG222, CG3007 and M793.
Objectives & Rationale
Two trials using a randomised block design Cepiland, MM109, MM109/M9 and RN29 had
The objective of this study is to quantify the
low colour development.
Annual Report | 36
The Crop P rotection research prog ramme
was ver y productive in the past season. A
variety of basic and applied research in the
f ields of nematolog y, plant patholog y and
entomolog y was undertaken. Of interest is
the changing environment with respect to
the crop protection research prog ramme.

37 | HORTGRO Science
Matthew Addison

Matthew is the Crop
P rotection Manager at

Concerns regarding phytosanitary issues in Another rapidly changing field of research is disease management in orchards is seen as
countries importing South African fruit are soil health and orchard floor management. a priority and the current research is aimed
a reality and a number of industry funded There is a growing awareness of the at addressing this. The apple scab research
research projects are aimed at mitigating the importance of soil health internationally. Local supplements previous research on the non-
threat. For example, false codling moth has research is progressing well and a number chemical control of apple scab. This research
received at lot of attention in Europe and other of projects have yielded significant results. In will allow for the use of the latest generation of
importing countries. The research includes work addition, an externally funded cooperative predictive disease management models.
on genetic, cultivar susceptibility and control research programme has been established Research on nematodes is critical from both the
measures. Strategically the research programme to look at soil health issues in deciduous fruit biological control and pathology perspectives.
must allow growers to access markets of their orchards. The integrated nature of the research A number of research projects on the use of
choice, thus the risk of exporting false codling is fascinating and orchard floor management entomopathogenic nematodes as biological
Phytosanitar y issues moth must be reduced to a minimum. The is expected to become a critical aspect of control agents are underway, in addition the
same basic principles can be applied to the sustainable fruit production. use of entomopathogenic fungi in conjunction
Soil health invasive fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis. While the with the nematodes is being investigated.
fly has yet to reach our major production area A number of important plant pathology
Plant patholog y
it is expected to do so. Current research has projects are underway or complete. They The reports on the current and new projects are
allowed us to answer some critical questions include research on apple scab and stem herewith included. Please contact me should
Biological control agents
regarding the flys ecology. cankers. The development of more integrated you require any additional information.

Annual Report | 38
Received in 2016 Due 2017
APRICOT, NECTARINE LIZEL MOSTERT - Survey of stem cankers and ANTOINETTE MALAN - Incorporating
SHEILA STOREY - Nematode community entomopathogenic nematodes and fungi in
dieback symptoms of young apple trees and
structure and function as a bio-indicator of the
P roject List possible inoculum sources an integrated pest management system for the
effects of soil amendments on soil health in
control of codling moth.
deciduous fruit orchards
ELLEUNORAH ALLSOPP - Investigating the use (Criconemoides xenoplax) distribution, APRICOT, NECTARINE
of semiochemicals for integrated management characterisation and culture SHELLEY JOHNSON - Grain chinch bug
of western flower thrips on stone fruit and table (Macchiademus diplopterus) thermal biology
grapes. APPLE and the implications for post-harvest control
ADELE MCLEOD - Management of apple replant measures.
APPLE, PEAR, PLUM, PEACH disease using phosphonates
SHEILA STOREY - Development of monitoring PEACH, NECTARINE SHELLEY JOHNSON - CATTS as a post-harvest
methods and optimisation of a pheromone
PIA ADDISON - Integration of GIS and spatial treatment for chill sensitive plum cultivars and
lure for the grain chinch bug, Macchiademus
analysis with monitoring data of major pests associated phytosanitary insect pests.
for the purposes of area-wide management.
PIA ADDISON - Forecasting Bactrocera dorsalis PIA ADDISON - Biological control of fruit flies SHELLEY JOHNSON - Investigating the potential
invasion potential using trait-based modelling using entomopathogenic fungi and nematodes of ethyl formate fumigation for phytosanitary
approaches. as well as parasitic wasps.
control of the grain chinch bug on pome and
APPLE, PEAR, PLUM, PEACH stone fruit.
population dynamics of bollworm (Helicoverpa APRICOT, NECTARINE
armigera) in South African fruit orchards. PIA ADDISON - Using biological control
against two sporadic pests in vineyards and
ADELE MCLEOD - Determining the rain
fastness of mancozeb on apple leaves and the
development of a benchmark spray deposition APPLE, PEAR
model for apple scab. MATTHEW ADDISON - Pest and disease
monitoring in orchards under shade net.
CHERYL LENNOX - Development of a fungicide APPLE, PEAR, PLUM, PEACH
sensitivity monitoring service for SA pome fruit APRICOT, NECTARINE
CHRIS WELDON - Dispersal capacity of
Bactrocera dorsalis
JOHN TERBLANCHE - High temperature
disinfestation of false codling moth larvae

39 | HORTGRO Science
need to be monitored in order to ensure the carvacrol to reduce WFT egg-laying in plum
economic threshold level is not exceeded and no
NEW PROJECTS N E M ATODE COMMUNITY blossoms in laboratory bioassays.
crop losses or death of young trees occurs. 2. Test efficacy of methyl-salicylate, thymol and
Approved for 2017 S TRUCTURE AND F UNCTION carvacrol to reduce WFT egg-laying in plum
AS A B IO-INDICATOR OF Conclusion / Discussion blossoms in screen-house trials with potted
LEN VAN DER WALT - A survey to determine
THE E F F ECTS OF SOIL Clear responses in the nematode community have plum trees.
been established owing to changes in the
the Pratylenchus spp. present in South African AM E NDMENTS ON SOIL 3. Collect plum and clover flower volatiles by
soil environment due to the cover crops and means of air entrainment.
apple orchards HE ALTH IN DECIDUOUS management thereof implemented in this orchard. 4. Determine potential of clover as a trap crop
PEAR FR U IT ORCHARDS The orchard should be vigilantly monitored for the for WFT: test attractiveness of with plum
MARELIZE DE VILLIERS - Phytosanitary status of presence of plant-parasitic nematodes from and clover flower volatiles by means of
false codling moth, Thaumatotibia leucotreta the families Pratylenchidae (lesion nematodes). At olfactometer trials.
S Storey (NEML AB)
(Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on pears. present the soil food web is degraded and 5. Test push-pull system with semiochemicals
stressed but the system seems to be recovering. and trap crop in field trials.
PLUM, PEACH, APRICOT Objectives & Rationale
Future monitoring will determine this trend.
DALENE STEENEKAMP - Control of false codling Nematodes were extracted from soil samples
Key Results
moth, Thaumatotibia leucotreta, on stone fruit collected from each treatment in the work and tree
Laboratory bioassays showed that all three
with mating disruption. row at the Vyeboom trial site. These nematodes
essential oils reduced the oviposition rate of
were used to determine the changes in
APPLE, PEAR, PLUM, PEACH population density and biodiversity due to cover
INVE STIGATING TH E U SE WFT on plum blossoms, but methyl salicylate
crop management practices. OF SE MIOCHEMICA LS FOR and carvacrol showed most promise because the
PIA ADDISON - Integrated management of the lower concentrations of these oils (0.1%, 0.5%,
control of false codling moth, Thaumatotibia INTEGRATED MA NA GEMENT
1%) reduced oviposition rates significantly without
leucotreta, on deciduous fruit, with focus on Methods OF WESTERN FLOW ER causing phytotoxic damage. This study is the
Nematodes were quantified by extracting them
biological control.
from 50 plots comprised of the 5 different
THRIP S ON ST ONE FRU IT first to show that these essential oils are effective
APPLE treatments and 5 repetitions per treatment for the AND TAB L E GRA PES in reducing WFT oviposition when applied to
Adele McLeod - Evaluating an ascospore fragrant plum flowers. The inability of the wetting
tree and work rows. Nematodes were
release forecasting model and orchard disease agents (Triton X-100 and Citrex mineral oil) to
identified to family level and data interpreted E Allsopp (Arc Infruitec-Nietvoorbij)
monitoring methods for improving apple scab keep the essential oils in stable suspensions was
using various indices.
management. identified as a problem and this was confirmed
Objectives & Rationale by the lack of significant results in the screen-
Key Results This research aimed to investigate the feasibility house and insectary trials using potted plum trees.
The soil health status has essentially remained of using semiochemicals to modify thrips Plum blossoms and clover flower volatiles were
unchanged from 2015 and is currently behaviour in order to minimize economic thrips successfully captured by means of air entrainment.
experiencing stressed conditions with nutrient damage, whilst reducing the need for toxic Olfactometer studies showed that clover flower
depletion in the soil food web. The condition of pesticides. The ultimate aim is to develop an and plum blossom volatiles are highly attractive
the soil food web is similar for the work row and effective, environmentally sustainable integrated to WFT. This means that clover has potential as a
tree row. Bacterial feeding nematodes from the management strategy for western flower thrips trap crop for WFT, but it will only be effective if
family Cephalobidae are still the most abundant. (WFT) on deciduous fruit crops by using a push- used in conjunction with an oviposition deterrent.
Fungal-feeding nematodes have increased pull system. Three plant essential oils (methyl- The high level of attraction to WFT demonstrated
leading to better structure of the soil food web. salicylate, thymol and carvacrol) were identified for plum blossoms means that this holds true
There is a significant number of economically from literature as potential oviposition deterrents. for any other potential trap crop. Equipment
damaging plant-parasitic lesion nematodes Research objectives: procured and training received in air entrainment
(Pratylenchus sp.) present in the tree row. Levels 1. Test efficacy of methyl-salicylate, thymol and techniques during this study meant that Porapak

Annual Report | 40
Q tubes for air entrainment could be prepared Methods The study has provided new information on the the fruit industry in the Western Cape. Test
and processed locally, instead of having to be Headspace volatile compounds were identified constituents of pheromones produced by grain fruits were offered to 50 2-week old adults of
obtained from and sent overseas for processing at from active bugs through gas chromatography- chinch bugs, but use of these pheromones each species and sting marks were counted
significant costs. ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij is now mass spectrometry analysis. The efficacy of as lures in trapping systems for the grain after 48 hours. Egg hatch, number of pupae
also able to do air entrainment and prepare and synthetic lures using previously identified chinch bug requires additional work. Grain and adults were recorded. Treatments were
process Porapak Q tubes for air entrainment as a aggregation pheromone components, and sex chinch bugs have a preference with regard replicated three times. Experiments exploring
service to other local researchers. pheromone volatile components (identified in to the shape and colour of profiles in its field the thermal tolerance and rapid thermal
present study) was studied in combination with of view. This preference must be taken into responses of B. dorsalis were also conducted.
Conclusion / Discussion modified traps using rubber septa dispensers consideration and used in combination with
In conclusion, methyl salicylate and carvacrol in field trials. Also, behavioural responses of effective lures, when developing traps to attract Key Results
show promise as oviposition deterrents for grain chinch bugs to visual objects (shapes grain chinch bugs. There were no statistically significant
WFT on plum blossoms and clover would be rectangle, circle, triangle and square; and differences between the total numbers of
suitable as a trap crop. At present, the lack of a colours red, black, green and yellow) were eggs produced by B dorsalis on nectarine
suitable formulation for the oviposition deterrents carried out under laboratory conditions. and plum over 90 days, but B. dorsalis
is a limiting factor. However, if research on produced significantly more eggs during the
microencapsulation of essential oils is successful Key Results F ORECASTING BA CTROCERA 24 h test period on plum than on peach.
in providing a stable formulation with sustained There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) DORSAL IS INVA SION When the adults of the two species competed
release of behaviourally effective essential oil between insects caught in the sex pheromone for oviposition, B. dorsalis out-competed
concentrations, implementation of a push-pull baited traps and the aggregation pheromone C. capitata in most instances; but when
strategy to manage WFT in plum and other fruit baited traps. Traps caught low numbers B ASED MODE LLING the larvae of the two species competed to
orchards appears to be attainable. of bugs compared to the level of orchard AP P ROACHE S complete their life cycles in one fruit, C.
infestation indicated by the amount of bugs that capitata was more successful than B. dorsalis
were found sheltering in corrugated cardboard in most instances. The eggs of B. dorsalis
P Addison (Stellenbosch University)
bands tied around tree trunks. The corrugated were the life stage most resistant to the high
D EV EL OPMENT O F cardboard bands showed a significant
Objectives & Rationale
(42.7C) and low (-6.5C) discriminating
M O N I TORI NG M E THO D S difference in the number of bugs sheltering
Fruit flies are of quarantine importance
temperatures. We found that adult B. dorsalis
between bands placed at bottom and top heat-hardened at 37C and 39C, but a
A ND OP TI MI S ATIO N O F for the export market. The invasive fruit fly
positions on the trees. More bugs were found brief 2 h cold exposure at a mild (non-lethal)
A PHEROMONE LUR E in bottom bands. Behavioural responses of
Bactrocera invadens, recently synonymized
temperature did not result in statistically
with B. dorsalis, was first detected in Kenya
FO R THE GRAI N C HIN C H grain chinch bugs to different shapes presented
in 2003 and in Limpopo province in 2011.
significant increased survival at the low
B UG, MAC C HI A D E M US in their visual space indicated that there was
B dorsalis does not occur in the Western
discriminating temperature of -6.5C
a significant difference (P = 0.0001) in the
D IPLOP TERUS Cape. Experiments were conducted to test the
choice of shape. Vertical/upright rectangular Conclusion / Discussion
suitability of host fruits produced in the Western
shapes had the highest number of grain chinch Bactrocera dorsalis is a robust fly that will
Cape for infestation by B. dorsalis as well as
S Johnson (Stellenbosch University) bug visits. Grain chinch bugs responded to be able to reproduce successfully on the
the probability that the invasive fruit fly might
upright rectangles of different colours. Black deciduous and stone fruit crops produced in
establish as a pest in this area.
Objectives & Rationale and red rectangles were not significantly the Western Cape. The distribution might be
We investigated the chemical ecology and different (P > 0.05) from each other but were restricted by cold temperatures.
orientation behaviour of shelter-seeking grain both significantly different (P = 0.0001) from
We carried out comparative host-specific
chinch bugs, Macchiademus diplopterus, to green and yellow rectangles.
demographic studies on B. dorsalis and
evaluate the use of pheromones and profiles
Ceratitis capitata on nectarine and plum to
in monitoring and trapping methods for grain
determine the potential threat of B. dorsalis to
chinch bugs. Conclusion / Discussion

