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Institute for onstruction


T.raining and Development

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,I 'FIRE REGULATIONS
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ICTAD
ICTAD PUBLICATION NO: ICTAD/DEV/14

INSTITUTE FOR CONSTRUC'nON


TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT (ICTAD)

FIRE REGULATIONS

2nd Edition (Revised) - December 2006

MINISTRY OF HOUSING AND CONSTRUCTION


Published by
Institute for Construction Training and Development (ICT AD)
,Savsiripaya'
123, Wijerama Mawatha
Colombo 07.

1st Edition 1997

2nd Edition (Revised) December 2006


1 <

Copyright Reserved
No part of this publication shall be
reproduced or transmitted in any
form or by any means without
permission of the publisher.
FOREWORD TO THE FIRST EDITION

The necessity for a Code of Practice for Fire Precautions in buildings had been a long felt need for
our country. ICTAD realize this fact and had been working on the preparation of a such code for
quite some time.

Now it has become a reality due to the tremendous effort made by the committee appointed for the
formulation of fire regulations for Sri Lanka. Hence I would like to thank all the members of the
committee Mr. N D Dickson, Mr. S W Molligoda, Mr. K A H Ranaweera, Mr. K M I de Silva,
Mr. K D M Udugama, Mr. Somapala de Silva.Dr. Milroy Perera, Mr. E I Munasinghe, Mr. Mervyn
Gunasekera, Mr. W V K M Abeysekera and Wg. Cdr. C A 0 Dirck:ze.

I believe that this document will be a useful guide for Engineers, Designers, Architects and others to
provide their clients with the required level of fire protection for life and property. Finally, Iwould
like to thank Wg. Cdr. C A 0 Dirck:ze, Technical Editor of this document and Mr. G Gaffoor,
Mr. L P C Liyanarachchy, Former Director (Development) and the Development Division Staff for
their contributions to make this event a success.

PROF. D S WlJEYESEKERA
CHAIRMAN
ICTAD
FOREWORD TO THE REVISED EDITION

The first edition of the Fire Regulations was prepared by the following Committee and published in
1997.

l. Mr. N D Dickson Director (Planning) I UDA


2. Mr. S W Molligoda Managing Partner I Molligoda Associates
3. Mr. K A H Ranaweera Addl. Director I My, LGH&C
4. Mr. K M Ide Silva Chief Fire Officer I CMC
5. Mr. K D M Udugama Deputy CFO/CMC
6. Mr. Somapala de Silva Chief Planning Officer /CMC
7. Dr. Milroy Perera Partner / Mis Selvaratnam & Perera " .,
8. Mr. E I Munasinghe Adviser / ICTAD
9. Mr. Mervyn Gunasekera Deputy Director IICTAD
10. Mr. W V K M Abeysekera Deputy Director I ICTAD
11. Wg. Cdr. C A 0 Dirckze Fire Engineering Consultant

After using this document for several yeats, a necessity of a revision was felt by ICTAD hence a sub
committee was formulated and the committee consisted of the following;

01. Mr. J Kannangara Fire Chief / Fire Service Dept


02. Mr. P Mervyn Gunasekera MDILAN Management Development Service
03. Wg. Cdr. C A 0 Dirckze Fire Engineering Consultant
04. Archt. BET Fernando Deputy Director (Enforcement) / UDA
05. Mr. Russel De Zilva Executive SecretarylIESL
06. Ms. S D H de Silva Director (Works) / Ministry of Housing and Construction
07. Mr. R Gurusinghe Electrical Consultant / Dept. of Buildings
08. Archt, R Nadesapillai Secretary! SLIA ',f.' "'

09. Mr. Dayaratne Perera Planning Officer/ CMC


10. Mr. K P W Rajasiri Director DevelopmentflCTAD
11. Mr. C Arnarakoon Deputy Director (TD)/ICT AD

The resource person Wg. Cdr. C A 0 Dirckze revised this edition under the guidance of the sub
committee to suit the current development in the construction industry.

I wish to acknowledge with grateful thanks the services of Wg. Cdr. C A 0 Dirckze and all the
members of the steering committee and the sub committee. Meanwhile my special thanks are also
due to Mr. J Kannangara, Mr. J K Lankatilake, Mr. K P W Rajasiri, Mrs. Vajira Ranasinghe and
Mr. C. Amarakoon who contributed in numerous ways in the publication of this document. I also
appreciate the assistance rendered by Mrs. W L Lalitha Ranjani for the secretarial work.

I hope that this publication


will be a useful guide for Engineers, Designers, Architects, Consultants,
Property Developers and others to provide their clients with the required level of fire protection for
life and property.

Vidyajyoth! Prof. Lakshman Alwis


Chairman
ICTA))
CONTENTS

Page

Chapter 1 Definitions 1- 10

Chapter 2 Means of Escape 11 - 30

Chapter 3 Structural Fire Precautions 31 - 64

Chapter 4 Fire Extinguishing Appliances, Detection and Alarm 65 - 82


Systems and Other Fire Protection Systems

Chapter 5 Special Uses, Occupancies and Structures 83 - 108

Chapter 6 Access For Fire Fighting Vehicles 109 - 112

Chapter 7 Maintenance of the Fire Protection Facilities 113-115


List of Tabies

Table No. Description Page

Table 1 Abbreviations 8
Table 2 Classification of Purpose Groups 9

Table 3 Occupant Loads 16

Table 4 Number of Exists from Rooms and Spaces 18


Table 5 Determination of Exit Requirements 24
Diagram 1 Illustration of Application of Travel Distances and Concept of 25
Direct Distance
Table 6 Table of Size Limitations of Buildings and Compartments 39
(Exception Purpose Group 1)
Table 7 Multi Storey Industrial and Storage Buildings - (Purpose Group 5) 39

Table 8 Minimum Period of Fire Resistance 43

Table 9 Table for the Regulation 14 45


Table 10 Unprotected Areas in any Side of a Building 48
Table 11 Classification of Fire Resisting Doors 56

Table 12 Table of Classification of Surface of Walls and Ceiling relating to 62


Flame Spread
Table 13 Materials for Roofing and Roof Framing 62

Table 14 Provision of Fire Alarms according to Purpose Group, Height and 73


Size of the Building
Table 15 Minimum Sizes of Fire Extinguishers for Class A Fire Hazards 80
Table 16 Minimum Sizes of Fire Extinguishers for Class B Fire Hazards 80
Table 17 Separation Distance of Tanks 100

II
,,:'''1.,
CHAPTER 1

DEFINITIONS

CONTENTS

Page

Definitions

Table 1 Abbreviations 8

Table 2 Classification of Purpose Groups 9

III
CHAPTER 1

DEFINITIONS

In these Regulations, unless the context otherwise requires, the following expressions have the meanings
hereby respectively assigned to them and other expressions have the meanings assigned to them by the
Urban Development Authority Planning and Building Regulations.

Expression Definition

Accepted - means codes, standards or manuals acceptable to the Urban Development


codes of Authority;
practice

Aggregate - means any material other than cement and water used in the making of concrete and
complying with the requirements of the respective Sri Lanka Standards or in the
absence of such a standard, the respective British standard.;

Air - means the process of treating air so as to control simultaneously its temperature,
Conditioning humidity, purity, distribution and movement to meet the requirements of the air
conditioned space;

Air Change Means the rate of air entering or leaving a space by natural or mechanical means in
terms of the volume of the space;

Approved - means approved by the Urban Development Authority (UnA) or the relevant Local
Authority, under the authority delegated by the Urban Development Authority;

Approved - means a plan of a building or any building work or any land subdivision approved
Plan by the Urban Development Authority or the Local Authority in accordance with the
law and the Regulations;

B.S.S - means British Standard Specifications;

Balcony - means any stage, platform oriel window or other similar structure projecting
outwards from the wall of a building beyond the outer face of an external wall of
the building and supported by brackets 'or cantilevered;

Base in relation to a wall or pier, means-

(a) The underside of the course immediately above the footings, if any, or.in.the
case of a wall carried by a beam, above the beam; and
(b) In any other case the bottom of such wall or pier;

Basement - means a storey which is located below the corresponding natural ground level in its
entirety otto an extent of 2/3 of its height below such ground level. 111 case where
natural light and ventilation is intended to be obtained;

Bressumer means a beam or girder which carries a wall;

British - means the current Code of Practice issued by the British Standards Institution;
Standard Code
of Practice
fire
_____ Regulations
,__ "'.,__ ..~...._.h...........__ ' ~.__ .......,...._..'~~_._
__ "'.~ ,..._......._ R.~.'.__ _..~___.__ ............ ____Chapter 1 ,.Ddinitiolls

Building Include a house, latrine, shed, godown or any structure made out of masonry bricks,
mud, timber, metal or any other permanent material;

Business means a building or part thereof designed, adapted or used for the carrying on a
Premises business with a profit making motive;

Car Parks (a) Covered car park means a parking area which is housed in a building or a part
of a building which is roofed over as distinct from a car parking area in the
open air;
(b) Multi Storey car park means a covered car park as defined above comprising
two or more storeys above ground level;

Ceiling ~ means the covering to the underside of a floor joist, ceiling joists or floor slab
excluding in every case any supporting beam, and where no such covering exists,
means the underside of a floor joist, floor slab, roof collar or tie excluding any
supporting beam;

Column in relation to structural steel or reinforced concrete, means a part of a construction


which by its resistance to compression in the direction of its length and to bending
actions induced by such compression, supports and transmits a load;

Concrete shall have the same meaning as defined in the Sri Lanka Standards for Concrete;

means a passage providing a-means of access from rooms or spaces to an exit;

Construct means build, erect and place in position and includes reconstruct, rebuild, re-erect
and replace in position;

, Dead Load or - means the of all floors, roofs, partitions and other like permanent
Dead Loading structures;

Depth in respect of a building, means the measured distance at ground level between the
front line of the building and the back line of the rear main wall which separates the
main building from the open space;

Detached means a building or part thereof which is used or is intended, adapted, or designed
Building to be used for living purposes and is a self contained unit;

Duct Means a passageway for conveying air;

Dwelling means a building or part of a building consisting of a room or group of rooms


House or forming a self contained unit with independent living, cooking and sanitary
Dwelling Unit facilities;

Factory - means a building or part thereof designed, adapted or used for-

(a) The making of any article, commodity or product or part thereof; or

(b) The altering, repairing, ornamenting, finishing, cleaning, washing or the


breaking up or demolition of any article, commodity or product 01' part thereof;
or

The adapting for sale or assembly of any article, commodity or product or part
thereof;

2
Fire Regulations
------'._ _._-
Chapter 1 Definitions
...............

Fire Doors, - means respectively, doors, windows and shutters constructed in conformity with the
Fire Windows relevant provisions of Chapter 3 of this Code;
and Fire
Shutters

Fire - means the minimum period of time during which an element of a structure may be
Resistance expected to function satisfactorily while subject to the standard fire test provided for
Rating in Chapter 3 of this Code;

Flat - means a separate dwelling used or constructed or adapted to be used wholly or


principally for human habitation for a single family, where the kitchen, lavatory,
bathroom Of water-closet are contained within the separate dwelling and that
dwelling is contained in a building comprising two or more such dwellings joined
vertically;

Flat Roof means a roof having no inclination or having an inclination of not more than seven
and a half degrees with the horizontal;

Floor includes any horizontal platform forming the surface of a storey and any joist board,
timber, stone concrete, steel or other substance connected with or forming part of
such platform;

Floor Area - means the horizontal area of a floor of a building measured from the exterior faces
of exterior walls or in the case of a common wall separating two buildings from the
centre line of such common wall and shall include all roof projections and balconies
exceeding 1m in width and all areas having a roof and capable of being enclosed;

Footing - means the construction by which the weight of a building is transferred to the
foundation or pile of the building;

Footway includes a footway or verandah way at the side of any street;

Foundation - means the part of the construction immediately below the footings of a building,
which is in direct contact with and through which the weight of the building is
transmitted to the ground;

Garage - means a building or part thereof, used for housing or parking of motor vehicles;

Godown - means a building or part thereof designed, adapted or used for the storage but not
for the sale of goods in connection with the carrying on of any trade or business;

Ground Storey - means the storey of a building to which there is an entrance from the natural ground
on or above the level of the same at the front of the building or as may be decided
by the authority depending on the circumstances;

Habitable - means any room not less than 8 m2 in area but does not include any bathroom,
Room water-closet, open verandah, terrace or garage;

Hardwood - conventionally the timber of broad leaved trees belonging to the botanical group
Timber Angiosperms. Varieties are as given in the leT AD specifications for Building
Works -Volume 1;

.Headroom - means the clear vertical distance between landings, floors and ceilings etc.; where
people are expected to move; -,

3
Fire RegllJg~;i:;.:(\f Chi.ipt~:T '~.- ~:~:~~;Hnitions
-.---.'<"-."'~''''''''''~'''~~<'.'--"'_''''.""""-,.-- --~..-- "._'_''-,,,~
,..-..,~.-
..------ ~-------~-~ --.---.-.-,--.--- "'''...,.. - .<-~--
"..

Height In relation to-

(a) A room means the vertical distance measured between the finished floor level
and the underside of the ceiling;

(b) Any storey means the vertical distance measured between the upper surface of
the floor immediately above it;

(c) A wall means the vertical distance measured from the base of the wall to its
highest part or, in the case of a gable to half the height of the gable;

(d) A building, means the vertical distance measured from the corresponding
location toits highest floor level;

Highly - means liquid petroleum, kerosene and any oil, liquid, spirit or similar liquid
Flammable which will flash or emit an inflammable vapour at or below a temperature of
Liquid 65 C, Abel Close Test;

High-rise - means any building with more than ten floors including the ground floor, or whose
Building height at any part of it above the ground level exceeds 30 rn, excluding a lift or
motor-room not exceeding 56 m2 in extent or a staircase room not exceeding a
height of 3 m and not exceeding 25 m2. in extent or a water tank not exceeding a
height of 1.5 rn;

Hospital means a building or thereof designed, adapted or used for the care or treatment
of the sick, infirm, aged, convalescent or pregnant;

Hotel - means a building speciaUy designed and constructed or substantially adapted to be


used to accommodate. persons for the purpose of gain or profit, with or without
arrangements for communal feeding;

House means a group of dwelling units on a site which is permanently in "common


Complex enjoyment" and may include a block of flats. "industrial building" includes
factories, workshops and warehouses;

Lintel - means a beam supporting walling over an opening or recess;

Low-rise - means any building that does not exceed 18 m in height;


Building

Maintained means maintained in an efficient state, in proper working order and in good repair;

Mechanical means the process of supplying or removing air to or from a building or part
Ventilation thereof by mechanical means or devices;

Medium-rise means any building that exceeds J8 ill in height but does not exceed 30 m in
Building height;

Mesh in relation to the measurement of materials, means the mesh of a sieve complying
with BS for Test Sieves numbered 410;

Mezzanine - means any subsidiary storey interposed between two main storeys of a building;

Natural - means the supply of outside air to a building or removal of inside air from a
. Ventilation
"
building by means of windows and other openings due to wind outside and
convection effects arising from temperature or vapour pressure differences
(or both) between inside and outside of the building;

4
Fire Regulations Chapter 1 - Definitions

Non- - means any material which neither bums nor gives off an inflammable vapour in
Combustible sufficient quantity to ignite when subjected to the test for combustibility prescribed
Material in BS 476 Part 4 1970;

Office - means a building or part thereof used for office purposes or for the purposes of
administration, clerical work, book keeping, accounting, drawing, editorial work or
banking;

Partition - means a temporary or easily removable vertical structure made of panel work,
covered with metal, wood or plastic sheets or other similar material used for the
sub-division of spaces within a building;

party - means any partition wall or floor required to have a fire resistance rating and used
Structure for the purpose of separating storeys or rooms in separate occupancies to resist the
spread of fire in accordance with Chapter 3 of this Publication;

Person with means any person who, as a result of any deficiency in his physical or mental
Disability capabilities, whether congenital or not, is unable by himself to ensure for himself,
wholly or partly, the necessities of life;

Pitched Roof - means a roof having an inclination of more than seven and one-half degrees with
the horizontal;

Place of - means a building or a defined or enclosed place used or constructed or adapted to


Public Resort be used either ordinarily or occasionally as a church, chapel, mosque, temple or
other place where public worship is or religious ceremonies are performed, not
being merely a dwelling-house so used, or as a cinema, theatre, public hall, public
concert room, public ballroom, public lecture room, or public exhibition room,
club, association, restaurant, hotel, coffee house, eating house or milk bar, or as a
public place of assembly for persons admitted thereto by ticket or otherwise or
used or constructed or adapted to be used either ordinarily or occasionally for any
other public purpose;

.Pre-stressed - means concrete in which pre-determined stresses are induced to counteract the
Concrete stresses due to dead and superimposed loading for the purpose of eliminating or
decreasing the tensile stresses due to bending and shear;

Professional - means the person who carries out the relevant engineering design of any
Engineer construction recognised by an acceptable professional institution;

Public includes any building or part thereof used or constructed or adapted to be used for
Building the purpose of public worship, instruction, recreation, meeting, shopping centre,
medical institution or a nursing home or govemment'private office;

Reinforced - shall have the same meaning as in BS 8110;


Concrete
Relevant - means any person who has obtained his professional qualification in the specified
Qualified field as listed below as recognised by the relevant professional institute.
Person
(a) Chartered or Registered Architect
(b) Town Planner
(c) A Professional Engineer! Chartered Engineer in the discipline that IS

appropriate for the works of which a plan is submitted under the Law
'<

(d) Licensed Surveyor & Leveller


(e) Valuer

----------------, 5
Fire Regulations Chapter 1 .. Definitions

Repair Garage - means any premises or part thereof where repairing, painting or washing of motor
vehicles, automobile body and fender work or any process connected therewith is
, carried on;

Residential - means a building or part thereof designed; adapted or used for human habitation
Building such as a detached, semi-detached or terrace house or a residential flat and includes
any out-building and other covered structure which are intended for the enjoyment
of the occupiers of the building or part thereof or are otherwise appurtenant to a
residential building as such;

Restaurant - means a building or part.thereof to which the public has access ani], used for the
carrying on of any business where the primary purpose is the sale off'6od stuffs for
consumption in the building or part thereof;

- means a portion of a building enclosed by walls or partitions;

School - means a building or part thereof designed, adapted or used for the dissemination of
knowledge;

Service Road - means a small road parallel to a main road, which can be used to avoid obstruction
to through traffic;

- means a terrace building the ground storey of which is designed, adapted or used
for business purposes and of which the ground and other storey or storeys have a
common entrance;

Shop or - means a' building or part thereof to which the public has access and used for the
Shopping carrying on of a trade or business where the primary purpose is the sale of goods
Centre and includes a building used for the purposes of a hairdresser, ticket agency, pawn
broker, dispensary or receiving office for goods to be washed, cleaned or repaired
or any other similar trade or business;

Storey - means the space between the upper of every floor and surface of the
floor next above it, or if there is no such floor then the underside of the or collar
beam of the roof or other covering or if there is neither a tie nor a collar beam then
the level of half the vertical height of the underside of the rafters or other support
of the roof;

Superimposed - means all loading other than dead load;


Load or
Superimposed
Loading

. Terrace House - means a residential building designed as dwelling unit


row or terrace of not less than three such residential buildings;

Verandah - means a covered footway at the side of a street;


Way

Walls (a) "Blind wall" means a solid wall constructed using trans lucent material having
no openings;

6
Fire Regulations Chapter 1 Definitions

(b) "Boundary wall" means any wall, enclosure or screen built on or along a
boundary line of a parcel of land for the purpose of separating such land from
another adjoining parcel of land;
(c) "Cross wall" means an internal wall dividing a party wall or an external wall
into distinct lengths;
(d) "External wall" means an outer wall or vertical enclosure of a building not
being a party wall even though it may adjoin a wall of another building when
such wall is constructed at the boundary it shall considered as a blind wall;
(e) "Load bearing wall" means a wall which supports any load in addition to its
own weight;
(f) "Non-load bearing wall" means a wall which supports no load other than its
own weight;
(g) "Panel wall" means. a non-load bearing wall in frame construction built
between columns or piers and wholly supported at each storey;
(h) "Partition wall" means an internal wall used for the purpose of sub-dividing a
storey of a building into sections and which supports no load other than its
own weight; ..

(i) "Party walls" means a wall forming part of a building and used or constructed
to be used along any part of its height or length for the separation of adjoining
buildings, lands, or parts of the building that belong to different owners or are
intended to be occupied by different persons;
(j) "Retaining wall" means a wall used to resist the lateral displacement of any
material;

7
:____:::___-------_._--_._------_._--_
Fire Regulations
_ _---_.
.. .. Chapter
----" .._ 'J. - Definitions

Abbreviations The abbreviations and symbols listed in the following Table 1 are used in these
and Symbols regulations.-

Table 1

Abbreviation or Symbol Definition

BS British Standard
C Celsius
CP Code. of Practice
dB Decibel
o Degree
kg Kilogram
kN Kilo Newton
w Watt
kW Kilowatt
m Metre
Square Metre
Cubic Metre
mm Millimetre
~----~----.----~---------------------
mm Square Millimetre
---------j
min Minute
N Newton
Reg. Regulation
r---~~-~-----_+----------------.------~
UDA Urban Development Authority

8
Fire Regulations Chapter I " Definitions
---------------------- -------------"-----,----

Designation of For the purpose of this Regulation wherever reference is made to


Purpose Groups "PURPOSE GROUPS" every building or part of a building shall be
regarded as falling within one of the groups set out in Table 2.

Table 2

Classification of Purpose GI'OUpS

--
Title Group Purpose for which the Building or Compartment
is intended to be used
Residential" lea) Flat or maisonette
(dwellings)
1(b) Dwelling house containing a habitable storey with a floor more than
4.5 m above ground level
1 (c) Dwelling house not containing a habitable storey witha floor more
than 4.5 m above ground level.

Residential 2 (a) Hospital, nursing home, home for old people or children, school etc
(Institutional) used as living accommodation or for treatment or care of sick or
disabled, place of detention, where people sleep on the premises.
Residential 2 (b) " Hotel, boarding house, residential college, hall of residence, hostel,
(Other) and any other residential purpose not described above.

Office 3 Offices or premises used for administration, clerical work, handling


money, communications, recording or performance not open to the
public.
--
Shop & 4 Shops or premises used for retail trade, hire or repair
Commercial

Assembly and 5 Place of assembly, entertainment or recreation


Recreation

Industrial 6 Factories, other premises used for manufacturing

Storage and other 7 (a) Place for the storage of goods or materials other than 7 (b) and
non residential any building not within groups I~6
7 (b) Car parks for light vehicles

Notes
* Includes offices etc not exceeding 50 m2 forming part of a dwelling.
** Detached garage or carport not exceeding 40 m2 is included in group 1 (c).

9
CHAPTER 2
MEANS OF ESCAPE

CONTENTS

Page

Reg. 1 General 13
Reg. 2 Definitions and General Requirements 13
(a) Exit 13
(b) Occupant Load 13
(c) Travel Distance 13
(d) External Staircase 14
(e) Protected Staircase 14
(f) Exit Passageway 14
(g) Sprinkler System 14
(h) Corridor 14
(i) High Hazard Occupancy 15
(j) Area of Refuge 15
(k) Vertical Exit 15
(I) Direct Distance 15
(m) Two-way Escape 15

Table 3 Occupant Loads 16


Reg. 3 Determination of Exit Requirements 17
(1) Mixed Occupancy 17
(2) Multiple Occupancy or Use 17
(3) Non simultaneous Occupancy 17
(4) Capacity of Exits 17
(5) Minimum Widths 17
(6) Maximum Widths 17
(7) Measurement of Width 18
(8) Number of Exits from Rooms and Spaces 18
Table 4 _- Number of Exists from Rooms and Spaces 18
(9) Number of Staircases or Exits per Storey 19
(10) Exit Reduction 19
(11) Location of Exits 19
(12) Smoke Free Approach Staircase 20
(13) Pressurized Systems for Stairways 21
(14) Exemption 22
(15) Exit Doors 22
(16) Smoke Control Systems 22

Table 5 Determination of Exit Requirements 24


Diagrams Illustration of Application of Travel Distances and Concept of
Direct Distance 25
Reg. 4 Means of Escape Requirements 26
(I) Exit Passage ways 26
(2) Internal Staircases 26
(3) External Staircases 27
(4) Scissor Stairs 27
(5) Hardwood Staircases 27
(6) Spiral Staircases 27
(7) Ramps 27
(8) Doors 28
Reg~ 5 Exit Lighting ." 29
Reg. 6 Exit and Directional Signs 29

11
CHAPTER 2

MEANS OF ESCAPE

General Reg. 1 The provisions of this Chapter of this Regulation shall control the design,
construction, protection, location, arrangement and maintenance of required
exit facilities to provide' safe means of escape from all buildings hereafter
erected, altered or changed in occupancy, except that exit requirements for
special uses and occupancies, as are provided in Chapter 5 of these
Regulations shall be additional to or take precedence over the provisions of
this Chapter as the case may be.

Definitions Reg.2 For the purpose of these Regulations the following definitions and
and General associated requirement shall be applicable;
Requirements
(a) "Exit" - means of egress from the interior of the building to an
exterior space which is provided by the use of the following either,
singly or in combination: exterior door openings, protected staircases,
exit passageways or exterior stairs, but not including access stairs,
aisles, corridor doors or corridors.

