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176 I Tree of Life nw Names 'AB(72), SaG(63), Mall(45), wul BnN(.

12) I 177
The Keter of the World of Points also takes the lights and
(A 'l/.ILUT)
vessels from the aspect of the ear, which is included there, as we
know. The Chokhmah and Binah of the World of Points take \ltc 1 this, the inclusive Name 'AB(72) coupled again inwardly
light from the nose and mouth plus a small portion from the ear. 1 111t 1hc cantillation marks of the inclusive Name SaG(63). All the
[12] 111l11 r aspects are unimportant compared to them. They then gave
The lower seven sefirot take no light at all from the ear but 1111 tit to the male, who is called the Name MaH(45). The two
receive a little light from the nose and mouth and also from the r ~. 11t1('S MaH(45) and BaN(52) then came together and the World
light that comes out by way of the openings of the navel and the 1 ii F.1nanation (Atzilut) was made in that way from the two of
yesod. [14] ti IC 111 .
The Keter of the World of Points takes light from the navel. 'l'he Atik Yomin of the World of Emanation takes the follow-
Abba and Imma take light from the yesod. The lower seven sefirol i11 g frnm the Name BaN(52):
and the four back parts of Abba, Imma, Israel Sava, and Tevunah
all take light from the ten toes of the feet, which is the secret of The first five sefirot of the cantillation marks (ta'amim) of
"his nails dug into the ground." 8 [16] the Name BaN(52).
The first three sefirot from the vowel points (nekudot) of
Table 11. Sources of Light for the World of Points the Name BaN(52).
The first four sefirot of the crownlets (tagin) of BaN(52).
The World of Points
The crowns (ketarim) of the letters of BaN(52). 9
Source in Chokhmah, Lower 7
Adam Kadmon Keter Bin ah Sefirot 111 ,tcldition:
Eyes x x x /\rikh Anpin took the remaining five sefirot of the cantil-
Ears x x
lation marks of BaN(52).
Nose x x
Mouth x x Abba took the seven lower sefirot of the vowel points of
Navel x x BaN(52).
Yesod x x lmma took the six lower sefirot of the crownlets of BaN(52).
Feet x Ze'ir Anpin took the six lower sefirot of the letters of
X: Primary Source Nukva took the tenth [sefirah] of the letters of BaN(52).
X: Secondary Source f23]
x: Minor Source

'I le 1 c the "crowns" (ketarim) appear to refer to the first three sefirot
The reference is to Joseph. See Shavuot l8a. Also see Etz Chayyim, 111 i11C letters. Compare this to Gate V, Chapter 5, which states that the
Vol. II, The Palace of Points, Gate I, Chapter 4. f11 ~ 1 1h1ce sefirot of Binah are the crownlets (tagin).
178 I Tree of Life Th e Names 'AB(72) , SaG(63), MaH(45), and BnN (52) I 179
Figure 26. "Genealogy" of the World of Emanation 1"1o m the Name MaH(45):

Atik took the cantillation marks from MaH(45).

Arikh Anpin took the vowel points of MaH(45) .
'AB(72) Abba and Imma took the crownlets of MaH(45).
Ze'ir Anpin took the lower six sefirot of the letters of
(male) (female)
Nukva took the tenth sefirah of the letters of MaH(45) .

T able 12. The Names BaN(52) and MaH(45) and the World of
Emanation: Number of Sefirot for Each Partzuf
1.. 2. Partzufim in the World of Emanation
The First The Second Ze'ir
Source Atik Arikh
Coupling Coupling Yomin An pin Abba Imma Anpin Nukva
111 Adam Total
- -
l'h e Name
BaN(52) MaH(45) /S,w(52):
(female) (male) ( :.m tillation
M.1rks 10: 5 5
Vowel Points 10: 3 7
( :rnwnlets 10: 4 6
3. The Third Coupling 6
I clters 10: 3

Th e Name
( :an Lillation
M.1rks 10: 10
Vowel Points 10: 10
The World of ( :rnwnlets 10: 1-10-1
7: 6 1
Emanation I .c lters


n 1E SouL
With regard to the five inner levels of the soul-nefesh (lowest
lc-vd) , ruach (middle level), neshamah (upper level) , chayyah
180 I Tree of Life Th e Names 'AB(72), SaC(63), MaII(45), :111<1 JJ:IN(!i2) I 181
(life-force), and yechidah (the highest level)-and the two sur- On the inside of Adam Kadmon there is one Divine N<llll<'
rounding lights of the chayyah and the yechidah, you must know IIVYH, which Adam Kadmon enclothes. From its four kt
that each of the five inner lights also has its own surrounding tc rs come out the four Names 'AB(72) , SaC(63), BaN(52) ,
light. This is like the soul of Nadab and Abihu and of Elijah, of and MaH(45), which are revealed on the outside of Adam
blessed memory. 10 The two surrounding lights encompass the Kadmon in the forehead, the ears, the nose, and the
others, aside from the five surrounding lights that are inside them. mouth. Why does the [female] Name BaN(52) precede
[Column 2) A sign of this comes from the fact that there are th e [male] Name MaH(45) here? This is the secret of the
more than five lights a mong those inner surrounding lights:
tefillin of Rabenu Tam . 12 It is also the secret of "a woman
surrounds (t'sovev) a man " Qeremiah 31:22). [14]
The surrounding light.
The light that surrounds the surrounding light.
The light that surrounds both of those two surrounding
lights. [ 4]

This is described in the Zohar, Idra Rabba, in the section deal-

ing with the Priestly Blessing 11 which describes all of these lev-
els, except for those two all-encompassing lights. [6]



The following summary was found in the original manuscript

version of Etz Chayyim. [7]

According to the Zahar, the real reason that Nadab and Abihu, the
sons of Aaron, were punished was because, being childless, they had
not fulfilled all of the requirements of the covenant and so were unfit
to offer incense, the most sublime of all offerings. After they were struck
down, their souls left their bodies and joined the soul of Pinchas, which
had temporarily fled its own body from fear of the tribe of Simeon,
one of whose members he had killed in his religious zeal. This enabled
the souls of Nadab and Abihu to remedy their previous deficiency
through Pinchas, after whose death this combined soul transmigrated
to become the soul of the prophet Elijah. See the Zahar, Parashat 1
lt tbenu Tam, the grandson of Rashi, reversed the order of the third
Pinchas, p. 217a. 1rnl fourth biblical inscriptions contained in the tefillin placed on the
Numbers 6:24-26. See also Zohar III , 145b (Bemidbar) 111 .id during daily morning prayers.
Light from the Nose of
Adam Kadmon

[Second Version]



After this came the cantillation marks that are placed

in the midst of the letters, which are the aspect of
light that comes from the nose of Adam Kadmon . [19]
The numerical value of the word "nose" (chotem)
is 63, like the Name SaG(63). 1 Here, too, the light
emerges from two openings, right and left. Just as we
noted above with the ears, the surrounding light
comes from the right nostril and the inner light
comes from the left. Their main light extends in a
straight line to the chest of Adam Kadmon. Their
illumination also spreads out to the rear, however,
encircling him on all sides. [23]

ChOTeM = 8 + 6 + 9 + 40 = 63.

184 J Tree of Ljfe Light from the Nose of Adam Kadmon J 185

These inner lights and surrounding lights are closer to each Figure 27. The Letter 'Alef Made from Yod-Vav-Yod
other than the lights of the ears because the nostrils are closer
together than the ears, but they are still divided in two and are
not connected together. That is why these lights do not have any
aspects of vessels. [26]
What do these lights have that the lights of the ears do not?-
the fact that the shape of the letter vav (1), which was included
within the letter hey (;i) in the light from the ear, is now revealed
openly in the nose. Thus, what had been an aspect of the letter
hey (;i) now becomes two letters, dalet (1) and vav (1), with the
letter vav coming out to shine and to be revealed openly. This
vav is the secret of Ze'ir Anpin, which is now revealed. 2 [31]
This vav is not made as only one entity, however, but is di-
vided into six parts. [Page 43] These are equal to six 'ale!S. 3 The
reason for this is that the letter H(5) includes the five partzufim,
Arikh Anpin, Abba and Imma, and Ze'ir Anpin and Nukva, who
are also called the five levels of the soul: nefesh (lowest level),
ruach (middle level), neshamah (upper level), chayyah (life-
force), and yecfadah (one-ness). We find that Ze'ir Anpin himself
is, as we know, the aspect of the middle level (ruach). Now, the
Scripture says, " . . . in his nostril ( 'ai') was the soul of the breath of
life (nishmat ruach chayyjm)" (Genesis 7:22). This teaches us that
the aspect of the middle level (roach) is revealed in his nose. That
is why the breath from the nose reveals Ze'ir Anpin in this way, by
dividing itself into six "extremities" (ketzavot). The letter dalet
remains connected as a single letter, distinct from its companion,
but the letter vav is divided into six 'alefS. [10]
Just as the vav that comes from the right nostril is divided into
six 'alefS, the vav that comes from the left nostril is also divided,
so between them there are a total of twelve 'ale!S. Together with