41 | HORTGRO Science
ascertain its capacity to develop and survive. being treated with a concentration range of
mancozeb and fluorescent pigment (0, 0.15 ,
Key Results 0.3 , 0.45 , 0.6 and 1.0 ), followed by
PO PUL ATI ON DY N AM IC S O F Model simulations across the Western Cape FASTNE SS OF MA NCOZEB inoculation with conidia. Venturia inaequalis
B O L LWORM (HE LIC O V E R PA province (centering on Villiersdorp) and found ON AP P L E L EAV ES A ND control was assessed using a basic fuschin based
A R M I GERA) I N S O UTH that, as well as climate, local topographic THE DEVE L OP MENT OF staining technique and visual assessment. The
variation has significant impacts on the in vitro production of V. inaequalis conidia was
Bollworms population dynamics (voltinism), investigated using a cellophane technique.
phenology and exposure to thermal stress. DEP OSITION M ODEL FOR
J Terblanche (Stellenbosch University) More specifically, individuals on northern facing AP P L E SCAB Key Results
slopes were predicted to have significantly A yellow fluorescent pigment was shown to be
Objectives & Rationale warmer body temperatures, reduced thermal a suitable tracer for five different mancozeb
A McLeod (Stellenbosch University)
Predicting how climate affects pest insects such stress, and a greater number of completed formulations. Simulated rain applied to apple
as the Bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) generations. As such, the fitness of Bollworm seedlings at a constant rainfall intensity of 5
Objectives & Rationale
requires an understanding of the environments to may vary considerably between adjacent mm/h at five different rainfall volumes (0, 1,
which they are exposed, and so we plan to orchards that differ only in topography. These 5, 10 and 15 mm) resulted in no significant
The contact fungicide mancozeb forms an
develop a mechanistic model to translate broad- findings have been published in an international differences between the three mancozeb
integral part of apple scab (Venturia inaequalis)
scale meteorological datasets into their journal, Austral Entomology, and have received treatments. Although a good correlation (r =
management in South Africa. Effective fungicide
microclimatic conditions. We will then run model considerable interest from researchers in the field. 0.726 to 0.783) existed between FPC% and
spray deposition is required for optimal disease
simulations, at different spatial resolutions, In a second study, we ran model simulations Mn-ions, the response of FPC% and Mn-ion
management. It is important to link spray
across deciduous fruit growing regions within across local (Western Cape) and global extents differed somewhat as was evident from the
deposition to biological efficacy by developing
South Africa. These results will provide an at three spatial resolutions (0.5km, 1km and slopes of exponential regression models. A
a spray deposition benchmark model. Rainfall
indication of the spatial scale at which future 1.5km grid cells) to ascertain how spatial scale significant loss (11.95%) in mancozeb residue
is an important factor that influences disease
studies focusing on Bollworm, and on insect pests affects our predictions of Bollworms core-body occurred after applying 1mm of rain, but
control by foliar applied pesticides. The projects
in general, should be conducted. These models temperature and fitness. We found significant no significant differences in losses (26.32 to
objectives are to (i) determine if a yellow
will also provide a first indication of likely interactions between elevation of the site and 31.67%) occurred after applying 5 to 15mm of
fluorescent pigment is a suitable tracer for
climate change impacts of Bollworm in South model resolution such that the coarse scale rain. The benchmark model development work
mancozeb formulations, (ii) develop a mancozeb
African agricultural landscapes. under-, and then over-predicted core-body showed that the staining technique was useful
spray deposition benchmark model for apple
temperature (in comparison to the fine-scale for quantifying V. inaequalis infection within 6
scab and (ii) determine the rain fastness of
Methods model) as elevation increased. days, but it underestimated percentage control
different mancozeb treatments (Dithane M-45
Over the past three years we have made relative to the visual assessment of lesions after
800 WP NT, Ventum 800 WP, and Ventum 800
considerable progress in understanding how Conclusion / Discussion 3-4 weeks. Complete control was observed for
WP combined with a sticker-spreader adjuvant
climate and topography affect the performance These systematic discrepancies in our body- all mancozeb concentrations based on visual
Nu-Film P).
and survival of the African Bollworm temperature predictions, and associated fitness lesion assessment. No function could thus be
(Helicoverpa armigera). We have developed a traits, were detected across local and global fitted to deposition quantity data versus disease
biophysical model that translates spatially explicit extents. Our findings help explain why many control. The cellophane agar plate technique
The rain fastness of the three mancozeb
data of climate and terrain into the microclimates previous studies detect either larger or smaller was optimized for the in vitro production of V.
treatments was studied by quantifying the
encountered by the different life-history stages distributions when comparing model outputs that inaequalis conidium inoculum.
percentage fluorescent pigment loss using
of the Bollworm on its host apple tree. Once have been run at multiple resolutions.
macorphotography, fluorometry and image
conditions in the Bollworms immediate Conclusion / Discussion
analyses and the percentage loss in mancozeb
environment are determined, the model The study provided valuable information for
residues (manganese ions). Benchmark
calculates the animals core-body temperature, the assessment of mancozeb deposition,
development involved apple seedling leaves
and then draws on established datasets to

Annual Report | 42
mancozeb rainfastness, and benchmark model were tested for sensitivity to cyprodinil, dodine on their distribution and abundance, which has life-stages could play a role in predicting the
development. The yellow fluorescent pigment can and mancozeb. significant implications for pest management impact of ramping rate variation under natural
be used as an excellent cost effective tracer for strategies. For holometabolous insects, it is of conditions.
mancozeb deposition on apple seedling leaves, Key Results particular importance to establish the life-stage-
and will also be helpful for identifying trends on Botrytis cinerea baseline sensitivity for related variation in acute critical thermal limits Conclusion / Discussion
the effect of rain on the persistence of mancozeb. pyrimethanil was found to be at EC50= 0.18 to activity and survival. Larvae of FCM are able to survive a much
Mancozeb is relative rain fast following the ug ml-1 (range 0.09-0.40 ug ml-1). Significant broader thermal range of conditions than
application of 5 to 15mm rainfall at moderate shifts towards resistance were identified We aimed to fill the crucial knowledge gap of adults. This has significant implications for
intensity. Although a benchmark model could in B. cinerea isolates towards pyrimethanil thermal tolerance limits in adult and larval false population dynamics modelling and post-
not be developed, a rapid staining technique for when tested at the discriminatory dose (29% codling moth (FCM), Thaumatotibia leucotreta harvest fruit disinfestation. Although larvae
quantification of V. inaequalis disease severity resistant). At the discriminatory dose mycelial by examining thermal tolerance (upper and are more tolerant to a wider range of acute
was identified that can be optimized further. growth was inhibited in 93 % isolates with lower thermal limits) using a variety of different thermal conditions, adults are more plastic
benomyl, 99.4 % with fludioxonil, and 95% tolerance measures. We investigated the effect (able to adjust to novel conditions). It is critical
with iprodione. Venturia inaequalis isolates from of different rates of heating and cooling on that any attempt to forecast or predict mortality
an abandoned orchard (baseline population) critical thermal limits as well as rapid heat owing to thermal stress considers life-stage
D EV EL OPMENT O F A had a mean EC50 of 0.88 ug ml-1 for hardening (acute plasticity) and survival assays related variation, and is mindful of both basal
FUNGI C I DE S EN S ITIV ITY cyprodinil (range 0.06-3.90 ug ml-1), and across the different life stages. We specifically and inducible forms of tolerance depending on
0.08 ug ml-1 for dodine (range 0.01- 0.58 ug tested the prediction, generated from dynamic the time-scales under consideration.
M O N I TORI NG SE RV IC E F O R ml-1). ramping assays, that a life-stage with a
SA POME FRUI T PATHO G E N S strong positive association between thermal
Conclusion / Discussion tolerance estimates and ramping rate show less
C Lennox (Stellenbosch University) Results suggest that pyrimethanil sensitivity pronounced hardening responses. SU RV EY OF STEM CA NKERS
levels in B. cinerea have shifted towards A ND DIEBA CK SYMPTOMS
resistance and that botryticides involving Methods
Objectives & Rationale
dicarboximides, or phenylpyrrole group Using a suite of standard lab thermal tolerance
Several pome fruit fungicides are at risk for
fungicide resistance development due to the fungicides could effectively control grey mould assays we tested the ability of FCM larvae and A ND POSSIBLE INOCU LU M
nature of the pathogen and the site directed on pears. The tested V. inaequalis population adults to survive and remain active across a SOU RCES
activity of the chemicals. Monitoring of shifts in was found to be sensitive to cyprodinil, dodine diverse range of thermal conditions.
fungicide sensitivity requires prior knowledge and mancozeb.
L Mostert (Stellenbosch University)
of sensitivity in fungal pathogen populations. Key Results
Baseline fungicide sensitivity of Botrytis cinerea Final-instar larvae are generally more tolerant
Objectives & Rationale
(causing pear grey mould) and Venturia to a broader range of thermal conditions
The occurrence of canker/ dieback pathogens
inaequalis (causing apple scab) was tested. HIG H TEMP E RATURE than adults (lethal temperature range: larvae
was assessed on plants sampled from rootstock
D ISINF ESTATION OF FAL SE 61.2C vs. adults 49.2C following 2 h
mother layer blocks as well as visually healthy
exposure). Larvae show a stronger positive
Methods C O DL ING MOTH L ARVAE effect of ramping rate on critical thermal
nursery apple trees. Also, the sampling of one-
Botrytis cinerea baseline fungicide sensitivities year-old commercial orchards was completed.
were compared to fungal isolates from pear estimates than adults, but adults were
trees previously exposed to botryticides from J Terblanche (Stellenbosch University) more thermally plastic, supporting the
three orchards, which were tested for fungicide aforementioned hypothesis. The difference in
Asymptomatic shoots from rootstock layers
sensitivity to benomyl, fludioxonil, iprodione, Objectives & Rationale basal and plastic thermal tolerance between
blocks and shoots with cankers (if present)
and pyrimethanil at discriminatory doses The factors affecting thermal limits of insects life-stages suggests there are trade-offs
were sampled and isolations made. Certified,
(N=45). Venturia inaequalis isolates (N= 42) are of central importance to predicting the between these in T. leucotreta, indicating that
healthy nursery trees were collected from
influence of changing environmental conditions hardening effects and their variation among