(b) The "occupant load" of a building or part thereof means the total
number of persons that may occupy such building or part thereof at
anyone time.

The "occupant load" shall be established either-

(i) By the actual number of occupants for whom each occupied


space of the building is designed as shown on the plans, or

(ii) By applying to the floor areas available for occupation the


appropriate areas per person as laid down in Table 3, whichever
is the greater.

(c) "Travel distance" means the distance required to be traversed from the
most remote point in any room or space to the centre of a door
opening directly to a protected staircase, or an open exterior space, or
an exit passageway, provided that in the case of a residential flat or
apartment the travel distance should be measured from the door of the
furthermost room, and in the case of a hotel bedroom or suite, the
travel distance should be measured firstly from the most remote point
in the room or suite to its exit door, and secondly from its exit door to
the protected staircase, open exterior space or exit passageway.

The maximum travel distance for the respective type of occupancies


shall be not greater than as laid down in Table 5 read in conjunction
with the following

0) In the case of a floor area designed with two-way escape


provisions, the maximum travel distance as given in Table 5 shall
be applicable to both escape routes measured from the most
remote equidistant point (in relation to the 2 exits) in the room or
space to the relevant exits. (See Diagram I-A).

13
(ii) In a large floor area subdivided into rooms, corridors and so forth,
the travel distance requirements of the foregoing paragraphs of this
Regulation shall be deemed to be satisfied if the "direct distance"
as defined in Regulation 2(l) does not exceed the applicable
maximum direct distance as specified in Table 5.

(iii) For the purpose of this Regulation, the most remote point from
which the travel distance is measured shall be taken as being
400 mm from the enclosure wall of the room or space.

(iv) The maximum direct distance in a dead end to either the nearest
exit from the storey or-to a point from which escape is available in
separate directions to alternative exits, should not exceed the
permissible one way escape direct distance subject to the overall
travel distance to the nearest exit from the storey not exceeding the
two way escapepermissible travel distance.

(v) In the case of a hotel bedroom storey, the travel distance from the
most remote point in a room or suit to its exit door shall not exceed
9 m and then from the furthermost of such room or suit exit door
on the storey to a protected staircase or exterior open space, the
travel distance shall not exceed that specified for hotels in Table 5.

(d) "External Staircase" Any staircase constructed of non~c~llibustible


materials open to the outdoor air that serves as a required exit. -,

(e) "Protected Staircase" A staircase which has its walls, ceilings and
floors so constructed of non-combustible materials, having a fire
resistance for not less than the minimum period required by
Regulation 13 in Chapter 3 for elements of structure for the part of the
building in which it is situated. The doors to such staircases shall have
a minimum 112 hour fire-resistance, shall be self-closing, and be
opening in the direction of escape. A protected staircase shall
discharge at ground level either directly or in close proximity to an
exterior open space or to an exit passageway or to the ground storey,
which is protected by a sprinkler system, having direct access to an
exterior open space.

(f) "Exit passageway" means a horizontal. extension of a vertical exit viz


protected staircase, or a passage leading from a yard or court to an
open external space, complying with the requirements of Regulation
18 for protected shafts in respect of the fire resistance ratings of its
enclosure walls, floors, ceilings and doors. In addition to the doors
connecting the exit passageway to a protected staircase or other
vertical exit or external open space, there shall be not more than 2
doors opening into an exit passageway and such doors shall be self-
closing and complying in every respect with the relevant provisions of
Regulation 19 except that in the case of an external exit passageway
along the side of a storey of a building the limitation as to the number
of doors shall not be applicable.

(g) "Sprinkler system" means an automatic sprinkler installation


conforming to the requirements of an accepted Code of Practice.

(h) "Corridor" A passage providing a means of access from rooms or


spaces to an exit.
Fire Regulations

(i) "High hazard occupancy" means any occupancy in which the type of
goods or materials stored or the nature of the trade or manufacture be
such as to increase the fire probability and cause the rapid burning of
it's contents or produce poisonous or noxious. fumes or explosions in
the event of a fire or in any way accentuate the fire hazard.

(D "Area of refuge" in relation to the means of exit of a building means


an area in adjoining building or an adjoining part of the same building
adequately fire separated from it by a construction having fire
resistance for a period of at least. 2 hours, to which egress. is made
through supplemental exits such as a balcony, a bridge, a tunnel,
staircase and so forth.

An area of refuge shall be adequate in size to hold the occupant load


it receives from the floor area it serves in addition to its own occupant
load on the basis of 0.3 m2 per person and shall be provided with at
least one protected staircase and exit facilities of adequate width
discharging at ground level directly to an exterior open space.

Doors providing access to an area of refuge shall be kept unlocked at


ail times when the floor area served by the area of refuge is occupied.
Such doors shall be swinging and self-closing doors having a fire
resistance rating of 1Y:z hours except that doors in fire divisions of 3
or 4 hours fire resistance rating shall have a fire resistance rating of 3
hours. They shall swing in the direction of exit travel.

(k) "Vertical exit" means a staircase or ramp serving as an exit from one
or more storeys above or below ground level.

(l) "Direct distance" means the shortest distance from a point in the floor
area, measured within the external enclosure walls of the floor area, to
the relevant exits, ignoring internal walls, partitions and fittings other
than the enclosure walls of protected staircases (See Diagrams I-B
and I-C). Where the "direct distance" concept is adopted, the
maximum permissible direct distance shall be taken as being 2/3 of
the maximum permissible travel distance given in Table 5.

(rn) "Two-way escape" means a situation where there are 2 independent


escape routes and the subtended angle between the 2 lines of travel
from the relevant point in the floor area to the exits shall not be less
than 45 (See Diagram I-D). If the subtended angle is less than 45 ,
then it should be considered as a one-way escape arrangement,
notwithstanding the fact there are 2 exits.

15
----_._------_------
Fire Regulations

Table 3

Occupant Loads

Intended use or type of occupancy of the room or Areas of occupied floor


storey of the building space per person. ( m2)

Places of public resort not otherwise provided for in this table 1


--
Dance halls (calculated on dancing area) 1

Restaurants (calculated on dining are~) 1.5

Public lounges and hotel lobbies (calculated on usable area) 2.5

~.s and showrooms (calculated on usable area) 5

Offices, hotel service areas ~alculated on usable area) 10

Dormitories and self-contained single room flats (calculated on 3


living area)

Apartments and flats (calculated on living area) IS


.... -

Schools 1.5

Warehouses, godowns, bulk storage, public garages and motor 28


showrooms

Factories 3
-,. -.-
Hospitals' 7.5

(a) For any occupancy not specified in this Table the Urban Development Authority shall
determine the scale to be used.

(b) Where the provisions of this Table are inapplicable or where certain circumstances would
render their application unreasonable, the Urban Development Authority may,
notwithstanding anything herein to the contrary, determine the basis on which exit
provisions shall be calculated. ,

(c) Hotel bedrooms to be taken as 4 persons per bedroom.


-

(d) For a factory building, a deduction of 30% in the computed floor area may be allowed
when apl'Jying the applicable rate in calculating occupant load.

16
Fire Regulations

Determination Reg.3 The determination of exit requirements for a building shall be based upon
of Requirements the type of use or occupancy of the building, the occupant load, the floor
area, the travel distance to an exit, and the capacity of the exists as
provided in Table 5 and herein. Every storey of a building shall be
provided with exit facilities for its occupant load. Vertical exits (staircase
or ramps) provided from any storey above ground level may serve
simultaneously all storeys above ground level and vertical exits provided
from any storey below ground level may serve all storeys below ground
level, subject to the provisions of Regulation 56 which prohibits basement
staircases being continuous with staircases serving upper storey.

Mixed Reg.3 (1) Where different parts of a building or storey of a building are designed
Occupancy for different types of occupancies or used for different purposes at the
same time, the exit requirements of the entire building or storey of the
building shall be determined on the basis of that type of occupancy or
usage having the strictest exit requirements, or the exit requirements for
each building section shall be determined separately.

Multiple Reg.3 (2) Where a building, or storey of a building or a part of a building, is used
Occupancy or for multiple purposes involving different activities at different times, that
Use purpose or usage involving the greatest number of occupants shall form
the basis of determining the exit requirements.

Non- Reg.3 (3) The floor areas of toilets, locker rooms, meeting rooms, storage rooms,
simultaneous staff canteens and similar rooms and spaces that serve other rooms and
Occupancy spaces on the same storey but are not occupied at the same time as such
other rooms or spaces, may be omitted from the occupant load
calculations of that storey of the building on which they are located. In
the case of factory and office buildings only, the floor area of a corridor
may also be omitted from the occupant load calculations of that storey
of the building on which the corridor is located.

Capacity of Reg.3 (4) The capacity of exits, staircases and other exit facilities shall be measured
Exits in units of width of one half of a metre and the number of persons per unit
of width shall be determined by the type of occupancy and type of exit as
listed in Col (iii) of Table 5. Fractions of a unit of width less than 250 mm .
shall not be credited. Where 250 nun or more are added to one or more
full units, half of a unit of width shall be credited. Exit staircases shall be
of such width that in the event of anyone staircase not being available for
exit purposes the remaining staircases shall accommodate the highest
occupancy load of anyone floor discharging into it calculated in
accordance with the stipulations in Table 5.

Minimum Reg.3 (5) Notwithstanding any of the above computations no exit or staircase shall
Widths be narrower than the minimum width requirements specified in Col. (iv)
of Table 5.

Maximum Reg.3 (6) The maximum width of staircases shall not be more than four units of
Widths width unless divided by handrails into sections of not less than two units
of width or more than four units of width. For the purpose of determining
the exit capacity of a staircase that is wider than 4 units of width and
forms part of the required means of escape from any storey of the
building, that part of its <width in excess of 4 units of width shall not be
taken into account.
Fire Regulatiolls Chapter 2 - M"'llllS of Escape
--- ,-------------_._----"-"'-,--_.-

Measurement Reg.3 (7) The width of a staircase shall be the clear width between-
of Width
(a) The finished surfaces of the walls, if the staircase is enclosed on both
sides by walls only; or

(b) The finished surface of the wall and the inner side of the balustrade
or handrail, if the staircase has a wall on one side and a balustrade or
handrail on the other side; or

(c) The inner sides of the balustrade or handrails if the staircase has
balustrades' or handrails on both sides.

Number of Reg.J (8) There shall be at least two door openings remote from each other and
Exits from leading to exits, from every room or enclosed space in which the total
Rooms and occupant load exceeds the maximum permissible occupancy load for one
Spaces door as listed in the following Table 4.

Table 4

Type of Occupancy Maximum Occupant Load with


one Door

High hazard 10
";.: .
Godowns, storage buildings 50
.~.;

Shops, departmental stores and business premises 75

Factory buildings without high hazards 50


--
Place of public resort 75
Educational buildings 75

Hospitals 15
--::
Hotels, boarding houses, hostels, residential block etc. 20

18
Fire Regulations ________ .. Chapter 2 - ~f;l!liS of Escape

(a) Application of Table 4 shall be subject to the travel distance being


in accordance with Regulation 2( c).

(b) In a block of residential fiats, there shall be not less than two exit
doors from each flat, that shall have direct access to the staircase
or staircases that are required to be provided for such block of
flats under subsequent paragraph (9) of this Regulation except
that only one exit door may be provided when there is a smoke
dispersal condition within the flat to the satisfaction of the Urban
Development Authority and the travel distance from the
furthermost bedroom door to the exit door does not exceed 13 m.
When there is an alternative escape route from the furthermost
bedroom door to the single exit door, an extension of the
aforesaid travel distance up to 15 m may be permitted.

(c) Every school classroom, other than the "educational buildings"


referred to in the above table, shall have at least 2 exits.

(d) In a block of maisonettes, there shall be at least one exit door


from each storey of each unit that shall have direct access to the
staircase or staircases that are required to be provided for such
block of maisonettes under subsequent paragraph (9) of this
Regulation provided that the upper storey of a may be exempted
form compliance with this requirement if the following conditions
are complied with:

(i) The aggregate floor area of the upper storey of the


maisonette should not exceed 60 m2;

(ii) The distance from the furthermost bedroom door to the main
entrance door should not exceed 13 m;

(iii) The escape route should not pass through or near an


unprotected opening of the kitchen; and

(iv) The maisonette should not comprise more than 2 storeys .

Number of . Reg.3 (9) There shall be at least two independent staircases or other exits from
Staircases or every storey of a building, except that only one staircase may be
Exits per provided for storeys in a detached type of residential building.
Storey

Exit Reg.S (10) When a floor area has access to areas of refuge conformingtothe
Reduction provisions of Regulation 2(j) the number of persons for whom vertical
exits are to be provided may be reduced to 50 percent of the occupant
load of the floor area when one area of refuge is provided and may be
reduced to 33 1/3 percent of the floor area when two areas of refuge are
provided.

Location Reg.J (11) All exits and access facilities shall located as follows:
of Exits
(a) They shall be clearly visibly, or their locations clearly indicated
and shall be kept readily accessible and unobstructed at all times.

19
(b) When more than one tenant occupies a building or floor area,
each tenant shall have direct access to .the required number of
exits without passing through premises occupied by other tenants.

(c) When more than one exit is required from a storey of a building
or any room, each exit shall be placed as remote as possible from
the other to the satisfaction of the Urban Development Authority.
Door openings to scissor staircases shall be at least 5 m distant
from each other.

Smoke Reg.3 (12) The entry to a protected staircase of any building or part of a
Free Approach building of more than 18m in height above ground level, other than a
Staircase building of purpose Group 1, shall not be direct from any part of a
storey of the building but only through either:

External (a) An external exit passageway conforming to the requirements of


Approach Reg. 4 (I) or an external corridor or a balcony or landing open to
a street, or to an open space not less that 10m2 in horizontal plane
area open vertically to the sky for its full height; such corridor,
balcony or landing being enclosed on its open side by only a Im
high parapet wall or balustrade and separated from the interior of
the building by a imperforate wall having the requisite fire
resistance under Regulation 13 in which only a Class A door
conforming to the requirements of Regulation 19 (8) may be
permitted, provided that in the case of an external corridor,
ventilation openings of non-combustible construction located
above a level of 1.2 m from the finished surface of the corridor
floor and not less than 3 m from the protected staircase may also
be permitted in the separation wall between the corridor and the
interior of the building; or

Smoke free (b) A smoke free lobby having a floor area of not less than 6 m2 if it
Lobby also serves as a fire fighting lobby required under Regulation 34
(2) that is separated from the adjoining areas of the building by an
imperforate wall having a fire resistance of at least 1 hour in
which only self-closing doors conforming to the requirements of
a Class A door as specified in Regulation 19 (8) shall be
provided; such lobby being ventilated by either:

(i) Permanent ventilation openings in an external wall to which


the lobby abuts; such openings being not less than 15 percent
of the area of the lobby and located not more than 9m from
any part of the lobby;

(ii) Mechanical ventilation complying with the Urban


Development Authority requirements, or

(iii) Permanent ventilation openings of similar size as in Clause


(bXi) of this Regulation, opening to an open air well having a
superficial plan area of not less than 10m2 or 0.1 m2 for each
300 mm of height of the building whichever is the greater.
The enclosure walls of such air well shall be of a similar
standard of fire resistance as that required for the enclosures
of the protected staircase and shall be imperforate except for
the ventilation openings for the lobby, staircase and toilets; or

20
Cross (c) A cross ventilated corridor having openings in at least two
Ventilated external walls; such openings being not less than 50 percent of
Corridor the superficial area of the said walls and within 13 m of any part
of the corridor.

Pressurized Reg.J (13) All fire escape stairways serving high-rise buildings shall be provided
Systems with a system of pressurization as follows:
for Stairways
(a) The minimum pressurization level of 50 Pa shall be achieved with
all doors closed and all pressure relief systems working.

(b) The force required to operate any door against the combined
resistance of the pressurization air and the automatic door closing
mechanism shall not exceed 110 N at L'1edoor handle.

(c) When in operation the fan capacity shall be enough to maintain


minimum average egress velocity through doorways of 0.75 m/s
with any three single leaf entry doors (one on each of three levels)
and the largest exit door open, plus leakage allowance for all other
doors.

(d) The minimum fire resistance rating for the enclosure of the
pressurization plant shall be the same as that of the staircase
served.

(e) The maximum air velocity in ducts shall not exceed 20 mls.

(f) The number and distribution of injection points for the supplying
of the pressurization air to the exit staircase shall ensure an even
pressure profile. The multiple injection system with air supplies at
no greater than 12 m apart to be used.

(g) Emergency power supply shall be provided for all equipment


serving staircase pressurization.

(h) All wiring, cables, electrical equipment, starters, relays, etc.,


including building primary and secondary sources of supply shall
be suitable for continuous operation at 250 0 C ambient for one
hour.

(i) The pressurization system shall be automatically activated by the


building fire alarm system. In addition a remote manual start/stop
switch shall be made available for firemen at the fire command
centre. Visual indication of the operation status of the
pressurization system shall be provided.

U) Supply air for the pressurization system shall be drawn directly


from the external and its intake shall be not less than 5 m from any
exhaust discharge openings.

(k) When in "fire" mode no system connected therewith shall be


controlled or under the influence of any Building Management
System (BMS), nor shall failure or close do~ of such BMS
prevent its operation.

21
Exemption Reg.3 (14) Where a protected staircase of any building or part of a building of more
than 18 m in height above ground level, other than a building of
Purpose Group 1, is either fully pressurized or adequately cross
ventilated through permanent openings, in accordance with the Urban
Development Authority regulations, it shall be exempted from
compliance with the requirements of Regulation 3 (12) provided that:

(a) It is not a fire fighting staircase adjacent to a fire lift as required


under Regulation 34 (2)

(b) The doors opening into such protected staircase conform to the
requirements of a Class B door as specified in Regulation 19 (8)
and

(c) A suitable smoke exhaust system is provided to the adjoining floor


areas of the building to the satisfaction of the Urban Development
Authority, if required.

Exit Doors Reg.3 (15) Exit doors giving access to stairways shall be so positioned that their
swing shall at no point encroach on the required width of the staircase or
landing. .

Smoke Control Reg.3 (16) A "smoke control system" which is a "mechanical ventilation'tsystem,
System shall be provided where required by the Authority having
Jurisdiction" and shall comply with the following stipulations:

(A) General Requirements

The "smoke control system" shall consist of the following:

(i) A "Smoke Purging System" which is independent of all other


systems serving other parts of the building, and which will
provide an extraction rate of not less than 8 air changes per
hour.

(ii) "Automatic Activation" The smoke purging system shall be


automatically activated by the building fire alarm system.

(iii) "Manual Control" A remote control manual start/stop switch


shall be provided at the Fire Control Centre, or at the main Fire
Control Panel. Visual verification of the operation status of the
smoke control system shall be provided with the remote control
facility.

(iv) "Supply Air" Supply air for the smoke control system shall be
drawn directly from the exterior, and the intakes shall be not less
than 5 m from any exhaust discharge openings. Outlets for the
supply air of the system shall be adequately distributed over
total floor area. Where there is natural ventilation based upon
openings of not less than 2 percent of the floor area of each
floor, such natural ventilation may be considered as a
satisfactory substitution for the required air supply requirement,
of the smoke control system.

(v) "Discharge Outlets" The discharge outlets of the 'Smoke control


system should be separated by not less than 5 m in any direction
from all air inlets or building openings.

22
(B) Additiomd Requirement
(i] Basement Smoke Extraction Systems "Basement smoke
extraction systems where required by the "Authority having
Jurisdiction shall be provided in addition to the stipulations of
the "general requirements" above and shall comply with the
following stipulations:
(a) "Smoke Purging Rate" for normal environments, and in
fire conditions the air changing The smoke purging rate
shall be not less than 6 air changes per hour rate shall be
not less than 10 air changes per hour. The extract points
shall be arranged so that 50 percent are at high level and
50 percent at low level.

(b) "Ducts" Where. ducts are used for the smoke extraction
system they shall comply with the requirements for
mechanical ventilation and air conditioning systems in
buildings.

(c) "Melting Point" All components of the smoke extraction


system must have a minimum melting point of 800 0 C.

(d) "Sprinkler System" An automatic sprinkler system must


be installed, and the fire duct must be constructed to
withstand the water impingement from the sprinklers.

(ii) Engineered Smoke Control System - Engineered Smoke


Control Systems where required by the Authority having
Jurisdiction shall be provided in addition to the stipulations of
the "general requirements" above and shall comply with the
following stipulations:

(a) "Activation" The engineered smoke ventilation system shall


be activated by smoke detectors located in the "smoke
control zone." The time taken for the engineered smoke
ventilation system within a smoke zone to be fully
operational shall not exceed 60 s from system activation.

(b) "Shut Down of Air Conditioning Systems"Air conditioning


systems within the area served by the engineered smoke
ventilation system shall be shut down automatically upon
the activation of the smoke ventilation system.

(c) "Fire Dampers" Fire Dampers shall not be installed in the


engineered smoke ventilation system.
Chapter 2 .- M~oos of Escape
Fire Regulations
............ -,-.--------------~----.---.---------.----_....'"., ...-....

C<$
<::'-! ,","~..o
_.~,.....~_.tN,._'P"""'I1'""""!

ooooooooP::
'<tOOOOOOOOf1"l'<t'<tZ

0000
V)-- .......
,J
OOOOOOOOZ"'"
-fiiV')lI)

24
DIAGRAM 1 - (A - D)
Travel Distance not to exceed permissible values in TabJe 5

Most remote point equidistant from both exists


DIAGRAM 1 A (inreference to Reg. 2 (c) (i
(Illustrating application of Travel Distance requirements to 2 exists)

tHlli~ ~"-
-
<,

-..-
'-),
---.. - - -_- - - -,..-
----l
I_. Direct Distance __j - :
DIAGRAM 1 B (in reference to Reg. 2 (1)
Illustrating co ncept of Direct Distance)
t
~J
~'

Note: In this concept, internal walls and partitions are ignored.

--'1----
..-.- ;::,:~
~:

../,/
-: .>
Direct Distance ---.-~/

././.

DIAGRAM 1 C (in reference to Reg, 2 (1


Illustrating concept of Direct Distance)

~~:,-...-~ '
/

Subtended angle> 45 __j Subtended angle> 45


This is a two escape situation This is a one way escape situation

24 DIAGRAM 1 D (in reference to Reg. 2 (rn) 25


Illustrating concepts of one way & two way escapes)
Fire Regulations Chapter :2 -["'!fans of Escape

Means of Reg.4 Means of escape shall be provided for all buildings by one or more of the
Escape facilities listed in the following paragraphs of this regulation. Access and
Requirements exit facilities not specifically covered in this regulation shall not be used to
satisfy the exit requirements of Regulation 3, without the approval of the
Urban Development Authority. The lifts, elevators and escalators shall not
be used to satisfy the exit requirements of Regulation 3.

Exit RegA (1) Internal and external exit passageways that serve as means of escape or
Passageways required exits from any building other than detached, semi-detached and
terrace type ofdwelling houses shall have the requisite fire resistance under
Regulation 13. The enclosure walls of exit passageways shall have no
openings other than fire doors conforming to the relevant provisions of
Regulation 19 provided that in a building having an external exit
passageway, the wall between the passageway and the rest of the floor
space may have ventilation openings fixed above a level of 1.8 m from the
finished floor level of the passageway and not less than 3 m from a
protected staircase. The minimum width and capacity of Exit Passageways
shall be as listed in columns (iii) and (iv) of Table 5 and their clear heights
shall be not less than 2300 mm over 75 percent of their floor areas with no
point less than 2100 mrn in height. Changes in level requiring less than 2
risers shall be by a ramp complying with the provisions of Regulation 4 (7).

An external exit passageway shall be protected along its outer side by solid
balustrades of parapets of not less than 1 m in height.

All passages shall be kept readily accessible and unobstructed at all times.

Internal Reg.4 (2) (a) Internal staircases serving as fire exits exceeding three storeys in height
Staircases shall satisfy requirements as for protected staircases given in
Regulation 2 (e).

(b) The minimum width and capacity of staircases shall be as listed in


Table 5 and such staircases shall comply with the following-

(i) Headroom: The clear headroom shall be as given in the


Planning and Building Regulations of the Urban Development
Authority.

(ii) Landings: Except for circular or geometric stairs, all staircases


shall be in straight flights with landings provided at intervals of
not more than 16 risers or less than 2 risers and at every floor
level. The minimum width of a landing (measured
perpendicular to the direction of travel) and in length shall be
not less than the width of the staircase except that on a straight
run staircase the distance between risers of upper and lower
flights at intermediate landings need not be more than 1 m.

(iii) Winders: Winders shall not be permitted in any building other


than residential buildings and in such cases there shall be not
more than 1 winder per 90 0 tum.

(iv) Risers and treads: In straight flights shall be as given in the


Planning and Building Regulations of the Urban Development
Authority.

26
Fire Regulations Chapler 2 - Means of Escape

Handrails (c) Every staircase shall have walls, grilles, balustrades or handrails on
Balustrades both sides except that stairs that are 1250 mm or less in width may
etc. have a balustrade or handrail on one side only. Where the width of the
stairs exceeds 4 units of width intermediate handrails shall be
provided in accordance with Regulation 3 (6). There shall be no
projection other than balustrades or handrails in staircases.

Lighting and (d) AU' staircases shall be ...lighted and ventilated by openings in the
Ventilation external walls or mechanically ventilated in accordance with the
Planning and Building Regulations of the Urban Development
Authority.