2The letter vav is also the number 6, and Ze'ir An pin is the personifi-
cation of the six sefirot from Chesed to Yesod.
Because the letter 'alefequals the number 1, the number 6 also equals
six 'alefs.
186 I Tree of Life Light from the Nose of Adam J(admon I 187
the nose itself they make 13, which corresponds to the numeri- Figure 28. The Letter 'AlefMade from Yod-Vav-Dalct
cal value of the letter vav when it is spelled out with an 'alef 4
Here we have two vaIB plus the nose itself which is, as we know,
also made in the shape of an 'ale[, for the two nostrils are the two
yods, and the wall that separates them is shaped like a vav. As you
can see, this forms the shape of the letter 'alef (Figure 27) . [ 15]
This 'ale[, plus the two vaIB that we described above, spells out
the letter vav fully as V-'A-V. This indicates that the Name
'AB(72), which is in the Divine Name HVYH spelled out with
yods, is found higher up, in the part of the head where the brains
are located. 5 Here it is the Name SaG(63), for the only differ-
ence between the spellings of the four letters in the Name
'AB(72) and the Name SaG(63) is that in the Name SaG(63) the
letter vav is spelled with an 'ale[, as we know. 6 [19]
Those two vaIB are aspects of the "middle" cantillation marks
that are placed in between words. These are the can tillation marks
called pasak (1) and makaf (-). The pasak reveals the vav (1) in
the letter heh (i1), which was divided and became six 'alefs, as
we stated above. That is why it is called pasak, which means to
divide. When you connect this pasak with the makaf, you get a
single dalet, like this: i. This teaches us about the letter dalet that
is included in that letter H (i1). [23]


Now, we already said above that this dalet is not divided. But this
also indicates something else. When you take the letter heh that
is in the right ear, it numbers ten sefirot, as mentioned above
which is the aspect of one letter yod. 7 If you combine this yod
with the heh from the opening of the right nostril, which is

'V'AV = 6 + 1 + 6 = 13.
The Name 'AB(72) is spelled YOD HeYVW HeY.
6The Name SaG(63) is spelled YOD Hey V'AV HeY.
The letter yod is also the number 10.
188 I Tree of Life Light from the Nose of Adam Kadmon I 189
shaped like a vav and a dalet, the two of them combined are Figure 29. Four 'AlefS Formed from the Letters Yod,
shaped like yod-vav-dalet. These are configured in the form of a Heh, and Vav
single 'alef, with the yod above, the vav in the middle, and the
dalet below the vav, as shown in Figure 28. (28]
Also, if you take the yod from the left ear and combine it with
the vav and dalet from the opening of the left nostril, you get a Nose
second 'alefthat is also formed by the letters yod, vav, and dalet. l&ft Right _Ldt Right AM.
Now we have two 'alefs in the form of yod-vav-dalet. (30]
If you draw an 'alefin which you connect the yod (') of the
left ear, the vav (1) of the left nostril and the yod (') of the right
yod (,) + heh ( il)
ear, you get an 'alef formed from the letters yod-vav-yod (~) . If
you connect the yod of the right ear, the vav of the right nostril
and the yod of the left ear, you now have a fourth 'alef, includ- yod ( , ) + heh ( i1)
ing those that we already mentioned. These four 'alefs point to (da/et-vav)
the partial revelation of the dalet (1 = 4) in the heh (i1) of the
nose, which is partially disclosed but is not revealed as completely
as the vav (1) of the heh. 8 The main revelation of this dalet is yod(,) + yod(,) + vav(1) ~
below, in the light from the mouth, as we will explain later with
God's help. (36]

yod(,) + yod(,) + vav (1 ) ~


You should know that those ten sefirot of lights from the ears re-
main as one unit by themselves during the whole time that they
are extending downward to the border of the nose of Adam
Kadmon. But when they spread from the end of the nose down
to the end of the beard, then the light from the ears is enclothed
within the light from the nose, becoming its inner soul. (41]
It is the same with the light from the nose. When it extends
beyond the border of the mouth, the light from the nose becomes
the "soul"-that is, the inner core-of the light from the mouth.

Dalet, the fourth letter, is also the number 4.
190 I Tree of Life

You should also know that the light that comes from within
this Adam Kadmon is all exactly the same light, [Column 2]
except that it becomes thicker and thicker as it goes farther out- 3
ward and downward. How is it that the light that extends out-
ward and emerges through the ears is very pure, but when this
light flows down through the inside of Adam Kadmon until it
The Twenty-two Letters
reaches the nose and comes out from there, it is thicker? How Plus the Five "Gevurot"
can it thicken and become more coarse, even though it is one
and the same light? The answer is that it is more dense when it
comes out through the nose because of the distance that it trav-
els as it flows downward . In the same way, as it flows further
downward until it finally comes out through the mouth, it be-
comes even thicker, since it is even farther from its source above.
This does not, however, change any aspect of the light itself, for
it is all the same light, as we noted above. The wise will under-
stand that the light of the brain is called the Name 'AB(72), and
this thicker light is called the Name SaG(63) . But enough of this! THE TWEN1Y-TWO LETIERS AND THE FINAL
[11] FoRMs O"F THE LETIERS M, N, Tz, P,

All of the worlds were created by means of the twenty-

two letters that are in Malkhut, who was herself
formed by them. Malkhut also has the five letters M,
N, Tz, P, and K, which are the five gevurot that came
to her from Ze'ir Anpin. 1 That is how the partzuf

1The shapes of the five letters M , N , Tz, P, and K

diffe r slightly from their basic forms when they come at

the end of a word . The term gevurot (strengths) is
applied to the final forms of these letters in the Zahar,
Sitrei Torah I, 91 . The terms gevurot and chasadim are
based on the division of the sefirot into two groups, male
and female, typified by Chesed (male) and Gevurah (fe-
male). See the table of letters in the Introduction .

192 I Tree of Life The Twenty-two Letters Plus the J?ive Gevurot I 193
Rachel was completed. 2 These five gevurot correspond to the five n efesh, as we know. 7 This is also mentioned in the Tikkunim , p.
passages of the mouth, which are the throat, palate, tongue, teeth, 71. [31]
and lips. [17] You can also understand from this how all the surrounding
Just as the five letters, M, N, Tz, P, and Kare called "closed" lights came out from Binah, for she is called "the mouth proclaim-
and "rounded," the mouth is also round, as they are. This is dis- ing great things."8 This also explains the statement in the Zohar
cussed in the Tikkunim, p. 4b, where these five passages of the in the portion Mishpatim, p. 123: "Knowledge (da 'at) is hidden
mouth are called the "seal openings (pituchey chotam) 3 of the in the mouth of the queen,'19 for the five gevurot of Da'at are
Higher Mother."4 It happens that the five vowels "i," "u," "e," "o," hidden in the mouth, in the secret of the five passages of the
and "a" are all included in the words "pituchey chotam." They mouth that were mentioned above. The entire mouth is made up
correspond to the five passages of the mouth that open, or that of them, and they are hidden there. It says they are "hidden" be-
are opened, by the Higher Mother. She is called a "seal" because ause whenever she wishes, she brings out the letters, which are
of her yesod, which, as we know, is called a seal because that is concealed in the secret of the sound of the voice and in speech,
where all the patterns are formed and sealed. The five passages which comes out from the mouth. When she desires, however,
of the mouth that are called "seal openings" were opened by the th ese are left hidden within the face, in the secret of "I was dumb,
strength of the five gevurot-the letters M, N, Tz, P, and K- silent ... " (Psalms 39:3) . [40]
which are in her seal. [26]
This also explains two different sayings in the Tikkunim. One
We find that the roots of these five passages were made states that the letters came from the seal of Binah in the secret
from the five gevurot, the letters, M, N, Tz, P, and K Then all
of "seal openings" (pituchey chotam). The second says that they
twenty-two of the letters came out from those five passages in the
ca me from the mouth of Ze'ir Anpin. [Page 44] Both are cor-
secret of 'alef, chet, 'ayin, heh, and so on. 5 The twenty-two let-
11ct, because the yesod of Imma is in the mouth of Ze'ir Anpin,
ters are divided into five categories and, because they come from
Gevurah, they are an aspect of Malkhut, who is called the lowest
level of soul (nefesh). "6 That is why the letters are called the

Category Letters
Throat (guttural) 'Alef, Ch, H, 'ayin
Rachel and Leah are secondary partzufim within Malkhut-Nukva.
Palate (palatal) G,Y,K,Q
Exodus 28:21; 39:6, 14. Different forms of the verb patach mean "to Tongue (lingual) D, Tet, L, N, Tav
Teeth (dental) Z, S, Sh, R, Tz
open" and "to engrave." In its original context, pituchey chotam meant
"seal engravings" or "engraved seals." Lips (labial) B, V, M, p
The Zahar refers to Binah (Imma) as the Higher Mother, and Malkhut ., c /\ ryeh Kaplan, Sefer Yetzirah: The Book of Creation, p. 104.
as the Lower Mother. I 11 Ch apter 5 of this Gate, the letters are also identified as the body,
These four letters represent the sounds that are formed in the back 1111 I I heir crown lets are called the nefesh.
of the throat, so they were the first to come out once the "seals" were I >.11iid 7:8, 20. In one of Daniel's visions he sees a creature with ten
opened. 11111 11 ~ plus an eleventh horn that has eyes and "a mouth proclaiming
6The five categories of letters, based on where they are formed in the 1c -, 11 things" (pum memalel ravravan).
mouth, are: "cc .tlso Zahar I, 246b (Bereshit).
194 I Tree of Life

and the letters came out from there. 10 [3]