43 | HORTGRO Science
four nurseries. Isolations were made from the nursery trees evaluated harboured canker an additional biological tool for the control of
scion shoot, bud union, pruning wound on or wood rot pathogens. Dieback causing CM has not yet been exploited in South Africa.
the rootstock and rootstock. The fungal taxa pathogens were mostly isolated from the Further research into the use of EPNs under
were identified with DNA sequencing and bud union and the pruning wound on the suboptimal environmental field conditions, REPLA NT DISEA SE U SING
comparisons with an international sequence rootstock. Didymosphaeria sp. was the most and into the use of EPF in an integrated pest PH OSPH ONATES
database. One-year-old trees showing predominant fungus isolated. Fungal taxa management (IPM) system, is required.
symptoms of dieback or cankers were collected in the Botryosphaeriaceae, Basidiomycetes,
Diatrypaceae, Diaporthales, Coniochaetales
A McLeod (Stellenbosch University)
from young orchards and analysed in a similar The success of EPF in controlling a wide range
way. and species of Phaeoacremonium, all known of insect pests indicates the method to be a
Objectives & Rationale
canker or wood rot pathogens of fruit trees biological control option for the control of CM.
The major apple replant disease (ARD)
Key Results were isolated as well. Several EPF, including Beauveria spp., and
pathogens in South Africa consist of
Young orchards Metarrhizium spp., have been found to attack
oomycetes, with plant parasitic nematodes also
Forty percent of the 130 trees evaluated Conclusion / Discussion CM.
sometimes being involved. The first aim for
harboured canker causing pathogens. Cankers The high infection percentage of the bud
this reporting period is to determine whether
were mostly observed on the scion shoot of unions and pruning wounds indicate that aerial Furthermore, the issues relating to the use
semi-selective chemicals (phenylamides,
the trees, but also on the pruning wound, inoculum is present at the time these wounds of EPN during the winter months under
fenamiphos, imidacloprid and phosphonates)
rootstock, and the bud union. Didymosphaeria are made in the nurseries. The protection of suboptimal conditions, and to the inconsistent
can increase tree performance in orchards
sp. was the most predominant fungus isolated pruning wounds is necessary and budding results found in field trials aimed at the control
established on ARD non-fumigated and
followed by Diplodia seriata and Eutypella practices needs to be improved. The removal of the diapausing winter larval population
fumigated soils. The other aims will be to
citricola. Soil analyses revealed high phosphor of rootstock plants with cankers. for future commercial application, have
determine the best time and method of
levels and in the majority of orchards too low still to be resolved. Some of the previous
application for phosphonate treatment of non-
pH, indicative of suboptimal soil conditions. field trials gave disappointing results with
bearing apple trees, and whether oomycete
commercially available nematode formulations,
replant pathogens are sensitive to phosphite.
Rootstock mother material R ING NEMATODE in comparison to those that were obtained with
Of the asymptomatic shoots (405) in layer (C RICONEMOIDE S our local nematode isolates.
The efficacy of ARD management with semi-
blocks 21% had infections. Didymellacaea
X E NOP L AX), DISTRIB UTION, selective chemicals on fumigated and non-
spp. was the most predominant fungal taxa This project will be aimed at building on
isolated followed by Truncutella angustata. C HA RACTE RIZ ATION AND previous research that has been undertaken
fumigated soil were evaluated in four orchards
using tree growth performance and pathogen
In blocks with transplanted rootstocks, 87 C ULTURE with CM and EPNs. A second tool for use in
quantifications. Of the semi-selective chemicals,
shoots with cankers were sampled and 41% IPM would be to incorporate EPN and EPF
phenylamide, fenamiphos and imidacloprid
had canker causing pathogens. The most individually, and in combination, into an IPM
A Malan (Stellenbosch University) were only applied at planting as a soil drench,
predominant pathogens from the shoots with system directed towards the effective control
whereas phosphonates were applied annually.
cankers were Diplodia seriata, followed of autumn, winter and spring diapausing CM
Objectives & Rationale The effect of timing (winter versus summer) and
by Valsa malicola. The shoots with cankers population.
Codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (L.), is application method (soil drench, stem spray,
also had fruiting bodies of canker causing
the most important pest of apples and pears stem paint and foliar sprays) on phosphonate
in South Africa. Currently, mating disruption translocation to roots were evaluated in two
and chemical control is a standard practice, orchards on non-bearing apple trees by
Nursery plants
while the use of parasitic wasps and of measuring root phosphite concentrations. The
In total 480 visually healthy nursery trees were
entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) for the sensitivity of different oomycete ARD pathogens
analysed. The majority of the pruning wounds
control of CM is still in the experimental phase. to phosphite will be determined in vitro and in
and the bud unions had vascular discoloration.
The infection levels of the nurseries ranged
The use of entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) as
from 51% to 71%. Sixty-five percent of the
Annual Report | 44
Based on the results of four ARD orchard trials, the most important variables that explain
two in their second and two in their third year the data.
of growth, the application of semi-selective
chemicals show potential for managing ARD in S PATIAL ANALYSIS WITH Key Results OF FRU IT FLIES U SING
orchards planted on non-fumigated soil, since MONITORING DATA OF The set milestones for objective two to ENTOMOPATH OGENIC FU NGI
similar tree growth responses were observed MAJ OR P E STS F OR THE four have been achieved. All necessary A ND NEMATODES A S WELL
as on fumigated soils. However, at one monitoring data have been incorporated into
orchard trial the semi-selective only treatment
PURP OSES OF AREA-WIDE a Geographic Information System with the
tended to be less effective than some, but not MANAGEMENT relevant ecological data. Analysis of the Fruit
all, of the fumigant treatments. The application Fly data have been done in the EGVV area. P Addison (Stellenbosch University)
of semi-selective chemicals to trees grown on P Addison (Stellenbosch University) The results show that Medfly distribution is
fumigated soil did not improve tree growth aggregated in the early season (November Objectives & Rationale
relative to the fumigated only treatments. The Objectives & Rationale and December). The areas where the The aim of this project is to find suitable
evaluation of different times and methods 1. Incorporate fruit fly, false codling moth aggregations occur are strongly associated biological control agents for Ceratitis capitata
of phosphonate applications showed that in and codling moth monitoring data with citrus fruits. Moreover, according to in the form of entomopathogenic fungi,
both trials, the best application method was from Fruit Fly Africa, XSIT and Elgin the long term monitoring data for Medfly in nematodes and parasitoid wasps, which can
stem painting since it yielded the highest and producers, respectively, into a geo- the EGVV area, the Villiersdorp and eastern be incorporated into current management
most persistent root phosphite concentrations. database. Together with corresponding Vyeboom areas tend to have clustering of high practices, such as SIT and reduced-risk
Following summer applications, root phosphite environmental variables in order to trap catches in general. Classification and pesticides in South Africa, to improve area-
concentrations declined rapidly. The decline in spatially analyse the monitoring data. regression tree (CART) analysis was performed wide pest management.
root phosphite concentrations were somewhat 2. Investigate the variation in the spatial to explain the spatial variation in fruit fly trap
less following winter applications, but this patterns of Mediterranean Fruit fly catches throughout the season in the EGVV Methods
differed in the two trials. (Medfly). area making use of various explanatory Since commencement of this project, fieldwork
3. Which variables are most influential in variables. These variables could only explain has been conducted to collect soil in order to
Semi-selective chemicals may have potential for determining these spatial patterns. the long term spatial variation in fruit fly trap isolate entomopathogens. Several have been
managing ARD, but continued tree growth and catches and not the weekly/seasonal spatial isolated using wax moth larvae and meal
yield measurements are required in the four Methods variation in the trap catches. worms and then preserved.
experimental orchards. Characterization and 1. Incorporate monitoring data into a
quantification of the pathogen complex will Geographic Information System (Data Several local known EPN species along with
also be important, and must still be conducted. management procedure). Conclusion / Discussion one isolate obtained during the soil surveys
The highest root phosphite concentrations in 2. Optimized hotspot analysis (ArcGIS Following the optimized hotpot analysis has been screened against late instar larvae
non-bearing apple trees can be obtained by 10.3.1) to investigate spatial patterns. performed on the data, our attention was of C. capitata by exposing the larvae to
stem paint application. Since root phosphite This analysis identifies statistically focussed on citrus and the winter and spring 100IJs/50L in bioassay plates. Known
concentrations decline over time, especially in significant spatial data clusters of high (population build up period) time periods. EPF species will soon be screened using the
summer, a winter and summer application is values (hot spots) and low values (cold This time period and the areas associated immersion/dipping method.
likely required spots). with citrus seem to play a major role in the
3. Classification and regression tree population size in the fruiting season (Myburgh Fieldwork has been conducted to sample
algorithms. This type of analysis is used 1956). Other possible explanatory variables fruit fly infested fruit to rear out associated
to model the likelihood of occurrence of that might explain the weekly/seasonal parasitoids. These natural enemies will be
a certain event. In the case of this study, variation in the trap catch data will be removed, dried (using Critical Drying Point
to model the likelihood of an increase in investigated further. method), mounted
trap catches. This analysis also identifies

45 | HORTGRO Science
and catalogued before being digitally imaged commercially available nematode formulations, O2 (4%CO2 + 4%O2), the CATTS mixture
and identified. in comparison to those that were obtained with of high CO2 and low O2 at 15% CO2 &
IN CORP ORATING our local nematode isolates. 1% O2, high CO2 (4%CO2) and low O2
Key Results E N TOMOPATHOGENIC (4%O2). Supercooling points and lower lethal
No new isolates of fungi or nematodes have N E MATODES AND F UNGI This project will be aimed at building on temperatures of insects collected in each
been isolated from soil surveys yet, but one IN AN INTE GRATE D P E ST previous research that has been undertaken period were determined.
potential EPN (Heterorhabditis zealandica) with CM and EPNs. A second tool for use in
was used in screening experiments. Screening
MANAGEMENT SYSTEM F OR IPM would be to incorporate EPN and EPF Key Results
of EPNs has yielded promising results, with THE CONTROL OF CODL ING individually, and in combination, into an IPM Results indicate that grain chinch bugs become
C. capitata larval mortality ranging from MOTH system directed towards the effective control of more thermal tolerant further into aestivation.
50-100% for each species. Further statistical autumn, winter and spring diapausing CM However, the application of modified
analyses are in progress to identify the most population. atmospheres reduces both cold and heat
A Malan (Stellenbosch University)
virulent EPN. Fruit fly infested apples, pears, tolerance in grain chinch bugs. Grain chinch
plums, peaches, kei apples and grapes have bugs are extremely cold tolerant, but are
Objectives & Rationale
been sampled and several parasitoids have freeze intolerant.
been reared. Identification of these specimens
Codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (L.), is
the most important pest of apples and pears
are in progress in collaboration with Simon
in South Africa. Currently, mating disruption
(MACCHIADEMU S Conclusion / Discussion
van Noort. Parasitoids reared from tropical
and chemical control is a standard practice, DIP L OP TE RUS) TH ERMA L Since grain chinch bugs become more
fruit in Limpopo by Tertia Grove have also thermal tolerant further into aestivation, the
been mounted and are in the process of being
while the use of parasitic wasps and of B IOL OGY AND TH E development of temperature-based postharvest
imaged and identified.
entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) for the
IMP L ICATIONS FOR POST- treatments must be focused on late aestivating
control of CM is still in the experimental phase.
The use of entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) as
HARVE ST CON TROL bugs. Since modified atmospheric conditions

an additional biological tool for the control of MEASURES reduce grain chinch bug thermal tolerance
Conclusion / Discussion combination treatments or pre-treatments with
CM has not yet been exploited in South Africa.
Many more, and potentially new, modified atmospheres will improve efficacy of
Further research into the use of EPNs under
entomopathogenic isolates are expected from P Addison (Stellenbosch University) temperature treatments.
suboptimal environmental field conditions,
the soil sampling that will take place during
and into the use of EPF in an integrated pest
the coming season (2016/17). Use of EPNs Objectives & Rationale
management (IPM) system, is required.
against C. capitata is showing great potential In order to better understand the thermal
from initial screening efforts. Contribution of biology of Macchiademus diplopterus, grain CATTS AS A POSTHARVEST
The success of EPF in controlling a wide range
parasitoid knowledge (and images) is on-
of insect pests indicates the method to be a
chinch bug, the changes in thermal tolerance, TREATMENT FOR CHILL-
the effect of different modified controlled
going, and a greater sampling effort will
biological control option for the control of
atmospheres on thermal tolerances and the
take place also during the coming season.
CM. Several EPF, including Beauveria spp.,
cold tolerance strategy of aestivating and AND ASSOCIATED
and Metarrhizium spp., have been found to
active grain chinch bugs were investigated. PHYTOSANITARY INSECT PESTS
attack CM. Furthermore, the issues relating
to the use of EPN during the winter months
under suboptimal conditions, and to the S Johnson (Stellenbosch University)
Critical thermal minima and maxima were
inconsistent results found in field trials aimed
determined for bugs collected during mid
at the control of the diapausing winter larval Objectives & Rationale
aestivation, late aestivation and the active
population for future commercial application, Postharvest mitigation treatment is necessary
reproductive period. This was done under
have still to be resolved. Some of the previous to disinfest export fruit of phytosanitary pests,
regular air (RA) and four different modified
field trials gave disappointing results with to minimize the risk of consignments being
controlled atmospheres: high CO2 and low