External RegA (3) External staircases may be used as exits in lieu of internal staircase provide
Staircases they comply with all of the requirements of Regulation 4 (2) for internal
staircases, except enclosure, and also comply with the provisions of
Regulation 2(d).

Scissor Reg.4 (4) Where 2 separate internal staircases are contained within the same
Staircases enclosure (so called "scissor stairs") each stair shall be separated from the
other by non-combustible construction having fife resistance for a
minimum period equal to that required for the enclosure. Such scissor
staircases shall coliform to all the provisions of Regulation 4(2) for internal
staircases. The location of their door openings shall comply with
Regulation 3 (11) (c).

Hardwood Reg.4 (5) Hardwood staircases shall only be permitted as internal staircases in Group
Staircases 1 buildings.

Spiral Reg.4 (6) Spiral staircases may serve as required exits from mezzanine and balconies
Staircases on any storey having an occupant load not exceeding 25 persons, when
built externally as an un-closed staircase and also of non-combustible
materials and having a tread length of at lest 0.75 m. Such spiral staircases
shall not be more than 10m high and shall not be used as an exit from a
public area. Spiral staircases shall not be allowed as a fire exit for Purpose
Group2(a).

Ramps Reg.4 (7) Internal and external ramps may be used as exits in lieu of internal and
external staircases, and also as a "means of escape" for disabled persons,
provided their exit capacities are as listed in Table 5 and except where
otherwise provided, they comply with the applicable requirements of
f
Regulations 4 (2) and (3) and with the following:

(a) Maximum slope: The slope of such ramps shall not be steeper than 1
in 8 except fhat in factory buildings and godowns the slope shall not
exceed 1 in 12 and except as otherwise provided in any other
Regulations.

(b) Changes in direction: .Ramps shall be straight with changes in


direction being made at level platforms or landings, except that ramps
having a slope not greater than 1 in 12 at any place, may be curved.

(c) Length: The sloping portion of ramps shall be at least 1m but not more
than 12.5 m long between platforms orlandings.

27
FireRegulati~ Chapter 2 - Means of Escap;
-----

(d) Platforms: Level platforms or landings at least as wide as the ramp


shall be provided at the bottom, at intermediate levels where required
. and at the top of all ramps. Level platform shall be provided at each
door opening into or from a ramp having a minimum length in the
direction of exit travel of 1 m.

Guards and handrails: Guards and railings of ramps shall comply with
Regulation 4(2) (d) except that only ramps having a slope steeper
1 in 10 need comply with the requirements of handrails and
handrails shall not be required.

ramps shall be provided with non-slip surfaces.


Provided that ramps serving as means of escape to only one basement
not be enclosure walls.

(8) "'''"",.,.-'..,n access to exits shall open in the direction of


the following:

as
door thickness the door is open
more than 80 mm. open
1 m.
VIA,H''''J<. shall be 2000 mm.

have a
door.

Door hardware: exit door which has to shut and


fastened whilst the building is occupied should be fitted with "panic
bolts", appropriately shown "Push bar to in letters not less
100mm

An to rule be made for are


locked back in the fully open position time that the
building is occupied. All other exit with
closing devices other than rising butt and all exit doors shall
be hung on metal and not on any combustible
material. The bolt shall be not more than 1 m from the floor
and shall be capable of being operated.by a horizontal thrust
Fire .Regulations
.._---------------_.---_._-----

(e) Power operated doors: Power operated doors may be used as exit
or corridors provided they remain closed in case of power failure,
but shall be manually operable. No such door shall be credited as
required exit unless it swings in direction of travel,

(f) Revolving doors: Revolving doors shall not be used as required exits
or as access doors to exits.

(g) Sliding doors: Horizontal and vertical sliding or folding doors shall
not be used as required exits or as access doors to exits in places of
public resort, shopping centres and departmental stores, except only
in exceptional circumstances with the approval of the Urban
Development Authority. Horizontal sliding doors, in such buildings
where allowed, shall be clearly marked "slide to open" on both sides
and shall be supplemented by hinged doors of the required exit
width immediately adjacent and such exit shall be clearly marked
accordingly. Sliding doors, providing exit to the outside at grade,
where allowed and not supplemented as above, shall be kept open
when such buildings are being occupied.

Exit Reg.5 (I) Exit passageways, staircases and exits, and all escape routes of all
Lighting buildings, other than detached, semi-detached, or terrace type of dwelling
houses, shall be provided with artificial lighting facilities. The level of
illumination at all times shall not be less than 50 lux. Illumination shall be
so arranged that the failure of anyone light shall not leave any area in
darkness.

Reg.5 (2) Where a total of 4 lights or more is required, exit lighting shall be
connected to an emergency power source or a fail-safe system which shall
automatically function upon failure of the normal power supply and shall
maintain adequate illumination at least for 1 hour.

Reg.5 (3) A block of residential flats shall be exempted from the provisions of
paragraph (2) of this Regulation subject to:

(a) Its escape routes being uncomplicated; and

(b) AU exit passageways, staircases and exits being so arranged and


located against external walls having openings or glazed windows to
the satisfaction of the Urban Development Authority so as not to be
left in complete darkness in event of failure of the artificial lighting
facilities.

Reg.6 (1) In every building or part thereof, except buildings of Purpose Group 1 and
2(b) as in Table 2, the locations of every exit door and exit facility on every
storey shall be clearly indicated by exit signs using internationally accepted
symbols.

Reg.6 (2) Such signs shall be so placed so as to be clearly visible at all times. In long
corridors, in open floor areas, and in all situations where the location of the
exits may not be readily visible, direction signs in internationally accepted
symbols shall be provided to serve as guides from all portions of the
corridors or floors to the exits.

Reg.6 (3) The exit and directional signs shall either be in green or red on a white
background or in white on a green or red background and the signs shall
be electrically illuminated at all material times.
29
CHAPTER 3

STRUCTURAL FIRE PRECAUTIONS

CONTENTS

Page

General 35

Reg. 7 Definitions 35
Reg. 8 Designation of Purpose Groups 36
Reg. 9 Rules for Measurement of 36
(a) Height of a Building 36
(b) Area of a Storey of a Building or Compartment 37
(c) Cubical Extent of Building or Compartment 37
(d) Cases Where Excess Height above 4m may be Ignored 37

Provision of Compartment Walls and Compartment Floors 37

Reg. 10 (1) Excess Floor Area and Cubical Extent 37


(2) Building Authority may Consent to Greater Sizes 38
(3) Excess Height 38
(4) Other Cases Requiring Compartment Walls and Compartment Floors 38
Table 6 Table of Size Limitations of Buildings and Compartments (Exception
Purpose Group 1) 39
Table 7 Multi Storey Industrial and Storage Buildings - (Purpose Group 7) 39
Reg. 11 Exemption from Reg. 10 (1) 40
Reg. 12 Buildings of High Fire Risk 40

Fire Resistance of Elements of Structure 41

Reg. 13 (1) Minimum periods of Fire Resistance 41


(2) (a) Exemption for Non-load Bearing External Walls 41
(b) Exemption for Single-Storey Building 41
(3) Interpretation and Application of this Regulation 41
(4) Fire Resistance for Element of Structure that Carries another Elements 42
(5) Fire Resistance for Compartment Wall of Flats 42
Table 8 Minimum Period of Fire Resistance 43

Tests of Fire Resistance 44

Reg. 14 (1) Meaning of Fire Resistance Requirements and "Deemed to Satisfy" 44


Reg. 14 (2) Deemed to Satisfy Provisions 44
Table 9 Table for the Regulation 14 45

External Walls 46

Reg. 15 (1) Unprotected Areas in any Side of a Building 46


(2) Requirements of External Walls 46
(3) Cladding on External Walls 47
(4) Reference to Roofs 47
(5) Requirements when 2 0t more Buildings are on Land in Common
Occupation 47

31
Fire Regulations _________ C_I_:_lllPter
3 Structu~~~.~~!:I!cautions
,----------

Table 10 Unprotected Areas in any Side of a Building 48

Party Walls 48

Reg. 16 (1) Requirements of Party Walls 48


(2) Openings in Party Walls 48
(3) Party Wall - Roof Junction 48
(4) Party Wall - External Wall Junction 48
(5) Prohibition of Combustible Materials in Party Walls 49
(6) Non-combustibility of Party Walls 49

Compartment Walls and Compartment Floors 49

Reg. 17 (1) Compartment Walls and Floors to be Imperforate 49


(2) Compartment Walls and Floors Forming Junctions with Other
Structures 50
(3) Compartment Walls - Roof Junctions 50
(4) Prohibition of Combustible Materials in Compartment Walls 50
(5) Ducts Passing through Compartment Walls and Floors 50
(6) Non-combustibility of Compartment Walls and Floors 51
(7) Exemption from Sub-paragraph (6) 51
(8) Beams and Columns in Compartment Walls and Floors 51

Protected Shafts 51

Reg. 18 (1) Definition of" Protecting Structure" 51


(2) Purpose of Protected Shaft 51
(3) Enclosure 52
(4) Non-combustibility of Protecting Structure 52
(5) Openings in Walls or Floors of Protected Shafts 52
(6) Fire Stopping 52
(7) Doors in Protecting Structure 52
(8) Protected Shaft for Lift 53
(9) Protected Shaft for Ventilating Duct 53
(10) Protected Shaft of Staircase 53

Fire Resisting Doors 53

Reg. 19(1) Application of Regulation 53


(2) Definitions
Automatic Self-closing Device 53
Electro - Magnetic or Electro - Mechanical Device Susceptible to
Smoke 53
(3) Provisions of Closing Devices and Non-combustible Hinge 54
(4) Door to be Manually Openable 54
(5) Direction of Opening of Door 54
(6) Direction of Opening of Door 54
(7) Two Separate Doors to One Opening 54
(8) "Deemed to Satisfy" Provisions 55
Table 11 Classification of Fire Resisting Doors 56
Reg. 20 Doors in Lift Shafts 57
Staircases 57
Reg. 21 (1) Non-combustibility "of Structure57
(2) Special Requirements for Buildings of Purpose Group 1 Exceeding 3
Storeys 57
32
..~...---- -.~--.,"'.----
Fire Regulations Chapter 3 - Structural Fire Precautions
_---_. ~...---~---."'--,-__.,.,..- ....

Fire Stopping 58

Reg. 22 (1) Fire Stop to Prevent Passage of Flame 58


(2) Fire Stop for Pipe, Duct or Cavity 58
(3) Fire Stop at Junction of Elements of Structure 58
(4) Fire Stopping of Cavity in an Element of Structure 58

Restriction of Spread of Flame over Surfaces of Walls and Ceilings 58

Reg. 23 Definitions, Interpretations and Classifications 58


Reg. 24 Class of Flame Spread to be not Lower than Specified in Table 60
Reg. 25 Where Class of Flame Spread may be of any Class not Lower than
Class 3 60
Table 12 Table of Classification of Surface of Walls and Ceiling relating to
Flame Spread 62
Table 13 Materials for Roofing and Roof Framing 62
Reg. 26 "Deemed to Satisfy" Requirements 62

Roofs

Reg. 27 Roof Covering and Construction to be Non-combustible 63


Reg. 28 Special Requirements for Other Types of Roofs 63
1 Reg. 29 Exemption from the Requirements for Non-combustibility of
Partitions in Office Buildings 63
Reg. 30 Exemption from the Requirements for Non-combustibility or
Partitions in Shops and Places of Public Resort 63

;6
)7

32 33
CHAPTER 3

STRUCTURAL FIRE PRECAUTIONS

The purpose of this Chapter of the Regulation is to minimize the risk of the spread of fire between
adjoining buildings by a stable and durable form of construction, to prevent the untimely collapse of
buildings in the event of fire and to prevent the spread of fire between specified parts of buildings by the
division of such buildings into compartments ..

In this Chapter of the Regulation and the Tables thereto-

Definitions Reg.7 (a) "Basement storeys" has the meaning ascribed to it in Regulation of
Chapter 1.

(b) "Compartment" means any part of a building which is separated from


all parts by one or more compartment walls or compartment floors or
both such walls and floors; and for the purpose of this Chapter, if any
part of the top storey of a building is within a compartment, the
compartment shall also include any roof space above such part of the
top storey.

(c) "Compartment wall" and "compartment floor" means respectively a


wall and a floor which is provided for the purpose of diving a building
into compartments for the purpose of Regulation 10 and complies with
Regulation 17.

(d) "Door" includes any shutter, cover or other form of protection to an


opening in any wall or floor of a building or in the structure
surrounding a protected shaft, whether the door is constructed of one
or more leaves.

(e) "Element of structure" means-

(i) Any member forming part ofthe structural frame of a building or


beam or column (not being a member forming part of a roof
structure only).
(ii) A floor, including a compartment floor, other than the lowest
floor (in contact with the ground) of a building.
(iii) An external wall.
(iv) Party wall.
(v) A compartment wall.
(vi) Structure enclosing a protected shaft.
(vii) A load bearing wall or load bearing part of a wall, and
(viii) A gallery or mezzanine.

(f) "External wall" has the -meaning ascribed to it in Regulation 2 of


Chapter 1 and complies with Regulation 15.

(g) "Fire resistance" has the meaning ascribed to that expression in


Regulation Z of Chapter 1 and Regulation 14 of this Chapter.

(h) "Fire stop" means a barrier or seal which would prevent or retard the
passage of smoke or flame within a cavity or around a pipe or duct
where it passes through a wall or floor .or at a junction between
elements of structure and "fire stopped" shall be construed
accordingly.
35
(i) "Part of a single storey building" includes any part of a building of two
or more storeys if such part-

- Consists of a ground storey only.

- Has a roof that is only accessible for the purpose of maintenance and
repairs, and

Is completely separated from all other parts of the building by a


compartment wall or compartment walls in the same continuous
vertical plane.

0) "Party wall" has the meaning ascribed to it in Chapter 1 and complies


with Regulation 16 of this Chapter.

(k) "Permitted limit of unprotected area" means the maximum aggregate


area of unprotected areas in any side or external wall of a building or
compartment, which complies with the requirements of the Urban
Development Authority.

(1) "Protected shaft" means a stairway, exit passageway, duct or other


shaft which enables persons, things or air to pass between different
compartments and which complies with the requirements of Regulation
18 of this Chapter.

(m) "Relevant boundary" in relation to any side or external wall or part of


any external wall of a building or compartment. (Such land being
deemed to include any abutting portion of any street, canal, river or
drainage reserve up to the centre line thereof).

(n) "Unprotected area" in relation to an external wall or side of a building


means-
(i) A window, door or other opening,

(ii) Any part of the external wall which has fire resistance less than
that specified by this Chapter for that wall, and

(iii) Any part of the external wall which has combustible material
more than Imm thick attached or applied to it's external face,
whether for cladding or any other purpose.

Designation Reg. 8 For the purpose of this Chapter every building or compartment shall be
of Purpose regarded according to its use or intended use as falling within one of the
Groups purpose groups set out in Table 2 of Chapter 1 and, where a building is
divided into compartments used or intended to be used for different
purposes, the purpose group of each compartment shall be determined
separately. Provided that where the whole or part of a building or
compartment (as the case may be) is used or intended to be used for more
than one purpose, only the main purpose of use of that building or
compartment shall be taken into account in determining into which purpose
group it falls.

Rules for In this Chapter-


Measurement
(a) The height of a building, or (where relevant) of part of a building as
described in the code means the height of such building or part,
measured from the mean level of the ground adjoining the outside of

36
Fire Regulations
-------- -_._--------_.--_. C:haptcr 3 - Structural fire Precautions

the external walls of the building to the level of half the vertical height
of the roof of the building or part, or the top of the walls or of the
parapet (if any), whichever is the higher:

(b) The area of -

(i) Any storey of a building or compartment shall be taken to be the


total area of that storey bounded by the inner finished surfaces of
the enclosing walls or, on any side where there is no enclosing
wall, by the outermost edge of the floor on that side:

(ii) Any room or garage shall be taken to be the total area of it's
floor bounded by the inner finished surfaces of the walls
forming the room or garage;

(iii) Any part of a roof shall be taken to be actual visible area of such
part measured on a plane parallel to the pitch of the roof.

(c) The cubical extent of a building or compartment shall be ascertained


by measuring the volume of space contained within

(i) The inner' finished surfaces or on any side where there is no


enclosing wall, a plane extending vertically above the outermost
edge of the floor on that side;

(ii) The upper surface of it's lowest floor; and

(iii) In the case of a building or of a compartment-which extends to a


roof, the under surface of the roof or, in the case of any other
compartment, the under surface of the ceiling of the highest
storey within the compartment, including the space occupied by
any other walls, or any unprotected shafts, ducts or structure
within the space to be so measured, but excluding protected lift
walls, staircases etc., and also any accommodation such as
lavatory and locker rooms which are enclosed with walls having
not less than a one hour standard of fire resistance and Class A
fire doors.

Cases where (d) In computing the cubical extent of compartments in shops, similar
excess height premises and in single storey factory building, a height of 4 m may
above 4m be used where the actual height exceeds that figure provided that
maybe this rule shall not be applied when a compartment comprises more
s ignored in than one storey or contains mezzanine, galleries or lofts.
t computing
:1 cubical
extent
e
,r PROVISION OF COMPARTMENT WALLS AND COMPARTMENT FLOORS
e
Excess Reg.IO (1) Any building other than a building of Purpose Group I which has -
floor area
(a) Any storey the floor area of which exceeds that specified as relevant
and cubical
to a building of that height in column (2) of Table 6, or
extent
is (b) A cubic capacity which exceeds that specified as so relevant in
't, column (3) of Table 6, shall be so divided into compartments by
means of compartment walls or compartment floors or both that-

36 37
Fire Regulations Chapter 3 - Structul1;;1_FircPrecautions

(i) No such compartment has any storey the floor area of which
exceeds the area specified as relevant to the building in column
(2) ofme Table: and
(ii) No such compartment has a cubic capacity which exceeds that
specified as so relevant in column (3) of the Table.

10 (2) however, the Urban Development Authority is satisfied that


Authority additional floor area and cubical extent is necessary for any such building
may '-./V,u.,,,,.u or or part thereof, as aforesaid, he may consent to such
to Greater additional floor area and cubical extent provided:

or compartment thereof is fitted throughout with an


which complies with the relevant
an accepted Code of Practice on Automatic Sprinkler

(b) Brigade appliances as

measures have or maintained for


lessening so as is reasonably oracticable any danger from

Excess Reg.l 0 (3) In building 18 m in any


Height one storey from another storey, other than a floor

(b) a comoartment
6 or paragraph (2) of this to
be constructed as a compartment floor.

Other Cases Reg. 10 (4) The following walls floors


Requiring or floors-
Compartment
Walls and Any floor a of
Compartment Hospitals, Nursing houses, School or other similar uunuuuz:
Floors
(b) Any wall or floor separating a flat or maisonette from any other
same building:

(c) Any wall or part of a building from any other


the same building which is used or intended to be used
purpose falling within a different purpose group in 2: and

(d) Any floor immediately over a basement storey if such

(i) Forms of a building of purpose group 1


more storeys or a or compartment of purpose
2(b) or 4; and
(ii) Has an area exceeding 100 m2
Fire Regulatio!ls

SIZE LIMITATIONS OF BUILDINGS A1W COMPARTMENTS

Compartmentatiou

The spread of fire within a building shall be restricted by sub-dividing it into compartments separated
from one another by walls andlor floors of fire -resisting construction.

01. Size Limitation for Building &, Compartments (Except Purpose Group 1)

Table 6

Compartments Maximum Maximum


Floor Area Cubic Extent
Below ground level - no compartment to 2000m2
comprise more than one storey. 7500m3
2
If sprinklered 4000 m

Between ground and a height of 30m. - 4000 m2


No compartment to comprise more than 3 15000m3
2
storeys. 8000 m
If sprinklered

More than 30 m from ground level -. No 2000 m2


compartment to comprise more than one 7500m3
2
storey. 4000 m
If sprinklered

02 Multi-storey Industrial and Storage Buildings (purpose Group '7)

Table 7

Purpose Group Height above Ground Floor Area of


Level Compartment

Industrial>- Not Sprinklered Not more than ]8 m 7000 m2


More than 18 m 2000 m2

Sprinklered Not more than 18 m 14000 m2


More than 18 m 4000 m2
t
03. High Hazard Occupancy
f
3.1 The compartment shall not exceed one half of the sizes given in Tables 6 & 7.

3.2 If habitable floor exceeds 18 m, an Automatic Fire Sprinkler System to be provided.

04. Exemption from Size Limitation


If
4.1 Buildings used solely for the storage/packaging of non combustible materials.
p

4.2 Open sided Car Parking decks ,having not less than 50% of the sides permanently open
to provide cross ventilation.

39
38
Fire Regulations Chapter 3 - Structural Eire P!ccautions

05. Areas of Special Hazard

Boiler Rooms, Transformer Rooms, Generator Rooms, Storage Areas of highly flammable I
combustible materials to be separated from compartment walls and floors having fire resistance
of not less than 4 hours.

06. Other Residential Buildings

All floors in buildings of the other residential purpose group should be constructed as
compartment floors.

07. Institutional Buildings Including Health Care

7.1 In institutional purpose group buildings, all floors should be constructed as compartment
floors.

7.2 Compartments should not exceed 2000 m2 in multi - storey hospitals and 3000 m2 in
single storey hospitals.

Exemption Reg. 11 Buildings used solely for the sale storage, processing and packaging of goods
from and substances of a non-combustible nature shall be exempted from the operation
Regulation of paragraph (1) of Regulation 10 provided: .
10 (1)
Reg; 11(1) Any portion used otherwise than as described above is separated from the
remainder of the building by compartment walls, floors and protected shafts
and comply with the limitations of size laid down in paragraph (1) of
Regulation 10:

.Reg. II (2) The relevant parts of paragraph 3 and 4 of Regulation lOon the. provision of
compartment floors are complied with:

Reg.l 1(3) Any special risks such as boiler rooms, electrical substations, packing rooms
and the like are separated from the remainder of the building by
compartment walls and floors; and

Reg. I I (4) The requirements of Regulations in chapter 6 on accessibility of the site to


Fire Brigade appliances are complied with.

Building of Reg. 12 Pursuant to Regulation 10, the compartments of any building of high fire
High Fire risk or used for the bulk storage of goods or substances of a combustible
Risk nature shall not exceed one half of the sizes given in Table 6 and each
compartment shall be limited to one storey only. .

No storey of a building, the floor level of which is more than 18m above
average ground level, shall be used for the storage of combustible goods
unless the building is provided with a sprinkler system in accordance with
the requirements of Reg. 36 (1) (b) and complies with any other
requirements which the Urban Development Authority may deem fit to
impose.

40
fire Regulations
--..--"'------~---
Chapter 3 "'Structural
---_._----_.""._-----_._---_._--_ _-----
Fire Precautions
..

FIRE RESISTANCE OF ELEMENTS OF Sl1~UCTIJRE

Minimum Reg.l3 (1) Subject to any express provision to the contrary any element of structure
Periods of shall be so constructed as to have fire resistance for not less than the
Fire relevant period specified in Table 8 having regard to the purpose group
Resistance of the building of which it forms part and the dimensions specified in that
Table:

Provided that:

(a) Any party wall shall have a fire resistance of not less than one hour;

(b) Any compartment wall or compartment floor which separates a part


of a building falling within purpose group 2( a) or 2(b) from any other
part of the building falling within a purpose group other than purpose
group 2(a) or 2(b) shall have a fire resistance of not less than one
hour.

Exemption for Reg.l 3 (2) (a) Nothing in paragraph (1) shall apply to any part of an external wall
External Non- which is non-load bearing and may in accordance with Regulation
load Bearing 15 be an unprotected area.
Walls

Exemption (b) In the case of a single-storey building or a building consisting of a


for Single ground storey and one or more basement storeys, nothing in
Storey paragraph (1) shall apply to any element of structure which forms
Building part of the ground storey and consists of-

(i) A structural frame or a beam or column: Provided that any


beam or column (whether or not it forms part of a structural
frame) which is within or forms part of a wall, and any column
which gives support to a wall or gallery, shall have fire
resistance of not less than the minimum period, if any required
by this regulation for that wall or that gallery.
(ii) An internal load bearing wall or a load bearing part of a wall,
unless that or part is, or forms part of, a compartment wall
or a separating wall, or forms part of, the structure enclosing a
protected shaft or supports a gallery; or
(iii) Part of an external wall which does not support a gallery and
which may, in accordance with Regulation 15 be an
unprotected area.

Interpretation Reg.I3 (3 ) (a) In this Regulation and in Tab le 8 thereto (subject to the provisions of
and . sub-paragraph (b) of this paragraph and any other express provision
Application to the contrary) any reference to a building of which an element of
of this structure forms part means the building or (if a building is divided
Regulation into compartments) any compartment of the building of which the
element forms part.

(b) In this regulation and in Table 8 thereto, any reference to height


means the height of a building, not of any compartment in the
building, but if any part of the building is completely separated
throughout it's height both 'above and below ground from all other
parts by a compartment wall or compartment walls in the same
continuous vertical plane, any reference to height in relation to that
part means the height solely of that part.