You should know that the "brains" 11 and Imma are both as-
pects of the twenty-two letters. All of the vessels of Abba, Imma, 4
Ze'ir Anpin, and Nukva were made from them, as we will learn
with God's help. You will see that Abba and Imma were much
larger than Ze'ir Anpin and Nukva so they took fifteen letters,
Letters Made from
and vessels were made for them, as we will learn in another place. Cantillation Marks, Vowel
Abba and Imma are also the first two letters of the Divine Name-
Y and H-wilh a numerical value of 15. 12 But Ze'ir Anpin and Points, and Crownlets
Nukva together took only seven sefirot of the letters, for they are
lhe seven "kings" that we mentioned elsewhere. 13 [ 10]
The coupling (zivvug) that is the secret of the letters is what
gives life to the worlds. The coupling that is the secret of the
vowel points gives life to souls. In the coupling of the vowel
points, the Chokhmah of Abba couples with the Chokhmah of
Imma. In the case of the letters, the Binah of Abba couples with
the Binah of Imma. So there are two kinds of coupling, one that
The Keter of Abba is can tillation marks (ta 'am in),
gives life to the worlds, the other to souls. The coupling that gives
and his remaining nine sefirot are vowel points
life also helps to revitalize the "old souls" that were emanated dur-
(nekudot). The Keter of Im ma is crownlets ( tagin)
ing the creation of the world. [16]
and her other nine sefirot are letters ( 'otiyot). 1 This
matter is explained in the following way. (22]
You should know that all four of these aspects-
can tillation marks, vowel points, crownlets, and let-
ters-are also in the form of letters. However, the
letters of the Keter of Abba are formed by cantillation
marks, while his re~aining nine sefirot are formed
A footnote suggests that this means that the five gevurot were put into by vowel points. The letters of the Keter of Imma are
the mouth of Ze'ir Anpin, and they came out from there. Alternatively, formed from crownlets, and her remaining nine
since the lower seven sefirot of Binah are enclothed in Ze'ir Anpin, her
yesod would be at the level of his mouth. This is analogous to the state-
ment on p. 198 that "the Keter of Imma is in the Tiferet of Abba."
11 'Compare this statement to Gate V, Chapter 5, where
1.e., the sefirah Chokhmah, which is the partzuf Abba.
12 cantillation marks are from the Keter, vowels are from
Y + H = 10 + 5 =15.
Chokhmah, crownlets are from the first three sefirot of
"See Gate V, Chapter 1, where Ze'ir Anpin and Nukva of the World of
Binah, and letters are from the lower seven (instead of the
Emanation take seven sefirot from the letters of the Names MaH(45)
and BaN(52) of Adam Kadmon. lower nine) sefirot of Binah.

196 I Tree of Life Letters Made from Cantillation Marks, Vowel Point.s I 197
sefirot are formed by actual letters, like those we know from our So, too, with the crownlets that are in the Keter of Imma,
alphabet. It is also true, however, that they all are aspects of real where the letters are a combination and collection of many
letters. How can this be? [28] rownlets, like this: [35]
As for the names of the cantillation marks, their letters are
formed by the cantillation marks that are circular. The letter is Figure 32. The Letter 'Alef Made from Crownlets
made from a collection and combination of many of these circles,

like this 'alef

Figure 30. The Letter 'Alef Made from Cantillation Ma1ks

lt'ti~~:vr '
~9'<Q9p,. w.~~
P~e 99iQ p
~<> \'.1~
This subject is discussed in the Tikkunim, page 126b where it says,

Those on the tips of the letters are filled with eyes and their
eyebrows are filled with eyes, like this .. . etc. [38]
It is the same with the vowel points that make up the nine lower I .ook at the drawings there and you will understand this well. [39]
sefirot of Abba, where the letters are formed from a collection
of vowel points, like this: [32]
Figure 31. The Letter 'AlefMade from Vowel Points
I lie explanation of this matter is that everything that is on a lower
le vd reveals what is higher. For example, we said above that Binah
l1.1s crownlets in her Keter and letters in her nine lower sefirot.
4'.., ;,, .,
lhc specific letters that are in her nine lower sefirot are the let-
T llfT -r' "T' "T T
' c 1 s that spell the names of the crown lets that are above them.
-r r .,1 TT.,.
l li1 crownlets in the Keter of Imma are the letters that spell the
11.1111es of the vowels, which are in the nine sefirot of Abba. These
TT"Y TT T'T le tiers are called "crownlets" (tagin). An example of this is the
TyT TTT ,., 1w<'I points in the Chesed and Gevurah of Chokhmah (Abba),

"I...,.,'T 'I'''" wh k h are called shev'a ( , ) and seghol (). If we want to men-
11011 them by name, we must do so by means of the letters that

1wll their names. [Column 2] These are the letters that are in
198 I Tree of Life Letters Made from CantilJation Marks, Vowel Point.s I 199

the Keter of Imma, which are made from a collection of many Figure 33. The Letters Sh, V, 'A and S, Gh, 0, L in the
crownlets. The letters that are made from crownlets in the Keter Chesed and Gevurah of Abba
of Binah form the letters that spell the names of the vowel points
that are in Chokhmah, as we stated above. There are, however,
only seven of these letters, which are Sh, V, 11, S, Ch, 0, and L.
If you add up the numerical value of these letters it equals 403,
or TaC, 2 which is why the Keter of Binah is called "crownlets"
(t.agin). Understand this! [6]
We already explained the reason for this-that the Keter of
Imma is in the Tiferet of Abba, so that the Chesed and Gevurah
of Abba are left as the aspect of crownlets over the Keter of Imma.
They do not penetrate her, however, but only shine on her from Abba
a distance, just like the crownlets on top of the letters. There-
fore we do not mention any other letters in the Keter of Binah
except Sh, V, 'A, S, Ch, 0, and L, which are formed from
crownlets, to hint at what was discussed above-that the Chesed
and Gevurah of Abba are seghol and shev'a, which are like
crownlets over the letters of Imma. Their numerical value also
equals 403, which is TaC, as we noted above. [15)
So we find that the letters of the Chesed and Gevurah of Abba lmma
are shev'a and seghol, which become the crownlets on the Keter
of Binah. (See Figure 33.) Because the Binah is female, this
strengthens her Gevurah, which is female, whose vowel points
come before those of Chesed, which is male. That is why, when
they are combined, the order in which they are written is always
shev'a-seghol CJ and never seghol-shev'a. [20)
It is the same with the vowel points of the lower nine sefirot
of Abba, whose letters are made from the cantillation marks that
are in the Keter of Abba. An example of this is the initial letter
zayin of the accent called "zarka" (-),which is shown in Figure 34.

SheV'A = 300 + 2 + 1 = 303; SeGhOL = 60 + 3 + 6 + 30 = 99, plus 1
for the whole = 100. Also, TaG = 400 + 3 = 403.
200 I Tree of Life

Figure 34. The Letter Zayin Made from Cantillation Marks

.. ...

''l!Vith Thirty-two

Wondrous Paths of

Wisdom ... " (Sefer
Yetzirah 1:1)
It is also the same with the cantillation marks that are in the Keter
of Abba, whose letters are formed from circles, but these 'letters
are from a different aspect, higher than Abba. [27]
That is enough about this for now, since we will be learning
more about it in the Gate of Unifications. 3
The world has six directions (ketzavot)-up, down
and the four "winds": [North, South, East and West] .
They are the secret of Ze'ir Anpin, who also includes
six "extremities" (ketzavot) starting from Chesed, as
it is written, "I said, the world will be built on
lovingkindness ( chesed)" (Psalms 89:3) . Because the
world is from Chesed downward, it is like a body for
the head, which it enclothes in the secret of the
"brains within brains" of Ze'ir Anpin. [35]
Now , the creator of the world is Chokhmah
(Abba) through his coupling with Imma. Abba gave
Imma a drop that included both substance and form.
Each of these must include ten , for nothing has less
than ten. This is the secret of " .. . their seed shall
serve him" (Psalms 22:31), for from the moment the
seed is sown it gives a form of enlightenment, which is
the nefesh, the lowest level. This has the power to
The Gate of Unifications, also by Chayyim Vital, is not included in Etz
shape the material substance of the body and make
202 I Tree of Life ''With Thirty-two Wondrous Paths of Wisdom ... " I 203
the limbs, which are a "reception room" for the lower soul. This is cantillation marks are from the Keter, the vowel points arc from
analogous to the master craftsman who blows a glass vessel. The Chokhmah, the crownlets are from the first three sefirol of
vessel is made by means of the breath that enters into it and Binah and the letters themselves are from her lower seven sefirol. 2
spreads the glass material. This is the secret of, "He blew into his [11)
nostrils a breath of life, and man became a living soul (nefesh)" It is similar with Ze'ir Anpin and Nukva. Since the letters are
(Genesis 2:7), like the craftsman who blows both onto the coals in Ze'ir Anpin and Nukva-who are called the body because they
and into the material he is working with. That is why, from the are the lower seven sefirot of the all-inclusive World of Emana-
moment it is sown, the nefesh never departs from the physical tion-we conclude that the letters are always called the body be-
body. Even after death the nefesh mourns over the body, until the cause they are the vessels. The crownlets, which are the first three
resurrection of the dead. This is found in the Tikkunim, page 12a: sefirot of Imma, are the lowest level of soul (nefesh) of the letters.
Just as the nefesh is never separated from the body, so in the
The lowest level of soul (nefesh) includes the letters, and is
Torah scroll the crownlets are never separated from the letters.
part of the body. The middle level (ruach) includes the
This is not the case with the vowel points and cantillation marks,
vowel points, which shine in the eyes .... [Page 45]
which are not present except when a person reads aloud from
the Torah. Understand this. That is why the quotation above says,
BODY AND SOUL: LETIERS AND CROWNLETS "The nefesh is included in the letters, and is a partner to the
The various statements in the Tikkunim are to be understood in body." [18)
the following way. One time it says that the letters are the body, Regarding the subject of the crownlets, they are joined and
< onnected to the letters as the essence of the letters, which are
as stated above: "These vowel points shine in the letters .... In
the Garden of Eden they all shine in the eyes of the body." 1 In the body. The crownlets include the letters because the first three
the Tikkunim p. 16a, however, it says, "Are not the letters related sdirot of Imma include the lower seven sefirot, which are the
to vowel points as the body is to the middle level of soul (ruach) ?" lctters, and the whole seven lower sefirot are collectively rooted
In other places-for example on page 13--we find that letters are ,111d included in the first three sefirot, which are the crownlets.