Annual Report | 46
rejected. Cold temperature as a phytosanitary rate resulting in a decrease in fruit quality of grain chinch bug, as well as the effect of
treatment is effective against a variety of pests, in some cases. The impact of the treatments fumigation on fruit quality, selected plum,
but some stone fruit cultivars are chill-sensitive on the physiology of the fruit with regards to nectarine and pear cultivars (Songold plums,
and therefore cannot be exported using the quality parameters (hue angle, flesh firmness, August Red nectarines, Russet Gold Bosc and CONTROL A GA INST TWO
current cold sterilization regimes. The use of internal and external quality etc.), heat shock Forelle pears) were treated together with live SPORA DIC PESTS IN
CATTS (Controlled Atmosphere Temperature proteins and phospholipid fatty acid content adult grain chinch bugs. Three concentrations of V INEYA RDS A ND ORCH A RDS
Treatment System) was investigated as potential was also assessed. EF were applied (50, 100 and 150 g/m3) t to
postharvest mitigation treatments. examine its effectiveness after 1 h of fumigation
P Addison (Stellenbosch University)
Conclusion / Discussion to control grain chinch bug.
Methods Depending on the insect pest that requires
Objectives & Rationale
The use of CATTS as a chemical free new phytosanitary control, CATTS technology in Central composite design model trial. To
The common method of controlling banded fruit
technology incorporating heat and atmospheric combination with different cold storage regimes determine optimum dose, duration and
weevil (BFW), Phlyctinus callosus (Coleoptera:
stress to control key phytosanitary pests, grain could be used to provide phytosanitary security treatment temperature to achieve 100%
Curculionidae) involves the use of pyrethroids
chinch bug (Macchiadermus diplopterus), for chill-sensitive Japanese plums and expand mortality of the grain chinch bug with no
applied on the tree trunks and on foliage.
banded fruit weevil (Phlyctinus callosus) and market accessibility. phytotoxic effect on Russet Gold Bosc pears,
Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs)
false codling moth (Thaumatotibia leucotreta) a central composite design (CCD) model was
from two families (Heterorhabditidae and
larvae on chill-sensitive Japanese plum cultivars used. A CCD model was compiled for three
Steinernematidae) can be incorporated in
(Prunus salicina Lindl.) was investigated. The different pulp temperatures (0, 10 and 23C) to
an integrated pest management system to
use of ethyl formate as a fumigant to control IN VE STIGATING THE determine if the products temperature at time
control P. callosus which is a key pest of
the grain chinch bug on selected stone and PO TE NTIAL OF ETHY L of treatment play a role in its susceptibility to
grapes, apples and nectarines in South Africa.
pome fruit cultivars was also investigated. damage.
With regards to CATTS, different temperature
FO RMATE F UMIGATION F OR Due to the sporadic nature of katydids in

treatments in combination with controlled PHY TOSANITARY CONTROL Key Results

vineyards, no chemical pesticides have been
registered for this pest and current chemical
atmosphere were cold stored using two O F THE GRAIN CHINCH B UG Ethyl formate achieved a 100% mortality
control measures are mostly ineffective.
different cold storage regimes, namely O N P OME AND STONE F RUIT of grain chinch bug with the dose range of
However, previous research has identified
cold sterilization and intermittent warming, 50 - 150 g/m3 after 1-hour exposure without
possible biological control agents, including
to examine the effectiveness of the CATTS decreasing fruit quality significantly.
S Johnson (Stellenbosch University) entomopathogenic fungi (EPFs) and parasitic
treatments and cold storage as phytosanitary The CCD model was able to provide guidelines
wasps, which can be incorporated into an IPM
pest control while maintaining fruit quality. with regards to dose range and duration which
Objectives & Rationale program.
Fruit quality was evaluated after application of yielded no phytotoxic effect after cold storage
Due to the lack of postharvest mitigation
treatments, after storage and after cold storage plus shelf-life simulation.
treatments for the grain chinch bug, a Methods
plus shelf life simulation.
cold hardy external phytosanitary pest of An Entomopathogenic Fungi for Insect
Conclusion / Discussion
South African export fruit, and the need for Pathology workshop was attended to develop
Key Results Ethyl formate was successful in controlling
alternatives to methyl bromide fumigation, the the necessary skills required for testing EPFs
The grain chinch bugs have proved to be the grain chinch bug without phytotoxic effect.
efficacy of ethyl formate fumigation against against both insect pests. Two EPNs were
most difficult in attaining a 100% mortality This knowledge needs to be expanded to
grain chinch bug was assessed. Ethyl formate evaluated for their virulence and their ability
rate with the selected treatments while still enable commercial application of ethyl
(EF) is considered to be the most promising to suppress populations of P. callosus last
maintaining fruit quality. The banded fruit formate/ VapormateTM for external pests. The
fumigant to replace methyl bromide. instar larvae. The two EPNs were compared
weevil required lower temperatures with development of successful treatments will not
in doseresponse bioassays by exposing the
shorter treatment durations to obtain 100% only help maintain current markets which are
Methods larvae to six infective juvenile (IJ) concentrations
mortality compared to the false codling moth constrained by available mitigation options, but
Efficacy trials. To investigate the effect of (0, 25, 50, 100, 200 and 400). In the assays,
or the grain chinch bug. Both of the latter will also allow for market expansion and growth
fumigation with ethyl formate on the mortality S. yingalemense was more virulent than H.
required more stresses to increase the mortality of the industry.
47 | HORTGRO Science
noenieputensis. The LC50 values were 25 M109). The orchard was planted in 2012 and Conclusion / Discussion
and 50 IJs/insect for S. yingalemense and H. extended in 2013. The orchard is contiguous Fly age, sex and the proximity of host plants
noenieputensis, respectively. and an untreated (trees without nets) area is not
DISP E RSAL CAPA CITY OF influences the distance that B. dorsalis travel
available for comparative purposes. B ACTROCERA DORSA LIS from a point of origin. Based on observations
Conclusion / Discussion of spontaneous flight in the laboratory, higher
S. yingalemense shows good control against P. Standard pest and disease monitoring protocols C Weldon (Stellenbosch University) dispersal ability of younger flies may result
callosus in preliminary laboratory trials at will be followed in the orchard. Pre-harvest fruit from higher numbers of short flights when
100IJs/insect. However, more EPNs must be damage assessments will be carried out by Objectives & Rationale temperatures are suitable.
tried before the pathogen can be incorporated inspecting 10 fruit per tree on 25 trees per The key outcome of this project is to establish
into an integrated pest management system to block. In addition on farm monitoring data the dispersal capacity of the invasive fruit
improve the control of P. callosus. Trials against will be collected. Additional soil sampling will fly, Bactrocera invadens, with regard to
katydids will commence early in the growing be conducted where possible according to environmental and physiological variables. It is
season as soon as immatures are monitored in standard protocols. now recognised that B. invadens is a synonym
the field. for the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.
Key Results
Pest monitoring data indicates the orchard Methods
remains codling moth free, woolly apple aphid Sterile B. dorsalis were used in mark-release-
PEST AND DI S E AS E and banded fruit weevil appear to be an recapture experiments to determine the effects
M O N I TORI NG I N O R C HAR D S increasing problem. A geometrid moth, Cleora of fly maturity, sex and availability of host
tulbaghata has been captured in the orchard fruit on dispersal. To explore the physiological
and causes extensive leaf and shot damage. basis for field dispersal results, the PhD student
Fruit damage assessments indicate that woolly assigned to the project, Mrs Louisa Makumbe,
M Addison (Stellenbosch University) has determined the influence of temperature on
apple aphid and banded fruit weevil are
problematic in the orchard despite routine locomotor activity.
Objectives & Rationale
control measures being applied. Soil sampling
The use of shade netting in apple orchards is
to determine the nematode populations and the Key Results
becoming common place. The effects on the
status of soil health indicate that the soils remain Three of four releases of sterile B. dorsalis
pest and disease complex in covered orchards
disturbed and unbalanced. In addition, root have been completed. Results to date suggest
is poorly understood. This study is aimed at
lesion nematode species are increasing both in that females fly further from the release point
monitoring pests and diseases in a covered
the tree and work row. before being recaptured than males, and that
orchard to determine the effects of shade
this is particularly pronounced when females
netting on the pest and disease complex.
Conclusion / Discussion are released amongst non-host plants. Younger
In addition, aspects such as soil health and
Pest and disease monitoring should continue in males disperse further than older males released
orchard floor management practices will be
the orchard. The orchard is not in full bearing from the same point at the same time. One
assess where possible.
and further growth of trees is expected. The more release is scheduled for October 2016.
project should be extended to assess the effects Bactrocera dorsalis is largely inactive at
of shade netting on orchard floor management temperatures lower than 20C. The frequency
Orchard A23 on Oak Valley Estate in Elgin was
including cover crops. and duration of walking and flight increases
selected for the purpose. The orchard is fully
between 24-32C. At a temperature of 36C,
enclosed with 20% white shade cloth effectively
the duration of resting begins to increase, which
decreasing sunlight by 8%. The orchard is 2.45
may indicate the onset of thermal stress.
ha in extent and is planted to Granny Smith
on a range of rootstocks (CG 222, M7, M9,

Annual Report | 48
The essence of this prog ramme is to
support and enhance the processes across
the supply-chain to ensure that intrinsic
product integ rity is maintained. The latest
Posthar vest Innovation (PHI) prog ramme
comes to an end with f inal reports due on
31 December 2016.

49 | HORTGRO Science
Richard Hurndall

PROFI L E S TONE F RUIT a container optimisation logistics project, Abate Fetel pears did not adhere to the
motivated via the Packhouse Action Group, by FEMA programme in terms of crisp and
Mr Koos Bouwer. sweet
Richard is the Research Stone fruit projects conducted by Experico
Cheeky pears were not crisp enough for
and Development Manager included:
at HORTGRO Science and FEMA programme
Forced Air Cooling (FAC) and Field Heat
also manages the Posthar- Removal (FHR) on plums and apricots P OME F RUIT Survey of Forelle water core
vest P rog ramme for the
Investigate maximum temperature at
organisation. Both Experico and ARC are investigating RA
loading of plums up to 3.0 C Internal browning is receiving attention in Rosy
Glow (SU), and Fuji (Experico). An extensive and CA storage of Abate Fetel pears, and
Testing a 7 mm plunger as a tool to
Forelle research programme, including Forelle Experico is conducting the maturity profiling of
determine flesh firmness of nectarines at
Early Market Access (FEMA), is underway, as Cheeky.
Measuring pulp temperatures of plums in follows:
Anti-scald strategies for Packhams Triumph
Quest shipping containers
Position of fruit on the tree in relation to are receiving attention of Experico (Harvista)
Treating dual-temperature plums with
mealiness (SU), and by Experico: and ARC (DCA), as are the ARC non-chemical
SmartFreshSM, with and without a
The study into the sugar/acid ratio storage technologies for apple.
warming period, to overcome the cold-
sterilisation treatment of Forelle, as an additional maturity
The Horticulture Department looked at the parameter
water vapour peel permeance of plums in Maximum delay for SmartFreshSM A CKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Stone fruit relation to shrivel, and attempting to reduce treatment on FEMA Forelle was established
shrivel with various liner bags. as 14 days (current recommendation 7 The significant contribution of the Postharvest
Posthar vest biocontrol days) for a storage period of 6 weeks. Innovation Programme of the Department of
In addition, a postharvest biocontrol project Williams Bon Chretien pears should only Science and Technology to innovation in the
Internal browning on stone fruit (PHI) is being conducted by the be subjected to a FEMA type programme postharvest field is gratefully acknowledged.
Stellenbosch University Process Engineering if it is harvested at an advanced maturity
RA/C A storage (firmness of 7.4 kg)
Department (Prof Kim Clarke), as well as

Annual Report | 50
IAN CROUCH - Maturity profiling of Cheeky
Received in 2016 *Funded by Forelle Producer Association levy
POST *Funded by Forelle Producer Association levy
and Forelle pears to reduce the risk of
postharvest disorders.
PLUM ARRIE DE KOCK - 7 mm plunger for nectarines.
HANDR VILJOEN - Conducting scanning DANIL VILJOEN - To determine if pear
P roject List trials on additional dual-temperature regime cultivars, other than Forelle, can be successfully PLUM
plums, to enable successful shipping at a single cold stored using the FEMA model. ARRIE DE KOCK - Monitoring Temp and RH in
temperature. Quest containers.


IDA WILSON - Investigation of product residue
levels, and product efficacy for decay control, FINAL PROJECT REPORTS ELMI LOTZE - Moisture loss in plums.
of Monilinia and Botrytis, dependent on Due 2017
method of application, product concentration
and spray volume for two registered products. PEAR KAREN THERON - Peel permeabilities in plums.
ANEL BOTES - Determine the critical minimum
dynamic controlled atmosphere (DCA) storage
IDA WILSON / STEPHAN FERREIRA- The exposure periods to inhibit superficial scald ARRIE DE KOCK - Revision of temperature
prevalence of Botrytis cinerea in and on plums. and the effects of CA and RA storage periods tolerance at loading for plums.
following DCA storage on superficial scald
development of Packhams Triumph pears.
KAREN THERON - Moisture loss studies in ARRIE DE KOCK - Optimum cooling and
APPLE, PEAR transport temperatures for plums from areas
ANEL BOTES - Non-chemical storage situated far from cooling facilities/depots.
KIM CLARKE - Production of antimicrobial technologies for apple and pear superficial
scald prevention. APRICOT
lipopeptides by Bacillus spp for biological
control of postharvest phytopathogens on stone ARRIE DE KOCK - The effect of temperature
fruit. APPLE from orchard to cold store on apricot quality,
ELKE CROUCH - Harvest and storage specific to areas removed from cold storage
APPLE, PEAR, PLUM, PEACH conditions/duration on internal browning of facilities.
KOOS BOUWER - Optimisation of cargo freight APPLE
capacity utilisation in refrigerated shipping ELKE CROUCH - Harvest and storage conditions/
containers, and associated logistics.
HELEEN TAYLER - Physiological profiling on duration on internal browning of Rosy Glow.

