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PHILIPPINE NORMAL UNIVERSITY

The National Center for Teacher Education

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE
TITLE PAGE.. i
APPROVAL SHEET.. ii
ABSTRACT iii
AKNOWLEDGEMENT vii
DEDICATION ix
LIST OF TABLES.. xiv
LIST OF APPENDICES xx

CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND


1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Conceptual Framework. 3
1.3 Research Paradigm 16
1.4 Statement of the Problem. 17
1.5 Significance of the Study.
1.6 Scope and Delimitation of the Study 18
1.7 Definition of Terms.. 19
PHILIPPINE NORMAL UNIVERSITY
The National Center for Teacher Education

CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE


2.1 Conceptual Literature... 23
2.2 Research Literature.. 34

CHAPTER 3 METHODS AND PROCEDURES


3.1 Research Design. 31
3.2 Participants of the Study....................
3.3 Setting of the Study. . 43
3.4 Research Instrument 45
3.5 Data Gathering Procedure......
3.6 Data Analysis..... 48

CHAPTER 4 PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA


4.1 Profile of the Students
4.1. 1 Frequency Distribution of Age, Sex, School Graduated from,
and Mother Tongue used by the Respondents

4.2.1 Frequency Distribution of Respondents Exposure to Non-Print


Materials

4.2 Pronunciation Difficulties

4.2.1 Mean Distribution of Respondents Difficulties in Pronouncing


Vowel Sounds in Words
PHILIPPINE NORMAL UNIVERSITY
The National Center for Teacher Education

4.2.2 Mean Distribution of Respondents Difficulties in Pronouncing


Consonant Sounds in Words

4.2.3 Mean Distribution of Respondents Difficulties in Pronouncing


Diphthongs in Words

4.2. 4 Mean Distribution of Respondents Difficulties in Pronouncing


Vowel Sounds in Phrases

4.2.5 Mean Distribution of Respondents Difficulties in Pronouncing


Consonants in Phrases

4.2.6 Mean Distribution of Respondents Difficulties in Pronouncing


Diphthongs in Phrase
4.3 Difficulties in Pronouncing Words Grouped According to Profile

4.3.1 ANOVA Test on the Difficulty Levels of Respondents in


Pronouncing Vowels in Words Grouped According to Age

4.3.2 ANOVA Test on the Difficulty Levels of Respondents in


PronouncingConsonants in Words Grouped According to
Age

4.3.3 ANOVA Test on Difficulties in Pronouncing Diphthongs in


Words Grouped According to Age

4.3.4 ANOVA Test on the Difficulty Levels of Respondents in


PronouncingVowels in Phrases Grouped According to Age

4.3.5 Kruskal Wallis Test of Independent Samples on the Difficulty


Levels of Respondents in Pronouncing Consonants in Phrases
GroupedAccordingto Age

4.3.6 ANOVA Test on the Difficulties in Pronouncing Diphthongs in


Phrases Grouped According to Age

4.3.7 T-test of Independent Samples on the Difficulty Levels of


Respondents in Pronouncing Vowels in Words Grouped
According to Sex
PHILIPPINE NORMAL UNIVERSITY
The National Center for Teacher Education

4.3.8 T-test of Independent Samples on the Difficulty Levels of


Respondents in Pronouncing Consonants in Words Grouped
According to Sex

4.3.9 Mean Distribution of Respondents Difficulties in Pronouncing


Diphthongs in Words Grouped According to Sex

4.3.10 T-test of Independent Samples on the Difficulty Levels of


Respondents in Pronouncing Vowels in Phrases Grouped
According to Sex

4.3.11 Mann-Whitney U Test of Independent Samples on the Difficulty


Levelsof Respondents in Pronouncing Consonants in Phrases Grouped
According to Sex

4.3.12 Mean Distribution of Respondents Difficulties in Pronouncing


Diphthongsin Phrases Grouped According to Sex

4.3.13 T-test of Independent Samples on the Difficulty Levels of


Respondents in Pronouncing Vowels in Words Grouped
According to Elementary School Graduated From

4.3.14 T-Test of Independent Samples on the Difficulty Levels of


Respondents in Pronouncing Consonants in Words Grouped
According to Elementary School Graduated From

4.3.15 T-test of Independent Samples on the Difficulty Levels of


Respondents in Pronouncing Diphthongs in Words
Grouped According to Elementary School Graduated From

4.3.16 T-test of Independent Samples on the Difficulty Levels of


Respondents in Pronouncing Vowels in Phrases Grouped
According to Elementary School Graduated From