referred to as the lowest level (nefesh) and vowel points are called lkcause of this, the crownlets are neither mentioned nor even
the middle level (ruach). [7] hinted at in the Tikkunim, because they and the letters are joined
We must examine their words carefully in order to understand together as one. So sometimes the letters are called the body,
what they meant when they said that the letters are related to the lwc ause that is true, and at other times they are called the nefesh
vowel points as the body is related to the middle level. Notice that " an aspect of the crownlets, which are within them. And the
the lower level is actually in an intermediate position, between the rnwd points are the ruach of the letters, which is what is meant
body and the middle level. They should have said, " ... as the wlwn it is written above that, "The letters are to the vowel points
body is to the lowest level of soul." [9] 1~ the body is to the ruach." It should have said, " ... as the body

With regard to this matter, you should know that the

~,..,. Chapter 4, however, which states that cantillation marks are from
1111 li.cter of Abba, vowel points from his lower nine sefirot, crownlets
Tikkunim l 2a. Ii 11111 1he Keter of Imm a, and letters from her lower nine sefirot.
204 I Tree of Life "With Thirty-two Wondrous Paths of Wisdom . .. " I 205
and the nefesh are to the ruach," because when the body is men- Later on we will explain how the ten reconfigured sefirol were
tioned it includes the nefesh, since they are partners, as noted made from the 22 letters. 6 Since the crownlets are joined l
above. [27] the letters, the lowest level of the soul (nefesh) and the body ar
So what is written should be understood in that way, for both included in the 22 letters and are referred to collectively as
the letters of Binah are from her lower seven sefirot while the the aspect of letters. [ 41]
crownlets are the nefesh, which are from her first three. The As for the vowel points (nekudot), there are also ten of them,
crownlets are the aspect of nefesh and every nefesh is an aspect which we will study with God's help, and they are the middle
of Malkhut. That is why it says on page 89, "Malkhut makes the aspect of soul (mach). They are truly called ten sefirot, which is
Keter of Ze'ir Anpin in the form of the crownlets on top of the the secret of, "The heavens recount (m 'sapprim) the glory of
letters. "3 You know already that the "extra soul" 4 of Abba and God ... " (Psalms 19:2). 7 Here the "heavens" refers to Ze'ir Anpin,
Imma is the crown (keter) of the head of Ze'ir Anpin, which is the aspect of middle soul, who includes ten sefirotwhich "recount"
the secret of, "They give a crown (keter) to you, HVYH our or shine on Malkhut, who is called "the glory of God." This is
God." 5 This is discussed in the Zahar, in the portion Pinchas, mentioned in the Zohar, in the portion Terumah, page 136b:
p. 242. [32] "The heavens recount ... etc. This refers to the sparkling and the
sparks from the highest point ... etc." This is because the sefirot
***** are from the "highest point," which is the Chokhmah. You also
knew this from the phrase, "He counts the number (mispar) of
We will now explain these subjects. You should know that the
1he stars" (Psalms 147:4), for the Tiferet is called "mispar' and is
vessels of the body of Ze'ir Anpin-which is called "the world"-
.ilso the middle aspect (mach), as it is written on page 16,
are the aspect of letters. The crownlets, which are their nefesh,
" . .. and they are called ten sefirot." After that it says, "Clothing
are included along with them. The body, which is made from
W<lS made for them and bodies were made for them ... etc." [52]
these 22 letters, includes ten "rulers"-Keter, Chokhmah, Binah,
Da'at; Chesed, Gevurah, Tiferet; Netzach, Hod, Yesod and
Malkhut-as mentioned in the Second Preface to the Zahar, A KABBALISTIC INTERPRETATION OF GENESIS 1: 1:
pages 12 and 13, where it says, [37] "IN THE BEGINNING "

How many are the bodies that you have established, which I he essence of the ten sefirot is the vowel points (nekudim) that
are called "bodies" in relation to the garments that cover placed in the midst of the letters. They extend from the high-
, 11 t '

them. And in that reconfiguration (tikkun) they are called . 1 ~ I Chokhmah called the "highest point" (nekudah), which is why

Chesed, which is the right hand .... [39] I hc y are called "points" (nekudot). [Column 2] This is what it

'r further on,

1.e., the Malkhut of Imma, which is above the Keter of Ze'ir Anpin.
The "extra soul" is an added spiritual infusion, given only on Shabbat,
which returns to its source during the weekdays. fi l 1 , 1he ten sefirot of the World of Emanation, which was formed af-
Quoted from the introduction to the Kedushah portion of the Musaf 1 1 1htshattering of the vessels in the World of Points.
service in the Sephardic prayerbook. I lie vC'rb safar (recount or declare) has the same root as sefirah.
206 I Tree of Life "With Thirty-two Wondrous Paths of Wisdom . . . " I 207
Inside is the Divine Name with its letters spelled out with Three: water from breath (ruach). With it he engraved and
'alefs as YOD H'E V'.A V H'E, which comes in the form of carved 22 letters, made from chaos (tohu) and emptiness
emanation ( 'atzilut). 8 [3] (bohu), and mire and clay. He made them like a furrow.
He put them up like a wall. He surrounded them like a
We know that this spelling of the Divine Name HVYH has a ceiling. 11 [13]
numerical value of 45, the same as 'adam, 9 and is hinted at in
the word Chokhmah with the first two letters rearranged to spell The material substance of the letters came out first from the
koach mah-"Lhe strength of MaH(45)"-because these ten sefirot water that is in Chokhmah, and became tohu. After that, came
are the ten letters used in spelling the Name MaH(45): YOD H'E bohu. Then the letters were drawn and painted. Some of the
V'A V H 'E. That is what it says in the Zahar. le tters are circular, like a wall. 12 Others are straight and long like
a ceiling. Some are shaped like vessels, or like furrows through
The wise know that these are the letters that are included which water flows. That is what it means when it says, "He said
in the letter "b" of the word bereshit ("In the beginning"). to the snow, Become earth" (Job 37:6). 13 So we conclude that
The "reshit" is the "point" (nekudah) within the "palace."
the first material substance, which is called tohu, came from the
Nine points are suspended from it, and they are called "ten
cloudiness of the water that is in Chokhmah. These letters were
sefirot belimah." 10 [7]
given to Binah, formed in the womb of Imma. She, too, has a
It is known that the letter "b," which stands for Binah, counts as ma terial substance, which is the ashes of the fire . 14 [20]
a letter while the "reshit." (beginning), which is Chokhmah, Water is from the right side, which is Chokhmah, and from
counts as the points. Together, these make ten sefirot. [9] its cloudiness came the 22 letters. Included among them are the
simple, fundamental shapes of the five letters M, N, Tz, P, and
/{, which are called chasadim (loves) . 15 The white ash (loven 'efer)
was made from the cloudiness of the white snow of Lebanon-
Abba, the Father-who is Chokhmah-first sowed a seed, a drop which is Chokhmah-as the secret of the verse, "He said to the
of material substance that was the letters, about which it is writ- snow, Become earth" (Job 37:6). The fire itself, however, is in
ten, " ... and the earth was formless and void ( tohu vavohu)" Binah, and from its cloudiness and residue came a substance that
(Genesis 1:2), for the first substance, which is called tohu, came 1s called "red" ( 'odem). These are the five "doubled" forms of
from the cloudiness of the water. As it says in Sefer Yetzirah: th e le tters M, N, Tz, P, and K, which are called the five gevurot.

0r " ... the World of Emanation."
'A + D + M = 1 + 4 + 40 = 45. 11 .'i'('fe r Yetzirah 1:11.
Sefer Yetzirah 1:2. The meaning of the word belimah is uncertain. It 1 'I t'., like a wall encircling a courtyard.
1 l'his verse is interpreted in Yoma 54b as referring to the process of
is sometimes interpreted as a compound of the two words beli (with-
out) and mah (what), and translated as "nothingness" or "ineffable." , 11 .11ion.
111\lllah-Imma is associated with fire, Chokhmah-Abba with water.
Here the "mah" in belimah is understood as referring to the Name
1"Tht basic shapes of the letters M, N, Tz, P, and Kare called chasadim
MaH(45). The "point" is the dagesh in the first letter of bereshit. In
the Zahar, the sefirah Chokhmah is referred to both as the "point" and d1t 1 1he seflrah Chesed. Their "final" forms are called gevurot after the
as the beginning, and Binah is called the "palace." ,\ f' /11;1h Gevurah. See Gate V, Chapter 3, footnote 1.
208 I Tree of Life ''With Thirty-two Wondrous Paths of Wisdom ... " I 209
The sum of their numerical values is 281, the same as the word the "breath of the bones" (hevel degarmey), which is mentioned
"ash" ( 'efer) 16 because ashes are the residual sediment from fire. in the Zahar, in the portion Shelach, page 169:
For it is certain that the drop of Abba was not only a dry
material. There was some kind of life in it, which is called
MALE AND FEMALE, BONES AND BLOOD the "breath of the bones" (hevel degarmey). [40]
Then the body of Ze'ir Anpin's fetus was formed in the womb This is the secret of the 320 sparks that came from the sefirah
of Imma from the 22 letters, which are male, plus the five called Chokhmah, which is also known to us as Abba. Because
"doubled" forms of the letters M, N, Tz, P, and K, which are fe- they remain united to the bones even after death, the lowest level
male. His fetus was formed from both of them. (28] of soul (nefesh), which comes from the side of lmma, hovers over
Even the 22 male letters also have a female aspect, since them. This is the secret of, " ... his soul (nefesh) mourns over
Chokhmah includes a left column that is all female-Binah, him" (Job 14:22)-that is, directly above him. This is like the time
Gevurah, Hod, and Malkhut. However, even though there are when Abba sowed a seed and the "breath of the bones" came out
female aspects in all of the 22 letters, they are called "male" in along with the material substance, which is why they are never
comparison to the five "doubled" letters. You can understand by parted. But the lowest level of soul (nefesh), which comes after-
this how all 248 limbs of the body, which are aspects of the 248 ward from the mother, hovers over that "breath," and enters into
bones, are from the male's white seed. 17 The red from the fe- the womb of the mother little by little over a period of nine
male contributes only the pupil of the eye and the blood in the months. When this process is finished, it is born. That is why after
veins. All of the bones, which are the roots of the 248 limbs, come death the nefesh hovers over the bones and not within them like
from the father. The lowest level of the soul (nefesh), which is the the "breath of the bones," which always remains united with the
crownlets that are joined to the letters, is from the mother, be- hones, as stated in the Zohar, in the portion Shelach, page 169.
cause the lowest level of the soul does not enter the physical sub- l~ven though on page 170 it says this about the lowest level of
stance until after a seed is sown, which happens in the womb of soul, the intended meaning is "the breath of the bones." Look
the mother. (36]
1here. (50]
Perhaps the dagesh-rafeh 18 is the "breath of the bones," be-
THE "BREATH OF THE BONES" (HEVEL DEGARMAYJ < ,1nse it is neither a cantillation mark, a vowel point, nor a