PEAR Rosy Glow apples harvested at different

maturities, with special reference to internal APPLE
STEPHAN FERREIRA - Detection and
browning development potential. HELEEN TAYLER - Physiological profiling of
quantification of Botrytis cinerea on pears.
Rosy Glow harvested at different maturities for
PEAR internal browning.
DANIL VILJOEN - Determine the minimum
flesh firmness of Forelle FEMA fruit.* APPLE
DANIL VILJOEN - Internal browning in Fuji.
IAN CROUCH - Extended cold storage of Abate APPLE, PEAR
Fetel pears. ANEL BOTES - Optimum CA storage of Abate
Fetel pears.
51 | HORTGRO Science
ANEL BOTES - Determine the critical minimum ELKE CROUCH - Harvest and storage conditions ELKE CROUCH - Investigate different step SMA RTFRESH S M A ND/OR
duration influencing internal browning and fruit
dynamic controlled atmosphere (DCA) storage
quality of Rosy Glow.
down cooling regimes in conjunction with
exposure periods to inhibit superficial scald SmartFreshSM for Cripps Pink to ensure year
and the effects of CA and RA storage periods round supply SU CCESSFU L SH IPPING
following DCA storage on superficial scald PEAR
development of Packhams Triumph pears. DANIL VILJOEN - Determine the effect of PEAR
sugar/acid ratio and other maturity indices DANIL VILJOEN - Assess IB development
PEAR on the eating quality of Forelle pears destined potential from high watercore incidence FEMA TEMPERATU RE OF 0.55C
ANEL BOTES - Optimum CA storage of Abate for the FEMA programme, as a means of Forelle FOR 24 DAYS FOR COLD-
Fetel pears. improving the FEMA release criteria.*
IAN CROUCH - Extended cold storage of Abate Research facilities
H Viljoen, Experico
Fetel pears for EU market.
APPLE Approved for 2017 ANEL BOTES - Optimisation of RLOS protocol Objectives & Rationale
DANIL VILJOEN - Assessment of accumulation for superficial scald prevention on Packhams This project was conducted to establish if
PLUM Triumph pears SmartFreshSM application and warming treatments
DPA residues throughout storage and packing
facilities. I WILSON / ARRIE DE KOCK - Survey and utilized during cold storage can counter quality
investigation on the impact of various fungicide APPLE losses which may develop during cold-sterilization
PEAR application methods and technologies on STEPHAN FERREIRA - Pre and post-harvest
treatment of plums traditionally stored at dual-
IAN CROUCH - Identification of factors involved decay control of plums in the pack-house. monitoring of Alternaria spp in orchards with
and control of astringency in pears. historically high incidence of dry core rot
ARRIE DE KOCK - Develop optimum ripening Methods
ELKE CROUCH - Post-harvest Forelle mealiness protocol arriving too green or too firm in the Five cultivars were sourced from Franschhoek,
development, detected at harvest by CT-X market. Montagu and Stellenbosch over three seasons,
ray scanning and semi-commercial colour and subjected to the different treatments and
pre-sorting influenced by canopy position at temperature regimes as indicated in the report.
S FERREIRA / I WILSON - Quantifying the
harvest as well as pollination. The fruit were evaluated after applicable cold
presence of Botrytis cinerea, Monolinia laxa,
storage periods and after a subsequent shelf life
PEAR Penicillium expansum before harvest in plums
and correlation of relative pathogen presence period of 5 days at 10 C.
DANIL VILJOEN - To determine the maximum
to decay after shelf-life.
delay in SmartFreshSM application from harvest
Key Results
to room filling for fruit destined for the FEMA
APPLE, PEAR Cultivar differences were evident. Quality
ANEL BOTES - Effect of DPA on quality of pome maintenance of African Rose, Sapphire, Fortune
fruit. and Ruby Red plums were best maintained
HELEEN TAYLER - Physiological profiling on over the 3 seasons of testing, by applying
Rosy Glow apples harvested at different SmartFreshSM during the accumulation period,
maturities, with special reference to internal followed by no warming before shipping
different step down cooling regimes in
browning development potential. [T6] and applying SmartFreshSM during the
conjunction with SmartFreshSM for Cripps Pink
to ensure year round supply. accumulation period, followed by 3 days
warming at 20C before shipping [T4]. However,

Annual Report | 52
quality maintenance of African Rose, Sunkiss and days, to simulate shelf life. Brown rot and grey and sugar levels may remain constant and
Sapphire (based on end of cold storage results mould decay in fruit was evaluated, to estimate not change over 2 or 3 weeks. This has
of Sapphire) plums were also maintained by
IN V ESTIGATION ON the efficacy of decay control. led to scrutiny of other parameters, and in
applying SmartFreshSM during the accumulation PR ODUCT RE SIDUE L EVE L S, particular the sugar/acid ratio as a possible
period, followed by 10 days warming at 7.5C AN D P RODUCT E F F ICACY Key Results means of an alternative and more accurate
before shipping [T1] in some of the seasons. F O R DE CAY CONTROL , OF The different application methodologies had means of releasing an orchard under these
Quality maintenance was worst by not applying a marked influence on decay control. In some circumstances.
SmartFreshSM during the accumulation period,
MONIL INIA AND B OTRYTIS, instances decay observed by dipping plums in
followed by no warming or 3 days warming at D E P ENDENT ON ME THOD fungicide solutions was significantly less than The aim of this study is therefore to assess
20C before shipping [T7 and T5, respectively]. O F AP P L ICATION, P RODUCT when fungicides were applied with an atomiser, sugar and acid levels and their ratio, on the
C O NCE NTRATION AND with resultant residues also being notably lower. eating quality of FEMA fruit, and to determine
Conclusion / Discussion Volume of application also notably influenced if this could be used as an additional means
Cultivar differences were evident. Quality
S PRAY VOL UME F OR TWO the levels decay control observed. of releasing an orchard in years when flesh
maintenance of African Rose, Sapphire, Fortune R E GISTE RED P RODUCTS ON firmness does not drop as quickly as expected.
and Ruby Red plums were best maintained PLUMS, NE CTARINE S AND Conclusion / Discussion
over the 3 seasons of testing, by applying PE ACHE S Results from this study indicate that decay Methods
SmartFreshSM during the accumulation period, control strategies should not solely rely on the Forelle pears harvested at different maturities
followed by no warming before shipping use of available products, but that decay control from three of the major growing areas were
I Wilson, Experico
[T6] and applying SmartFreshSM during the may be optimised by refining and optimising treated with 600 ppb SmartFreshSM within 7
accumulation period, followed by 3 days application methods and technologies. days after harvest and stored for 5 weeks at
Objectives & Rationale
warming at 20C before shipping [T4]. However, Following best practises can be of huge value to -0.5C. Evaluations conducted were maturity
Significant post-harvest losses occur in stone
quality maintenance of African Rose, Sunkiss and the industry. at harvest, SmartFreshSM efficacy testing, start
fruit as a result of brown rot (Monilinia laxa)
Sapphire (based on end of cold storage results of shelf life after 5 weeks cold storage and end
and grey mould (Botrytis cinerea) decay, but
of Sapphire) plums were also maintained by of shelf life after a simulated shelf life at 20C
only a few products are registered for the
applying SmartFreshSM during the accumulation for 7 days after cold storage. Fruit were also
control of such decay. Despite the cost and
period, followed by 10 days warming at 7.5C TO DETERMINE TH E EFFECT subjected to a basic sensory evaluation.
effort of fungicide application, inadequate
before shipping [T1] in some of the seasons.
decay control is regularly experienced. The OF SUGAR / A CID RATIO
Quality maintenance was worst by not applying
aim of this study was to investigate fungicide AND OTHER MATU RITY Key Results
SmartFreshSM during the accumulation period, Fruit from the first population was harvested at
followed by no warming or 3 days warming at
application methods and technologies to PARAMETERS ON TH E firmness lower than 6.0 kg for Harvests 2-4.
elucidate those which are optimal for decay
20C before shipping [T7 and T5, respectively]. E ATING QUALITY OF FORELLE TSS levels were lower than 14% and acidity
P EARS DE STINED FOR TH E was lower 0.10%. Fruit from the other two

Methods F E MA P ROGR A MME, A S A populations had firmness higher than 6.0 kg

for the first three harvests with TSS levels higher
Plums, nectarines or peaches were injured ME ANS OF IMPROV ING TH E than 14%. Acidity at harvest was higher than
and inoculated with either Botrytis cinerea, or
F E MA RE L EAS E CRITERIA 0.15% for Population 2 and higher than 0.24%
Monilinia laxa to induce fungal infection and
for Population 3. The fruit that had the best
decay. Different methods (only plums), volumes
and dosages were used to apply fungicides
D Viljoen, Experico eating experience was from Population 1.

Scholar (a.i Fludioxonil), or Rovral (a.i.

Objectives & Rationale Conclusion / Discussion
Iprodione) to fruit. Fruit were cold stored at
One of the major challenges with FEMA From the 2016 results it is evident that acidity
-0.5C for 4 weeks, followed by 10 C for 4
Forelle pears is that in many instances the might have a greater influence on taste than
two major release parameters, flesh firmness TSS. At low acidity levels TSS might have a

53 | HORTGRO Science
greater influence on taste than at high acid Key Results Conclusion / Discussion the urgent need for alternative control
levels. It is thus recommended that different 2014 Williams Bon Chretien pears should only be strategies. The aim of the project is to optimise
acidity classes should be established where Ripening of Williams Bon Chretien (WBC) and subjected to a FEMA type programme if it is an effective alternative technique to the use
each class has its own sugar/acid ratio Abate Fetel pears was successfully retarded by harvested at an advanced maturity (firmness of DPA by determining the critical time period
boundary values. the application of SmartFreshSM. Pears subjected of 7.4 kg). This firmness was only attained 3 that fruit needs to be exposed to DCA storage
to SmartFreshSM exhibited greener fruit, weeks after commercial harvest which could conditions to inhibit superficial scald, and the
decreased incidence of especially senescent be a risk in terms of fruit drop and green skin effects of RA storage following DCA storage on
breakdown in WBC pears, and lower internal colour loss. Abate Fetel pears did not adhere the development of superficial scald.
T O DETERMI NE IF PE AR ethylene levels than untreated control fruit. to the FEMA programme in terms of crisp
CU LTI VARS OTH E R and sweet. Fruit lacked sweetness and were Methods
not as juicy. It is therefore not recommended Optimum harvested Packhams Triumph pears
Flesh firmness of Williams Bon Chretien pears to subject Abate Fetel pears to a FEMA type from the Ceres and Grabouw production areas
SU C C ES S FUL LY C O LD S TO R E D dropped from 9.0 kg to 7.4 kg between Harvest programme. were used. Fruit were stored at DCA conditions
USING THE FEMA MO D E L BY 1 and 4. Fruit of the first three harvests treated for 5 d, 2 w, 4 w, 8 w, 12 w, 16 w and 20 w
H A RVES TI NG F R UIT AT A with SmartFreshSM did not ripen below 6.9 Cheeky pears were not crisp enough. Fruit and then subjected to additional RA periods for
subjected to SmartFreshSM tended to be 6 w and 10 w and shelf life periods for 0 and
M O RE ADVANCE D MATUR ITY kg after shelf life, regardless of storage time.
Only fruit harvested three weeks after optimum rubbery and generally more consumers 7 d at 20C to determine the critical minimum
A ND THEN RETAR D IN G (Harvest 4) stored for 8 weeks or longer ripened preferred untreated fruit regarding taste. It is exposure periods to control superficial scald
R IPE NI NG THRO UG H THE below 4.0 kg during shelf life. However, these therefore not recommended to subject Cheeky effectively. Intermittent DCA and Initial Low
USE OF S MARTFR E S H SM fruit exhibited much higher colour loss. fruit to a FEMA type of program without Oxygen Stress treatments followed by CA were
Firmness of Abate Fetel pears (two populations) additional research. also included in the trials. Quality evaluations
varied between different harvests. Regardless of were conducted on fruit of each treatment at
D Viljoen, Experico
harvest time and storage time, fruit treated with each storage period combination according

Objectives & Rationale SmartFreshSM did not ripen to an acceptable to industry standards. The main focus was on

To determine if pear cultivars, other than firmness below 4.0 kg during shelf life. ALTERNATIVE S FOR TH E U SE the development of superficial scald during