4.3.17 Mann-Whitney U Test of Independent Samples on the Difficulty


Levels of Respondents in Pronouncing Consonants in Phrases
Grouped According to Elementary School Graduated From

4.3.18 T-Test on the Difficulties in Pronouncing Diphthongs in Phrases


Grouped According to Elementary School Graduated From

=
PHILIPPINE NORMAL UNIVERSITY
The National Center for Teacher Education

4.3.19 T-test of Independent Samples on the Difficulty Levels of


Respondents in Pronouncing Vowels in Words Grouped
According to Type of Exposure

4.3.20 T-test of Independent Samples on the Difficulty Levels of


Respondents in Pronouncing Consonants in Words Grouped
According to Type of Exposure

4.3.21 T-Test on the Difficulties in Pronouncing Diphthongs in Words


Grouped According to Type of Exposure

4.3.22 T-test of Independent Samples on the Difficulty Levels of


Respondents in Pronouncing Vowels in Phrases Grouped
According to Type of Exposure

4.3.23 Mann-Whitney U of Independent Samples on the Difficulty


Levels of Respondents in Pronouncing Consonants in Phrases
Grouped According to Type of Exposure

4.3.24 T-Test on the Difficulties in Pronouncing Diphthongs in


Phrases Grouped According to Type of Exposure

4.3.25 ANOVA Test on the Difficulty Levels of Respondents in


Pronouncing Vowels in Words Grouped According to Mother
Tongue Used

4.3.26 ANOVA Test on the Difficulty Levels of Respondents in


Pronouncing Consonants in Words Grouped According to
Mother Tongue Used

4.3.27 ANOVA Test on the Difficulties in Pronouncing Diphthongs


in Words Grouped According to Mother Tongue Used

4.3.28 ANOVA Test on the Difficulty Levels of Respondents in


Pronouncing Vowels in Phrases Grouped According to Mother
Tongue Used

4.3.29 Kruskal Wallis Test of Independent Samples on the Difficulty


Levels of Respondents in Pronouncing Consonants in Phrases
Grouped According to Mother Tongue Used
PHILIPPINE NORMAL UNIVERSITY
The National Center for Teacher Education

4.3.30 ANOVA Test on the Difficulties in Pronouncing Diphthongs in


Phrases Grouped According to Mother Tongue Used

4.4 Intervention Activities Developed to Address the Pronunciation


Difficulties.
Pronunciation Intervention Program .. 116
Rationale .. 117
Intervention Matrix .. 122
A Blueprint of the Intervention Materials. 124
CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary of Findings 131
5.2 Conclusions 134
5.3 Recommendations.
REFERENCES.. 138
APPENDICES. 143
CURRICULUM VITAE. 168
PHILIPPINE NORMAL UNIVERSITY
The National Center for Teacher Education

LIST OF TABLES
TABLEPAGE

1 International Phonetic Alphabet

2Number of Respondents of Grade 7 Students of Zillovia


NationalHigh School (CarNHS)

3Mean Scoring, the Level of Difficulty, and the Verbal


Descriptionon the Errors Committed by the Respondents

4Frequency Distribution of Age, Sex, School Graduated from,


and Mother Tongue used by the Respondents

5Frequency Distribution of Respondents Exposure to Non-Print


Materials

6Mean Distribution of Respondents Difficulties in Pronouncing


Vowel Sounds in Words

7Mean Distribution of Respondents Difficulties in Pronouncing


Consonant Sounds in Words

8Mean Distribution of Respondents Difficulties in Pronouncing


Diphthongs in Words

9Mean Distribution of Respondents Difficulties in Pronouncing


Vowel Sounds in Phrases

10Mean Distribution of Respondents Difficulties in Pronouncing


Consonants in Phrases

11Mean Distribution of Respondents Difficulties in Pronouncing


Diphthongs in Phrases
12ANOVA Test on the Difficulty Levels of Respondents in
Pronouncing Vowels in Words Grouped According to Age

13ANOVA Test on the Difficulty Levels of Respondents in


PronouncingConsonants in Words Grouped According to
Age

14ANOVA Test on Difficulties in Pronouncing Diphthongs in


Words Grouped According to Age
PHILIPPINE NORMAL UNIVERSITY
The National Center for Teacher Education

LIST OF TABLES (CONTINUED)

15ANOVA Test on the Difficulty Levels of Respondents in


PronouncingVowels in Phrases Grouped According to Age

16Kruskal Wallis Test of Independent Samples on the Difficulty


Levels of Respondents in Pronouncing Consonants in Phrases
GroupedAccordingto Age