) 41
F ire Regulations Chapler 3 - Structuf~_~i"~ Precautions

Fire Resistance Reg. 13 (4) Any element of structure shall have fire resistance of not less than the
for Elements of minimum period required by this regulation for any element which it
Structure that carries.
Carries another
Elements

Fire Resistance Reg. 13 (5) Any compartment wall separating a flat or maisonette from any other part
of Compartment of the same building shall not be required to have fire resistance exceeding
Walls of Flats one hour unless-

(i) The wall is a load bearing wall or a wall forming part of a protected
shaft; or

(ii) The part of the building from which the wall separates the flat of
maisonette is of a different purpose group and the minimum period of
.fire resistance required by the provisions of this regulation for any
element of structure in that part is one and a half hours or more

, '~.

42
Fire Regulations

Table 8

Minimum Period of Fire Resistance

Minimum Periods (minutes) for Elements of Structure in a:


Basement storey Ground or upper storey
(1) including floor over
Depth (m) ofa Lower Height (m) of top floor above ground, in building
basement or separated part ofbuildi.!_!g
--
Purpose Group More Not more Not more Not more Not more More
than 10 than 10 than 5 than 20 than 30 than 30
Residen tial
1 (a) 90 60 30(2) 60 (3,7) 90(3) 120(3)
l(b) & (c) NR 30(2) 30(2) 60(8) NR NR
I,!.

2 (a) 90 60 30(2) 60 90 120(5)


2 (b) 90 60 39(2) 60 90 120(5)

3 Office " '

Not sprinklered 90 60 30(2). 60 90 NP


Sprinklered 60 60 30(2) 30(2) 60 120(5)

" Shop/Commercial
Not sprinklered 90 60 60 60 90 NP
Sprinklered 60 60 30(2) 60 60 120(5)

5 Assembly and Recreation


Not sprinkJered 90 60 60 60 90 NP
Sprinklered 60 60 30(2) 60 60 120(5)
. .
6 Industrial
Not sprinklered 120 90 60 90
s ;

120' NP
Sprinklered 90 60 30(2) 60 90 120(5)

7 Storage & other non-


residential
a. Any building or part not
described elsewhere

Not sprinkle red 120 90 60 90 120 NP


Sprinklered 90 60 30(2) 60 90 120(5)

b. Car park for light vehicles


open sided (9) NA NA 15(2,6) 15(2,6) 15(2,6) 60
any other 90 60 30(2) 60 90 120(5)
-
Notes

NR - not relevant l\i'P - not permitted NA - not applicable

Sprinklered means that the building is fitted throughout with an automatic sprinkler system meeting the
relevant recommendations of BS 5306: Part 2; ie the relevant occupancy rating together with the
additional requirements for life safety.

43
2
Chapter 3 Structural til,,: P...,cautiolls
Fire Regulations
._-- ------- ...... -~,-~--,-
......

Modifications

(1) The floor over a basement (or if there is more than one basement, the floor over the topmost
basement) should meet the provisions for the ground and upper storeys that period is higher.

(2) Increased to a minimum of 60 minutes for compartment walls separating buildings.

(3) Reduced to 30 minutes for any floor within a maisonette, but not if the floor contributes to the
support of'thebuilding,

(4) Multi-storey hospitals should have a minimum 60 minutesstandard.

(5) Reduced to 90 minutes for elements not forming part of the structural frame.

(6) Increased to 30 minutes for elements protecting the means of escape.

(7) Refer to Approved Document B paragraph 7.12 regarding the acceptability of 30 minutes in flat
conversions.

(8) 30 minutes in the case of three storey dwelling houses, increased to 60 minutes minimum for
compartment walls separating buildings

(9) car park should comply with the requirements for open sided car parks specified in approved
Document B Section 11.

TESTS OF FIRE RESISTANCE

Meaning of Reg. 14 (1) Any requirement in this Chapter that an element of structure door or
"Fire Resistance" other part of a building shall have fire resistance ora specified period
Requirements shall be construed as meaning that it shall be so constructed that a
specimen constructed to the same specification, if exposed to test by
fire in accordance with as 476, would (subject to any relevant
provisions in the Table to this Regulation) satisfy the requirements of
that test as to stability, and insulation for not less than the
specified period:

"Deemed to Reg.l4 (2) Provided that an element of structure, door or other part of a building
Satisfy" shall be deemed to have the requisite fire resistance if-
Provisions
(a) It is constructed to the same specification as that of a specimen
which prior to 31 st August 1973 was either exposed to test by fire
in accordance with BS 476 and satisfied the requirement of that
test as to co Ilapse, passage of flame and insu lation for not less than
the specified period or was assessed by an appropriate authority as
capable of satisfying requirements.

44
Fire Regulations
-----,

TABLE TO REGULATION 14

Table 9

Provision as to method of test and minimum period of fire resistance


-
Part of Building Method of Test Minimum period as to

BS476

Stability Integrity Insulation.

'BS 476

Collapse Passage Insulation


(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
--
l. External wall situated exposure of >I<
* 15 min
exposure of 1m more from inside of wall to
relevant boundary (excluding test by fire:
any part of such a wall which
r
is described in item 2.
2. External wall situated less
than 1m from any point on
exposure of each
side of structure
'" '" *
relevant boundary.
separately to test
3. Separating wall. by fire.

4. Compartment wall.
5. Structure (other than an
external wall) enclosing
protected shaft.
6. Structure referred to in
Regulation 21 (2) (a).
-
7. Compartment floor. exposure of * '"
..
underside of
floor to test by
fire.

8. Floor of upper storey in exposure of 30 min 15 min 15 min


building of purpose group 1 underside of
which has 2 storeys floor to test by
fire
at
III 9. Door other than a door exposure to test * '" No
is described in item 10 or 11. by fire when requirement
fitted in its
frame.
10. Door referred to in both exposure to test 30 min 20 min No
regulation 19(5) and by fire when requirement
regulation 17(1) (a) (i) or fitted in its
21 (2)(b) frame.
--
II. Door referred to in both exposure to test 30 min 30 min No
regulation 19 (6) and by fire when requirement
regulation 18(7Xa) or fitted III any
<.
18(7)(b). rebated frame ,"

* Denotes 'period of fire resistance specified'


44 45
Fire Regulations
_------_- -----

EXTERNAL WALLS

Unprotected Areas Reg.15 (1) (a) Except where otherwise provided, any side of a building shall
in any Side of a comply with any relevant requirements relating to the permitted
Building limits of unprotected areas specified in Table 9.

(b) The extent of unprotected openings in an external wall of a


building in relation to it's distance from the lot boundary may be
double that which is specified when the building is protected by an
automatic sprinkler system in accordance with the provision of an
accepted Code of Practice.

(c) Notwithstanding the requirements of sub-para (a) of this regulation,


the unprotected areas in a side of a building or part of a building
used for car parking conforming with the provisions of
Regulations 36 (lXa) and 62(1) shall be exempted from
compliance with the relevant requirements relating to the permitted
limits of unprotected areas.

Requirements Reg.lS (2) (a) Any external wall, which constitutes or is situated within a
of External distance of 1m from any point on the relevant boundary, or is a
Walls wall of a building which exceeds 18m in height shall-

(i) Be constructed wholly of non-combustible materials apart from


any external cladding which complies with paragraph (3) of
this regulation or any in internal lining which complies with
Regulation 24; and

(U) Be so constructed as to attain any resistance required by


this Chapter without assistance from any combustible material
permitted by this sub-paragraph:

Provided that the requirements of this sub-paragraph shall not


apply to-

Exemptions (i) An external wall of a building which is not divided into


compartments and is within the limits of size indicated in Table
8 if, in either case, that building does not exceed 18m in height;

(ii) An external wall of a building or part ofa building, 'of purpose


group l(a) which consists of flats or maisonettes if that
building has not more than three storeys or that part is
separated as described in Regulation 13(3Xb) and has not more
than three storeys;

(iii) An external wall of a part of a building if that wall is situated


1m or more from the relevant boundary and that part
separated as described in Regulation 13(3Xb) and does not
exceed 18m in height.

(b) Any beam or column forming part at: and any structure """MT1~"T
an external wan which is required to be constructed of ..
combustible materials shall comply with the provisions of
paragraph (a) as to non-combustibility.
Fire Regulations
.----------------.--_,.. ..~Chapter 3 - Structural Fir;;; Prel;autions
-----....,--- --,---.- ..

Cladding on Reg.IS (3) (a) Any cladding on any external wall, if such cladding is situated less
External Walls than 1m from any point on the relevant boundary, shall have a
surface complying with the requirements for Class 0 specified in
Regulation 23; and

(b) Any cladding on any external wall situated 1m or more from the
relevant boundary shall, if the building is more than 18m in height,
have a surface complying with the requirements specified for
Class 0 in Regulation 23 , except that any part of such cladding
below a height of 18m from the ground may consist of timber of
not less than 9mm finished thickness or of a material having a
surface which when tested in accordance with BS 476, has an
index ofperfonnance (1) not exceeding 20.

Provided that if the building is of Purpose Groups 6 and 7(a) such


cladding material shall; when tested in accordance with BS 476,
have an index of performance (1) not exceeding 12 and a sub-
index ( ii ) not exceeding 6.

Reference to Reg.lS (4) For the purpose of this regulation-


Roofs
(a) Any part of a roof shall be deemed to be part of an external wall or
side of a building if it is pitched at an angle of 70 or more to the
horizontal and adjoins a space within the building to which
persons have access not limited to the purposes of maintenance or
repair.

Requirements Reg. IS (5) If-


When 2 or More
Buildings are on (a) Any building is to be erected on land occupied with any other
Land in Common building, or two or more detached buildings are to be erected on
Occupation land in common occupation; and
t

(b) Either of those buildings is of purpose group l(a) or 2(b) (other


)
than outhouses); in the application of the provisions of this
regulation to any external wall of any building to be so erected
e
which faces, an external wall of such other buildings-

(i) The relevant boundary shall be a notional boundary passing


e
between those buildings and such boundary must be capable
It
of being situated in such a position as to enable the external
is
walls of those buildings to comply with the requirements of
e
this regulation; and

(ii) If such other building is an existing building, .it shall be


deemed to be a building to be erected on the site which it
occupies, being of the same purpose group and having the
same unprotected areas and fire resistance as the existing
building.
g,
1-

i:>-
Fire Regulations Chapter 3 - Structural Fire Precautions
,-------,

Table 10

Unproteeted Areas in any Side of a Building

Minimum Distance between Maximum Total Percentage of


side of building and relevant Unprotected Area
boundary in metres
1 4
2 8
5 20
10 40
15 60
20 80
25 100%

PARTY WALLS

Requirements of Reg. 16 (1) Any party wall shall conform to the relevant provisions of the Building
Party Walls Regulations with regards to it's thickness and non-combustibility of
materials and shall have fire resistance for not less than the relevant
period specified in Regulation 13 and subject to the exceptions specified
in paragraph (2) shall be imperforate and shall form a complete vertical
separation between any buildings separated (including any roof space
therein).

Openings in Reg. 16 (2) Nothing in paragraph (1) shall prohibit-


Party Walls
(a) The passage through a party wall of a pipe, if the pipe-

(i) Is not a flue pipe; and

(ii) Has a diameter not exceeding 25mm (if it is made of


combustible material) or 150mm (if it is made of non-
combustible material); and

(iii) Is fire-stopped where it passes through the wall; ,or

(b) An opening in a party wall which is necessary as a means of escape


from fire, if the opening is fitted wit; a door which-

(i) Complies with the requirements of Regulation 19 and

(U) Has fire resistance which is not less than the period required
by Regulation 13 for the party wall.

Party Wall- Reg. 16 (3) A party wall shall in accordance with the relevant provisions of the
Roof Junction Building Regulations be either carried up to form a close joint with the
underside of a pitched roof of non-combustible covering or carried up to
450mm above the level of such roof covering, and the junctions nAT'""Pf'n

such party wall and such roof shall be properly fire stopped, so as not to
render ineffective the resistance of such party wall to the effects of fire
and the spread of fire.

Party Wall- Reg. 16 (4) If any external wall is carried across the end of a party wall, such external.
External Wall wall and party wall shall be bonded together or the junction of such walls
Junction shall be fire-stopped,
Fire Regulations

Prohibition Reg.16 (5) In addition to the relevant provisions of the Building Regulations, no
of Combustible combustible material shall be carried through into or across the ends of
Materials in or over the top of any party wall of such a type or in such a way as to
Party Walls render ineffective the resistance of such a party wall to the effects of fire
and the spread of fire:

Provided that-

If a building has a non-combustible roof covering, and is of Purpose


Group 1, 2(a), 2(b), 3 or 6 nothing in this paragraph shall prohibit the
continuation over the top ofthe party wall 0[.'

(i) Any boarding, with or without sarking felt or sarking paper, if such
boarding is used as a base for the roof covering and the boarding is
solidly bedded on mortar or other not less suitable material where it
rests on the party wall; or

(ii) Any roof tiling, slating or sheeting battens, if the battens are solidly
bedded on mortar or other not less suitable material where they rest
on the party wall and the space between them is filled with mortar
or other not less suitable material up to the underside of the roof
covering.

Non- Reg.16 (6) In addition any party wall shall be constructed wholly of non-
Combustibi lity combustible materials apart from any surface finish which complies
of Party Walls with Regulation 24 and the required fire resistance shall be attained
independently of any such combustible surface finish:

Provided that the requirements of this paragraph shall not apply to:

A wall separating buildings, which are defined as temporary buildings


and which are not divided into compartments and are single storey
building within the limits of size indicated in Tables 6 and 7:

COMPARTMENT WALLS AND COMPARTMENT FLOORS

Compartment Rcg.17 (l) Any compartment wall or compartment floor shall be imperforate with
Walls and Floors . the exception of anyone or more of the following:
to be Imperforate
(a) An opening fitted with a door which has fire resistance for the
following minimum period and which complies with the provisions
of Regulation 19 or 20.

(i) In the case of a wall separating a flat or maisonette from any


space in common use giving access to that flat or maisonette,
half an hour; or

(ii) In any other case, the period required by the provisions of


Regulation 13 for the wall or floor;

(b) An opening for a protected shaft fitted with a door as in clause (a);

49
Fire Regulations
.-..,,--.-_._--_. --_._------------_.

(c) An opening for a ventilation duct (other than a duct in, or consisting
of, a protected shaft) if any space surrounding the duct is fire-
stopped and the duct is fitted with an automatic fire shutter where it
passes through the wall or floor;

(d) An opening for a pipe, which does not exceed-


(i) 25 mm in diameter, if the pipe is of combustible material; or
. (ii) 150 mm in diameter, if the pipe is of non-combustible
material;

(e) An opening for a refuse chute, (which complies with the


requirements oftheUDA Building Regulations.)

(1) Ventilation openings to an external exit passageway as permitted


under Regulation 4( 1): and

(g) Ventilation openings to an external corridor as permitted under


Regulation 3 (12) (a)

Compartment Reg.17 (2) Where a compartment wall or compartment floor forms a junction with
Walls and Floors any structure comprising any other compartment wall, or any external
Forming wall, party wan or structure enclosing a protected shaft, such structures
Junction with shall be bonded together at the junction, or the junction shall be fire-
Other Structures stopped.

Compartment Reg.17 (3) Where any compartment wall forms a junction with a roof, such wall
Walls-Roof shall be carried up to form a close joint with the underside of the roof or
Junctions carried up to 450mm above the level of the roof covering (as the case
may be) and the junctions between such party walls and such roof shall
be properly fire stopped in accordance with the relevant provisions of
Regulations 16(3).

Prohibition Reg. 17 (4) No combustible material shall be built into or carried through, into or
of Combustible across the ends of any compartment wall or compartment floor or over
Material in the top of any compartment. wall in such 'a manner as to render
Compartment ineffective the resistance of such wall or floor to the effects of fire and
Walls the spread of tire:

Provided that nothing in this paragraph shall prohibit the continuation


over the top of a compartment wall of any construction which complies
with the requirements of Regulation 16(5).

Ducts Passing Reg. 17 (5) Where any appliance ventilation duct or duct encasing one or more flue
through pipes passes through a compartment floor or compartment wall.
Compartment
Floors & Walls (a) The passage in appliance ventilation duct: or
(b) The space within the duct encasing the flue pipe or pipes; shall be
separated from that compartment floor or compartment wall and
from each compartment adjoining that floor or wall by non-
combustible construction having fire resistance of not less than half
the minimum fire resistance required by Regulation 13 for the
compartment floor or compartment waH through which it passes.
Fire Regulations

Non- Reg.l7 (6) Any compartment wall or compartment floor which is required by
Combustibility Regulation 13 to have fire resistance of one hour or more (except where
of Compartment that requirement arises solely by virtue of Regulation 13(l)(b) shall be
Walls and Floors constructed wholly of non-combustible materials apart from-

(0 Any floor finish; or

(ii) Any surface finish to a wail or ceiling which complies with the
requirements of Regulation 23, and the required fire resistance of
the wall or floor shall be obtained without assistance from any
combustible material permitted by this sub-paragraph.

Exemption Reg. 17 (7) The requirements of paragraph (6) shall not apply to-
for Sub-
Paragraph (6) (a) The following walls and floors in a building or part of purpose
group 2(b) which consists of flats or maisonettes:

(i) If that building has three storeys or that part is separated as


described in Regulation 13(3)(b) and has three storeys, any
wall or floor other than a wall within a basement storey or a
floor immediately over a basement storey;

(ii) If that building has four storeys or that part is separated as


described in Regulation 13(3)(b) and has four storeys, any
floor other than a floor immediately over a basement storey;
and

(b) Any existing floor in a building or part of purpose group 3,4,5,6 or


7(a) which is altered or extended if, after alteration or extension,
that building does not exceed 18m in height or that part is
separated as described in Regulation 13(3)(b) and does not exceed
IS m in height.

Beams and Reg.17 (8) Any beam or column forming part of, and any structure Carrying any
Columns in compartment wall or compartment floor which is required to be
Compartment constructed of non-combustible materials, shall itself comply with the
Walls & Floors provisions of paragraph (6) as to non-combustibility.

PROTECTED SHAFTS

Definition Reg.IS (1) In this regulation," protecting structure" means any wall or floor or
of "Protecting other structure which encloses a protected shaft other than-
Structure"
(a) A wall which also forms part of an external wall, party wall or
compartment wall; or
(b) A floor which is also a compartment floor or a floor laid directly on
the ground: and
(c) A roof.

Purpose of Reg. IS (2) No protected shaft shall be constructed for use for any purposes
Protected additional to those specified in Regulation 7 (I) other than the
Shaft accommodation of any pipe or duct.

51
Fire Regulations Ch~pter 3 - StnlctUro~!'iff; Precautions

Enclosure Reg. 18 (3) Subject to the provisions of this regulation, any protected shaft shall be
completely enclosed by walls or floors having the necessary fire
resistance rating under Reg. 13.

Non- Reg.l S (4) Any protecting structure which is required by Regulation 13 to have fire
Combustibility resistance of one hour or more shall be constructed wholly of non-
of Protecting combustible materials apart from any surface which complies with the
Structures requirements of Regulation 23.

(a) Provided that the requirements of this sub-paragraph shall not apply
to a protecting structure which is situated within the ground storey
or an upper storey of a building or part thereof of Purpose Group
2(b) consisting of flats or maisonettes if that building has three
storeys or that part is separated as described in Regulation 13(3Xb)
and has three storeys.

(b) Any beam or column forming part of, and any structure carrying a
protecting structure which is required to be constructed of non-
combustible materials shall itself comply with the provisions of
sub-paragraph (a) as to non-combustibility.

Openings in Reg.IS (5) (a) Any wall or other structure enclosing a protected shaft but not being
Wall or Floor of a protecting structure may contain such openings as shall be in
Protected accordance with other provisions of this code.
Shafts
(b) There shall be no opening in any protecting structure other than any
one or more of the following-

(i) An opening for a pipe;


(U) An opening fitted with a door which has fire resistance
complying with the provisions of paragraph (7) and complies
with the provisions of Regulation 19 or 20;

(iii) (If the protected shaft contains a lift) an opening which


.complies with the provisions of paragraph (8) and

(iv) (If the protected shaft serves as, or contains a ventilating duct)
an inlet to or outlet from that duct or opening for that duct.

Fire Stopping Reg.IS (6) Any opening for a pipe shall be effectively fire-stopped.

Doors in Reg. IS (7) Any door fitted in an opening in protecting structure shall have fire
Protecting resistance for the following minimum period-
Structure
(a) If the protected shaft is in a building of Purpose Group 2(a), 2(b), 4
or 5 and is wholly or partly above the level of the adjoining ground,
not less than half an hour; or

(b) In any other case, either not less than half the period required by
other provisions of this chapter for the protecting structure
surrounding the opening or not less than half an hour (whichever is
the greater).

:)
,)
Fire Regulations
... ._---------

Protected Reg.IS (8) Any protected shaft containing a lift or !ifts-


Shaft for Lift
(a) Shall be ventilated to the external air by means of one or more
permanent openings situated at the top of the shaft and having a total
unobstructed area of not less than 0.1 m2 for each lift in the shaft;
and

(b) Shall not contain any pipe conveying gas or oil or any ventilation
duct and

(c) May have an opening in it's protecting structure for the passage of
the cables operating the lift into the room containing the lift motor:

Provided that if the opening is at the bottom of the shaft the opening
shall be as small as practicable.

Protected Shaft Reg.IS (9) (a) If a protected shaft serves as or contains a ventilating duct.
for Ventilation
Duct (i) The duct shall be fitted internally with automatic fire shutters so
constructed, at such intervals and in such positions as may be
necessary to reduce, so far as practicable, the risk of fire
spreading from a compartment to any other compartment, or
such other provision shall be made as will reduce such risk so
far as practicable; and

(ii) The duct shall not be constructed of, or lined with, any material
which substantially increases such risk.

(b) In addition, in the case of a protected shaft containing a ventilating


duct, the shaft shall be so constructed with additional barriers to fire
between the duct and the shaft as may be necessary to reduce so far
as practicable the risk of fire spreading from a compartment to any
other compartment.

Protected Shaft Reg.IS (l0) If a protected shaft consists of a staircase, it shall not contain any pipe
of Staircase conveying gas or oil or any ventilating duct.

FIRE RESISTING DOORS

Application of Reg. 19 (1) This regulation shall apply to any door which IS required by the
Regulations provisions of this Section to have fire resistance.

Reg. 19 (2) In this regulation-

Automatic Self-Closing Device does not include nsmg butt hinges


except in relation to a door to which Regulation 19 (5) applies; and

Electro-Magnetic or Electro-Mechanical Device Susceptible to Smoke


refers only to any such device which will allow the door held open by it
to close automatically upon the occurrence of each or anyone of the
following-

(a) Detection of smoke by automatic apparatus suitable in nature,


quality and location;

(b) Manual operation of a switch fitted in a suitable position;

53
Fire Regulations Chapter 3 Structural Fi1~jPrecautions
.-------""--------.....""..-,-,......,.">',- ..~....
.','-.-. --.---------, ...--------~------~,."'-, ....
- ..--

(c) Failure of electricity supply to the device, apparatus or switch;

(d) If a fire alarm system is installed in the building, operation of that


system.

19 (3) (a) door to which this regulation applies shall (subject to Reg. 20)
be fitted with an automatic self-closing device.

Combustible (b) No means holding any such door open shall be provided other
Hinge than a fusible link or, if the door is so constructed and installed that
it can readily be opened manually, an electro-magnetic or electro-
mechanical to smoke.

(c) on which any door is hung shall be made


material or of non-combustible material
less than C.

Door to be (4)
Manually
Openable

Provided that there may also be the same


~....~.....,....a door cannot readily

(a) Such door is with an automatic ~~,. V'~~~'a is


held open a fusible

(b) The manually openable door has not


half and hour;

(c)

Direction Reg.l9(5) Any door to which reference is made in Reg. 17(1) (a)O) or 21(2) (b)
Opening shall be a door ~U1111!10"m
of Door double leaf door, of which
from the other

Reg.19 (6) door which is in protecting structure in 18(1)


and is not required by the provisions of Reg. 18(7) to have fire resistance
of more than half an hour may consist of any single or double leaf door
(the leaf or each leaf of which swings in one or both directions), other
than a double leaf door both leaves of which swing in one and the same
direction and have rebated meeting stiles, if-

(a) The door opens into a hall, lobby or corridor enclosed


partitions having fire resistance of not less than half an

(b) The clearance between the or leaves of any such door and it's
frame and (if the door has two leaves) between the leaves is as
small as is reasonably oracncame.

Two Separate Reg.19 (7) For the purpose this code, if two doors single
Doors to One double leaf doors) installed in an opening, it shall be sufficient if
Opening required fire resistance is achieved by the two doors together or by
of them separately.
Fire Regulations

"Deemed to Reg. 19 (8) Where any door is required under the provisions of this Publication to
Satisfy be fire resisting, it shall be deemed to have-
"Provisions
(i) The requisite fire resistance if a similar door made to the same
specifications as that door is proved to have the requisite fire
resistance under the conditions of test prescribed in the foregoing
paragraphs of this Publication; or

(ii) The requisite fire resistance for a minimum period of-

(a) 1/2 hour if it is constructed in accordance with one of the


relevant specifications for Class A in Table 1I and is of not
less standard than that of such class; or

(b) 1 hour if it is constructed in accordance with one or the


relevant specifications for Class B in Table 1I and is of not
less standard than that of such class.

55
Fire

Table 11

-
Specifications: Construction and Material Class of
Door
- ----
1. Solid timber not less than 45 mm finished thickness. A
--1------
2. Laminated timber core solid throughout covered both sides with ply facing and
A
with all edges protected with a solid timber capping covering the full thickness of
the core and facings, the total thickness of door not less than 45 mm.