Forelle can be successfully cold stored using OF DPA: CRIT ICA L MINIMU M evaluations.

the FEMA model by harvesting fruit at a more 2016

Abate Fetel pears advanced in harvest Key Results
advanced maturity and then retarding ripening
maturity with each progressive harvest. TSS
P E RIODS F OL LOWED BY DCA successfully inhibited the development
through the use of SmartFreshSM.
levels however, did not increase as expected. RA AND CA S TORA GE TO of superficial scald on Packhams Triumph

Methods Consumers preferred untreated control fruit from INHIB IT SUP ERFICIA L SCA LD from Grabouw and Ceres production areas

Williams Bon Chretien (2014 and 2015), Harvests 1 and 2 according to post-storage
ON PACKHAMS TRIU MPH for up to 20 w storage followed by 6 w and
taste evaluations. Untreated control fruit for 10 w simulated shipment with 7 day shelf-life.
Abate Fetel (2014 2016) and Cheeky (2016)
these two harvests were most likely riper, fitting
P E ARS ILOS+CA controlled superficial scald for 16 w
pears were harvested at optimum followed by
in with the general idea of a soft and juicy pear. followed by 6 w and 10 w simulated shipment
two additional harvests within 2 weeks after
Consumers preferred SmartFreshSM treated fruit A Botes, Agricultural Research Council with 7 day shelf-life. The 14 day break in DCA
release. Pears were subjected to a 600 ppb
to untreated fruit from Harvest 3. It is most likely did not influence the control of superficial scald
SmartFreshSM application within 7 days after
that the untreated fruit were overripe. Objectives & Rationale for up to 32 w with 7 day shelf-life. No off-tastes
harvest and stored for 6, 8 and 12 weeks. After
Cheeky pears advanced in harvest maturity with Previously, the South African apple and pear were detected at any of the treatments.
storage pears were subjected to a 7 day shelf
each progressive harvest. TSS levels however, industry relied on diphenylamine (DPA) for
life at 20C. Evaluations were conducted after
did not increase. No trend occurred regarding controlling superficial scald disorder; however,
cold storage and at the end of shelf life.
taste between different harvests or between increasing consumer concerns and reductions
different storage times. in maximum residue levels (MRLs) highlighted

Annual Report | 54
Conclusion / Discussion Key Results Rosy Glow internal browning.
DCA and ILOS+CA proved to be a good RLOS+ULO-CA, RLOS+CA and DCA was
alternative to the use of DPA to control effective in preventing superficial scald on Methods
superficial scald on Packhams Triumph pears pre-optimum and optimum Granny Smith up to Fruit were harvested at <40% and >50% starch PENETROMETER PLU NGER
from Grabouw and Ceres production areas. 8 months with 14 day shelf-life. Core flush is breakdown (SB) for the harvest maturity trial TO DETERMINE H A RV EST
a problem for the longer storage periods. All (Trial 1) and <40% SB for the storage duration, MATU RITY IN NECTA RINES
treatments resulted in firmer fruit and better skin temperature, 1-MCP (Trial 2) and tree age trial
colour retention, with generally no differences (Trial 3). Trial 1 and 3 fruit were stored for 7
A de Kock, Experico
NO N - C HEMI C AL S TO R AG E between them. RLOS+ULO-CA and RLOS+CA months in CA (1% CO2 and 1.5% O2) plus 6
T ECHNOL OGI ES FO R APPLE was effective in preventing superficial scald on weeks in air at -0.5 C and 7 days at 20 C
Objectives & Rationale
A ND PEAR S UP E R FIC IAL optimum Packhams Triumph up to 10 months and evaluated after each period. Trial 2 fruit
Flesh firmness as an important harvest
with 14 day shelf-life. These treatments resulted treated with or without 1-MCP, were stored at
SCA L D P REVEN TIO N in firmer fruit with better skin colour retention, -0.5 C or 2 C and evaluated after 3, 5 and
maturity parameter is currently determined
on nectarines with a penetrometer fitted with
with generally no differences between them. No 7 months in CA plus 6 weeks in RA and 7 day
an 11 mm plunger. In late cultivars that are
A Botes. Agricultural Research Council off-tastes were detected. shelf-life periods.
harvested relatively firm the use of the 11
mm plunger proved to be problematic since
Objectives & Rationale Conclusion / Discussion Key Results
firmness readings are highly variable. The aim
Previously, the South African apple and pear RLOS and DCA prove to be effective in preventing Diffuse (DB), radial (RB), and combination (CB)
of this trial was to determine if 7 mm plungers
industry relied on diphenylamine (DPA) for superficial scald development on Granny Smith as well as CO2 browning were observed.
can be used to provide accurate flesh firmness
controlling superficial scald disorder; however, for long term storage. RLOS also prohibited Optimum harvest fruit was less susceptible to DB
readings for nectarines.
increasing consumer concerns and reductions superficial scald development on Packhams and RB. 1-MCP treated fruit had a lower
in maximum residue levels (MRLs) highlighted Triumph. It is however important to take other internal browning incidence and no tree age
the urgent need for alternative control quality parameters into consideration when storing effect was observed (4th and 7th leaf). DB and
Four nectarine cultivars were harvested at
strategies. These alternative technologies for 8 or 10 months, such as possible core flush on RB were first observed after 5 months in CA plus
regular intervals starting 4 to 7 days prior to the
need to be tested for the South African pome apples and decay on pears. 6 weeks RA at -0.5 C.
expected commercial harvest date. In total there
fruit industry to determine whether superficial
were 3 harvest maturities for each cultivar. At
scald incidence is prevented during long Conclusion / Discussion
each harvest the flesh firmness was determined
term storage, and if it contributes to better Diffuse browning was the main type of
with a penetrometer fitted with plungers of 11
fruit quality and shelf-life. The overall aim HARVEST AND STORAGE browning present. Post-harvest maturity (>50%
mm and 7 mm in diameter. Fruit from each
of this project is to examine the potential of C O N DITION P L US DURATION SB) played a significant role in Rosy Glow
cultivar was divided into treatments that were
non-chemical storage technologies to control
superficial scald in Granny Smith and
IN F L UENCING INTERNAL browning development. Fruit quality was better
pre-ripened to approximately 8 kg in flesh
retained at -0.5 C than at 2 C in this season,
Packhams Triumph. BR OWNING AND F RUIT while 1-MCP treated fruit quality was better
firmness using a 11 mm plunger and treatments
that were not pre-ripened. Standard deviations
Q U AL ITY OF ROSY GL OW maintained than control fruit over time. Orchard
were determined for flesh firmness of each of
Methods influence was observed on Rosy Glow
the harvest maturities to determine the variability
Granny Smith was harvested at two maturities E Crouch, Stellenbosch University browning and requires further investigation.
in the firmness readings. The fruit was then cold
and four treatments (RLOS+ULO-CA, RLOS+CA,
stored for 4 weeks at -0.5C and evaluated,
DCA and RA) were applied. Three treatments Objectives & Rationale
before and after a shelf life of 5 days at 10C,
(RLOS+ULO-CA, RLOS+CA, DCA and RA) Rosy Glow is regarded prone to internal flesh
for flesh firmness, decay, shrivel and internal
were applied to optimum harvested Packhams browning. This study investigated tree age,
Triumph. Fruit quality evaluations were done harvest maturity, storage temperature,
after each shelf-life period. 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment and
storage duration in CA as factors influencing
55 | HORTGRO Science
Key Results -1.1 C. On average the temperature was -0.5 external fruit quality as well as the incidence of
Generally the standard deviation in flesh C. Pulp temperatures were around -0.5 C and shrivel were inspected after cold storage and
firmness at harvest was higher when the 11
MONITORING OF declined marginally during shipping, as was after a simulated shelf-life period. Fruit weight
mm plunger was used compared to the 7 mm TE M P ERATURE AND the case in container 1. RH ranged between 70 loss during the storage period was determined
plunger. This could be an indication that the R E L ATIVE HUMIDITY and 76%. by weighing the fruit in the bottom tray of 3
variation in flesh firmness for fruit harvested at LE VE L S IN QUEST SHIP P ING reps per treatment, before and after storage.
specific sizes or skin colour will be less when Conclusion / Discussion
the 7 mm plunger is used. For Alpine, August
C O NTAINERS Pulp temperatures measured on plums in the Key Results
Red, and September Bright nectarines, the fruit middle of the shipping containers were good, No treatment differences were seen in terms
from the first harvests generally developed less A de Kock, Experico at approximately -0.5C. In one shipping of shrivel, decay, respiration rate, ethylene
internal problems and decay compared to fruit container the air temperature at the cold air production, or weight loss for Laetitia or
from the last harvest. The 7 mm plunger as a Objectives & Rationale inlet position (pallet position 2) tended to be Songold. Significant differences were seen
tool to determine flesh firmness at harvest could The objective of this study was to record on the low side at -1.5 C for much of the between treatments in shrivel incidence and
potentially allow producers to harvest early delivery air temperature directly next to the containerization period. This could possibly weight loss with African Delight. The control
without incurring rejections due to variation cold air inlet and in pallet position 17, as lead to cold damage in certain instances. (shrivel sheet) had the highest incidence of
in flesh firmness at harvest. Summerfire (non- well as relative humidity (RH) and fruit pulp The RH in shipping containers was generally shrivel, followed by HDPE bags with 60 x 5mm
melting type) did not soften over the harvesting temperatures in two commercial shipping low and could contribute to the high levels perforations. All other treatments (which had
period and remained firmer than the maximum containers. This was done to determine if cold of shrivel in some plum cultivars. Methods to fewer and/or smaller perforations) had a lower
firmness. damage to fruit can occur in certain positions increase RH in plum shipping containers should shrivel incidence.
in containers and to record RH. be investigated.
Conclusion / Discussion Conclusion / Discussion
Flesh firmness exceeding or close to the Methods Japanese plum cultivars differ in their
current maximum flesh firmness of 11.3 kg as Air temperature, fruit pulp temperature and susceptibility to post-harvest moisture loss and
measured with an 11 mm plunger varied to RH loggers were installed in two commercial MOISTURE L OSS STU DIES IN shrivel manifestation. Thus, packaging solutions
a greater extent compared to flesh firmness shipping containers. Air temperatures were
J APANESE P L UMS ( PRU NU S to prevent shrivelling will most likely be cultivar
recorded at the perceived coldest and warmest
measured with a 7 mm plunger. When
position in the containers namely at the air inlet
SAL ICINA L IN DL.) specific. The packaging specifications will vary
harvesting fruit of a given size or skin colour according to the respiration rate of and chilling
the margin of error for flesh firmness could (bottom of the first pallet in the container) and sensitivity of each cultivar. To obtain the
at the door (top of the pallets), respectively. E Ltze, Stellenbosch University
therefore be reduced with the 7 mm plunger optimal packaging solution to reduce moisture
compared to the 11 mm plunger. Summerfire RH was determined in the latter position in loss and shrivel, more cultivars, over more
the container. Fruit pulp temperature was also Objectives & Rationale - AIM 1
was identified as a clingstone type for which seasons will have to be evaluated. It needs
measured in the middle of the containers. Different packaging solutions (i.e. bags with
flesh firmness is generally not a good indicator to be established whether shrivelling is only
different sizes and amounts of perforations)
of maturity. It is suggested that a minimum skin affected by the amount of moisture lost from the
Key Results were tested to determine whether they could
colour for this cultivar at harvest should be fruit or whether other factors are involved.
Air temperature dropped below -2.0 C for 4 reduce moisture loss during postharvest storage
hours in the bottom of the first pallet in container from some South African plum cultivars, while
Objectives & Rationale - AIM 4
1, and ran at around -1.5 C for much of the still maintaining internal and external fruit
It was investigated whether, and to what
22 day period in the container. In the same quality.
extent, open lenticels and/ or stomata
container the RH ranged between 65 and 50%. contribute to moisture loss of a plum cultivar
Pulp temperatures of plums ranged between Methods
susceptible (Laetitia) and not susceptible
-0.5 C and -0.7 C and declined marginally Eight different bags, with 6 repetitions per bag
(Songold) to moisture loss.
during the shipping period. In container 2 the were used for each cultivar, namely Laetitia,
air temperatures spiked between 0.5 C and Songold and African Delight. Internal and