17ANOVA Test on the Difficulties in Pronouncing Diphthongs in


Phrases Grouped According to Age

18T-test of Independent Samples on the Difficulty Levels of


Respondents in Pronouncing Vowels in Words Grouped
According to Sex

19T-test of Independent Samples on the Difficulty Levels of


Respondents in Pronouncing Consonants in Words Grouped
According to Sex

20Mean Distribution of Respondents Difficulties in Pronouncing


Diphthongs in Words Grouped According to Sex

21T-test of Independent Samples on the Difficulty Levels of


Respondents in Pronouncing Vowels in Phrases Grouped
According to Sex

22Mann-Whitney U Test of Independent Samples on the Difficulty


Levelsof Respondents in Pronouncing Consonants in Phrases Grouped
According to Sex

23Mean Distribution of Respondents Difficulties in Pronouncing


Diphthongsin Phrases Grouped According to Sex

24T-test of Independent Samples on the Difficulty Levels of


Respondents in Pronouncing Vowels in Words Grouped
According to Elementary School Graduated From

25T-Test of Independent Samples on the Difficulty Levels of


Respondents in Pronouncing Consonants in Words Grouped
According to Elementary School Graduated From

26T-test of Independent Samples on the Difficulty Levels of


Respondents in Pronouncing Diphthongs in Words
Grouped According to Elementary School Graduated From
PHILIPPINE NORMAL UNIVERSITY
The National Center for Teacher Education

LIST OF TABLES (CONTINUED)

27T-test of Independent Samples on the Difficulty Levels of


Respondents in Pronouncing Vowels in Phrases Grouped
According to Elementary School Graduated From

28Mann-Whitney U Test of Independent Samples on the Difficulty


Levels of Respondents in Pronouncing Consonants in Phrases
Grouped According to Elementary School Graduated From

29T-Test on the Difficulties in Pronouncing Diphthongs in Phrases


Grouped According to Elementary School Graduated From

30T-test of Independent Samples on the Difficulty Levels of


Respondents in Pronouncing Vowels in Words Grouped
According to Type of Exposure

31T-test of Independent Samples on the Difficulty Levels of


Respondents in Pronouncing Consonants in Words Grouped
According to Type of Exposure

32T-Test on the Difficulties in Pronouncing Diphthongs in Words


Grouped According to Type of Exposure

33T-test of Independent Samples on the Difficulty Levels of


Respondents in Pronouncing Vowels in Phrases Grouped
According to Type of Exposure

34Mann-Whitney U of Independent Samples on the Difficulty


Levels of Respondents in Pronouncing Consonants in Phrases
Grouped According to Type of Exposure

35T-Test on the Difficulties in Pronouncing Diphthongs in


Phrases Grouped According to Type of Exposure

36ANOVA Test on the Difficulty Levels of Respondents in


Pronouncing Vowels in Words Grouped According to Mother
Tongue Used

37ANOVA Test on the Difficulty Levels of Respondents in


Pronouncing Consonants in Words Grouped According to
Mother Tongue Used
PHILIPPINE NORMAL UNIVERSITY
The National Center for Teacher Education

38ANOVA Test on the Difficulties in Pronouncing Diphthongs


in Words Grouped According to Mother Tongue Used

39ANOVA Test on the Difficulty Levels of Respondents in


Pronouncing Vowels in Phrases Grouped According to Mother
Tongue Used

40Kruskal Wallis Test of Independent Samples on the Difficulty


Levels of Respondents in Pronouncing Consonants in Phrases
Grouped According to Mother Tongue Used

41ANOVA Test on the Difficulties in Pronouncing Diphthongs in


Phrases Grouped According to Mother Tongue Used
PHILIPPINE NORMAL UNIVERSITY
The National Center for Teacher Education

LIST OF APPENDICES
APPENDIX PAGE
A Letters of Approval to Conduct the Study
B Instrument on the Profile of the Student
CResearchers Oral Test
DOne-Sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test for Normality
ELevenes Tests and T-Tests for Independent Samples
FMann-Whitney U Test of Independent Samples for Consonants in Phrases
GTest of Homogeneity of Variances
HANOVA Tests of Differences and Post Hoc Analyses
IKruskal Wallis Tests
JProfile of Co- Raters
KProfile of Validators
L Pronunciation Intervention Program for Multicultural Grade 8 Students
of Carrascal National High School