c 1 ownlet, as noted in the Tikkunim at the end of Tikkun 5. I did

So Abba, the Father, provided only the material substance of the 'ilot receive this from my teacher of blessed memory. Look at what
22 letters, which are the bones. They must also have within them

1 ~'
I he dagesh is a single dot in the middle of the letter, indicating the
M + N + Tz + P + K = 40 + 50 + 90 + 80 + 20 = 280 plus 1 for the "li.11d" pronunciation of the letters B, G, D, K, P, T (and sometimes
total = 281. Also 'EFeR = 1 + 80 + 200 = 281. /~) 1,1ther than the "weak" (rafeh) pronunciation ( V, Ch, Dh, Kh, F,
17The body is traditionally considered to be made from 248 "limbs" and 1/1) . The dagesh is typically found at the beginning of a word or syl-
365 veins, corresponding to the Bible's 248 positive and 365 negative l1hl1", and also when the letters are "doubled," e.g., 'appayim (nostrils)
commandments. v 1"'s 'af (nostril).
210 I Tree of Life 'With Thirty-two Wondrous Paths of Wisdom . .. " I 211
was omitted from the end of Tikkun 28, in the manuscript ver- of their 320 sparks--which are the "breath of lhe bones"- are
sion, where it says that the dagesh-rafeh is the lower level of soul male. [12]
(nefesh). Perhaps this means the "breath of the bones," which is
included in the nefesh. Look carefully there on the subject of the
dagesh-rafeh, and the letters, vowel points, and cantillation marks,
which are the body and the three levels of the soul-nefesh, There are two aspects of the ten sefirot. One is the ten sefirot of
ruach, and neshamah. [57] lhe lowest level of the soul (nefesh) and the other is the ten
sefirot of the middle level (ruach). When we discuss the 22 let-
le rs-which are the body and the vessels for the lowest level-we
find that the lowest level is their ten sefirot. Together, they have
( 'OTIYOT l'EsoD)
32 aspects, which are the 32 occurrences of the lesser name,
The vowels, which are the aspect of middle soul (ruach), are the Elohim ('Elohim dekamut). 20 As you already know, the vessels
ten sefirot that are within the letters. [Page 46] The 22 letters and the nefesh are both aspects of the lesser name Elohim. There
plus the ten sefirot are the 32 "paths" that came from Chokhmah. is, however, a difference, because the ten occurrences of the name
With them the world-that is, Ze'ir Anpin-was created. This is Elohim that correspond to the nefesh are on a higher level. This
stated in Sefer Yetzirah: "With 32 wondrous paths of wisdom is mentioned in the manuscript version of the Tikkunim, but was
(chokhmah) He carved . .. ." These are the "ten sefirot belimah o mitted from the printed editions: " .. . and the other 22 corre-
and 22 foundation letters ( 'otiyot yesod)." They are called yesod spond to the body, which are the 22 letters." [18]
to hint at the drop of substance of the male--which is first-and The lights came together from those 32 occurrences of the
the yesod, which are the essence ( 'atzmut) .19 After that, he formed 11 a me Elohim at the time when they came out from the
in Imma the five letters M, N, Tz, P, and K, which are called "the Chokhmah, which is like the brain in relation to the heart, so
red drop." You can understand from this why Seier Yetzirah re- 1hey made 32, like the 32 "paths of wisdom." 2 1 That is why the
fers repeatedly to the 22 "foundation" letters ( 'otiyot yesod) . [ 6] llC'art is a burning fire-because it is the lesser Name Elohim.
Notice that these 32 "paths" of Chokhmah are male, and are Bill lhe sound that is inside the heart is the Name HVlli-the
put into Imma through the five letters M, N, Tz, P, and K These .1spect of middle level (ruach)-which corresponds to the vowel
are her 50 "gates," since each of these letters includes ten sefirot, points (nekudot) and which dwells in the heart. The heart's beat-
which makes 50. We call them "gates" because they are the open 111 g comes from the strength of these vowel points, which is de-
doorways and entrances of Imma, who is female, and the gates ljn ibed on pages 69 and 89: [24]
of the female are open to receive the "paths" of Chokhmah. You
should understand by this that the five gevurot-the final forms
of the letters M, N, Tz, P, and K-are female, while the gevurot
'"l'hc name Elohim (God), which is considered to be of lesser impor-
1.111ce than the Divine Name HVYH, occurs thirty-two times in the first
1 li.1pter of Genesis.
1<:hokhmah (wisdom) is identified with the brain. The numerical value
9The sefirah Yesod corresponds to the male genital organ . 111 1h e word "heart" (LeB) is 30 + 2 = 32.
212 I Tree of Life ''With Thirty-two Wondrous Paths of Wisdom . . . " I 213
When the nefesh and the ruach are together in the heart, When there are in Israel those who understand wisdom
it is called, "the sound of my beloved knocking" (Song of (chokhmah)-which is the letter yod, the supreme
Songs, 5:2). 22 Thought-they know how to throw that stone to the place
from which it came. 25 [ 40]
Understand this well, for the lowest level (nefesh) and the middle
level (ruach) are both in the heart. One is the ruach and the With regard to Ze'ir Anpin and Nukva, when they go up to Abba
other is the blood. The secret of, " ... the blood is the nefesh" and Imma in the secret of male waters and female waters-Ze'ir
(Deuteronomy 12:23) is the red drop of the female . The vessels, Anpin in Abba and Nukva in Imma-nothing goes up except
which are the letters, are the heart muscle itself. When the middle their middle soul. These are the vowel points (nekudim), which
level enters in, they become the greater Name HVYll and not are the ten sefirot of the middle level of soul, because the aspect
the lesser name Elohim. Then there are a total of 42 from the of their bodies and their lower levels of soul remain in their
combination of the 32 "paths" of the body and lower level, plus places forever. The roots of those vowel points are from
the ten divine utterances ( 'amiran) .23 These are the ten sefirot Chokhmah, as it says in the above quotation: " ... they know how
of the middle level of the soul, which is greater than the lower 10 throw it to the place from which it came." [45]
level, and which is described in the Zahar on page 22. Look care- It is known that the vowel points (nekudot), which are female,
fully there at the way the point and the line are the 32 paths. 24 a re called "returning light" even though they are an aspect of
The crownlet that is over it is the secret of the ten sefirot of the Ze'ir Anpin, who is male, because they are his returning light.
middle level, so together they make 42. These are truly called ten That is why the gender of the word "stones" ( 'evanim) is female,
sefirot, while the phrase, "ten sefirot of the nefesh" is only using <ven though they are an aspect of Ze'ir Anpin, who is male.
borrowed terminology because the ten main sefirot are those of This is the secret of, "I place my spirit (ruach) in your hands ... "
the ruach which, as we know, is the Name MaH(45). The Name (Psalms 31 :6), for the ruach goes up above as the secret of fe-
BaN(52) is the lower level and the Name MaH(45) is the middle 111ale waters while the lowest level of the soul (nefesh) remains
level, as mentioned on page 12: " ... for the inside is the Name lwlow with the body. [49]
MaH(45)." That is how you should understand what is found in What happens, however, is that the lower level (nefesh), which
the Zahar on page 57b: 1 ~ the blood, spreads within the body in the 365 veins, which is
l ht' secret of" ... the blood is the nefesh" (Deuteronomy 12:23).
Wh en it says, "I was sleeping ( 'ani yeshanah) .... " (Song of Songs
2The beginning of this verse is cited on p. 213. The entire verse is: "I , ~a ) , it is when the lower level of soul retreats from the veins.
was sleeping, but my heart was wakeful. Hark! the sound of my beloved The word "sleeping" has a numerical value of 365, for the 365
knocking. 'Let me in, my sister, my darling, my faultless dove, for my
head is drenched with dew, my locks with the damp of night.'"
3The ten 'amiran are God's creative utterances introduced by the
phrase, "And God said . . .. " The first nine are found in Genesis 1 and "Th< "stone" refers to Malkhut, whose return upward is facilitated by
the tenth in Genesis 2:28. (Some consider Genesis 1:1 to be the tenth I h1 SI udy and prayers of the devout.
"utterance.") '"111 I Iebrew, which has no neutral gender, the word "stone" ('even) is
4The reference here is to the initial letter "B" in Genesis 1: 1, which 1 1111sidered to be female , even though the plural has the "male" end-