Annual Report | 56
Methods more similar to the shrivel susceptible African Methods
Fruit were sampled weekly from 3 weeks Rose than the non-shrivel susceptible cultivars, African Rose, Fortune, Laetitia, Songold and
before the anticipated optimum harvest date,
PE E L P E RMEAB IL ITY, Angeleno and Fortune, which indicates that Sunkiss plums not cooled before packing were
until one week after the optimum harvest S HRIVE L , MOISTURE L OSS these two cultivars might also be susceptible to obtained from a commercial pack house in
date. On each sampling date the peel water IN J APANE SE P L UMS shrivel. Franschhoek. Each cultivar was divided into 9
vapour permeance of 100 fruit per cultivar was treatments. The variables were accumulation
calculated. Afterwards, 20 fruit per cultivar K Theron, Stellenbosch University Conclusion / Discussion periods of 3, 7 and 10 days and temperature
were stained with methylene blue solution Previously it was found that very little difference (-0.5 C, 2 C and 3 C). After the accumulation
in order to visualise the open lenticels. The Objectives & Rationale and correlation over time in overall PH20 of periods, the plums were stored at dual
percentage of open lenticels per fruit surface Although packaging solutions to reduce shrivel African Delight, Laetitia and Songold and temperature regimes consisting of 2 days at
area was determined by counting the amount in plums exist, shrivel incidence is still high for shrivel susceptibility occurred. From the first -0.5 C, 5 days (African Rose), 7 days (Fortune,
of stained vs unstained lenticels on peel sections most cultivars. This indicates that some moisture seasons data on the five cultivars examined Laetitia and Sunkiss) and 9 days (Songold) at
taken from each fruit. loss takes place prior to the fruit being packed. during the 2015/16 season, there appears to 7.5 C and the balance at -0.5 C, for a total
Differences in the water vapour permeance be some indication of a link between changes storage period of 35 days for African Rose,
Key Results (PH20) of fruit peel are influenced by variation in PH20 and shrivel susceptibility in the three Fortune and Sunkiss, 42 days for Songold and
Peel water vapour permeance of Laetitia in fruit size and harvest maturity of the fruit. cultivars where the shrivel susceptibility is 49 days for Laetitia. The plums were evaluated
remained relatively stable throughout the Little knowledge currently exists on pre-harvest known. However the results obtained for a for flesh firmness, decay, shrivel and internal
sampling period, while that of Songold factors, such as the status of the PH20 of the study on nectarines and the previous plum disorders after cold storage, as well as after 5
increased significantly between 2 weeks fruit peel at different fruit maturities, or how it study showed that large differences occur days shelf life at 10 C.
before harvest and the optimum harvest date. is influenced by orchard, tree or fruit factors. between seasons.
Songold had almost threefold the amount of Knowledge of the fruit peel permeability, Key Results
open lenticels per fruit surface area compared how it is influenced by the season and how Accumulation temperatures of 2 C and 3C
to Laetitia. Strong correlations were found cultivars compare will greatly aid in deciding had no negative effect on African Rose and
between lenticel quantity and peel permeability on optimum handling protocols for specific RE VISION OF TEMPERATU RE Songold plums. The effect of temperature
for Songold, but not for Laetitia cultivars. TOL ERANCE AT LOA DING on internal disorders and shrivel was also
negligible. Laetitia had a similar result but flesh
Conclusion / Discussion Methods firmness was softer after shelf life for the plums
Laetitia is more prone to post-harvest moisture Five orchards were used for five cultivar and accumulated at 2 C and 3 C in comparison
A de Kock, Experico to -0.5 C, especially if accumulated for 10
loss compared to Songold. However, five uniform trees per orchard were randomly
Songold had significantly more open lenticels chosen. PH20 was determined weekly from d. Fortune and Sunkiss were marginally softer
Objectives & Rationale
per fruit and showed better correlations four weeks before the anticipated optimum at 2.0 C, compared to -0.5 C, and were
The effect of temperature during the
between peel permeability and the amount of harvest date until approximately two weeks after significantly softer at 3 C than at 2.0 C.
accumulation phase, prior to loading of plums
open lenticels. The lenticels cannot be the only the optimum harvest date. Accumulation period could affect softening,
was tested. Temperatures selected were -0.5
contributors to post-harvest moisture loss from in combination to temperature, with softening
C as the recommended pulp temperature at
Laetitia and the compositional and structural Key Results increasing as the period is extended at a
loading, 2 C, which is 0.5 C higher than
differences between the cuticles of the two In general the PH20 of Angeleno and higher accumulation temperature. Internal
the current maximum temperature and 3 C.
cultivars must be investigated to gain further Fortune, two cultivars not susceptible to shrivel, disorders and shrivel could also be affected by
Accumulation periods of 3, 7 and 10 days
insight into the occurrence of moisture loss and remained lower than the other three cultivars accumulation temperatures, however, it could
were used. The objective was to determine if
shrivelling. over the sampling periods. African Rose, a have an opposite effect to softening.
maximum temperature at loading of plums can
cultivar that is susceptible to shrivel had the
be adjusted upwards without a negative effect
highest overall PH20 over the sampling period, Conclusion / Discussion
on quality.
with the two new cultivars Ruby Sun and Ruby It is clear that cultivars differ in the extent
Star also relatively high and they performed to which the quality is affected by higher

57 | HORTGRO Science
temperatures during accumulation. The results cooling/ loading facilities (Paarl area), as well maintained during transport but were not
must be verified using fruit at the lower end of as plums subjected to FAC in the production reduced in uncooled apricots transported in
the maturity window and be extended to single area (Ladismith) were determined by data
THE EF F ECT OF refrigerated trucks from Ladismith to Paarl.
temperature cultivars such as African Delight collection with loggers, from packing until the TE MP E RATURE FROM Flesh firmness was similar in FAC apricots, and
and Angeleno. The results indicated that end of FAC. Fruit pulp and air temperature ORCHARD TO COLD STORE uncooled apricots transported cold, but were
loading at 3.0 C may not have a negative were recorded in three commercial pallets
ON AP RICOT QU A LITY, lower in apricots subjected to FHR. There was
effect on some cultivars (African Rose, Songold during each transport leg. The temperature a trend for less internal disorders in the FAC
and possibly Laetitia). This could potentially monitoring was completed in 2015. In 2016,
SP ECIF IC TO AREA S FA R apricots compared to uncooled apricots and
reduce cooling time but may be cultivar the temperatures profiles established in 2015 AWAY F ROM COLD STORA GE apricots subjected to FHR.
specific. Accumulation at a higher temperature were simulated under laboratory conditions and FACIL ITIES
may result in softening after storage of Fortune a FHR treatment was added, to ascertain the Conclusion / Discussion
and Sunkiss. effect on plum quality. A de Kock, Experico Albeit non-significant, fruit quality data
suggest that FAC on site and cold transport
Key Results Objectives & Rationale from Ladismith to Paarl may have a beneficial
The effect of FAC and FHR on Sapphire and Temperature profiles of uncooled apricots and effect on apricot quality in terms less internal
O PTI MUM C OO LIN G AN D African Delight plums was similar. FAC or apricots force-air cooled (FAC) on site (at the disorders compared to uncooled apricots
T R ANS P ORT TE M PE R ATUR E S FHR within 6 hours after packing, before road farm) and transported in refrigerated trucks, transported in refrigerated trucks. FHR had a
transport of plums from areas far from cooling
FO R P L UMS FRO M AR E AS from Ladismith to Paarl were recorded in two negative effect on flesh firmness compared to
facilities, had a beneficial effect on flesh separate consignments. These temperature FAC and uncooled apricots. This will have to
SIT UATED FAR FR O M firmness, reduced shrivel and in the case of be verified in 2017.
profiles as well as field-heat removal (FHR) was
CO OL I NG FAC I L ITIE S / Sapphire, reduced over ripeness in comparison simulated under laboratory conditions. The
D EPOTS to plums transported uncooled. This confirms objective was to obtain typical temperature
2015 results on African Delight plums. profiles for different cooling and transport
A de Kock, Experico methods and to quantify the effect of these A SSESSMENT OF
Conclusion / Discussion temperature profiles, as well as FHR on apricot A CCU MU LATIV E DPA
Fruit quality data suggest that FAC, as well
Objectives & Rationale quality. RESIDU ES TH ROU GH OU T
as FHR, prior to transportation may be
Temperature profiles of uncooled and forced-
beneficial in terms of flesh firmness retention, STORA GE A ND PA CKING
air cooled (FAC) plums on site (at the farm) Methods
and transported in refrigerated trucks from
moisture loss and shrivel control, compared The temperature profile of FAC and uncooled FA CILITIES
to transporting uncooled plums in refrigerated apricots transported from the production area
Ladismith to Paarl were recorded in two
separate consignments. These temperature
trucks to a depot for subsequent cooling. This (Ladismith) in refrigerated trucks, to the cooling/ D Viljoen, Experico
will be confirmed in commercial consignments loading facilities (Paarl area), were determined
profiles were then simulated under laboratory
in 2017 prior to commercial recommendations. by data collection with loggers, from packing Objectives & Rationale
conditions and a field-heat removal (FHR)
treatment was added. The objective was to until the end of forced air cooling. Fruit pulp The aim of this trial was to further assess
obtain typical temperature profiles for different and air temperatures were recorded in three the potential risk of cross-contamination on
cooling and transport methods and to quantify commercial pallets during each transport leg. untreated fruit by analysing DPA residue levels
the effect of these temperature profiles, as well These temperature profiles as well as FHR on fruit at the cold store level, as this area was
as FHR on plum quality. were simulated under laboratory conditions to found in 2013 and 2014 to have the highest
determine the effect on apricot quality. risk of cross-contamination.
The temperature profiles of uncooled plums Key Results Methods
transported in refrigerated trucks, to the Pulp temperatures in FAC apricots were Six old cold rooms (stored DPA treated fruit
for more than 2 years before 2014) and six
Annual Report | 58
new rooms (first used in 2014, never stored
E Crouch, Stellenbosch University in mealiness. Hand cross-pollinated fruit on the Methods
DPA treated fruit) were identified for long term eastern side fruit were significantly less mealy. Forelle pears from two populations sourced from
storage. Fruit samples were taken monthly until the Vyeboom area were treated 7, 9, 14 and
Objectives & Rationale
November (or room opening) and send to three Conclusion / Discussion 21 days after harvest with SmartFreshSM (600
Preliminary studies show Forelle pear
different laboratories. Outside canopy fruit had the highest surface ppb) and stored for 6 weeks at -0.5C. Post
canopy position and TSS relate to mealiness
development during ripening. This study temperature, sunlight exposure mealiness. storage quality of fruit was evaluated at the end
Key Results Cross-pollination seems to result in lower of the cold storage period and after a simulated
explored ripening rates and mealiness
DPA levels generally remained the same for mealiness incidence. Tissue density processing shelf-life of 7 days at 20C.
development as well as micro-climactic
samples of old cold stores analysed from week and correlations will aid in describing these
differences within the canopy. This study
23 to 36. Higher levels were measured on differences further. A second season is required Key Results
therefore further aimed to establish whether
samples analysed in weeks 43 and 46 with to confirm current findings. 2014
pollination influences tissue structure and
samples from one room having residue levels In one of the populations, pears subjected to
mealiness development.
above 0.05 ppm. DPA residue levels on fruit a SmartFreshSM application 9, 14 and 21
samples from new cold rooms followed the days after harvest were just as effective in
same trend as those of old rooms. However,
Fruit surface temperature and irradiance of five THE MAXIMU M DELAY IN maintaining fruit quality compared to a 7 day
levels were lower with no samples measured
canopy positions were measured. CT scanning SMARTF RESH S M A PPLICATION after harvest application. The other population
with levels higher than 0.05 ppm. however, exhibited reduced efficacy in the form
was performed to determine tissue density for
fruit on all positions before and after ripening of mealiness expression, when fruit were treated
Conclusion / Discussion
(not reported on in this feedback). Fruit of five
F IL L ING F OR FRU IT 21 days after harvest.
According to 2015 results a low risk does exist
positions have been harvested at two maturities DE STINED F OR TH E FEMA
for fruit to be contaminated by DPA residues
(optimum and post-optimum) and evaluated P ROGRAMME 2015
when stored in cold stores that previously Applying SmartFreshSM up to 21 days after harvest
after storage (8, 12, 16 weeks at -0.5 C) and
stored DPA treated fruit. This contamination proved to be effective in maintaining fruit quality
ripening (4, 7, 11 days at 20 C). Flowers of D Viljoen, Experico
however, only occurred on fruit samples and prevent fruit from developing mealiness.
shoulder height were emasculated and hand
analysed in week 43. No cross contamination
cross-pollinated with Early Bon Chretien pollen, Objectives & Rationale
occurred in new cold rooms. However, like 2016
while some flowers were only emasculated The volume of Forelle Early Market Access
with the old rooms, DPA levels increased in The same orchards were used as in the 2014
without receiving any pollen. Maturity indices, (FEMA) fruit increased drastically since 2013.
samples from week 43. season and similar results were obtained.
ethylene and CO2 production and tissue density An unexpected outcome from the increased
(CT x-ray scanning) were measured after volumes was the sometimes limited availability
harvest, cold storage at -0.5 C and ripening at Conclusion / Discussion
of SmartFreshSM treatment rooms, and the
20 C. From the results it is evident that mealiness
PO S T- HARVES T FO R E LLE rate of filling of these rooms within the 7 day
susceptibility of Forelle pears can be influenced
MEAL I NES S DEV E LO PM E N T, Key Results by factors other than post-harvest procedures.
D ET EC TED AT HARV E S T BY Outside canopy fruit were more mealy, had The aim of this study was therefore to
This can include, but not be limited to climate,
soil, nutrition and water regimes, tree age
CT-X RAY S C AN N IN G AN D the highest surface temperature and highest determine the maximum delay in
percentage exposure to sunlight. Inside fruit and rootstock. It is therefore recommended not
SEMI - C OMMERC IAL C O LO UR mealiness remained constant for both harvest
SmartFreshSM application from harvest to
to apply SmartFreshSM to fruit later than 14
room filling for fruit destined for the FEMA
PR E - S ORTI NG I N FLUE N C E D maturities regardless of cold storage and programme, without softening of the fruit and
days after harvest, since no information exists
B Y CANOPY P O S ITIO N ripening times. Maximum mealiness differed the expression of mealiness and to determine
to predict which orchards can be treated at
21 days after harvest. Should the need arise
AT HARVES T AS W E LL AS for outer canopy sides for various storage and if treatment efficacy is compromised by mixed
ripening times. Diameter of inside fruit of harvest for fruit to be treated later than 14 days after
PO L L I NATI ON two did not differ significantly from harvest one
harvest; trials should be conducted on specific
outside-east fruit, but have significant differences orchards as required.