3. Timber stiles and top and bottom rails not less than 96 mm wide and a middle rail
not less than 165 mm wide rebated to receive 9.5 mm plasterboard in filling on A
both sides strengthened by 45 mm wide intermediate rails, the whole covered both
sides with plywood facings, the total thickness of door not less than 45 mm.
4. Doors tested in accordance with the provisions of Section 7 of British Standard
"Fire Test on Building Materials and Structures" BS 476 and certified as being
capable of resisting the action of fire for 112 hour.

Class A doors shall be hung to open in one direction only in solid timber or metal
frames with rebates or door stops not less than 13mm deep, centre opening doors
A
may be in two leaves each hung to the frame with butt-jointed meeting stiles
where only minimum clearance is allowed at the meeting edges.

Provided that Class A doors which open into a corridor or lobby with enclosures
capable of resisting the action of fire for a period not less than 112 hour, may open
in 2 directions without .rebated frames provided minimum clearance only is
allowed at the meeting edge.

Glazing fixed shut may be incorporated in a Class A door if it is capable of


resisting the action of fire for a period of 1/2 hour, or if it comprises a single vision
panel of 6.35 mm thick clear glass not exceeding 650 cm2 in area in a solid timber
frame at least 45 mm and 45 mm clear of rebates.
5. Doors in accordance with paragraph (1), (2) or (3) of this table, but covered B
completely on both sides either externally or beneath plywood facings with
asbestos insulating board not less than 4.75 mm in thickness.
6. Doors tested in accordance with the provision of Section 7 of the British Standard B
BS 476 and certified as being capable of resisting the action of fire for 1 hour.
Class B doors shall be hung to open in one direction only, shall not exceed 910
mm width or 2,130 mm in height and shall be hung in solid timber or metal frames
(not aluminium) with rebates of door stops not less than 25 mm deep and having a
width at right angles to the face of the door or not less than 35mm.

7. A panel of glazing not exceeding 152 mm wide by 300 mm high may be B


incorporated in a Class B door if it is filled with glass reinforced with wire and
capable of resisting the action of fire for aperiod of 1 hour. ..

Notes: (a) In this Table the term "Asbestos Insulating Board" means a board as so defined in BS No.
3536: 1966.

(b) The word "timber" appearing in this Table shall mean "hardwood" as defined in Chapter 1.

56
Fire Regulations

Doors in Lift Reg. 20 Notwithstanding Regulation 19(3Xa),a door which is not fitted with a self-
Shafts closing device may be installed in an opening in the structure which
encloses a protected shaft containing exclusively a lift or lifts if either-

(a) The door has fire resistance for a period of not less than half an hour
and there is also installed so as to close the same opening another
door which is fitted with an automatic self-closing device, is held
open by a fusible link and has fire resistance for a period not less
than that prescribed by the relevant provisions of Regulation 13 for
the structure surrounding the opening; or

(b) (Unless the opening is in a compartment wall and is one of two


openings provided at the same level to allow access to a lift from
different sides) the door has fire resistance for a period not less than
that prescribed by relevant provisions of Regulation 13 for the
structure surrounding the opening.

STAmCASES

Non- Reg.21 (1) Every staircase (including any landing thereof) which forms part of a
Combustibility building shall, whether the staircase is internal or external, be constructed
of Structure of non-combustible materials except-

(a) An internal staircase which is situated-

(i) Within a maisonette; or

(ii) Within a building of purpose group 1 or 2(b) which has not


more than 3 storeys; or

(iii) Within the ground storey or an upper storey of part of a


building, which part consists of flats or maisonettes if that part
is separated as described in Regulation 13 (3) (b) and has not
more than three storeys; or

(b) An external staircase of a building of purpose .group 1 and such


staircase is situated between the ground and a floor or flat roof the
level of which, at the head of the staircase, is not more than 6 m
above the finished surface of the ground adjoining the foot of the
staircase:

Provided that nothing in this paragraph shall prohibit the addition of any
combustible material to the upper surface of any staircase or landing.

Special Reg.21 (2) In any building of purpose group 1 which exceeds 3 storeys, any internal
Requirements staircase (including any hall or landing associated therewith and any
for Buildings part of a floor which affords passage between flight of the staircase)
for Purpose shall be separated from all other parts of the building by structure
Group I complying with the following requirements-
Exceeding
3 Storeys (a) The structure shall have fire resistance for not less than the minimum
period required by Regulation J 3 for elements of structure forming
part of the storey in which it is situated; and
(b) Any opening in the structure which gives access to a habitable room,
garage, or kitchen shall be fitted with a door which has fire resistance
of not less than half and hour and complies with the requirement s of
Regulation 19.

57
FffiE STOPPING

Fire Stop to Reg.22 (l) Any fire stop required by the provisions of this Chapter shall be so
Prevent formed and positioned as to prevent or retard the passage of flame.
Passage of
Flame

Fire Stop for Reg.22 (2) Any fire stop shall-


Pipe Duct or
Cavity (a) If provided around a pipe or duct or in a cavity, be made of non-
combustible material or if it is in a floor or wall constructed of
combustible material of hardwood timber not less than 38 mm thick;
and

(b) If provided around a pipe or duct, be so constructed as not to restrict


essential thermal movement.

Fire Stop at Reg.22 (3) Any fire 'stop formed as a seal at the junction of two or more elements
Junction of structure .shall be made of non-combustible material if all such
of Elements of elements are required by this Chapter to be non-combustible.
Structure

Fire Stopping of Reg.22 (4) (a) Has a surface of combustible material exposed within the cavity
Cavity in an is of a class lower than Class 0 in Regulation 23, shall be fire
Element
of Structure
(i) At any junction with another element of structure or with a
ceiling under a roof; and
(ii) In such a position that there is no continuous cavity

but nothing in this paragraph shall prohibit the insertion of


combustible filling in a cavity provided that such filling is not
prohibited under any other regulation.

RESTRICTION OF SPREAD OF FLAME OVER SURFACES OF WALLS & "_,.o.:"J.......,JU,

Definitions Reg. 23 For purposes of this code and Table 12.


and
Interpretation (a) "Ceiling" includes any soffit and any skylight, or other part of a
building which encloses and is exposed overhead within a room,
circulation space or protected shaft;

"Circulation space" means any space which is solely or


predominantly used as a means of access between a room and
protected shaft or between either a room or a protected shaft and an
exit from the building or ('()rlW,,~rtrl1pr'1"
"Small room" means a room which is totally enclosed and has a
floor area not exceeding that specified in column (2) of the Table 12,
according to the purpose group of the building or compartment; and

"Trim" means any architrave, cover mould, picture rail, skirting or


similar narrow member;

(b) Any reference to the surface of a wall shall be construed as a


reference to that surface the surface of any window,
window frame, glazing and frame in which-the glazing is fitted
excluding any unglazed portion of a door, door frame,
fitted furniture or trim;
(c) Any reference to the surface of a ceiling shall be construed as a
reference to that surface excluding the surface of the frame of any
roof light or skylight;

(d) Any part of a ceiling which sl.opes at an angle of 70 or more to the


horizontal and is not part of a roof light shall be deemed to be a
wall;

(e) Any reference to a surface being of Class 0 shall be construed as a


requirement that:

(i) The material of which the wall or ceiling is constructed shall be


non-combustible throughout; or

(ii) The surface material (or, if it is bonded throughout to a


substrate, the surface material in conjunction with the substrate)
shall have a surface of Class I and, if tested in accordance with
BS 476; Part 6: 1968, shall have an index of performance (1)
not exceeding 12 and a sub-index (i) not exceeding 6.

Requirements (f) Any reference to a surface being of a class other than Class 0
for a Class Other shall be construed as a requirement that the material of which the
than Class O. wan or ceiling is constructed shall comply with the relevant test
criteria as to surface spread of flame specified in relation to that
class in clause 2.8 ofBS 476 Part 7: 1971: and

(g) In relation to a requirement of a surface shall be of a class not lower


than a specified class, Class 0 shall be regarded as the highest class
followed in descending order by Class 1, Class 2, Class 3 and Class
4, as set out hereunder:

Classification Class 0 - Surface of no flame spread., Those surfaces that conform to


the requirements (i) and (ii) of sub-paragraph (e).

Class 1- Surfaces of very low flame spread.


Those surfaces on which not more than 150mm mean spread
of flame occurs under the relevant test conditions.

Class 2 - Surfaces of low flame spread.


Those surfaces on which during the first 1 1/2 minutes of
test, the mean spread of flame is not more than 37 5mm and
the final spread does not exceed 450 mm under the relevant
test conditions.

Class 3 - Surfaces of medium flame spread.


Those surfaces on which during the first 1 1/2 minutes of test
the mean spread of flame is not more than 375 mm and
during the first 10 minutes of test is not more than 825 mm
under the relevant test conditions.

Class 4 - Surfaces of rapid flame spread.


Those surfaces on which during the first 1 112 minutes of test
the mean spread of flame is more than 375 rnm and during
," the 10 minutes of test is more than 825 fum under the
relevant test conditions.

59
Chapter 3 - Structural ~~::~tions

Class of Flame Reg. 24 The surface of a wall or ceiling in a room, circulation space or protected
Spread to be not shaft shall be of a class not lower than specified in the Table 12:
Lower than
Specified in Table Provided that-

(i) A wall may have a surface of any class not lower than Class 3 to
the extent permitted by Regulation 25 (1):

(ii) A ceiling may have a surface of any Class not lower than Class 3
to the extent permitted by Regulation 25 (2)

(iii) Where an automatic sprinkler system is provided and installed in


accordance with an accepted Code of Practice, .in such rooms,
circulation spaces or protected shafts, the surfaces of the walls and
ceilings therein may be of a class that is two classes lower than
specified as relevant in Table 12; and

(iv) If timber is used as the surface material for the walls along the side
gangways of the auditorium of a cinema, the requirements of this
regulation pertaining to the requisite class of flame spread may be
relaxed only in respect of those parts of such wall surfaces, which
are above a height of 2.1 m (measured from floor level) provided
the aggregate area of such wall surfaces does not exceed 50
percent of the whole surface area of the side walls of the
auditorium.

Where Class of Reg.25 (1) Any part of the surface of a wall in a room may be of any class not
Flame Spread lower than Class 3 if the area of that part (or, if there are two or more
may be of any such parts, the total area of those parts) does not exceed the lesser of the
C lass not lower following-
than Class 3
(a) Half the floor area of the room; or

(b) (In the case of a building or compartment of Purpose Group 1,2 (a)
or2 (b) 20 m2 or (in any other case) 60 m2

Any part of the surface of a ceiling may be of any class not lower than
Class 3 if that part of the surface is the face of a layer of material the
otherface of which is exposed to the external air and-

(a) (i) The ceiling is that of a room in a building or compartment of


Purpose Group 2(a), 2(b), 3, 4, or 5 or that of a circulation
space in a building or compartment of any purpose group; and

(ii) The area of that part does not exceed 2.5 m2 and

(iii) The distance between that part and any other such part is not
less than 3.5 m; or

(b) (i) The ceiling is that of a room in a building or compartment of


Purpose Group 6 or 7(a); and

(ii) The area of that part does not exceed 5 m2 and

(iii) The distance between that part and any other such part is
Jess than 1.8 m; and
,'ire Regulations.......
..
.,..---- - .. , ............
__ ,_. ,.__ "'._> ....
__ ""_._ ...
~_~ Chapter 3 - Stractural
..........
__ ... F~r'
'""'~.'''''O'_: Precautions
__ ._. _

(iv) That part and all other such parts are evenly distributed over
the whole area of the ceiling and together have an area which
does not exceed 15% ofthe floor area of the room; or,

Reg.25 (2) (c) The ceiling is that of a balcony, verandah, open carport, covered
way or loading bay which (irrespective of it's floor area) has at
least one of it's 'longer sides wholly and permanently open; or

(d) The ceiling is that of a garage, or outbuilding which (irrespective


of whether it forms part of a building or is a building which is
attached to another building or wholly detached) has a floor area
not exceeding 40 m2

Reg.25 (3) The internal non-load bearing walls, or partitions of a building of


Purpose Group 3, 4 or 5 occupancy, which are exempted from being
constructed of non-combustible materials under Regulations 29 and 30
may be of any class not lower than Class 3.

61
':ire Regulations Chapter 3 Structural Fh-,o1're0imtiofiS
.-- ~--.._.----.--.,-'"
.......... -"'-.--
..... "-, ....

Table 12

CLASSIFICATION OF SURFACES OF WALLS AND CEJLINGS RELATING TO


FLAME SPREAD
Class of surface for both walls and ceilings (except
where separately specified). _._
n.
K I.HI'V"'o;; of building of amum floor Small rooms Rooms other Circulation
r,
lLlUo;;Ul area small (see column) than small spaces and
room (in nr') rooms. protected shafts.
(1) (2) (2)
(3) (4) (5)
(i) (Small idential) ~
House having not (WaH) 1 (Wall) 1
more than two 4 3 rCeiling)
~, 3 (Ceiling) 3
storeys.
4 3 1 0
Any '" I
(ii) (Other sidential) .. 4 3 1 0
(iii) (Institutional) ... 4 1 (WaH) 0 0
(~ eiling) 1
(iv) (Office) .... 30 3 1 0

(v) (Shop) 30 3 1 0
(vi) (Factory) .... 30 3 1 0
(vii)
resort). 30 3 1 0

(viii) (Storage and general) 30 3 I 0

Table 13

Materials for Roofing and Permitted for use with


Ceilinzs of Flame S reads as in Table 12
Roofing
(1) Asbestos
(2) Clay
(3) Metal
(4) Concrete

Materials for Roof Framing


(l) Concrete
(2) Metal
(3) Timber

"Deemed to Reg.26 Any type of material shall he deemed to he of a class relating


Satisfy" to flame spread if the same type of material (manufactured to the same
Requirements specifications) is proved to satisfy the relevant tests criteria as to flame
spread specified in relation to such class in Clause 2.8 ofBS 476.

62
f_ire_R_e_gu_la_h_'m_,s . ,_' <?hapter 3 - Stnlc.t\lral.,:!.~:_~:~cautions

ROOFS

Roof Coverings Reg.27 (1) AU roof covering and roof construction shall be non-combustible
and Construction (as listed in Table 13). Timber may be used in the construction of roofs
to be Non- subject to:
combustible
(i) The timber being of hard wood of the approved type; and
(ii) The provisions of Regulation 16(5) being complied with.

Reg.27 (2) When a pitched roof is deemed to be part of an external wall under
Regulation 15(4) or when otherwise required by the Urban Development
Authority, such roof shall have a fire resistance of not less than that of an
external wall in the building or compartment of which such roof forms a
part, as laid down in Regulation 13.

Special Reg. 28 When approving the use of any other type of roof construction or roof
Requirement covering materials not shown in Table 13 the Urban Development
for Other Authority may require a ceiling of a class higher than that specified in
Types of Roofs Table 12 relating to flame spread, to be provided under a roof of such
construction or roof covering materials, in addition to imposing other fire
preventive requirements that he may deem fit to impose.

Exemption from Reg.29 (1) The provisions requiring all walls of a building to be constructed of non -
the Requirement combustible materials may be waived by the Urban Development
for Non- Authority in respect of the internal non - load bearing walls or
combustibility partitions of a building or part of a building of Purpose Group 3
of Partition occupancy (offices), provided they do not form any part of the means of
in Office escape of the building and-
Buildings.
(i) The said building or part of the building is fully sprinklered or

(ii) The building does not comprise more than four storeys and such
walls or partitions are within a compartment which has a floor area
of not more than 250 m2 and is enclosed by fire walls and doors
having a fire resistance of at least one hour.

Reg.29 (2) For the purpose of paragraph (I) of this Regulation, the partitions
forming any part of the means of escape of the building shall not be
required to be constructed of non-combustible materials if they do not
exceed a height of 1.8 m measured from floor level.

Exemption from Reg.30 The provisions requiring all walls of a building to be constructed of non-
the Requirements combustible materials may be waived by the Urban Development
for Non- Authority in respect of the internal non - load bearing walls or
combustibility of partitions of a building or part of a building of purpose group. 4
Partitions in (Shops) or (Place of public resort) provided:
Shops & Places
of Public Resort (a) Such building or part of the building is fitted throughout with a
sprinkler system;
(b) Such walls and partitions do not form any part of the means of
escape of the building; and
(c) All other measures have been or will be taken and maintained for
lessening so far as is reasonably practicable any danger from fire as
directed by the Urban Development Authority.

63
CHAPTER 4

FIRE EXTINGUISHING APPLIANCES, DETECTION AND ALARM SYSTEMS

AND OTHER FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS

CONTENTS

Page

Reg. 31 Definitions 67

(a) Dry Rising Main 67


(b) Wet Rising Main 67
(c) Hydraulic Hose reel 67
(d) Hydrant 67
(e) Protected Lobby 67
(f) Protected ventilated lobby 67

Reg. 32 Rising Mains - General Provision 67


Reg. 33 Hydraulic Hose Reels 69
Reg. 34 Fire Lifts and Fire Fighting Shafts 69
Reg. 35 Fire Alarms 70
Reg. 36 Automatic Sprinkler System 72

Table 14 Provision of Fire Alarms according to Purpose Group, Height and Size
of the Building 73
Reg. 37 to 39 Portable Fire Extinguishers 79
Table 15 Minimum Sizes of Fire Extinguishers for Class A Fire Hazards. 80
Table 16 Minimum Sizes of Fire Extinguishers for Class B Fire Hazards 80
Reg. 40 External Hydrants 80
Reg. 41 Fire Pump Sets. 81
Reg. 42 Total Flooding Systems 81

65
CHAPTER 4

FIRE EXT.iNGUISHING APPLIANCES, DETECTION AND ALARM SYSTEM

AND OTHER FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS

DEFINITIONS

For the purpose of this Code the following definitions shall be applicable:

Rising - A water main, normally empty, installed in the


building or the site of the building, with an inlet or inlets at
street level through which water can be pumped to provide a water
for branch mains to hydrants on various storeys.

(b) Wet Main - A water main charged with water


installed in the or within the site of the building to provide a
water for branch mains to on storeys.

(c)
a diameter of

(e) Protected - An enclosed space a opens and


having a direct access to a protected the purpose of fire
The elements of structure of such a shall conform to
the provisions of Chapter 3 of the

Protected Ventilated Lobby - A lobby as defined above but ,",V'U<UHHJl


C
openable windows or ventilation to the open air.

RISING MAINS

General Reg.32 (1) building in which the floor the ",,.,"M~'


Provision 18 metres above or ground level, shall be
Mains.

Number of Reg.32 (2) Where mains have to be provided under paragraph (1) of this
Mains regulation or are otherwise provided, the number of mains required shall
Required be such that:
(a) There shall be at least one rising main to every 900m2 or part thereof
of floor area on each storey, which is higher than 18 m above
pavement or ground level.
(b) They may be so positioned that all parts of any floor space shall be
within 60 metres from a rising main on any which is higher
than 18 metres above pavement or ground level.
Reg.32 (3) Where the building has access from more than one level or road
level, the height measurements for the purpose of paragraphs (1) and (2)
of this regulation shall be taken from the lowest level at which .aceess for
fire brigade engines is required to be provided.

67
Fire Regulations
~_, "' ..... ~ ..... _~ Chapter 4 - Fire Extinguishing Appliances, Detection and Alarm Systems and other Fire Protection Systems
~ __ w .. , .. _,. _

Siting Reg.32 (4) (a) Within the protected ventilated or smoke free lobby or

(b) Immediately outside the protected staircase if there is no protected


or smoke free lobby or

(c) In any oilier position approved by the Urban Development


Authority.

Inlets and Reg.32 (5) Buildings fitted with rising mains shall have access roads for pumping
Access Roads appliances, within 18m of the inlet to the main and within sight of the
inlet conforming to the provisions of an accepted code of practice. A
rising main inlet shall be suitably located on an external wall of the
building at a height of 1m above the surrounding ground road or
pavement level and a notice with the words "WET RISER lNLET" shall
be prominently displayed adjacent to every inlet.

Outlets Reg.32 (6) Outlets shall be provided off the rising mains on each level at a height of
I m above the floor level. The pressure and flow rate at each outlet shall
be in accordance with the relevant provisions of an acceptable Code of
Practice on the installation of rising mains.

Installation Reg.32 (7) The installation shall be in accordance with the provisions of the .
accepted code of practice on rising mains.

Reg.32 (8) When a building which in pursuance of Regulation 32 (I) is required to


be equipped with rising mains, such rising mains shall be installed
progressively as the building attains height during the course of
construction and all outlets, landing valves and inlets as well as water
tanks and pumps as may be required for the system, shall be properly
installed as directed by the Urban Development Authority so as to be
readily operational in case of fire.

Location Reg.32 (9) The locating of Wet Risers and Landing Valves should be as follows:

(a) Rising Mains should be housed ina dedicated fire duct


(b) Rising Mains should be not more than 60 metres apart in a
horizontal direction.

(c) No part of any floor should be more than 60 metres from a


Landing Valve.

(d) Within a ventilated lobby, or in a stairway enclosure

Size Reg.32 (10) The diameter of the rising main should be not less than 100 mm for
.Medium Rise buildings, and not less than 150 mm for High Rise
buildings.

Water Reg.32 (11) The water supply for the landing valves and the hose reels should be
Supply independent, and should not be combined with any other supplies not
included for fire fighting.

Pipe Work Reg.32 (12) The rising main and all associated pipe work should be wrought steel
heavy duty, and "elbow bends" should not be used.

Installation Reg.32 (13) Landing valves should be installed as follows:

(1) They should be protected from mechanical damage.

68
Fire Regulations Chapter 4 - Fire Extinguishing Appliances, Detection and Alarm Systems and other Fire Pm1t':,,;i.o!lSystems
"',--~---~-,,,,"--,,----",,,,*,"-,,,,,-~-.,,,,,,-,,------,-,,~---,,,,,,,,,_",,---,,"~-~"-"'.:'---"-' ,._.,_,,_
.. .,

(2) The lowest point approximately between 750 mm to 1200 mm


above floor level, not less than 150 mm clearance on both sides,
not less than 230 mm below the centre line of the outlet of the
landing valve, not less than 200 mm clearance above the hand,
wheel, and the front edge of the female coupling of the landing
valve should be not more than 75 mm behind the face of the
wall.

Automatic Reg.32 (14) The rising main should be provided with an automatic air vent valve at
Air Vent the highest point.
Valve

Hydraulic Reg. 33 (1) At least one hydraulic hose reel conforming to the provisions of this
Hose Reel- regulation shall be provided in every storey of every building except the
General following:

(a) A building of purpose group I which does not exceed four storeys
(and does not exceed a maximum height of 18m).

(b) A shop on the ground storey of a shop-cum-residential building


provided the shop does not exceed 280m2 in floor area and is
properly separated from the residential floors or parts of the
building by compartment walls and floors.

(c) A petrol service station comprising a small office ofthe like.


(d) Any other building which is less than 300 square feet in area does
not require a hose reel.

Size Reg.33 (2) The hose reel should be of 19mm or 25mm diameter, non-kinking
reinforced rubber not exceeding 4S m in length and terminating in "shut-
off" branches with 4.8mm or 6.4mm nozzles.

Pressure Reg.33 (3) The pressure at the end of the nozzle shall be such that there should be a
throw of not less than 6m at the rate of 24 litres per minute.

Siting Reg.33 (4) Hose reels should be sited in prominent positions approved by the
authorities, in each storey along escape routes, preferably in corridors in
such a way that the nozzle at the end can be taken within 6m of all
portions of the buildings.

Specification Reg.33 (5) Every hose reel shall conform to the specifications of BS 3169 or other
accepted standards.

Reg.33 (6) The hose reel cabinets should not be locked.

FIRE LIFTS AND FIRE FIGHTING SHAFTS

General Reg.34 (1) In any building or part thereof; in which the floor level of any storey
exceeds 30m in height, there shall be provided at least one fire lift,
which shall be contained within a separate protected shaft or a conunon
protected shaft containing other lifts subject to such other lifts being
served at each storey by the protected ventilated lobby, which is
required by the provisions of Regulation 34 (2) of this regulation. In the .'-

event of a fire all lifts except the fireman's lift shall be automatically
brought down to ground level and remain there with doors open.

69
Siting Reg.34 (2) A fire lift shall be adjacent to a staircase enclosure and be approached by a
protected ventilation lobby at each storey, which if not naturally ventilated,
shall be mechanically ventilated in accordance with the requirements of the
Urban Development Authority. The lobby floor shall be gradually graded
from the lift door openings towards the lobby doors with a fall of 1 in 200.

Electric Reg.34 (3) The electric supply to the lift shall be connected to a sub-main Circuit
Supply exclusive to the lift and independent of any other main or sub-main
circuit. The cables supplying current to the lift installation shall be
located on a route of negligible fire risk.

Fire Fighting Reg.34 (4) The "PURPOSE" of a Fire Fighting Shaft is to provide a quick, safe, and
Shafts protected access route for Fire Fighters when fighting fires in tall
building. It may also serve as a means of escape for the occupants of the
building in the event of a fire. "Fire Fighting Shaft" shall be installed in
all high-rise buildings andshall.consist of the following:

(a) Components of a Fire Fighting Shaft - The Fire Fighting Shaft shall
consist of:
(i) A protected enclosure containing a fire fighting stairway, and

(ii) A fire fighting lobby, and

(iii) A fire fighting lift.