includes both crownlets and a dagesh in the middle: ::i. 111 K ( 'evanim).
214 I Tree of Life "With Thirty-two Wondrous Paths of Wisdom . .. " I 215
veins of the blood are from the Female, who is called "I" ( 'aniy). 27 You can understand, too, how the powers of the nefcsh a r
When we sleep all the strength of the lower level of soul leaves called "messengers" because the veins of the blood are messen-
the veins and goes only into the heart. From this you can under- gers of the lower soul, which keeps the body alive. They are the
stand the reason why, when one awakens suddenly from sleep, it aspect of letters, as mentioned in the Tikkunim, page 23: "There
is only because the nefesh has spread out from the heart into the are messengers who serve these vowels, and they are the letters."
veins. [Column 2] That is the reason why a sleeper feels pain [17]
when he puts his hand over his heart in his sleep, because then The ten sefirot become seven "palaces" because the first pal-
the nefesh is unable to beat throughout the blood that is in the ace-which includes the first three sefirot-is called the Holy of
rest of the limbs. Then the sleeper cries out but is unable to wake Iolies. So, too, with the ten sefirot of the middle level of the soul,
up by himself until he is called and the nefesh wakes up. Only which are the ten ways of writing the Name HVYH using differ-
then does it spread into the limbs because of the strength and cn t vowel points. 28 As mentioned in the Tikkunim, page 128,
loudness of that awakening call. This is the secret of the passage sometimes they are called seven HVYHs, like the seven palaces.
in the Zohar, in the portion Pinchas, page 222: [6] Those seven HVYHs are the seven "voices" that come from the
For at night the gates of the Garden of Eden are sealed. heart, which are mentioned in the Psalm, "Give to HVYH, etc."
They are the eyes of the heart, like Noah's ark, into which (Psalm 29). 29
all the lights are sealed. They are the messengers that are There are also seven breaths that come out from the heart,
spread in all the limbs of the body. They are all sealed in which are aspects of the ten divine utterances because, while the
the heart because of the lower level of the soul (nefesh). [8] lowe r soul is the aspect of talking (dibbur), the middle soul is
The Shells (klippot) can attach themselves to the lower level tll<' aspect of speech ( 'amirah). Therefore these ten sefirot, which
, 11 t ' the aspect of the middle level of the soul, are called the ten
when the middle level is absent. This is the secret of, "The soul
(nefesh) without knowledge (da'at) is not good" (Proverbs 19:2). 111t<rances ( 'amiran), referring to the Name SaG(63). This is the
Therefore the nefesh encloses herself and her powers within the 11 ret of "Blessed is the one who speaks and acts."30 "Speaks" is
heart and seals herself off from the "waters of the flood" which Ahlm, the secret of the Name HVYH, and "acts" is Imma, the se-
are the demons (mazikin)-because when she is spread out they 1 1<'l of the name Elohim. This is referred to [in the Zohar] on

can attach themselves to her but when she is closed up no one p.1gcs 184 and 104a. Study these two passages and you will find
is able to suck on her. This is the secret of, "A closed garden is 111 .11 they refer to 42-32 for the name Elohim and ten for the
my sister-bride, a locked fountain, a sealed-up spring" (Song of d1 v111e utterances, which are the Name HVYH. [27]
Songs 4: 12). You can also understand this as the secret of a "seal
within a seal," which is necessary in order to prevent wine from
spoiling. [14] I ht le uers of the Divine Name may be vocalized using nine vowels
11111 .11 lime, e.g., YaHaVaHa, YiHiViHi, YoHoVoHo, etc. The tenth spell-
11p, 1~ 1he four letters alone, without any vowels.
Y +Sh + N + H = 10 + 300 + 50 + 5 = 365. The last seflrah-Malkhut, 11 1llt' word qol ("sound" or "voice") occurs seven times in Psalm 29,

which is also the female partzufNukva-is referred to by the personal wl111 h is recited during the Sha.bbat morning service.
pronoun "I " ('aniy), in contrast to the Keter, which is called 'ayin (noth- " 1111111 a phrase in the prayer, Barukh She'amar, (Blessed is He who
ingness). I'"~" .. .), recited in both daily and Shabbat services.
Notes from a Manuscript
by Chayyim Vital,
Preserved by His Students

We conclude that the 22 letters are the 248 parts

of the body and the five letters M, N, Tz, P, and K
are the blood, within which the lowest level of soul
(nefesh), which is the crownlets, is absorbed, dwelling
mainly in the heart. 1 The middle level (mach) is the
vowel points, which are also female, as we noted
above, for they are returning light. The cantillation
marks are the upper level (neshamah), which is male.
The 32 paths include the body and the lower
level. The ten divine utterances are the ten sefirot of
the middle level. The vowel points are nine in num-
ber because, as we already know, Ze'ir Anpin has only
nine sefirot, which is the same number as the word

See Gate II, Chapter 1, however, where the "home" of the
lower soul (nefesh) is identified as the liver, while the
middle soul (ruach) is centered in the heart.

218 I Tree of Life Notes from a Manuscript I 219
"brother" ( 'ach). 2 There is no vowel point within Malkhut, for she The letter 'alef (l') includes the three middle sefirol, which
has only the lower level of the soul. Ze'ir Anpin, as you already are Chesed, Gevurah and Tiferet, because " ... the torso was
know, has nine sefirot so, between the two of them, they are one created from air (rnach) ,''6 Chesed and Gevurah are th<'
( 'echad). 3 The cantillation marks (ta'amim), however, must be di- two yods (') of the 'ale[, and the vav (1) in the middle of
vided into ten parts and so must the letters. Even though there the 'alef is the Tiferet. This is mentioned in the Zahar in
several places. [51]
are 22 letters, they are divided into ten sefirot. [38]
The "open" letter mem (Q), which is one of the 22 "foun-
dation" letters, includes the three lower sefirot-Netzach,
TIIE LETTERS AND THE SEHROT OF THE RUACH Hod and Yesod-because " ... the belly was created from
water (mayim)." 7 [Page 47]
The Keter of the middle level of the soul (ruach) of the vowel
points takes one letter, which is its vessel. The same is true of all The letters B, G, D and K, P, R, and T are the seven openings
the other sefirot of the middle level, for each one has identifi- in the head.
able letters that are its body and its vessels. [ 41]
Some of the sefirot have one letter and some have two. This B is the right ear, which is Chokhmah;
is described in the Zahar, in the portion Acherey, page 78b, G is the left ear, which is Binah;
D and K are the eyes, which are Netzach and Hod;
where it says, "Rabbi Shimon said to Rabbi Eliezer, 'Come and
P and R are the nostrils, which are Tiferet and Da'at.
see how all of the 22 letters are divided among the ten divine
Tis the mouth, which is Malkhut.
utterances .. .' " Look for it there. It also says, "This was taught
to them. All those letters were taught, and they knew each and These are all in the head. Of the twelve remaining "simple" let-
every crownlet. We, however, do not merit to understand them." t<rs, five are in Chesed and seven in Gevurah, which are the two
Indeed, whatever we understand about this is from Seier Yetzirah hands. In this way, all twelve of the simple letters are contained
and from the Zahar on the Song of Songs, as we will learn with within the six "extremities" (ketzavot) of the body. 8 [5]
God's help. It is said in Seier Yetzirah that the shapes of the let- You should know that the ten sefirot of the middle level of soul
ters 'alef (l'), mem (Q), and shin (tD) 4 are as follows: ( 111ach) are not in the same order as their vessels. The Chesed
nf' the middle level is in the vessel of Gevurah, and the Gevurah
The first three sefirot make up the three lines of the shin
111 the middle level is in the vessel of Chesed. This is the secret
(tD) because "the head was created from fire ('esh)." 5
nl the statement in the Zahar and the Tikkunim that "the left is
1p1 luded in the right and the right is included in the left." You
'ach = 'A + Ch = 1 + 8 = 9. will find this in the Zahar, in the portion Vayikra, page 54, at
In addition, Malkhut is identified with the letter dalet, which can be !111 end of the discussion of the Song of Songs. It is also the secret
read as dalut, "poverty," which is associated with Malkhut-Nukva, who
111 the vowel points in the chapter that discusses the verse, "Let
is sometimes called "little sister." The letter dalet, when combined with
"brother" ( 'ach), also makes "one" ( 'echad).
Sefer Yetzirah classifies the twenty-two basic letters ( 'otiyot yesod) as
three "mothers" ( 'alef, M, and Sh), seven "doubles" (B, C, D, K, P, R, and ''I 111 cit.
T), and 12 "simple" letters (H, V, Z, Ch, Tet, Y, L, N, S, 'ayin, Tz, and Q). I rn . cit.
Sefer Yetzirah 3:6. 1 lw six sefirot from Chesed to Yesod.
220 I Tree of Life Notes from a Manuscript I 221
there be a firmament in the midst of the waters" (Genesis 1:6). Len complete sefirot, as well as the aspect of vessels. Then Lhe
Remember this well! [9] female was severed from him, taking with her thejudgmenl (din)
We find that there are two different aspects. One aspect is the of the name Elohim, while the male took the HVYJis. 10 Then il
four "winds" (ruchot)-South, North, East, and West-and the is called "HVYJI Elohim" as a single complete name. Understand,
second aspect is the four elements: fire, air, water, and earth. Lh e refore, that she separated from him because the HVYlfs
These are also aspects of the middle level of soul (ruach) and of pushed the name Elohim away and it was given to the female.
the body. The South is hot and dry, but within it is cool, liquid [26]
water, and all of them are ordered thus. [12] Whenever we say that the outside of the worlds is the vessel,
we are referring to the body plus the lower level of soul (nefesh).
ZE'IR ANPIN AND NUKVA T he inside of the worlds is the ten sefirot of the middle level
(ruach), which is internal, just as it is in the World of Emana-
Know, too, that because the totality of Ze'ir Anpin is the six "ex- tion. Human souls come from the inside of that Adam of the
tremities" (ketzavot), which are aspects of the body, and the World of Emanation, which is the Name MaH(45)11 whose in-
middle level of soul (ruach) completes his ten sefirot, therefore ner aspect is called the ten sefirot of the middle level of soul
the letters are also only in the aspect of the six "extremities." That
(ruach). The angels are from the outside, which is the body and
is why the letter 'alefbegins in Chesed, as mentioned in Terumah,
lower level of soul (nefesh) .12
page 159, and in the Zahar on the Song of Songs, where it says
This "body" of God sometimes comes down into the Worlds
this with regard to the verse, "The king brought me into his
of Creation, Formation, and Action. There she enclothes and
chamber. .. " (Song of Songs 1:4). In the second Idra 9 it says,
.u lo rns herself with those garments in order to be attractive to
"The 22 letters spread out and provide the beginning of the pri-
her husband, saying, "Look at the offspring that I have raised."
mordial light (nahor'a kadm 'ah)." You already know from the
For Lhe light of the vowel points is returning light, which is why
Zahar, the portion Mishpatim, page 122, that "The head of the
11 g"Oes upward continually, like the secret of zarka ("throwing") . 13
king is corrected in Chesed and Gevurah, etc." [18]
We find that all 22 letters are in the ten sefirot but their es-
The preceding chapter is from a manuscript of our teacher
sence is only in the six "extremities." We also find that the let-
111 blessed memory, which contained the above lesson.
ters are the lower level of soul (nefesh), and that Ze'ir An pin and
Nukva are the name Elohim. That is why they are two partzufim,
connected together, with one facing backward and the other fac-
ing forward. However, when the HVYJis came-which is, as we
know, the middle level of soul (ruach) and the secret of the 1
" 1hc name Elohim was associated by the early rabbis with judgment
"brains" of Ze'ir An pin-then Ze 'ir An pin expanded and became ( r/111) , and the name HVYH with its opposite, mercy (rachamim), with
wl1i ( h the kabbalists characterize the sefirah Tiferet.
\J);iM = I + 4 + 40 = 45. The Name MaH(45) and the middle level
( 111.wh) are both identified with Ze'ir Anpin.
I c .. Malkhut-Nukva.
/dra Zuta, "The Lesser Assembly." w~. 11 k:i is the name of one of the cantillation marks.
The Letters M, Sh, and ~,
B, G, D, K, P, R, T

