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THE DARK /\ AN AGE OF 1G LS HT | a Tarra fe rule came to an end. The city of Rome would eventually become the center SC ee ene ee ae eee en ee er eet eer et eet et Pacer tines Ce eae) aie te ee eet free et re eon ee ees eg a eters mre rr earner nats ee he Lean errr was ereated by God and not truly divine as God is divine—the council also rere nn ee an eee cnet eee ee | theologians agreed on the eanon of New Testament scriptures, The CS et ee a eee ey pee ces ee ease Cr ererety Beyond the fontiers of the Roman Empire, pagan Germanic tribes had res ae hh erent er century, they were hecoming more and more daring. In 410, one of those tribes, the Visgoths, made it down the Italian peninsula and sacked the enrol ee ee Pee ‘Responding to the new circumstances, Augustine of Hippo preached about the need to accept Gods will and to build a spiritual city of God” An ester (Byzantine) Roman Empire continued tothrive atthe far end ofthe Mediterranean, ‘centered on Constantinople. Christendom Restored As the barbarians eame to accept Christianity, the marriage between politial and spiritual power was eventually reestablished. In 800, after winning the blessing of Pope Leo II, Frankish king named Charlemagne ‘became head ofa new Holy Roman Empire. Charlemagne used the network ‘of monasteries and other ecclesiastical institutions as instruments of his rule ‘The Riso of islam Inthe seventh ad eighth centuries, another ‘threat appeared onthe fringes of Christendom, ‘thistime from the south an eat Islam stormed out ofthe Arabian Deserto dominate the Middle Est and North Africa. Europe was next In71, Moors from Morocco crossed the Strat of Gibraltar to conquer ‘most of the Iberian Peninsula. Only the vitory ofthe Franks at the Batle of tof Europ. pees invaders out. The so-called Rec reign of Ferdinand and Isabella in 1492 That year, the Spanish king and queen aso di + World, marking the stare of CChristinitys move tothe Americas. ‘Schism and Fracture By now fissures had opened within Christendom. In Byzantium, an inity had developed, with ts patriarch «rival to the bishop of Rome fr leadership ofthe church. Theological disagreements about the nature ofthe Trinity were reinforced by cultural differences between the two sides. As the second millennium began, these differences led to schism in 1084, with the pope and patriarch exeommunieating each other and Christendom ultimately dividing into Eastern and Western branches. ‘Then in the 16th century, the Protestant Reformation swept across northern Europe, fracturing and subdividing Christendom even more ISLAM’S GOLDEN AGE ollowing the collapse ofthe Roman Empire, Europe plunged into period of frequent warfare and invasions. But in the Middle Ease and North Africa another culture was dhrivingAlush with scientific discoveries, inventions, and educational achievements that paved the way forthe modern word, These advanees were the work ofa ‘people united by their religion: Islam. Islam traces its roots to seventh century Mecea, in what is now Saudi ‘Arabia, There, the prophet Muhanad sid he was visited by the angel ‘Gabriel, who revealed the verses of what would become the Qur'an Islam's holy book, which adherents believe ae the uncorrupted words ‘of God. Muhammad traced the roots of his new sect back tothe Israelite patriarch Abraham, The prophet soon set out for Medina, where he ‘ined new: followers and engaged in warfare agsinst nonbelivers. By the eighth century, Islam had taken root across the region and was rapidly expanding.Religion and state were inextricably entwined ‘during the Caliphate, when the Muslim community was governed by a series of rulers from several branches of Muhammad!’ family. The [Abbasid dynasty, who trace their roots to Muhammad's uncle, took ‘control of the empire in 750, reigning with varying degrees of authority for the next 500 years. They promoted territorial expansion and ‘sought to increase the empire's standing by encouraging ar, science, ‘commerce, and industry. As such, a culture of invention and learning flourished throughout Muslim lands. Islamic breakthroughs from this time included the systematic study and explication of algebra, most notably by Muhammad Zbn Mast al-Khyearizmi around 825, when he published the treatise l-Kitab cal-mukhta sar fi hisab al-jabr wa't-mugabala (The Compendious Book ‘on Calculation by Completion and Balancing). The book synthesize) land expanded upon the work of Greek mathematicians; later works {introduced numerical solutions to quadratic equations. In fac, the word “algebra” derives from the Arabic al-abr, which refers to “restoration Pere Cah Ep eee empire, and so ies sailors mastered the knowledge of winds and tides, astronomy, and latitude and longitude. They adopted the compass from CChina earlier than their Western counterparts and they wrote manuals, ‘on seafaring that were later translated into Latin, tothe benefit of Buropean explorers. ‘Education was celebrated during this eraas well. The world’s first ‘modern university, the University of Al-Karaouine, was founded by the princess Fatima al-Fihe in Fez, Moracco in 859. The school became center of learning for Muslins and non-Muslims alike, attracting students of mathematics, astronomy, and logic. Such institutions proved hugely influential during the medieval period, as they promoted the blending and expansion of ideas from diverse locations and backgrounds. Arab scholars also helped to preserve Greek and Roman learning after many texts were lost or designated heretical inthe West, The great libraries of the Islamic world were filled wih classical writings that had been translated into Arabic. When Europeans ‘eventually encountered them again they were swiflyretranslated and helped to usher inthe Renaissance. “This age of achievement and prosperity lasted until about 950, when the Abbasid dynasty declined amid the fragmentation of the