59 | HORTGRO Science
Advisor y Committees

PEER WORK GROUPS (PWGS) Soil Science: Matthew Addison - HORTGRO Science/

PROFI L E Richard Hurndall - HORTGRO Science US Entomology

Hugh Campbell - HORTGRO Science Prof Lise Korsten - University Of Pretoria
Objectives of PWG:
Prof Wiehann Steyn - HORTGRO Science Prof Altus Viljoen - US Pathology
HORTGRO Science is Evaluate the scientific correctness of
Dr Eduard Hoffmann - US Soil Science Dr Johan Fourie - Experico
dependent on its extensive prioritised new research proposals
support structures that are Dr Pieter Raath - Bemlab Ferdi Van Zyl - Pro Agri Services (Pty) Ltd
Evaluate scientific standard of progress
made up of colleagues and Dr Nigel Cook - Prophyta
role-players in the deciduous and final reports
Dr Nicky Taylor - University of Pretoria Post Harvest:
fruit industry who tirelessly
give of their time, intellect Dr Johan Van Zyl - US Soil Science Richard Hurndall - HORTGRO Science
Breeding & Evaluation:
and passion to serve the needs Hugh Campbell - HORTGRO Science
of the industry. The various Richard Hurndall - HORTGRO Science
Entomology & Nematology: Dr Marius Huysamer - Consultant
committees that service Hugh Campbell - HORTGRO Science
the needs of HORTGRO Richard Hurndall - HORTGRO Science Prof Karen Theron - US Horticulture
Prof Wiehann Steyn - HORTGRO Science
Science are noted below. A Hugh Campbell - HORTGRO Science Prof Linus Opara - Research Chair In Post-
quick tally of participation Prof Karen Theron - US Horticulture
Matthew Addison - HORTGRO Science/ Harvest technology (US)
in our different work groups Dr Leon Von Mollendorff - Culdevco
shows that we have in US Entomology Dr Paul Cronje - Citrus Research International
Dr Willem Botes - US Genetics
the order of 200 different Dr Ken Pringle - HORTGRO Science/ Dr Mariana Jooste - Private consultant
individuals involved in our Dr Klaus Pakendorf - ARC
Us Entomology
different work groups: Prof Melan Vivier - US Institute of Wine
Dr Brian Barnes - Consultant
Biotechnology (IWBT)
Welma Pieterse - DAFF
Prof Schalk Louw - University of Free State
Richard Hurndall - HORTGRO Science
Prof Martin Hill - Rhodes University
6 Peer Work Groups Hugh Campbell - HORTGRO Science
Objectives of TACs:
34 scientists Prof Wiehann Steyn - HORTGRO Science
Pathology: Identify industry research needs or gaps
5 Technical Advisory Committees Dr Nigel Cook - Prophyta
Richard Hurndall - HORTGRO Science Determine relevance of concept proposals
66 technical / growers Prof Gerard Jacobs - US Horticulture
Hugh Campbell - HORTGRO Science Prioritise new project proposals
30 focus workgroups Prof Karen Theron - US Horticulture
Lindi Benic - HORTGRO Evaluate technical merits of progress and
100 scientists / technical / growers Dr Nicky Taylor - University of Pretoria
Dr Piet Stassen - Consultant Annual Report | 60
final reports Nico Ferreira - Two-A-Day Orchard of the future
Identify technology transfer opportunities Dr Ken Pringle - HORTGRO Science/ ADVISORY / FOCUS GROUPS Rest breaking and Fruit thinning
Advisory to HORTGRO Science Us Entomology Water Availability Committee
Fanie Van Der Merwe - Dow Agrosciences Objectives of Advisory Groups:
Production TAC: Assist programme with formulation of Breeding:
Stephen Rabe - Grower/ Post-Harvest TAC: strategic research planning in defined Breeding Advisory Pome fruit
HORTGRO Science Director (Chairman) Grant Smuts - Grower/ areas of research Breeding Advisory Stone fruit
Graeme Krige - Two-A-Day HORTGRO Science Director Identify new technologies of relevance
Anton Mller - Kromco Charl Stander - Franschhoek Marketing Seek collaborative research opportunities Crop Protection:
Tobie Van Rooyen - Inteligro Richard Hurndall - HORTGRO Science across local and international research/ Soil health
Peter Dall - Peter Dall Consultancy Jacques Du Preez - HORTGRO technical organisations IPM Group
Dr Nigel Cook - Prophyta Dr Malcolm Dodd - Consultant Seek funding opportunities to ensure Crop Protection Advisory Group (Market
Pierre Du Plooy - Consultant Henk Griessel - Trucape inputs into targeted research focus areas Access)
Andrew Hacking - Ad Lucem Jaco Moelich - Fruitways Meetings as required Spraying systems Advisory Group
De Kock Hamman - CFG Angelique Marais - Fruitways Advisory to programme manager
Hannes Laubscher - United Fruit Exports Petro Conradie - Dutoit Agri
Christo Strydom - Wolfpack Pears Margaret Reineke - Bayer Objectives of Focus Groups: Physiology / Horticultural Science
Chris Jurisch - Arbor Tech Karin van Rensburg - Capespan Convene specific expertise to deal with Post-Harvest pathology
Willie Kotze - Dutoit Agri Elizabeth Downes - Capespan specific industry issues Packaging and cold chain management
Prof Wiehann Steyn - HORTGRO Science Pieter Neethling - Two-a-day Identify research requirements CA Group
Daan Brink - Two-A-Day Dr Mdunzi Ngcobo - PPECB (now ARC) Evaluate research findings and make Forelle research focus group
Nelius Kapp - Prophyta Petru du Plessis - Consultant recommendations DPA focus group
Mico Stander - Agrimotion Anton Gouws - Kromco Identify technology transfer opportunities
Louis Reynolds - Fruitful Crop and communicate findings to industry via
Xolani Siboza - HORTGRO Science Technology Transfer Advisory Committee: appropriate forums
Confronting Climate Change Steering
Hugh Campbell - HORTGRO Science (Chairman)
Fruit Route (Breeding) Advisory Committee: Stephen Rabe - Grower/ Hortgro Science Groupings: Pome Fruit Technical Forum
Prof Bongani Ndimba - ARC Adv Council The following advisory and focus groups are in Stone Fruit Technical Forum
Ken Tobutt - ARC Elise-Marie Steenkamp - HORTGRO Science place and are made up of experts in each field Packhouse Action Group
Dr Leon Von Mollendorff - Culdevco Matthew Addison - HORTGRO Science (researchers, technical advisors, growers). The Deciduous Plant Improvement Association
Hugh Campbell - HORTGRO Science Prof Wiehann Steyn - HORTGRO Science list is large between 90 and 110 individuals.
(Saappa & Saspa) Peter Dall - Peter Dall Consultancy We are indeed indebted to each one of these
Dappie Smit - Dfpts Keith Bradley - Grower individuals for their contributions.
Wiehann Victor - Cfpa Linde Du Toit - Grower
Tarryn Wettergreen - Sati Pierre Du Plooy - Consultant
Crop Production:
Dr Nigel Cook - Prophyta
Crop Protection Tac: Graeme Krige - Two-A-Day
Reproductive Biology
Richard Hurndall - HORTGRO Science (Chairman) Dr Ian Crouch - Experico
Rootstock Evaluation Committee
Matthew Addison - HORTGRO Science Charl Stander - Franschhoek Marketing
Rootstock and Nursery Tree
Lindi Benic - HORTGRO Science Christo Strydom - Wolfpack
Growing Season Climate
Anton Muller - Kromco Marinus Van Der Merwe - Future4growers
Irrigation and Nutrition
Bekker Wessels - Procrop Trust Tobie Van Rooyen - Inteligro
Farming efficiency
Andrew Hacking - Ad Lucem

61 | HORTGRO Science

Profiles: Heleen Bosman and Dr Ida Paul Unravelling the Broken Stone Mystery
SAFJ Page 58 Page 46 - 47 The impact of the drought on the fruit industry
LIST Being more specific about apples Die Langkloofinligtingsdag
Page 59 - 60 Page 50 - 51 Change the only constant
Page 10 - 11
Vrystaat appel simposium lok rekordgetal What is the phytosanitary status of nursery
Page 61 trees? Opara - in the service of the industry
Page 53 - 55 Page 20 - 22
HORTGRO Science Crop Protection Seminar
September 2015 Harvesting systems and labourer platforms as Small farms benefit significantly from a few
Page 62 - 63 a tool for the fruit farmer: what the research extra pollinators
showed us? Page 26 - 27
What are the physiological characteristics of a Page 56 - 60
good nursery tree Harvesting systems and labourer platforms for
Page 64 - 67 Boere moet werk maak van NEMBA the fruit farmer
Page 62 - 65 Page 56 - 60
How thirsty is your apple orchard
Page 68 - 69 Fruit safety and local water quality: do they Fruitlook 1: Fruitlook technology assists farmers
mix? Page 62 - 65
Harvesting systems and labourer platforms as Page 67 - 70
a tool for the fruit farmer: what the research First stone fruit harvest - Eastern Cape
showed us? SU Chancellor Award for Theron Page 66 - 67
Page 70 - 71 Page 72
Plum Shrivelling
Growing Fruit IQ - Blog Researcher Thank-You Breakfast Page 68 - 70
Page 72 - 73 Page 72 - 73
Dieback of plum trees
Streamlining the ARCs Phase 2 Evaluation Low-chill apple selections show promise in the Page 71 - 73
programme for Pome Fruit Eastern Cape
Page 74 - 75 Page 74 - 76 Link between stem canker and plum tree loss
Page 74 - 75
Vrugteman verruil navorsing vir kamera Growing Fruit IQ - Blog
Page 76 - 78 Page 78 - 79 Nematodes might play a role in plum tree
CA - The way forward Page 76 - 77
Page 80 - 83
A river runs through it
Page 78-81

Growing Fruit IQ - Blog

Page 84 - 85

The last word: Ken Pringle

Page 85 - 86

Annual Report | 62

Going green: A necessity, not an option Watch out for these wasps
SAFJ Page 12 - 15 Page 20 The benefits of using certified, virus-tested, true-
PUBLICATIONS to-type plant material
LIST Building market trust International Fruit Fly Symposium Page 69-73
Page 24 - 25 Page 50 - 51
FruitLook 4: Satellites aid irrigation on fruit
Pierre du Plooy - new Fieldmens chairman Better fruit fly surveillance needed in Africa farms
Page 34,36 Page 52 - 53 Page 76-79

Indonesia grants SA country of recognition FruitLook 3: Fruitlook saves you money Nematode indicators for soil health monitoring
status Page 72 - 75 of the Orchard of the Future at Oak Valley
Page 48 Page 80-85
New era for HORTGRO Science Technical
Nursery trees: when its not the nurserymans Symposium Are handheld bloom thinners a viable option to
fault Page 76 - 89 thin apple trees?
Page 66 - 69 Page 86-87

SmartAgri: A climate change response plan for

the Western Cape
Page 70 - 72

Fruitlook 2: Brave new world of fruit farming

Page 74 - 78

Chronic sleep disorders in apple trees lead to

rude awakenings
Page 82 - 87

Growing Fruit IQ - Blog

Page 88 - 89

63 | HORTGRO Science
Email: Contact: 021870 2900
Hugh Campbell: 021870 2945 / Richard Hurndall: 021870 2947 / W iehann Steyn: 021870 2948
Dane McDonald: 021870 2949 / Elise-Marie Steenkamp: 021870 2950 / T heresa Sonnenberg: 021870 2946
Address: Off ice 4, Block 6 Wintergrain Building, Welgevallen Experimental Farm, Suidwal Street, Stellenbosch, 7600

65 | HORTGRO Science