We know from what is written above that the let-

ters 'ale[, mem, and shin are the first three sefirot,
which are the foundations for the seven lower sefirot.
These seven lower sefirot are the letters B, G, D, K,
P, R, and T. Because they contain both "compassion"
(rachamim) and ''.judgment" (din), which are the
straight light and the returning light, they have their
own aspect of "compassion," and the Malkhut that is
within each one of them is ".judgment." That is why
these letters are doubled. 1 [ 40)


The twelve "simple" letters are found only in the

These seven letters have both a "hard" and a "soft" pro-
nunciation, signaled by the presence or absence of a dot
in their middle called a dagesh.

224 I Tree of Life The Letters 'A, M, Sh, and B, G, D, K, P, R, T I 225
sefirah Tiferet, which is itself one of the seven doubled letters. 'T h ese are the generations of J acob: Joseph " (Genesis 37:2) .4 T his
The Tiferet is divided into twelve parts, which are the twelve is also the secret of "... and they called out to one an o th e r (z<'h
simple letters. They become twelve because all seven of the lower 'el zeh) " (Isaiah 6:3)-that is, 12 in Tiferet and 12 in Yesod.5 Th e
sefirot are rooted in the body, which is the Tiferet. The seven twelve diagonal lines of Yesod are an aspect of the twelve con-
double letters including Tiferet itself make 14. When the seven stellations of the zodiac. The seven planets, however, are the seven
lower sefirot without Tiferet are doubled they make 12. [ 43) lower sefirot in their own right, not because they are included
We find that the Tiferet is itself the two aspects of the letter in Yesod. 6 [9]
resh,2 which is one of the doubled letters. The roots for the six As for the twelve simple letters, it is because they are an as-
othe r lower sefirot, which are doubled to make 12, are also in- pect of the seven lower sefirot, which are hinted at in the Tiferet
cluded in Tiferet. Sefer Yetzirah calls these twelve simple letters or in the Yesod. Being doubled, they total twelve, so there are
the twelve "diagonal borders. "3 Because they themselves are as- twelve simple letters; six doubled letters make twelve simple ones.
pects of the six lower sefirot, which are doubled and are rooted T hese twelve letters themselves are not doubled, however, but
in Tiferet, it was necessary for them to be drawn in the shape of 1cmain only simple letters. [13)
diagonal borders. One end of one of these borders points diago-
nally in the direction of the sefirah Chesed. The other end points Table 13. The Sefirot and the Twenty-two Letters
toward the sefirah Gevurah. It is this way with all of them, so that Letters
the twelve parts of Tiferet point toward the six sefirot that are Sdiro t "Mothers" Doubles Simple Letters
the roots for those twelve parts of Tiferet, in order to suckle from
1\1 l<'r 'alef
them. [Column B] This requires that the Chesed that is within
I ,hokhmah M
Tiferet be on Tiferet's right side, at the beginning of the line,
11111.111 Sh
and divided into two parts, or doubled-i.e., "hard" (dagesh) and
1 .lwst'd B/ V
"soft" (rafeh). The two parts of the Netzach are also at the end I l ' Vlll ah G/ Gh
of the line on the right side of Tiferet. It is similar to this with 'l'it11('l D/ Dh H , V, Z, Ch, T, Y, L, N, S,
all the rest of the sefirot. [ 4) 'ayin, Tz, Q
You should know, too, that in the Yesod there are also twelve N111.uh K/Kh
aspects of these twelve diagonal lines, because all of the seven 11 1111 P/ F
lower sefirot must be included there, which is the secret of, \I 1111 1 R/ Rh
l ol~ hut T/ Th
Here the letter resh (1) is probably a manuscript copyist's error, for
the letter dalet (1). See below, where it states that "the letter dalet is 11111> is identified with the sefirah Tiferet and Joseph with Yesod. In
in Tiferet. " 1.11 1111 .ol Iranslations, this verse is punctuated as, "These are the genera-
Sefer Yetzirah 5:2. Also Sefer Bahir, para. 95. In Sefer Yetzirah the ilr 111 of J acob. Joseph ... etc."
diagonal borders are those connecting the ends of the six directions I/ 7 + 5 = 12.
(ketzavot) : North, South, East, West, up, and down. Note that in Lh< t 11 11 11 .111c:ient and medieval concept of the cosmos, the seven planets,
Tree of Life diagram in the Introduction (Figure 3), the twelve "simple" 1 11111v 111 g stars," were Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Sun, and
letters are placed on the diagonal "channels" between the sefirot. ~ 1 1111 11
226 I Tree of Life The Letters 'A, M, Sh, and B, G, D, K, P, R, T I 227
We conclude that the ten sefirot contain the ten letters that THE LETIERS 'A-M-SH AND Y-H-V 8
we mentioned above, one letter in each sefirah, in the following The secret of the letters 'A-M-Sh and V-Y-H is lhal bolh of
order: '.A, M, Sh, B, G, D, K, P, R, and T. The first letter of the lhese sets of letters represent the first three sefirot. 9 The reason
alphabet- 'ale~is the Keter, which is the first sefirah. The last lhat 'alef comes first is that while everything is composed of fire
letter in the alphabet-taf-is in Malkhut, which is the last one. ( 'esh), water (mayim), and air (ruach), the most important of
these is air, which is the letter 'ale[ 10 Therefore in the male the
We find that the letter dalet is in Tiferet and the twelve order is V-Y-H-air, water, fire-because air is the highest of all,
"simple" letters, which are also in Tiferet, are aspects of the seven followed by M for water (mayim), which is "love" (chesed) and
letters B, G, D, K, P, R, and T, which are doubled so they are Sh for fire ( 'esh), which is 'judgment" (din). This makes 'A-M-
now twelve simple letters. This is the secret of what is written in Sh. The female is just the opposite, going from the lower to the
the Zahar, in the portion Pekudei: "In the chamber of Rezon, higher-'A-Sh-Mand V-H-Y. 11 [38]
which includes six other chambers within it .... " These are the
letter vav(6) doubled, to become 12, which is the secret of the Table 14. When the Letter 'Alef (it) is Crowned
letter vav. 7 Tiferet is called "vav," as noted above with regard to
Male Female
the seven double and twelve simple letters. These letters are the
Le tter The Name Element Letter The Name Element
powers of emanation, the essence of the sefirot, and the secret
of the "crownings" and "combinations" that are described in Sefer ';tlef v Air 'alef v Air
Yetzirah, referring to the fact that their power is only activated /If y Water Sh H Fire
.'i'h H Fire M y Water
in the secret of their returning and recombining with their roots.
Then the supernal abundance flows into them very strongly, giv-
When the letter mem is crowned first the male is M- '.A-Sh and
ing them the strength to perform their actions. This is the se-
)(V-H, with the 'alefbefore the shin, and the female is M-Sh-'.A
cret of the phrase, "He crowned the letter-," which is found in
.111d Y-H-V.
Sefer Yetzirah, for then it is united and bound to its root and a
single action emerges from it. [29]
The ten letters mentioned above- 'ale[, M, Sh, B, G, D, K, P,
R, and T-include all of the 22 letters. These ten letters are the "The paragraphs that follow are based on Sefer Yetzirah 3:7-9.
"111 Sefer Yetzirah the letters 'alef, mem, and shin are called the three
secret of the ten sefirot when they are arranged in order from
111others." The letters Y, H, and V are those used in the Divine Name
the top down. The twelve remaining "simple" letters are their llVYH.
twelve borders. [32] 1" 1'he letter 'alef, which here represents the classical element air, is a
11c '.1rly soundless opening of the throat, accompanied by a slight exha-
l.111on . The letters Y(') and V (1) are considered male, and the letter
II (i1 ) female.
11 Note that the "crowned" letters-here the 'alefand the V-remain in