(b) Protected Enclosure - The protected enclosure shall comply with the
requirements stipulated in Fire Regulations 2 ( e), and 31 (e.) and
(f.), of these regulations.
(c) Fire Fighting Lobby - The fire fighting lobby shall comply with the
requirements stipulated in Fire Regulation 3 (12) (b) of these
regulations. The fire fighting lobby shall be provided with a Fire
Main as stipulated in Fire Regulations 32 of these regulations.

(d) Fighting Lift - The fire fighting lift shall comply with the
stipulations of Fire Regulation 34 (1) and (2.) of these regulations.

FIRE ALARMS

General Reg.35 (1) (a) Every building or part of a building, except that of Purpose Group 1 or
2(b), having a total floor area of more than that specified in Column B
of Table 14 having regard to the purpose group of the building or part
of the building, shan be installed with a fire alarm system, either of the
automatic or manual type as indicated in Column C, which shall be an
electrically supervised system conforming to the requirement
stipulated in Regulation 35 (2).

Fire (b) Where required, a fife alarm system of the automatic or manual type
Indicator shall be provided with a fire indicator to. indicate the location of the
alarm which has been actuated or operated. fire indicator should
be located near the main entrance of the building or the fire command
centre, if provided, or as required by the relevant Authority.

Alarm (c) An independent .cinema hall, which does not form of any
System for other building, shan be provided with a fire alarm system of the
Cinema manual type complying with the following:

70
Fire Regulations

(i) The manual alarm system shall be installed in the lobbies and
other areas adjoining the auditorium.
(ii) Visual and audio alarm indicators shall be installed in the
projection room and in another room where a responsible
person, whose identity must be made known to the Urban
Development Authority, is readily available to alert the
audience in case of fire.

(d) In a manual alarm system, except as otherwise specified in the provision


Alarm Call of paragraph the call points shall be provided on every storey
of building or part of the building concerned and shall be so
located that no person travel more than 30m from any position
the building in order to activate the alarm. Manual call points
should be located on exit routes preferably next to hose reels and in
particular on the floor landings of staircases and at exits to the street.
They should be fixed at a of l.4m above the floor at easily
accessible and conspicuous free from obstructions. The
installation of shall be in with an
acceptable Code of Fire alarm

Sound (e) A fire device shall have a sound that is readily


Device distinguishable any other alarm on the same floor
should be at least l Odb above level.

conform to the
Warning
System
(a) The "selection of the detector"
(i) The "detector" should be for the predominant
emission of the fire, that is smoke, etc. and should be
detecting the fire at the earliest.

False Alarms. The detector


between the """,,,,,c,uu,,,
order to eliminate false alarms.

(iii) Environmentally The detector should be environ-


mentally friendly.

Selection of (b) The selection of the "type of detection


Type of following:
Detection
System (i) Type "L" Detection Systems which are for the protection of
"Life" and are automatic in operation. They can be 0,'::>'0.10""

throughout the building, or only in certain parts of the building,


or only in protected routes.
(ii) Type "P" Detection Systems which are for the protection of
"Property" and are automatic in operation. They can be installed
throughout the building, or only in defined parts of the building.
(iii) Type "M" Detection Systems which could be installed for both
life and property protection, and are manual in operation.
(iv) Type "X" Detection Systems which are recommended for
multi-occupancy buildings.

71
Warning in (c) The "warning" given by a fire alarm should comply with the following
the Event of stipulations:
a Fire
(i) The warning "sound' to indicate a fire situation should be distinct
from aU other alarm sounds.

(ii) The alarm should be heard at the most remote area of the building,
as follows:
1. For LOW fire hazard buildings - Fire Floor only.
2. For :rvmDIUM fire hazard buildings - Fire floor, and floors
immediately above and below.
3. For HIGH fire hazard buildings - All floors
The minimum sound level of the alarm should be 10 db above ambient
sound in any area.

Early (d) In order to ensure that the "detection" of a fire situation, and the
Detection "warning" are given and at the earliest, the system should comply
Warning with the following stipulations:

(i) "Spacing." In general the "spacing" of detectors should not


exceed 5.3 metres for heat detectors, and 7.5 metres for smoke
and line and beam detectors.
(ii) "Area Coverage." In general the detector coverage should not
exceed 100 sq. metres. for one smoke detector, and 50 sq.
metres for one heat detector.
(iii) "Siting." Detectors should be sited so that their sensitive
elements are not less than 25 rum or more than 150 mm below
the ceiling for heat detectors, and not less than 25 rum and not
more than 600 mm below the ceiling for smoke detectors.
(iv) "Ceiling Height." The ceiling height should normally not
exceed 9 metres.
"Identification of Location of Fire." In the "conventional" type
systems the detectors are "grouped" into "zones" and hence the
"location" of the fire may not be identified without delay. The
system must therefore be so designed that the search distance
to locate the fire should not exceed 30 metres.
(v) and "remote indicators" should be installed on. doors to
facilitate locating the position of the fire.
(vi) Fire Alarm Response - On the activation of a detector or a
manual call point, the fire alarm in that area should sound in '
less than 03 seconds.

AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEMS

General Reg.36 (1) The following shall be provided with an automatic sprinkler system:
(a) Whenever compartmentation requirements under the Chapter 3 of the
Regulation cannot be complied with except in the case of the car
parking decks of a building that are' open sided having not less than
50% of their sides permanently opened and such openings being so
distributed as to provide cross ventilation to all parts of the car parking
areas.

72
Fire Regulations
------

Table 14

Provision of Fire Alarms Acco~ding to Purpose Group, Height and Size of the Building

A B C
purpose group and height of building Total Floor area (per storey in m2) Type of alarm
in excess of which alarm must be

NL
375 (m)
NR (m)

etc.
- Single storey building NR (m)
b - Building of2 to 4 storeys NR (a)
c - Bui of more than 4 NR (a)
(iii) Clinics or other institution buildings
without in facilities
a - Single storey building NL
b - Building of2 to 4 storeys 185 (m)
of more than 4 NR (a)

NL
185 (m)
NR (a)

NL
185 (m)
NR (a)

NL*
NR (m)
NR (a)

NL**
NR (m)
NR (a)

NR (a)
NR (a)
NR (a)

NL*
1000 (m)
NR

(m) = manual type


= Not Relevimt (a) ~ auromatlc type

When there are :2 or more purpose groups involved in a building, the strictest reqtii'rement for anyone of
the purpose groups shall be applicable to the whole building.

73
Reg. 36(1 ) (b) Every storey of a building, the highest habitable storey of which is
more than 30 m above average ground level, irrespective of whether
or not the compartmentation requirements are complied with

(c) Any part of a basement storey which is used as a place of public


resort, shops, office, factory or warehouse irrespective of whether or
not the compartmentaiton requirements are complied with.

(d) Where a building or a compartment of a building except that of


purpose groups I and Il and school buildings, is allowed to
comprise more than one storey and there are unprotected openings
in the floor between such storeys, each storey should be sprinklered
irrespective of compliance with compartmentation requirements,
provided that these requirements shall not be applicable if-

(0 The means of escape of the building or compartment are


properly protected in accordance with Chapter 2 of the
Regulation and
(ii) The cubical extent of the building or compartment does not
3
exceed 14200m ,

(e) In buildings or parts of buildings used for special purposes or


hazards, where required under provisions of Chapter 5 of the
Regulation.

Exemption Reg.36 (2) A cinema hall may be exempted from the provisions of paragraph (1) (a)
of this regulation provided it conforms to the requirements of Regulation
35 (3) and the relevant provisions of Regulations 45 to 49.

Commencement Reg.36 (3) No person shall commence work on the installation of the sprinkler
of the system unless plans for such system required to be submitted in
Installation accordance with the provisions of paragraphs (4) and (5) of this
Work Regulation have been approved by the Urban Development Authority. .

Submission of Reg.36 (4) Plans for the installation or extension of a sprinkler system shall be signed
Plans by a Professional Engineer and by the owner of the building in which the
sprinkler system is installed and bear the certification of the Professional
Engineer that:
(a) Such plans have been prepared in accordance with the accepted
code of practice on automatic sprinkler systems, and

(b) He shall be responsible for the proper installation of the


sprinkler system in accordance with such plans and shall carry out
such tests and submit such test reports as and when required by the
Urban Development Authority.

Information Reg.36 (5) Plans for sprinkler shall consist of layout of every storey
Required to be of the building in which such system is to be installed, drawn to a similar
given on Plans scale as the building plans and shall contain the data and information as
laid down in the accepted code of practice for sprinkler system.

74
Installation Reg36 (6) The installation, maintenance and testing of a sprinkler system shall be
. Maintenance in accordance with the accepted code of practice.
and Testing A test valve shall be provided at the end of the line at every floor level to
test the sprinkler flow.

Reg.36 (7) Classification of Occupancies


<!) Light Hazard
til Ordinary Hazard
High Hazard

Light Hazard - Non Industrial

Quantity and combustibility of contents floor area


2
not more than 125 m

Ordinary Hazard - Commercial and Industrial occupancies handling,


processing and storage of ordinary combustible
materials unlikely to develop intensely burning
fires initially.
May be classified as :

Ordinary Hazard Group I or


Ordinary Hazard Group II or
Ordinary. Hazard Group III or
Ordinary Hazard Group IIIS

High Hazard - Commercial and Industrial occupancies having


abnormal fire loads such as

Process Hazard
High piled storage hazard
Oil and flammable liquid hazard
Potable spirit storage hazard

(8) Design Data

Hazard Minimum Design Assumed Maximum Ar


Density Mmlmin of Operation in m2

Light 2.25 84

Ordinary
Group I 5 72
Group II 5 144
GroupIU 5 216
Group ms 5 360

(9) Minimum Capacity of Water Supplies

The minimum capacities shall be as specified below. These


capacities relate to stored water sources entirely reserved for the
sprinkler system (including fire hose reels). The minimum capacity
must be sufficient to supply the pump for one hour when running at
its.normal rating. .

75
Ordinary Hazard Class

Group Maximum Minimum


Height of Capacity (l)
Sprinkler (m)
15 55,000
30 70,000
I 45 80,000
60 90,000
75 100,000
15 105,000
30 125,000
II 45 140,000
60 160,000
75 175,000

15 135,000
30 160,000
III 45 185,000
60 205,000
75 220,000
'"

15 160,000
30 185,000
III Special 45 205,000
60 225,000
75 245,000

Pressure /Flow Requirements for Ordinary Hazard Class

Group Minimum Flow Rate tlmin


Running
Pressure kPa
I 100 375
70 540
II 140 725
100 1000
--
III 170 1100
140 1350
III Special 200 1800
150 2100

Maximum area coverage per sprinkler -

(a) Side wall sprinklers


(b) Other sprinklers

(11) Maximum distance between sprinklers on Range Pipes and


between adjacent rows

(a) Side wall sprinklers along the walls -


Fire resisting ceilings - 3.7 m
Non - fire resisting ceilings - 3.4 m

76
~ife Regulations

(b) Other sprinklers ..

Standard spacing - 4m
Staggered spacing

between sprinklers - 4.6 rn


between rows -4 m

(n) Maximum distance from walls and partitions

(a) Side wan sprinklers from end walls - 1.8 m


(b) Other sprinklers - 2 m or half the design spacing whichever is the
lesser

(13) Clearance Space below Sprinkler

(a) High piled combustible stocks - 1 m


(b) Others - 0.5 m

(14) Supplementary Protection

AU concealed spaces between floors (or concrete slab roofs) and


ceilings below, exceeding 800 mm in depth shall be fully protected by
'sprinklers; in accordance with the requirements for the particular
hazard class.

(15) Pump Installations

(a) Pump sets shall be driven either by an electric motor or an


approved compression ignition type engine.
(b) Separate pumps shall be provided for hydrant installations. (The
authority having jurisdiction may waive this requirement where
special circumstances apply)
(c) Sprinkler pumps shall be supplied with intake water under positive
head. .
(d) Pump sets shall be capable of satisfying the flow and pressure
requirements of any assumed areas of operation in the system
under consideration.
(e) For electric motor driven pumps the power supply from the Main
Switch Board to the Sprinkler pump sets shall be separate and
distinct from all other services. .
(f) For compression-ignition engine driven pumps, there shall be kept
on hand at all times sufficient fuel to run the engine on fun load
for 6 h, in addition to that in the engine fuel tank.

(16) Information to be Provided for Approval of Sprinkler Systems

(a) Detail of Water Supplies


(b) Details of Automatic Pump Sets
(c) Fully detailed and dimensioned working drawings

77
Fire Regulations

PORT ABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS

General Reg.37 (1) Portable fire extinguishers conforming to the relevant Sri Lanka Standard
currently in force, effective to the class of fire which may occur and the
nature of the processes or contents within a building, shall be provided and
maintained in fully charged and operatable condition as may be required by
. the Urban Development Authority.

Siting Reg.37 (2) Extinguishers shall be located where they will be readily accessible and
immediately available in the event of fire. Except where otherwise stated in
this regulation, they shall be located along normal paths of travel,
preferably on escape routes in such a way that no person need travel more
than 30 m to reach an extinguisher or as otherwise stated in Regulation 39
and Table 16.

Installation Reg.37 (3) Extinguishers shall be installed at a height of 1m above the floor level on
the hangers.or in the brackets supplied or set of shelves and shall be placed
in a manner such that the extinguisher operating instructions face outward.

Reg.37 (4) Portable fire extinguishers intended for different classes of fire, shall be
marked conspicuously according to their intended use.

Classification Reg.38 (1) Fires shall be classified as follows:


of Fires
(a) Class A: Fires involving solid materials, usually of organic nature, in
which combustion normally takes place with the formation of
glowing embers.

(b) Class B: Fires involving liquids or liquefiable solids.

(c) Class C: Fires involving gases.

(d) Class D: Fires involving metal.

Selection of Reg.38 (2) Selection of fire extinguishers shall be as follows:


Fire <---~

Extinguishers (a) Fire extinguishers for protecting Class A fire hazards shall be selected
from the following:

(i) Water types and multi-purpose dry chemical, if the hazards are
not connected with energized electrical equipment, or

(ii). Carbon dioxide and dry chemical types if the hazards are
connected with energized electrical equipment.
(b) Fire extinguishers for protection of Class B fife hazards shall be
selected from the following:
Carbon dioxide, dry chemical, multi-purpose dry chemical, foam and
other approved vaporizing liquid.
Foam could only be used if fires do not involve energized electrical
equipment.
(c) .Fire extinguishers for protection of Class C fire hazards shall be
selected from the following:

Carbon dioxide, dry chemical, multi-purpose dry chemical powder


, " and other approved vaporizing liquid.
"

78
(d) Fire extinguishers and extinguishing agents for the protection of
Class D fire hazards other than foam shall be of types approved by
the Urban Development Authority for use on the specific
combustible metal hazard.

Classification Reg.38 (3) Hazards shall be classified as follows:


of Hazards
(a) Low Hazard - where the amount of combustibles or flammable liquids
present is such that rITeSof small size may be expected and these may
include offices, school rooms, places of worship, assembly halls,
telephone exchanges ..

(b) Medium Hazards - where the amount of combustibles or flammable


liquids present is such that fires of moderate size may be expected and
these may include mercantile, storage and display, motor showrooms,
parking garages, light manufacturing, warehouses not classified as
extra hazard, shopping areas.

(c) High Hazard - where the amount of combustible or flammable liquids


present is such that fires of severe magnitude may be expected and
these may include wood 'working, motor repair, aircraft servicing
warehouses with high-piled (4m or higher) combustibles and
processes such as flammable liquid handling, painting, dipping and so
forth.

Distribution Reg.39 (1) Minimum sizes of fire extinguishers for the listed grades of Class A fire
and Minimum hazards shall be provided and located so that the maximum travel distances
Sizes of shall not exceed those specified in Table 15 except that for hazards
Extinguishers connected with energized electrical equipment, any of the types of fire
extinguishers specified in Regulation 38 (2) (a) (ii) of size and at locations
as determined by the Urban Development Authority, shall be provided.

Reg.39 (2) Minimal sizes of fire extinguishers the listed grades of Class B fire
hazards other than for fires in flammable liquids of appreciable depth shall
be provided and located so that the maximum travel distances shall not
exceed those specified in Table 16.

Reg.39 (3) For flammable liquid fire hazards of appreciable depth such as in dip or
quench tanks, extinguishers listed in Table 16 shall be provided on the
basis of 80 litres foam extinguishing potential per square metre of
flammable liquid surface of the largest tank hazard within the area. If
automatic fire protection systems are installed for flammable liquid
hazards, extinguishers may be waived.

79
Table 15
Minimum Sizes of Fire Extinguishers fox-Class A Fire Hazards
Area to be protected per Extinguisher
Minimum Maximum Travel Low Hazard Ordinary Hazard High Hazard
Extinguisher Distance to Occupancy Occupancy Occupancy
Rating Extinguishers
'-'-~'-'
3A 30m 30mL 15m2 3m
SA 30m 50m2 25m2 15m2
SA 30m 80m2 40m2 20m2
13A 30m 130m2 65m2 35m2
55m2
"

21A 30m 210m2 lO5m2


27A 30m 270m2 135m2 70m2
34A 30m 340m2 170m2 85m2
43A 30m 430m2 215m2 110m2
55A 30m 550m2 275m2 140m2
-

Table 16
Minimum Sizes of Fire Extinguisbers for Class B Fire Hazards

Type of Hazard Basic M'inimum Extinguisher Maximum Travel Distance to


Rating Extinguishers
34B 15m
Light
144B 25m
--f-. --f-- --
144B 10m
Ordinary
183B 15m

High 183B 7m
233B 10m

EXTERNAL HYDRANTS

External Reg. 40 (a) Every building shall be located within 100 metres of a public hydrant.
Hydrants Where there is no public hydrant available within 100 metres of a factory
building, commercial complex or any building in a housing estate,
external hydrants shall be, provided within the factory, or complex
premises or within the housing estates respectively. to the satisfaction of
the Urban Development Authority.

(b) In areas where there is no Public Fire Brigade and no Town Fire
Hydrant System a Private Hydrants should be installed. The Private
Hydrant System must comply with the following stipulations:

(i) They should be sited so that they will not obstruct vehicular. traffic.
(ii) They should be part of a ring-main.
(iii) They should be sited not more than 70 metres from the entry to
he building.
~~e Regulations
_. _---
Chapter 4 - Fire Extinguishing Appliances, Detection and Alarm Systems and other fire Pwt~::(;tiOflSystems
---_.,._-------_ ..

(iv) They should be not more than 150 metres apart.


(v) They should be not less than 6 metres from the fire risk.
(vi) A dedicated fire water sump with a capacity of 67,500 liters fire
fighting.
A Set.

PUMP SETS

41 consists of a "Duty" Pump, a "Stand-by" Pump, and a


relation to the Fire Pump Set is as follows:

- The purpose of the jockey pump is to compensate for


loss of water and thereby prevent the duty pump from

(b) purpose of the duty pump is to provide the water


at the pressure application
rate.
(c) IS to over operations
for any reason.
(d) is not
provided

Automatic and should start

Pumps in V'~'''''''U'J''
in the control room to
(g)

(h) Excess to deal


pressures and flows, control valves"
,auuu,lS valves, should be connected to a
order to avoid of water the relief pipe should termmate
water
(i) Fire Water Sump - of the fire water sump for the wet
riser system should be a minimum of 45,000 litres,

TOTAL SYSTEMS

Total Reg. 42 The "total must comply the following


Flooding
(a) - They must be
Systems
(b) Toxicity - No or low toxicity rate to humans.
(c) ODP - The "ozone depletion potential" level of the
(d) GWP - "global warming potential" rate of the
(e) Atmospheric time
(f) Application Rate - The rate of application and the of
application must be adequate to ensure extinguishment of the fire.
(g) Adequate Warning - An audible warning must be given to enable any
persons in the enclosure to evacuate BEFORE the discharge of the

81
.'-
CHAPTERS

SPECIAL USES, OCCUPANCIES AND STRUCTURES

CONTENTS
Page

General 87
Reg. 43 Application 87
Reg. 44 Occupancies not Regulated by this Chapter 87
Places of Public Resort 87
Reg. 45 Separation of Theater, Cinema or Concert Hall from Other Parts of the
Building 87
Reg. 46 (l) - (3) Gangways in Places of Public Resort 87
(4) Floors 88
(5) Steps and Slopes of Gangways 88
(6) Handrails 88
(7) Treads of Steps of Gangways 88
(8) Guard Rails 88
(9) Slope of Tiers 88
(10) Seats 88
Reg. 47 (1) -(2) Exit Doors 88
(3)-(4) External Doors 88
Reg. 48 (1) Stages in Places of Public Resort Where Theatrical or Live Shows are
Performed 89
(2) Openings in Proscenium Wall 89
(3) Provision of Sprinklers 89
(4) Exemption 89
Reg. 49 (1)-(9) Cinema Projection Rooms 89, 90

Hotels, Shopping, Offices and Residential Complexes 90


Reg. 50 (1) Pressurization of Internal Corridors and Staircases 90
Walls between Bedrooms and Corridors 90
Reg. 51 Areas of Special Risks -90
Reg. 52 Separation of Kitchen Area from Dining Area 90
53 Hood and Flue 91
Reg. 54 Canteen Kitchens 91
Basement Occupancies 91
Reg. 55 Smoke Extraction 91
Reg. 56 Basement Staircase 91
Reg. 57 Smoke Stop Lobby for Lift Opening 91
Reg. 58 Fire Fighting Protected Lobby and Staircase 92
Reg. 59 Rising Mains in Deep Basements 92
Reg. 60 Foam Inlets 92
Reg. 61 Non-Permissible Uses 92
Covered Car Parks and Garages 92
Reg. 62 (1) Covered Car Parks - Distances from Other Buildings or Lot
Boundaries 92
(2) Exemptions 93
(3) Multi-storey Car Parking Facilities and Definitions 93
(4) Automatic Sprinkler System Requirement 93
(5) Application of Ventilation, Means of Escape, Fire Safety
Requirements 93
(6) Mechanical Parking Equipment 94
83
F ire Regulations Chapter:) Special Uses Occu'pru'wi{;s :and Structures
_ ..,.. ~. ...... __ , , ............ ~..,___._,. ...... ~ ............ __ .....--. v ..... , ...,... -~-""'_''''_''''''_'''''''''_''''''''-''-''''''''''''_'-'''''''''''_'"'_~'''''~'~''"'''''"''''''''_' _,_

Reg. 63 Separation (of a repair garage) from Other Parts of Buildings Used 94
for any Other Purpose
Reg. 64 Separation within a Repairing Garage 94
Reg. 65 (1) Spray Painting Booths 94
(2)-(5) Drying or Baking Ovens 95
Reg. 66 Ventilation of Spray Painting Booths etc. 95
Reg. 67 Floors of Basement Car Park and Garage 95

Reg. 68 Openings in Compartment Floors of a Multi-storeyed Car Park


(Ramp Type) 95
Reg. 69 Ramps 95
Reg. 70 (1) Minimum Number of Exits for a Garage 95
(2) Entrance Doors, Doors for Basement Garages or Car Parks 95
Reg. 71 (1)-(4) Inspection and Repair Pits 95, 96

Timber Store and Wood Working Buildings 96


Reg. 72 (1) External Separation 96
(2) Internal Separation 96

Areas of Special rusk in any Building 96


Reg. 73 (1) Separation and Permissible Openings 96
(2) Areas of Special Risk in Basement 96
(3) Fuel Storage 97
(4) Storage Areas in Factories 97
(5) Storage Areas in Departmental Stores and Shops 97
(6) When Storage Areas are to be Treated as Areas of Special Risk 97

Rubber Factory Buildings 97


Reg. 74 Maximum Permissible Height 97
Reg. 75 External Staircase Required 97
Reg. 76 (l) No Part of the Building to be Used for any Other Trade 97
(2) Areas of Special Risk 97
Reg. 77 Distance from Other Buildings . 9~;
Reg. 78 Use of Artificial Heat 98

Calcium Carbide Stores 98


Reg. 79 Distance from Other Buildings 98
(1) Distance from Other Buildings 98
(2) Ventilation 98
(3) Walls andFloors 98

Matches and Fire W orks Factory and Storage Buildings 98


Reg. 80(1) & (2) Separate Compartmentsand Exits 98
Reg, 81(1) No Part of the Building to be Used for any Other Trade 98
(2) Areas of Special Risk 98
Reg. 82 Chemical Stores 98
Reg. 83 Lightning Conductors 99

Stores for Cellulose Solution, Paints and Inflammable Liquids Other than Petroleum 99
Reg. 84(1) to (5) Requirements 99
Reg. 85 Definitions 99

,'"

84
Fire Regulations
-----------" ..~-------
..---

Glass Factory Buildings 99


Reg. 86( 1) to (2) Requirements 99, 90
Reg. 87 Fuel Storage 100
Reg. 88 Packing Areas 100

Liquifled Petroleum Gas - Storage, Safe Use and Sale 100


Reg. 89 (1) Siting of LPG Tanks and Equipment (Automobile Filling Stations) 100
Table 17 Separation Distance of Tanks 100
Reg. 89 (2) Fire Fighting Equipment 101
Reg. 90 (1) Installation of LPG Piping Systems and Appliances 102
(2) Piping Plan 102
(3) Piping Material 102
(4) Gas Piping Installation 102
(5) LPG in Building 102
(6) Concealed Piping in Buildings 103
(7) Operating Pressure 103
(8) Safety Mechanisms 103
(9) Point Delivery 104
(10) Over Pressure Protection Devices 104
(11) Ventilating Service Shaft 104
Reg. 91 (1) LPG Storage in Retail Outlets 104
(2) Signage 105
(3) Fire Protection 105
Reg. 92 (1) Storage of Petroleum Spirit in Underground Tanks and Pumps
(Filling Stations)
(2) Conditions Applicable to the Site 106
(3) Vent Pipes 106
(4) Electrical Installations 106
(5) Illuminations 106
(6) Fire Fighting Equipment 107
(7) Notices 107
(8) Physical Protection 107

85
CHAPTERS

SPECIAL USES, OCCUPANCIES AND STRUCTURES

GENERAL

Application RegA3 This chapter of the code shall apply only to those buildings types, uses,
occupancies and structures specifically regulated herein, and the
requirements of this chapter shall be in addition to the general
requirements of the other chapters of the regulation governing the size,
location, structural fire precautions, means of escape, construction,
ventilation, fire-extinguishing equipment and other service equipment of
buildings.

