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Session 5.

Issues in the
Sustainable Development of
Natural Resources for Tourism

Ramon Benedicto A. Alampay, Ph.D.


Asian Institute of Management

Monday, July 5, 2010


Sustainable Tourism Development
Economic Growth

Quality of the Participation in the


Visitor Experience Opportunities from
ATTRACTIONS
Tourism Development
Natural,
Historical,
Cultural, & Socio-
Economic,
Resources

ACTIVITIES
Environmental
Social Equity
Sustainability Access and Use of
Resources by Community

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Climate Change and
Tourism
Notes on United Nations Environment
Programme (2008). Climate Change and
Tourism. Responding to Global Challenges

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“Climate change as well as poverty alleviation will
remain central issues for the world community. Tourism
is an important element in both. Governments and the
private sector must place increased importance on
these factors in tourism development strategies and in
climate and poverty strategies. They are interdependent
and must be dealt with in a holistic fashion.”

Francesco Frangialli, UNWTO Secretary-General (2007)

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Climate Change Impacts on
Tourism Destinations

Direct Climatic Impacts


Indirect Environmental Change impacts
Impacts of Mitigation Policies on tourist mobility
Indirect Social Change Impacts

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Direct Climatic Impacts
Climate determines the
suitability of locations
for tourism activities
Principal driver of
seasonality in global
tourism
Important influence on
operating costs

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Climate Change Impacts on Tourist Destinations

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Indirect Environmental
Change Impacts
Changes in water
availability
Biodiversity loss
Altered agricultural
production
Coastal erosion
Increasing incidence of
vector-borne diseases

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Impacts of mitigation
policies on mobility

Increased transport
costs
Changing
environmental attitudes
among travelers

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Indirect societal change
impacts
Reduction in global
GDP and consumption
per capita due to
climate change
National and
international security
risks intensifying due to
global warming

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Mitigation Strategies for GHG
Emissions from Tourism

Reducing energy
Improving energy efficiency
Increasing the use of renewable energy
Sequestering carbon through sinks

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Scenarios of CO Mitigation
2 Potential
from Global Tourism in 2035

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Tourism and Biodiversity
Notes on Conservation International (2003).
Tourism & Biodiversity. Mapping Tourism’s Global
Footprint

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Biodiversity

the variability among living organisms from all sources


including, inter alia, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic
ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which
they are part; this includes diversity within species,
between species and of ecosystems” (CBD 1992)
all the living things on Earth and the ecological
processes associated with them.

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Global Tourism’s Resource Consumption

If the global tourism industry were represented as a


country, it would:
use 80% of Japan’s yearly primary energy supply
(5,000 kWh/year)
produce the same amount of solid waste as France
(35 million tons/year)
consume 3x the amount of fresh water in Lake
Superior, in a year (10 million meters3)

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Threats to Biodiversity from
Tourism Development

Resource Depletion
Habitat disruption
Littering
Water pollution

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Many countries with rich biodiversity remain poor.

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Limited potential to contribute to poverty alleviation
because of dominance of foreign, private interests
High levels of revenue “leakage”, much of retained
revenue is captured by rich and middle-income groups
Direct effects on poor people:
displacement,
increased local costs,
loss of access to resources
social and cultural disruption.

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Thank you very much.

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