empire. Their povwer waned over the next three ‘centuries, and the family finaly fell in the 1258 Mongol invasion, This defeat—along withthe collapse of Islamie power in Spain, Iraq's ‘economic decline, and divisions along religious and ethnic lines triggered the end of the Caliphate and the dissolution ofthe former Islamic ‘empire into three entities: Mongols, Arabs, and Turks “umbof cli inca he soto “theeor nas neha 1900 ‘orton Gren 1066 z Bice — 800 an cbteingamaee, 1054 Soman 4 Teulon eae THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE A Shining Light in the East oe ee WW frst nh ri asd peewee eee oe eect array eee anes se ated ee ere eee ‘ere ‘The Byzantine Empire had its rots in an ancient Greek colony onthe ‘Hoxporus called Byzantiam. Constantine the Great chose Byzantium as his new Roman capital in 30 CE and renamed it Constantinople (now Istanbul, Turkey), While the west was beset by barbarian attacks, the east grew in prosperity asthe center of commerce between Europe and Asia ‘Minor. After Rome fell in 476, "East Rome" endured among the populace, ‘who sil considered themselves Romans. Roman law and institutions continued, Christianity lourished, and Latin remained theofficial Tanguage, although many spoke Greek ‘The reign of Justinian I inthe sixth eentury ‘marked the stat ofa gradual shife towards discrete Byzantine identity. Justinian was an effective emperor: he codified Roman law, ‘reformed government administration, regulated Christian worship, built the spectacular Hagia Sophia, and passed legislation advancing women's rights atthe behest of his capable wife, Theodora, ‘He also waged many wars to regain territory in the west, He defeated the Vandals in North Africa and the Ostrogoths in Italy and negotiated peace esata treaties with the Persians. Buthe fared poorly in Yi nana the Beliee/ and some of hic conqeared territories ware later lost to, ‘Arab Muslims With the rise of Islam in che seventh century, Byzantium suffered military defeats in Syria, the Holy Land, Egypt, and North Africa, whose people aften switched allegiances due tothe empire's religious intolerance. Controversies over icons and Monophysitism (the belief that Christ has one nature thats both divine and human) persisted in the Christian church for centuries, wth different emperors taking differen postions. Veneration of religious ieons had proven a useful ‘tool asa rallying symbol during wars bu in 730, Emperor Leo IIL ordered the destruction of such images. Leo's decree heightened tensions between the Eastern and Western churches, with Popes Gregory 11 and III condemning iconoclasm. The controversy did not end until 843, when the Orthodox Church officially sanctioned icons. During the mth through 13th centuries, the Crusades caused further discord berween Byzantium and the West. Launched in 1095 after Byzantine Emperor Alexus I requested support against the eneroachment of Muslim Seljuk Turks, the Crusades began at atime of {improved goodwill htween East and West after the midcentury schism, Joint Byzantine and Wester forces recaptured Nicaea in Asia Minor and then began a long siege of Antioch. But a deserting Stephen of Bois Convinced Alexius thatthe outlook was dre, and the emperor retreated ith his reinforcements, The crusaders eventually won the city but lost their loyalty to Alexius in the process. Relations worsened a the CCrusades continued, and during the Fourth Crusade in 1204, Western soldiers attacked and looted Constantinople. The crusaders set up a Latin regime, despite the animosity ofthe locals, while the Byzantine government moved to Nicaea, Although the Byzantines regained Constantinople in 121, the break between the Orthodox East and Catholic West proved permanent. After the Crusades, the Byzantine Empire was financially crippled. When [Emperor John V traveled to Italy to request money to fight the Turks in 1369, he was instead arrested for debts. Four years later, he was forced to bhecome a vassal tothe Turks. Asa vasal state, Byzantium owed tribute and soldiers tothe Ottomans. The Byzantine Empire finally ended ‘on May 29,1453, when an Ottoman army under Mehmed I overtook Constantinople. The empires influence continued, however, through the scholars who fled tothe West, bringing with them Classical Greek ‘writings, and through the Eastern Orthodox religion, which dominated ‘worship in Eastern Europe. A BARBARIAN GLOSSARY sound of foreign languages that tothe Greek ear resembled so much babbling. In time, “barbarian” came to refer to al foreigners. “The Romans adopted the term, too, and futlely erected fortifieations around the perimeter of their empire to keep the barbarians out Te term “barbarian” comes from ancient Greek, describing the ‘Huns—the Huns were a central Asian people whose advance westward from the Russian steppes upset the stability of Europe. Eventually defeated by an alliance of Germanic peoples in 455, they withdrew ‘the way they had come, their depareure facilitating the rise of various Germanic tribes. \Visigoths with the arival of the Huns the Visgoths (or western Goths) sought refuge within the boundaries ofthe Roman Empire. In the year 410, however, the Visigoth king Alariceapeured Rome. His successors ‘eventually setup a flourishing kingdom in Spain that only came toan end ‘withthe Moorish invasion, ‘Ostrogoths The Ostrogoths (or eastern Goths) conquered Italy, and their king, Theodoric the Great, became its ruler. After Theodoric's death i526, Byzantine army retook Italy and drove the Ostrogoths north ‘ofthe Alps. They merged with other tres there and disappeared from history a a separate people ‘Vandals An east Germanic tribe, the Vandals briefly settled in Spain ‘before moving onto North Africa, There they defeated the Romans, built powerful feet, and dominated the western Mediterranean, They were eventually overwhelmed bythe Byzantines, ‘Anglo-Saxons—These tribes from Denmark and northern Germany