Occupancies not Reg.44 Chemical plants, packing plants, refineries and similar special
Regulated by this occupancies which are not regulated by this chapter shall conform to the
Chapter requirements of the other chapters of this regulation where applicable and
in addition thereto shall he constructed in accordance with the practices
and requirements of the particular trade or industry, subject to the
approval of the Urban Development Authority.

PLACES OF PUBLIC RESORT

Separation of RegAS Notwithstanding the provisions of Regulation 17, an opening may be


Theater Cinema permitted in a compartment wall separating a theater, cinema or
or Concert Hall a
concert hall in part of a building from any other part of the same
from Other Parts building which is of a different purpose group, if such opening is
of the Building provided with-

(i) A door having the requisite fire resistance as laid down in


Regulation 18( 1) and such doors shall be held in the open position
by a magnetic door holding device connected to the alarm system so
that on operation of the alarm the holding device would be de-
energized and thus cause the door to be closed automatically, and

(ii) A lobby enclosed by walls and doors having fire resistance for a
period of not less than 1/2 hour, subject to the full exit requirements
for such theater, cinema or concert hall being satisfied within it's
own compartment without taking into account the door referred to in
(i) above. .

Gangways in Reg.46 (1) A clear gangway not less than 1.2m in width shall be provided around
Places of the auditorium, stalls and balcony in a place of public resort leading to
Public Resort exit doors therein, provided that if the gangways in the balcony lead
directly to exit doors not less than 1.2m in width the rear gangway may
be omitted.

Reg.46 (2) Gangway not less than 12m wide running parallel to the rows of seating
in a place of public resort shall be provided where required by the Urban
Development Authority.

Reg.46 (3) Gangways not less than 1.2m in width shall be provided intersecting the
rows of seating in a place of public resort in such a manner that no seat
shall be at a greater distance than 7 seats from a gangway measured in the
line of seating.

87
Cbailter:5 - Special Uses, Occupancies and Structures
,---,
Fire Regulations
-~----,-.---,-"~----,--~---"",_""",.',,,,,,,,,,--,-,,",,-
.. .. ..,"~--,----
-~,.,---
-.....-,~......... -,",

Floors Reg.46 (4) The floor of a balcony or gallery in a place of public resort shall be
.' .constructed of reinforced concrete.

Steps and Reg.46 (5) Steps shall not be used to overcome differences in level in a gangway in
Slopes of a place of public resort unless the slope of such gangway exceeds one in
Gangways ten.

Handrails Reg.46 (6) Where steps of a pitch exceeding 30 degrees or ramps of a slope
exceeding one in ten are provided in gangways flanking the seating in a
place of public resort, suitable handrails shall be provided.

Treads of Steps Reg.46 (7) The treads of steps in gangways in a place of public resort shall have a
of Gangways non-slip surface and the edges of such steps shall be illuminated so that
each step will be clearly visible.

Guardrails Reg.46 (8) Along the fascia of a balcony' or gallery in a place of public resort there
shall be provided a guardrail which may be fixed on a parapet wall or
otherwise, having a height of nbt less than 900 mm above the floor level
and where the incline towards the guard rail exceeds 15 degrees, the
guard rail shall be not less than 1000 mm in height at the feet of any
gangway that descends such incline. i

Slope of Reg,46 (9) The slope of tiers in places of public resort shall not exceed-Sf degree.
Tiers

Seats RegA6 (10) The seats shall be either fixed to the ground or battened together in
numbers not less than seven. No seat shan be more than 4250 nun from
an aisle.

Exit Doors Reg.4 7 (1) Ali doors used by the public as exit door from any part of a place of
public resort or leading to the open air, shall open only in the direction of
exit.

RegA7 (2) In a place of public resort all exit doors and doors through which the
public pass on the way to the open air, shall be without locks, belts or
other fastenings while the public are in the building; provided that floors
used for exit only may be fitted with panic bolts complying with the
provisions of Regulation 4(8) (d). ,i'

External Doors RegA 7 (3) In a place of public resort every external door used by the 'public and
every collapsible gate shall be capable of being locked in the fully open
position in such a way that a key is required to release such door or gate
from such open position.

RegA 7 (4) A notice or notices so arranged as to be visible from both sides of the
door, gate or shutter whether the door, gate or shutter is in the open or
closed position, shall be affixed to or in a position adjacent to every door
and gate referred to in paragraph (3) of this regulation, such notice
bearing the words "This gate/door is required to be kept open and locked
in that position during the whole time that the audience/public is in the
building." The height of the lettering for such notice shall be not less
than 50nun.
fire Regulations Chapter 5 Special Uses, Occupancies and Structures
--------------------,._---------

Stages in Places Reg,48 (1) In. places of public: resort capable of seating more than 400 persons and
of Public Resort in which stage scenery may be used (other than school halls or other
where Theatrical , similar hallswhere.the stage scenery is used infrequently) the stage shall
or Live Shows be separated from the auditorium by a proscenium wall of not less than
are Performed 200mm brickwork or the equivalent, carried up from the floor of the
auditorium up to the roof or the underside of the floor next above the
auditorium.

Openings in Reg.4S (2) No more than three openings shall be provided in the proscenium wall in
Proscenium addition to the proscenium opening which shall be protected by a fire
Wall curtain which shall be automatically operated by a fusible link or a
smoke detector. No such opening shall have an area exceeding 2 square
metres. Each such opening shall be fitted with a door having a fire
resistance of a standard not lower than Class A in Table 10.

Provision of Reg,4S (3) A sprinkler system shall be provided for the whole of the fire risk area on
Sprinklers the stage side of the proscenium wall.

Exemption Reg,48 (4) The provisions of this regulation pertaining to the proscenium wall, fire
curtain and sprinkler system shall not be applicable to-

(a): A single-storey theater or' a concert hall within a detached


..building which is used wholly for such purpose, or

(b) A theater or a concert hall which is situated on the ground floor of a


building and completely separated from the rest of the building by
compartment walls complying with the relevant requirements of
Regulation 17 and having the requisite fire resistance required by
Regulation 13 for such walls,

Provided that the seating capacity of the theater does not exceed
1,000 persons and an adequate smoke exhaust system is installed
over the stage area to the satisfaction of the Urban Development
Authority.

Cinema Reg,49 (1) Cinematograph apparatus in places of public resort shall be 'operated or
.Projection .setup'for operation only wIthin approved enclosures.
Rooms

Reg.49 (2) Any such enclosure used for cinematograph apparatus shall be outside the
auditorium and shall be of non-combustible construction having fire
resistance for a period of not less than 2 hours. No openings other than
projection and observation apertures or ventilation ducts protected by
approved type of shutters or fire dampers shall be permitted between the
enclosure for projectors and the auditorium.

2
Reg.49 (3) The minimum dimensions of an enclosure for projectors shall be 5 m for
one projector used with an additional 2.5 m2 for each additional projector
used.

Reg.49 (4) Two exits shall be provided to each enclosure for projectors and such
exits shall-
(a) Be outside the auditorium, and
(b) Be fitted each with a self-closing, close-fitting door having a fire
resistance of a standard not lower than that of Class A in Table 20 A.

89
.-~--------
Fire Regulations
-_._--

Reg. 49 (5) For each projector used, there shall be provided in the enclosure for
projectors- .
(a) An observation aperture which shall be not larger than
1300cm2, and
(b) A projection aperture which shall be not larger than 800cm2

Reg.49 (6) Each such aperture or opening shall be provided with glass not less than
7mm thick or other approved material so as to completely close the
opening;

Reg. 49 (7) In a place of public resort, where cinematograph apparatus is installed, an


enclosure for the purpose of rewinding films and an enclosure for battery
installation shall be provided and each such enclosure shall be separated
from the enclosure for projectors and from each other by walls having
fire resistance fora period of not less than 1 hour.

Reg. 49 (8) All openings, bushes and joints in an enclosure where any cinematograph
apparatus is installed shall be so constructed and maintained as to prevent
as far as possible the escape of any smoke or noxious fumes into the
auditorium.

Reg. 49 (9) All enclosures prescribed in this regulation shall be adequately ventilated
in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Urban Development
Authority. When ventilation of the enclosures is by means of an air
conditioning system which also serves the auditorium, the air from the
enclosures shall not be recirculated.

HOTELS, SHOPPING, OFFICES AND RESIDENTIAL COMPLEXES


Ii
Pressurization of Reg.50 (1) If the internal corridors between bedrooms and the internal staircases of
Internal, a hotel cannot be provided with permanent openings, providing natural
Corridors and ventilation such as fixed louvers, grills, etc., at a minimum of 900mm
Staircases above ground level, they shall be in addition to being mechanically
ventilated or air-conditioned under the' Building Regulations, be
pressurized so that the pressure within such corridors would be higher
than that in the bedrooms and the pressure within the internal staircases
higher than that of'the corridors.

Walls between Reg_.50(2) The bedrooms shall be separated from the corridors by walls having a
.Hotel Bedrooms fire resistance rating of at least one hour, which shall be imperforate
and Corridors except for door openings protected by self closing doors having a fire
resistance rating of at least half an hour or other openings as permitted
under Regulation 17.

Areas of Special Reg.51 Boiler rooms, mechanical plant rooms, electrical substations and other
Risk areas of special risk .within hotel building or a complex development of
shopping areas, offices, residential units and like, shall conform to the
provisions of Regulation 73.

Separation of Reg.52 In a hotel, restaurant, or other similar place of public resort in which the
Kitchen Area seating area exceeds 75 m2 main kitchen area shall be separated from
from Dining the dining area by a wall having fire resistance for a period of not less
Area than 1 hour and openings in such wall shall be protected by self-closing
and dose-fitting doors having a fire resistance of a standard not lower
than the Class A in Table 11.
Fire Regulations Chllpter 5 .. Special Uses, Occupancies snd Structures

Hood and Flue Reg.53 A hood and flue shall be provided over the entire cooking range of a
kitchen referred to in Regulation 52 and such flue shall be fitted with an
extractor fan discharging outside the building and away form
neighbouring premises. Where the flue or duct passes through any other
part of a building, it shall be of a construction having a fire resistance
rating of not less than 2 hours or equivalent to that required for the walls
or floors through which it passes as specified in Table 8 whichever is the
greater. There shall be no damper installed in such flue or duct.

Canteen Reg.54' The kitchens of the workers' canteens in hotels, office and factory
Kitchens buildings shall conform to the provisions of Regulations 52 and 53
pertaining to the separation of kitchen and dining areas and provision of
hood and flue.

BASEMENT OCCUPANCIES

Smoke Reg.55 The basement storeys of a building shall be provided with smoke
Extraction extraction openings in well distributed positions in external walls along
the street frontages or where they are easily accessible to the Fire Brigade
and conforms with the following requirements-

Reg.55 (1) The number of outlets and their sizes shall be such that the aggregate
cross sectional area of such outlets shall not be less than 0.1m2 for every
3
150 m of cubical extent of the basement storey served. Such outlets shall
be so arranged that a through draught can be created.

Reg. 55 (2) The smoke outlets shall be covered by stan boards or approved type
pavement lights which can easily be broken by firemen.

Reg.55 (3) The position of all smoke outlets and the areas they serve shall be suitably
indicated on the external face of the building adjacent to such outlets.

Reg.S5(4) Smoke extraction shafts where extending through storeys above, shall be
enclosed with imperforate walls having fire resistance for a period of not
less than that of the storey served by such shafts.

Reg.55(5) Separate smoke extraction shafts and outlets shall be provided for each
basement storey. In large basement areas where there may be difficulty to
comply with the provisions of this Regulation, a smoke extract system by
mechanical means may be provided to the satisfaction of the Urban
Development Authority.

Basement Reg.56 In addition to being constructed in accordance with the provisions of


Staircase Regulation 2(e), any staircase which serves a basement storey of a
building shall not be made continuous with any other staircase which
serves an upper storey of such building or other building and shall be
separated from such other staircase by walls having the requisite fire
resistance under Regulation 13.

Smoke Stop Reg.57 In any basement storey served by a passenger lift, there shall be
Lobby for Lift provided a lobby enclosed by a wall having fife resistance for a period of
Opening not less than 1 hour and a self closing, close fitting, fire resistance door of
a standard not lower than Class A in Table <,
10, directly in front of and
adjoining the lift.door opening.

91
Fire Fighting Reg.58 The entry to all protected staircases serving the basement storeys of a
Protected Lobby building comprising more than four basement storeys shall be through a
and Staircase smoke free lobby at every such basement storey floor level complying
with the requirements of sub-paragraph (b)( ii) of Regulation 3( 12)
provided that-

0) When the building has only three or four basement storeys, there
need be only one smoke-free lobby adjoining a protected staircase
at each floor level thereof for the use for the firemen in the event of
a fire, and

(ii) When the building has more than four basement storeys, the fire
fighting staircase shall be pressurized to the satisfaction of the
Urban Development Authority.

Rising Mains in Reg.59 In any basement storey, the floor level of which is 12m or more below
Deep Basements the lowest pavement level adjoining the building, there shall be a wet
rising main provided in accordance with the applicable parts of
Regulation 32 and an accepted Code of Practice.

Foam Inlets Reg.60 Where boiler rooms or storage rooms of high fire risk are below ground
or difficult to access for the Fire Brigade, foam inlets and pipe runs shall
be separately provided for each such room in accordance with an
accepted Code of Practice.

Non- Reg.61 No part of a basement storey shall be used for the bulk storage of highly
Permissible flammable liquids or substances of an explosive nature.
Uses

COVERED CAR]?'ARKS AND GARAGES

Covered Car Reg.62 (1) The distances between the external walls of a building or a part of a
Parks Distances building that is used for car parking and any other building or the
from Other relevant lot boundaries shall be as follows-
Buildings or Lot
Boundaries (a) If the unprotected openings in the external walls of such building
or part of the building are in accordance with the provisions of
Regulation 36 (lXa), the clear distance between such external
walls, and any other building shall be not less than 9 m, or
I
(b) If the unprotected openings in the external walls, of such building
or part of the building are not in accordance with the provisions of
Regulation 36 (1) (a), the distance between such external walls
and the relevant lot boundaries shall conform to the requirements
I
j

of Regulation 15.

(c) Notwithstanding clauses (a) and (b) of this regulation, if the


openings in the external walls of such building or part of the
building are protected by an automatic drencher system installed
in accordance with an accepted code of practice, the clear distance
between such external walls and any other buildings shall be-

(i) Not less than 4.5m or


(ii) Such that the maximum distance between any part of such
building and it's lot boundaries (if applicable) as required by
the Urban Development Authority, whichever is the greater.

92

1
._--_,----
Fire Regulations

Exemptions Reg.62 (2) This regulation shall not apply to

(a) A garage used in 'connection with a building of Purpose Group 1


for housing or parking motor vehicles kept for private use only,
and

(b) An open-sided ground floor car park of a building of Purpose


Group 2(b), provided

(i) The relevant requirements pertaining to separation of the car


park from areas of special risk or of other purpose groups
within the same building are complied with, and

(ii) Such car park is only used by the residents of such


building

Multi-Storey Car Reg.62 (3) The car parking facilities in multi-storey car parks shall be of either the
Parking Facilities ramp or hoist type as defined below-

Definitions (a) "Ramp type" means that the building or the part of the building
used as a car park is provided with inclined driveways or ramps
for driving the cars to various parking levels.

(b) "Hoist type" means that the building or part of the building used
as a car park is installed with mechanical lift equipment which
provides either a vertical operation or a combination of vertical
and horizontal operation for semi automatic parking of cars on
various parking levels.

(c) "Parking level" in this regulation means a floor in a building or


part of a building on which cars are parked.

Automatic Reg.62 (4) The provisions of Regulation 36 (lXa) which exempts art open-
Sprinkler System sided multi storey building or part of a building used for car parking
Requirement from the requirement of an automatic sprinkler system, shall be
applicable irrespective of whether the car parking facilities are of the
ramp or hoist type. Where a building with the hoist type of parking
facilities consists of more than four parking levels, which are enclosed
on twoor more sides, an automatic sprinkler system shall be required
to be provided.

Application of Reg.62 (5) For any building or part of a building used for car parking the normal
Venti lation, requirements for lighting and ventilation of the Urban Development
Means of Escape Authority and the relevant requirements for means of escape, structural
and Fire Safety fire precautions and ike protection systems under Chapter 2, 3 and 4 of
Requirements this Regulation shall be applicable except that for a building with hoist-
type car parking facilities-

(a) A reduced scale for calculating the occupant load under Table 3,
for whom means of escape facilities shall be provided, may be
adopted subject to the approval of the Urban Development
Authority.

<, (b) Hoistways and elevator shafts used solely for the movement of
cars from one parking level to another need not be enclosed by
protecting structures in accordance with the provisions of
Regulation 18.
93
Fire Regulations Chapter 5 Special Uses, Occupancies and Structures
------,---,------,--'--"----------- .--~~-,,'----,--

(c) Solid floor need not be provided at each parking level except at
every third parking level an imperforate non-combustible
construction shall be provided to the satisfaction of the Urban
Development Authority, and

(d) Where the building is of the open hoistway type and is completely
isolated from other buildings and does not exceed 15m in height,
fire protection of the structural steel elements of structure may
reduced or omitted subject to the approval of the Urban
Development Authority.

(6) rn",,,h.>n"~Q parking equipment installed in a hoist type car park shall
in accordance with an accepted code of

Separation of a or attached to a building used


Garage unless completely separated by
Other Parts a period of not

(i) 3 or,

13

Separation Reg.64
within a
Garage

(ii) As required under Regulation 13 and Table 8, urhl('l1i"''''~''' is the


greater.

Provided that the motor repair areas in a repair garage that is located in a
basement storey of a building, shall be segregated from parking areas,
showroom and other ancillary areas by walls and floors having a fire
~~''''"'"'''''''' of not less than 4 hours.

Spray Painting Reg.65 (1) Areas in which spray painting or other allied processes are performed or
Booths carried out, if contained in the main shall adjoin external walls
and shall be completely separated from the other areas of the buildings
by walls and floors or cover slabs having a of not less than
2 hours. The doors in such wall shall have a fire resistance of not less
than 2 hours and shall be self dosing or so installed as to close
automatically in case

94
Fire Regulations

Drying or Reg.65 (2) A drying or baking oven shall be provided with any of the following-
Baking Oven
(a) Explosion relief hatches, which shall be of light construction
and readily breakable,

(b) Permanent openings having an effective area of not less than 0.1m2
for each 0.3m3 of oven capacity, or

(c) An oven top which is loose in its entirety being held in its place by
its weight only.

Reg.65 (3) No less than 2 doors shall be provided for each oven.

Reg.65 (4) A drying or baking oven shall be so ventilated as to prevent the


accumulation of inflammable gases or vapors.

Reg.65 (5) A drying or baking oven shall-

(a) Not be in contact with any combustible materials, and

(b) Be located on floors constructed of fire resisting material.

Ventilation of Reg.66 Spray-painting booths, drying and baking areas shall be well ventilated
Spray-painting with mechanical exhaust fans fitted approximately 1m above floor level
Booths and suitably arranged air inlets communicating directly with the external
air.

Floors of Reg.67 The floors of a basement garage or car park shall be laid in falls to
Basement Car trapped gullies, so that there are runs of not more than 7 m to each gully.
Park and Garage The gullies should run underneath the floors to an oil interceptor.

Openings in Reg.68 In addition to the provisions of Regulation 17, the ramp openings in the
Compartment compartment floors of a multi-storeyed car park shall be enclosed by
Floor of a Multi- walls having a fire resistance of not less than 2 hours and automatic
storeyed Ramp . fire resisting doors or shutters of equivalent fire resistance.
Type Car Park.

Ramps Reg. 69 Driveways and ramps leading in or out of any garage or car park shan be
graded to a slope of not more than 1:8 ..

Minimum Reg.70 (1) Notwithstanding the provisions of Regulation 3 (8) every building or part
Number of Exits of a building used as a garage shall be provided with at least 2 exits
fora Garage conforming to the applicable requirements of Chapter 2 of this code.

Entrance Doors Reg.70 (2) Wl1ere entrance to a basement garage or car park has to be closed at
for Basement , , night, such entrance shall be provided with a gate of the lattice type
Garages or Car unless the natural ventilation is adequate. The gate shall be held shut only
Parks by means of a padlock or device that can easily be broken in an
emergency.

Inspection Pit Reg.71 (1) A inspection and repair pits shall be so constructed that-

(a) The floor of the pit is above outside grade level, and

(b) Natural ventilation can be promoted by placing openings at pit


floor level direct to the outside.

95
:..'i:':>:':<~ J)
,:;gq~i"i'
."0'

Reg.71 (2) A pit other than that specified in paragraph (I) of this regulation shall- I
(a) Be provided with an individual ventilating system capable of
ensuring a complete air 'change every 5 minutes, and

(b) Have the floor pitched 25mm for each 3m.

Reg.7I (3) The exhaust air opening of such pit shall terminate in an air opening
which is perpendicular to the floor with the bottom of the opening
extending to the floor at the lowest end of the pit.

Reg.71 (4) If drainage is required for an inspection or repair pit, such drainage shall
be-

(a) Connected to a sump or pit especially provided there for, and

(b) Not connected in any manner to a storm or sanitary sewer system


without the permission of the relevant authorities,

TIMBER STORE AND WOOD WORKING BUll,:mNGS

External Reg.72 (1) A timber store, wood working or joinery workshop shall not be attached
Separation to or located within a building used for any other purpose or trade unless
completely separated from such building or any other part of such
building by compartment walls and floors having fife resistance for a
period of not less than 4 hours notwithstanding provisions of Regulation
13 and Table 8.

Internal Reg.72 (2) A boiler room, engine room, electrical switch room or any other area of
Separation special risk in a building used for timber storage or wood working
purposes, shall be separated from the rest of the building in accordance
with the provisions of Regulation 73.

AREAS OF SPECIAL ruSK IN ANY BUILDING

I
Separation and Reg.73 (1) A boiler room, generator or transformer room or any other area of special
Permissible risk in any building shall be located against an external wall of such
Openings building and be separated from the other parts of the building by a
compartment wall compartment floor having fire resistance for a
period of not less than 4 hours notwithstanding the provision of 1
Regulation 13 and Table 8. Such compartment wallor compartment floor I
shall be imperforate except for the following-
j
(a)

(b)
Openings in the wall fitted with doors having fire resistance
period of not less than that of the wall, or
Openings in the floor for protected shafts which shall conform to
for a
I
the requirements of Regulation 18, or 1
(c) Openings tor ventilation ducts which comply with the

(d)
requirements of Regulation 17(5), or

Openings for pipes which shall comply with the requirements


Regulation 16(2).
of I
i
i1'-
Areas of Reg.73 (2) Where the areas of special risk are located in basement storeys, the i
Special Risk in
Basements
additional requirements of Regulation 60 shall also be complied with.
I
I
96
I
Fire Regulations
------_._._..-_---_ .... __ __
Chapter 5 - Special Uses, Occupancies and Structures
__
....... ......,_."""---.---" ..... ,._.... .,_._,_._-"''''....,...'--

Fuel Storage Reg.73 (3) For boiler rooms or generator rooms that use flammable liquid as fuel, the
is
amount of fuel that allowed to be stored within the same compartments
shall not exceed 700 litres, Any fuel in excess of this quantity shall be
stored in separate compartments in conformance with the requirements of
paragraph (1) of this Regulation, and if such fuel qualifies as "Petroleum"
under the provisions of the Petroleum Act, the storage compartments
shall also conform to the requirements of the Petroleum Ordinance
Regulations, or if such fuel does not qualify as "petroleum", then the
storage compartment shall conform to the requirements of Regulation 84.

Storage Areas Reg.73 (4) Every factory shall be provided with proper storage areas for raw
in Factories materials and finished products, and such areas shall be separated from
the production areas and be 6fadequate size in accordance with the
practices and requirements of the particular trade or industry, subject to
the approval of the Urban Development Authority.

Storage Areas Reg.73 (5) Every departmental store or shop having a cubical extent of 1800m3
in Departmental or more shall be provided with proper storage areas and such areas
Stores and shall be separated from the sales, display and other stores and public
Shops areas and escape routes and be of adequate size of not less than 10
percent of the cubical extent of the sales and display areas.

When Storage Reg.73 (6) When the storage areas referred to in sub-paragraphs (4) and (5)are
Areas are to be required for the storage of combustible materials or goods, they shall
Treated as be treated as areas of special risk and the provisions of sub-paragraphs (1)
Areas of and (2) of this Regulation shall be applicable.
Special Risk

RUBBER FACTORY BUILDINGS

Maximum Reg.74 No building. used for the manufacture, treatment smoking, or


Permissible preparation of rubber, or any other form of rubber, shall exceed 15m in
Height height measuring from the ground level to the eaves of the roof of such
building and no part of the building above the level of the eaves shall be
used for storing or treating rubber, or any other form of rubber-

Provided that where the Urban Development Authority is of the opinion


that the land in the immediate vicinity of such building is not likely to be
developed for building purposes, he may exempt such building from the
provisions of this regulation <1..<; to maximum height but the exemption
shall continue for so long as such land shall so remain undeveloped.

External Reg.75 Of the staircases that are required to be provided for the building under
Staircase Chapter 2 of this regulation, at least one shall be an external staircase
Required complying with the requirements of Regulation 4(3) and being
continuous to the ground.

No Part of the Reg.76 (1) No part of any building used for the manufacture, treatment, smoking of
Building to be rubber, or any other form of rubber shall be used for any other trade or
Used for any business involving the use, storage Or treatment of combustible material.
Other Trade

Areas of Reg.76 (2) Areas of special risk, such as boiler rooms, switch rooms etc., if housed
Special Risk in the same building as the main factory area, shall be separated from
the latter in accordance with the provisions of Regulation 73.

97
Fire Regulations
-----

Distance from Reg.77 A building used for the manufacture, treatment, smoking, preparation or
Other Buildings storage of rubber, or any other form of rubber shall not be erected within
7.5m of other buildings

Use of Artificial Reg.78 Where a building is intended to be used as a smoking room, or for
Heat drying by artificial heat, the requirements of Regulation 13 pertaining to
the fire resistance of it's elements of structure shall be strictly complied
with and the furnaces shall be located outside the building.

CALCIUM CARBIDE STORES

Distance from Reg.79 A building required for the storage of calcium carbide shall be
Other Buildings located at least 15 m from any other building and shall comply with the
following requirements-

Reg. 79(1) N~ part of such building shall be used for dwelling or other pufposes.

Ventilation Reg.79 (2) There shall be adequate cross ventilation by means of openings at high
and low level, which openings shall be efficiently screened.

Walls and Reg.79 (3) In addition to the walls being provided with damp proof courses the
Floors floor also shall be rendered damp proof and shall be raised'at least 112m
above the highest known flood level. . .;

MATCHES ArIfD FIRE WORKS FACTORY AND STORAGE BUILDINGS

Separate Reg.SO (1) Where a building is used for the storage of both matches and fireworks,
Compartments separate compartments of the building shall be provided for each, the
andExits floors and walls of which shall have the requisite fire resistance as laid
down in Regulation 13 and Table 8. Such compartments shall have
independent exits to the outside of the building.

Reg.SO (2) Fireworks that contain a powder containing a mixture of chlorate of


potassium and any easily oxidizable substance such as sulphur,
sulphides, phosphorous or powdered metals shall be separat~i9 stored in
compartments specially provided for the purpose, separated from other
compartments used for storing other types of fireworks and having
walls, floors and exits conforming to the requirements of paragraph (1)
of this regulation.

No part of the Reg.S1 (1) No part of the building used for the manufacture or storage of
matches
Buildings to be or fireworks shall be used for any other business or trade involving the
Used for any use or storage of other inflammable goods of any kind or ~or dwelling
Other Trade purposes .
.. !.l

Areas of Reg',81 (2) Areas of special risk such as boilers, generator rooms etc., if housed in
Special Risk the same building, shall be separated from the main factory or storage
areas in accordance with the provisions of Regulation 73.

Chemical Stores Reg. 82 Stores for Potassium Chlorate, Phospherous and any other chemical
substance used in the making of matches or fireworks shall be separated
and detached from any other building and located at least 15m from any
'\
public street, passage, place or anx other building. Such stores shall be
non-combustible construction having the requisite fire resistance for
their elements of structure as laid down in Regulation 13 and Table 8.
Fire Regulations Chapter 5 ~ Special Uses, Occupancies
----,------_. -~---,---- Structures
ilfKll

Lightning Reg.S3 Every building used for the making or storage of matches shall be
Conductors provided with adequate lightning conductors to the satisfaction of the
Urban Development Authority. ;

STORES FOR CELLULOSE SOLUTION, PAINTS AND INFLAMMABLE LIQUIDS


OTHER THAN PETROLEUM

Requirements Reg. 84 Any store that is used or .intended to be used for the bulk supplies of
cellulose solution, paints or inflammable liquids other than petroleum,
shall conform with the following requirements-

Reg.84 (1) If such store is contained within or attached to a building it shall be


separated from the other parts of the building in accordance with the
provisions of Regulation 73 (1) ..

Reg.84 (2) If such store is a detached building, it's external walls shall be of non-
combustible construction having fire resistance for a period as specified
in Part 2 of Table 8.

Reg. 84 (3) TIle external doors of such a store shall be of steel or iron at least 3mm
thick and hung in steel or iron frames.

Reg.84 (4) There shall be adequate cross ventilation by means of openings at high
and low level, which shall be efficiently screened as may be required by
the Urban Development Authority, alternatively mechanical exhaust
fans shall be provided in accordance with Regulation 66.

Reg.84 (5) The floor of the store shall be of concrete of grade 20 not less than
lOOmm in thickness rendered smooth and impervious, and either-

(i) Such floor shall be dropped at least 150 mm below the level of the
outside ground, pavements or floor, or

(ii) A masonry sill of not less than 150 rum in height shall be
provided acf,oss the doorways:

Definitions Reg. 85 For the purpose' of Regulation 84 and any other pam of those
Regulations where applicable, "cellulose solution" means a solution
having as it's basis any nitrate of cellulose (including Pyrexylin) and for
it's other ingredients any flammable or volatile solvent.

GLASS FACTORY BUILDINGS

Requirements Reg.86 (1) Any room or part of a building containing a furnace shall be treated as
an area of special risk and made to conform with the requirements of
Regulation 73 and such room Of part of the building shall be adequately
ventilated by-

(a) Natural cross ventilation by means of openings at high and


low level, or

(b) Mechanical exhaust fans in accordance with the requirements


of Regulation 66. -,

99
'Fire Regulations Chapter 5 Special Uses, Occupancies and Structures
~----- ----------_"

Reg.86 (2) If a furnace is housed in a detached building provided specially for that
purpose, such building shall, be of non-combustible construction with
external walls and columns having fire resistance for a period of not less
than as specified in Regulation 13 and shall be adequately ventilated in
accordance with the provisions of paragraph (l) of this regulation.

Fuel Storage Reg.S7 If flammable liquid is used as fuel for the furnace and if more than 700
litres of such fuel is required to be stored on the premises, separate
storage facilities shall be provided in accordance with the requirements
of Regulation 73(3).

Packing Areas Reg.88 The part of the building used for packing or storage of packing material
shall not be within 15m of any furnace and shall be separated from the
other parts of the building by compartment walls and compartment
floors having the resistance for a period of not less than as required
under Regulation 13 and complying with the requirements of Regulation
17. .

LIQUIFIED PETROLEUM GAS - STORAGE, SAFE USE, AND SALE

Siting of LPG Reg.89 (1) Siting of LPG Tanks and Equipment (Automobile Filling Stations)
Tanks and
The "siting" and "safe usage" of small LPG pressure storage tanks
Equipment
(LPG Mini Tanks) at Automotive Retail Outlets (Filling
Stations) shall conform to the following requirements.

Siting of LPG Tanks and Equipment


(a) The separation distance of tanks with respect to boundaries,
buildings, and fixed: sources of ignition shall be as stipulated in
Table 17 given below:

Table 17

:
Of any single Separation Di~~'9~ With Fire Between
vessel in a (Boundaries, WaH Vessels
group (Litres) Buildings etc)
", r!-:

150 to 500 0.05 to 0.25 2.5 m 0.3 m 1m


500 to 2500 0.25 to 1.1 ,
3 m 1.5 m 1m
--
2500 to 9000 1.1 to 4 75m 4 m 1m
Fire Regulations
_______ Chapter 5 Special Uses, Occupancies and Structures
-------------------- --_-._-

(b) Dispensers should be located at a minimum distance of 03 metres


from above ground LPG tanks. The nozzle connection on motor
vehicles taking on LPG should not be Jess than 03 metres from the
storage tank.
(c) Dispensers should be not less than 4.25 metres from any buildings
lines of adjoining property, and fixed sources of ignition. '
(d) The ground providing standing for the tank should be compacted
or paved with suitable material. The area should be kept free from
weeds, grass, and combustible materials.
(e) LPG storage vessels pumps, etc., should not be located directly
beneath electrical power and telephone cables. Vessels should be
sited at least 1.5 m from a plane drawn vertically downwards from
the cables.
(f) It should be sited away from possible catchment areas where
natural dissipation of any escaped gas could not take place.

Fire Walls The purpose of the Fire Wall is to protect the tank from thermal
radiation from a fire nearby, and to ensure an adequate dispersion
distance to boundaries, buildings, etc.
(a) Fire Walls should be imperforate, and of solid masonry, concrete,
or similar construction.
(b) Fire Walls should be not less than 02 metres high, or as high as the
top of the tank whichever is the greater, and should be sited
between 01 metre and 03 metres from nearest point of the tank.

FIRE FIGHTING EQUIPMENT

Fire Fighting Reg. 89 (2) The following fire fighting equipment should be provided:
Equipment
(a) Two x 6kg. Dry Chemical Powder portable fire extinguishers, and
should sited so that they are protected from inclement
weather.
(b) One x 19mm diameter x 30 metre lenght Hose Reel, with a fog
nozzle capable of providing at least 30 lpm output and a jet throw
of at least 6 metres. The fire water sump capacity should be at
least 1000 litres and should be fed automatically from the town
main or a reliable source. In situations where automatic is refilling
is not possible, the sump should hold water sufficient for 1 hour
requirement (30 x 60 :=),800 liters)
(c) An automatic water spray system shall be installed to provide
exposure cover for the entire surface area of the tank. The
application rate shall be 10.2 lpm per square metre of tank surface
area. The fire water sump capacity shall be not less than 55,000
litres.

Illumination ~ The fining area of the forecourt shall be provided with


general illumination to an intensity of not less than 110 lux when
measured at the top of each pump.

Acc~ss -An access road of 4 metre wide hard standing and 4~metre
clearance height, for a 15 ton fire appliance shall be provided.

101
fire Regulatioll,s , .. --'-_Chapter U_S:5_, O_c_cu_p~~es&_' J_dStructures
5 S~:_Gi;J_1

,INSTALLATION OF LPG PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPLIANCES

Installation of Reg.90 (1) Any building that consists of 16 or more apartments will be required to
LPG Piping install a centralized LPG distribution system or have provision to place
Systems and individual cylinders placed in an area open to the exterior in each unit.
Appliances
The installation of LPG Systems and Appliances shall comply with the
following regulations.

Qualified Agency - The installation, the replacement of gas pipes,


gas utilization equipment or accessories, and the repair and
servicing of equipment, shall be performed by a qualified agency,
registered by ICTAD.

Piping Plan Reg.90 (2) Before proceeding with the installation of a LPG system, a piping pian
shall be prepared showing the proposed location of piping, the size of
the different branches, etc. for approval by the Authority having
Jurisdiction.

Piping Reg.90 (3) Piping material shall comply with the following stipulations:
Material
(a) The piping material shall comply with an accepted International
Standards.
(b) Cast-iron piping shall not be used.
(c) Aluminium alloy piping shall not be used in exterior locations or
underground.
(d) Metalic pipe and fitting threads shall be taper pipe threads and
shall comply with an accepted International Standard for pipe
threads.
(e) Plastic pipe, tubing and fittings shall be joined by either the
solvent cement method, adhesive method, heat-fusion method,
electro-fusion, or by means of compression couplings or flanges.

Gas Piping Reg.90 (4) The Installation of gas piping shall comply with the following
Installation stipulations:
(a) Underground Piping - The underground piping shall be installed
with at least 375 mm of ground cover, but in public places it shall
be at least 450 mm. If a minimum of 375 mm cannot be
maintained the pipe shall be installed in conduit or bridged
(shielded.) The piping shall be installed with adequate clearance
from any other underground structure to avoid contact with such
structure.

(b) Above Ground Piping - Outside piping installed above ground


shall be securely supported to ensure protection from physical
damage.
(c) All pipelines carrying LPG should be painted in yellow colour and
must show the direction of flow with a black arrow.
(d) Piping In Buildings. Gas piping in buildings shall comply with the
following
., stipulations:
Fire Regulations - .......... -- .
5 Special Uses, Occupancies
Chapter ...,_,,_,., N__...""""''''''''''''' __
Rcd Structures
__

(i) Gas piping may be installed in accessible above - ceiling


spaces. If such spaces are used as a plenum, the gas piping
must be welded. Valves shall not be located in such spaces.

Gas piping any building shall not be run in or through a


circulating air duct, clothes chute, chimney or gas vent,
duct, dumb waiter, enclosed staircase or elevator shaft.

be supported in a substantial manner with


hooks, metal pipe straps, bands, brackets or hangers
for the 1 size of piping.

LPG in LPG should never enter into any building under liquid form.
Building

(6) shall with the following

(c)

Operating Reg.90 (7) The maximum design operating pressure shall not exceed 1.4 bar.

Safety Reg.90 (8) The


Mechanisms
(a) Pressure
that the discnarze container pressure
least 1.5 horizontally away from 'any building ,,,..,'nir,a
below discharge and 1.5 any
of ignition. .

(b) "Emergency Shutoff Valves'tshall be and shall


incorporate all of the following means of closing:
(I) Automatic shutoff through thermal actuation.
(ii) Manual shutoff from a safe remote location.
(iii) Manual shutoff at the installed location.

(c) "Hydrostatic Relief Valves" shall be installed to relieve hydrostatic


pressure might develop of the liquid piping
between closed valves, and shall have pressure of
not less than 400 and not more than 500 psi.

(d) Valves" that are readily accessible shall be installed down


stream at the LPQ container end, and upstream of the entry point of
the pipe into the building, and at any other locations that would
facilitate quick manual shutoff of the gas in an emergency.

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Fi.re Regulations Chapter 5 - Special Uses, Occupancies tmd Structures

(e) Automatic Shutoff Valves that will be actuated by LPG Detectors


installed in relevant areas in an apartment.

(f) "Electrical Bonding and Grounding." Each above ground portion of


a gas piping system upstream from the equipment shutoff valve
shall be electrically continuous and bonded to any grounded
electrode. Gas piping shall not be used as a grounding electrode.

Point of Reg.90 (9) The location of the point of delivery of the LPG system to the
Delivery building/complex shall be acceptable to the serving gas supplier.

Gas Meters The installation of the LP Gas meters shall comply with the following
stipulations:

(a) "Location" The gas meters shall be located in ventilated spaces,


readily accessible for examination, reading, replacement or
maintenance.
(b) "Damage" They shall not be located where they may be subjected
to damage, and should be located at least 1.1 metre away from any
source of ignition.
(c) "Marking of Multiple Meter Installations." Gas piping at multiple
meter installations shall be plainly marked by a metal tag or other
permanent marking attached by the installing agency, designating
the building or the part of the building being supplied.

Over Reg.90 (10) Over Pressure Protection Devices shall be installed to comply with the
Pressure following stipulations:
Protection
Devices "Prevention of Unsafe Operation." Over Pressure Protection Devices
should be installed to prevent the pressure in the piping system from
exceeding that value which would cause unsafe operation of any
connected and properly adjusted gas utilization equipment.

In multi-storey properties where a ventilated service shaft houses an


Ventilating Reg.90 (11) internal gas riser pipe to meters in each dwelling, ventilation air bricks
Service Shaft at the top and bottom of the shaft shall be provided. Flexible pipe joints
at every branch and fire stopping shall be provided where the pipe
penetrates the structure.

LPG STORAGE IN RETAIL OUTLETS

LPG Storage Reg.91 (1) The "storage" of LPG at "Retail Outlets" shall conform to the following
in Retail requirements.
Outlets
Location-Cylinders shall not be located near exits, stairways, or in
areas normally used, or intended to be used for the safe egress of
occupants.

Storage - The "storage" of LPG Cylinders shall comply with the


following stipulations:
(a) Cylinder storage shall be in such a manner as to minimize
exposure to excessive temperature rises, physical damage, or
tampering.

104
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Fire Regulations Chapter 5 - Special Uses, Occupancies lJIlOStructures
..--~-------.--.--.-~--

(b) Cylinders shan be stored "upright" with the valves uppermost to


avoid possible leakage.
(c) Cylinders shall not be stored within 3 metres from a store
containing oxygen cylinders or highly flammable liquids.
(d) Cylinders shall preferably be stored in the open air with a security
fence, and not within 1 metre from other buildings or the
boundary fence.
(e) If the LPG store is to be .a part of a building used for other
purposes, the store shall be:
(i) In the ground storey in a room against an outside wall, with a
door or doors leading to the outside.
(ii) The store should be provided with high and low level
ventilation facilities.
(iii) The store should be entirely of non-combustible construction.
(iv) The store should be separated from other parts of the building
by a fire resisting compartment of not less than 2 hours fire
resistance.
(f) Protection of Residence - Any residential parts of a building in
which LPG is stored should be protected with a well maintained
fire alarm system which triggers automatically on detection of an
LPG leak by the LPG detector and is audible in every room in the
building.
(g) Total holding of LPG should not exceed 1000 kg at any time.
(h) Explosion relief - This should be located in an outside wall or the
roof with discharge to a safe place outside the building. It should
give explosion relief equivalent to half the area of one of the walls
and make use of light weight panels or industrial wire mesh that
will not disintegrate during an explosion.

Signage Reg. 91 (2) The storage area and rooms shall be clearly marked, "Highly
Flammable," in red lettering on a white background. Smoking, Naked
Lights, and Cellular Telephones should be prohibited.

Fire Protection Reg. 91(3) Two x 9kg. Dry Chemical Powder portable fire extinguishers with an
adequate BC fire rating should be provided. The extinguishers should
be located not more than 15 metres from the risk.

STORAGE OF PETROLEUM IN UNDERGROUND TANKS AND PUMPS

Storage of Reg.92 (1) Storage of Petroleum Spirits in Underground Spirits in Tanks and
Petroleum in Pumps (Filling Stations.)
Underground
Tanks and The storage of petroleum spirits in underground tanks and the
Pumps pumps for the discharge of the spirit at "filling stations" shall
comply with the following stipulations.

105
'iire Regulations Chapter 5 - Special Uses, Occupancies am! Structures
-_. -_. -----_.,,_._.---

Conditions Reg. 92(2) The following stipulations must be complied with in relation to the
Applicable to "site."
the Site
(a) The location of the pumps and the tanker stand shall be as far as
possible on level ground.
(b) Every petroleum spirit storage tank shall be installed below
ground.
(c) Petroleum dispensing pumps and any openings to a petroleum
spirit storage tank shall be installed not less than not less than
4.3 metres from any building, boundary, or access route used by
the public on the premises.
(d) Adequate means of escape shall be provided from all parts of the
premises in the event of a fire.

Vent Pipes Reg. 92(3) The following stipulations must be complied with in relation to "vent
pipes."
(a) Each tank or tank compartment shall have a separate vent pipe of
not less than 50 mm in diameter.
(b) The upper end 'of the pipe shall discharge upwards into the open
air, should be out of reach, should be not less than 1.5 metres
above ground level, and should not be located less than 1.5
metres of windows or other openings.

(c) Electrical fittings within 1.5 metres in any direction of the vent
discharge shall be to Zone 1 Standard. Elsewhere within 1.5
metres of the vent riser pipe Zone 11 Standard fittings shall be
used.

Electrical Reg. 92(4) The following stipulations must be complied with in relation to
Installations electrical installations.

(a) Electrical ducts must not communicate with ducts or manholes


containing fuel lines or tank openings.
(b) Electrical chambers should be filled with sand and covered with.a
screed of sand and cement.
(c) Electrical cables shall not be laid adjacent to or across metal pipe
work unless run in a conduit of non-conducting material.

Illuminations Reg. 9~(5) The filling area of the forecourt shall be provided with a general
illumination intensity of not less than 110 lux when measured at the
top of each pump ..

106
Fire Regulations Chapter 5 Special Uses, Occupancies and Structures

Fire Fighting Reg. 92(6) The following fire fighting equipment shall be provided:
Equipment
(a) At filling stations with up to 4 pumps:
2 x 9 litre portable foam fire extinguishers, and
2 x 6 kg. dry chemical powder portable fire extinguishers, and
2 x 9 litre water portable fire extinguishers.
(b) At filling stations with 5 to 8 pumps:
3 x 9 litre foam portable fire extinguishers, and
2 x 6 kg. dry chemical powder portable fire extinguishers, and
2 x 9 litre water portable fire extinguishers.
(c) For each additional 03 filling pumps, 01 additional portable fire
extinguisher of each type.
Notices Reg. 92 (7) The following notices shall be prominently displayed in the vicinity of
the pumps. "No Smoking", "Switch off Engines", and Cellular
Phones."
The notice shall be on a white background in block red letters of 50
mm height. The notice shall not display any advertisements, etc.

Physical Reg. 92 (8) Heavy guard rails shall be installed for the protection of the filling
Protection Pumps. The guard rails should provide protection to a height of not
less than 1.2 metres.

107
...... , CHAPTER 6

ACCESS FOR FIRE FIGHTING VEHICLES

Access Reg. 93 (1) Access opening shall include unobstructed external wall openings,
Opening windows, balcony doors, glazed wall panels or access panels must be
readily openable from the inside or outside unless fitted with breakable
glazing

Signage Reg. 93 (2) Access openings shall be posted with red triangle (150mm on each side)
on the external side of the wall.

Size Reg. 93 (3) Access openings shall be not less than 850mm wide by 1000mm high.

Hard Reg. 93 (4) (i) In a residential building if the height of the habitable floor does not
Standing and exceed 18m no hard standing is required other than a clear working
Access way space 4m wide, along the side of the building where access opening
is located.

(ii) In buildings where habitable floor exceeds 18m, hard standing to be


provided to accommodate the entry and manoeuvring of Fire
Engines, Aerial Appliances etc.

(a) The minimum width shall be 6m wide and the minimum length
shall be 15m long. Other parts of the accessway for fire
appliances shall be not less than 4.5m wide.

(b) Hard standing shall be positioned so that the nearer shall


be not less than 2m or more than 10m from the centre position
of the access opening.

(c) The hard standing shall be constructed to sustain the stationary


load of 40 tonnes. Hard standing be laid on a level
platform or if on an incline, the gradient shall not exceed 1:15.
Accessway may be laid on an incline not exceeding a gradient
of 1:8:3.

(d) Overhead of hard standing or accessway shall at


least 4.5 m and the outer radius for turning of accessway shall
be not less than 10.5 m.

(e) Public roads may serve as standing provided the location


complies with requirement 93 (4) (ii) (b).

Accessibility Reg. 93 (5) In the case of any building that exceeds 7,100 cubic metres in cubical
to Site for extent, in order to provide adequate means of access in case of fire to
Fire Brigade such building, a portion of the building shall abut upon a street or road
Appliances or open space conforming to the stipulations in 93 (4) (ii) to (e)
to facilitate access Fire Brigade Appliances. The portion to be in
accordance with the following scale:

111
----------,-~.,....---------- ......---' _---
Fire Regulations Chapter 6 - Access tor Fi~I,:Fightlng Vehicles
....
,......... """",,,-_ .....,.----,_
.._,........,""",.',""' .........

(a) If the building exceeds 7,100 cubic metres, at least one-sixth


of the perimeter of the building.

(b) If the building exceeds 28,400 cubic metres at least one-


fourth of the perimeter of the building.

(c) If the building exceeds 56,800 cubic metres, at least one half
of the perimeter of the building.

(d) If the building exceeds 85,200 cubic metres, at least three


fourths of the perimeter of the building.

(e) If the building exceeds 113,600 cubic metres it should be on


an island site.
CHAPTER 7

MAINTENANCE OF THE FIRE PROTECTION FACILITY.

CONTENTS

Page

Reg. 94 Fire Protection Systems to be Maintained 115

Reg. 95 Category of Maintenance 115

Reg. 96 Duration 115

Reg. 97 Responsibility 115

Reg. 98 Documentation 115

_____ 11:3
CHAPTER 7

MAINTENANCE OF THE FIRE PROTECTION FACILITIES

Chapter is to ensure that all Organizations, Institutions, etc.


rrotecuon Facility in a state of high operational efficiency, at all times.

Systems to be Protection "Systems" to be Maintained


following systems shall be maintained
The Means Escape

Category of are two

Responsibility Reg. 97 Responsibility - A Senior Executive of


be to be responsible to ensure
is properly maintained. He is to be designated as
Maintenance Officer."

Documentation Reg. 98 Documentation - Separate Maintenance "Schedules" for each of the


protection is to be formulated. The Technician the
maintenance task is to sign the schedule, and note any uerects
by the Systems Maintenance
Disclaimer

While all care and effort have been made to ensure the proper production of this document and
it's contents, neither the Drafting Committee nor the ICTAD accept any liability for problems,
difficulties or controversy arising from the usage of these guidelines.