pl.1< <'. The pairs of letters that follow them-M-Sh and Y-H-are reversed
The letter vav, which is also the number 6, can be spelled out as VaV 111 the female, becoming Sh-Mand H-Y. This pattern is repeated in the
=6 + 6 = 12. 1 , .1 Ill pies that follow.
228 I Tree of Life

Table 15. When the Letter Mem (D) is Crowned

Male Female
Letter The Name Element Letter The Name Element
M y Water M y Water
Sh H
v Air
When the letter shin is crowned, the male is Sh-M- 'A. To em- BOUND LIGHTS
phasize the letter shin, which is judgment (din), it is put before
the letter M H-Y-V. Because water is more completely "compas-
sion" (rachamim) than air, which is from a mixture, the letter M
precedes the 'alef. The female, however, is Sh-'A-M and H-V-Y.
[ 42]

Table 16. When the Letter Shin (fli) is Crowned

Male Female
Letter The Name Element Letter The Name Element
Sh H Fire Sh H Fire
M y Water 'alef v Air
'alef v Air M y Water
Lights and Vessels; Breath
and Speech

[Second Version]

After all that we described above, the cantillation

marks that are below the letters came out. These are
the aspects of light that come out through the mouth
of Adam Kadmon. 1 Because the lights are completely
connected and joined together they come out
through only one passageway. The reason for this is
that as the lights became more distant and spread
farther downward it became possible to receive and
contain them . There is, therefore, no need for con-

1The cantillation marks written above the letters, which

correspond to the lights that came from the ears of Adam

Kadmon, are described in Gate V, Chapter 1. Those placed
between the letters, which are the lights from the nose,
are described in Gate V, Chapter 2.

232 I Tree of Life Light.s and Vessels; Brea lh and Speech I 233
cern if the surrounding lights are close together with the inter- higher lights of the ear and nose are not mention ed in this pas-
nal lights. [Page 48] It was, in fact, because the surrounding sage because the existence of vessels was not revealed in them .
lights and the internal lights were already close together that these Later on we will explain, with God's help, the terms nekudim and
aspects of vessels, which are totally pure, could begin to come into berudim. [18]
existence from this point onward. That is also why only a single Because the inner lights and surrounding lights were joined
vessel is revealed here, even though the light is divided into ten within the mouth they were also close together when they came
lights, which are called "bound" ( 'akudim). [5] out from the mouth, so they collided and struck each other. From
these collisions the vessels were born. This place is called the
"mouth" because the word "mouth" (peh) has the numerical value
of 85, which is the Name SaG(63) plus the twenty-two letters. 3 The
This concept is explained by the scriptural passage where Jacob le tters are the vessels, as we know, so the word "mouth " hints at
says, "I saw in a dream that the rams who mounted the sheep the Name SaG(63) plus the twenty-two letters in order to suggest
were banded ( 'akudim), dotted (nekudim), and spotted th e existence of the vessels, which are newly revealed here
(berudim)" (Genesis 31:10). 2 1t is also written that God said, "Note through the twenty-two letters. [25]
well that the he-goats that are mating with the flock are banded,
dotted and spotted, for I have seen all that Lavan has done to
you" (Genesis 31:12) . [8]
This passage hints at all the aspects that we are speaking about Ten inner lights and ten surrounding lights come out from this
here. "Lavan" is the secret of the supernal whiteness (!oven) that mouth. Their main light extends from the front of the face down
was present before all these emanations occurred. This is what 10 the navel of Adam Kadmon. It also spreads out sideways all
made all these aspects of 'akudim, nekudim, and berudim which around Adam Kadmon in the same way that we described the
were necessary for the World of Emanation, which was emanated lights of the ears and the nose. In the ears and the nose there
after them and is called by the name, Jacob. They begin with are only two aspects of light-inner light and surrounding light.
'akudim because this is the light that came out from the mouth I Je re in the mouth, however, these aspects are doubled so the
of Adam Kadmon, through which the vessels began to be revealed two become four, because they have aspects both of lights and
as ten internal and surrounding lights, bound together and con- of vessels. The lights are doubled in the secret of inner lights and
nected within a single vessel. That is the reason it is called surrounding lights, and the vessels, too, have an inside and an
'akudim, using the expression from the verse "... he bound outside. [Column 2] These are the four aspects of the nose that
(y'akod) Isaac" (Genesis 22:9). This should be interpreted as "he we re revealed in the four 'ale!S mentioned above .4
tied" (yakshor), as we will learn later on, with God's help. The Because this light flows from the nose through the inside of
Adam Kadmon, it comes out through the mouth. The inner light
Here 'akudim is interpreted as referring to the lights from Adam .md the surrounding light are the two 'ale!S that are shaped like
Kadmon's mouth, nekudim to the light from his eyes, which form the
World of Points, and berudim to the lights from his forehead , which
repair the damage from the breaking of the vessels in the World of 1
l'cH = 80 + 5 = 85.
Points, forming the partzufim of the World of Emanation (Atzilut) . 'Cate V, Chapter 2.
234 I Tree of Life Lights and Vessels; Breath and Speech I 235
yod-vav-yod. The two aspects of the vessels-inside and outside- Figure 35. Sources of Light for the Letters C, Y, K, Q,
are the other two 'alefs that are shaped like yod-vav-dalet. These 'Alef, Ch, H, and 'Ayin
four aspects, which are revealed here in the mouth, are also as-
pects of the two ears and two nostrils. The light from the right
ear flows through the inside and comes out from the mouth as
the secret of surrounding light. The light from the right nostril
flows through the inside and comes out from the mouth as in-
~ ~ N N
ner light. The light that comes from the left nostril makes the
inside of the vessels and the light from the left ear makes the out- Left Right Left Right
side of the vessels. These four aspects come together in the mouth Ear Ear Nose Nose
because in the mouth there are aspects both of breath and of
speech. Breath is the aspect of light and speech is the aspect of /
The Mouth """
vessels. (12]
(Breath and Speech)
The higher breath and speech, from the upper part of the
mouth, are the secret of the letters C, Y, K, and Q, which are in Upper Upper Lower Lower
Chokhmah. 5 The lower breath and speech, from the lower part Speech Breath Speech Breath
--- --- --- ---
of the mouth, are the secret of the letters 'ale[, Ch, H, and 'ayin,
Outside Surround- Inside Inner
which are in Binah. 6 [14]
of Vessel ing Light of Vessel Light
We find that the upper aspect of breath is the surrounding
light and the lower aspect is the inner light. The upper aspect
\. ~

of speech is the outside of the vessel and its lower aspect is the
inside of the vessel. In addition, the lights, which are the breath,
are on the right side of the mouth while the vessels, which are
speech, are on the left. [18]
Chokhmah Binah

'.( (
- -
, ... , . ..,Q if, Ch, H, 'ay

These letters are articulated with the tongue and the roof of the mouth.
li'fhese letters represent "guttural" sounds articulated in the throat.
Aspects of the Soul; Inner
Lights and Surrounding

[Second Version]

The four 'alefs in the nose that we drew above come

together in the mouth, where they become four
breaths. Now, four times the numerical value of
"breath" (hevel) is the same as "flour" (qemach). This
is because the teeth, as they do their work in the
mouth, grind the four breaths like making flour. 1 [23]
It should not be difficult for you to perceive what
we said above-that the outside of the vessel is made
from the light that originates in the left ear and
enters the mouth, while the inside of the vessel is
made from the light that originates in the left nos-
tril. [26]

1HeVeL = 5 + 2 + 30 = 37 and 4 x 37 = 148. QeMaCh =

100 + 40 + 8 = 148. Also see Pirkei Avot 3:21: "Where there
is no flour, there is no Torah."

238 I Tree of Life Aspects of the Soul I 239
INNER LIGHTS AND SURROUNDING LIGHTS the will to join with the inner light. If the outer half of the ves-
The surrounding light is greater and higher in quality than the sel wall had not been so very pure, the surrounding light could
inner light. Even though the interior of a vessel appears to our not have penetrated into it and the inner light would have been
eyes to be greater than the outside, this is not true with the aspect prevented from receiving the surrounding light. Because the
of light, because the greater portion of the light, which is so great outside of the vessel wall is pure, however, the surrounding light
that the vessel is not able to receive or contain it, illuminates the is able to penetrate inward halfway through the thickness of the
vessel from the outside as the secret of surrounding light, while wall so the inner light and the surrounding light can shine on
the smaller portion remains inside. This is not the case with ves- each other. Even though the inner half of the vessel's wall is not
sels. Why does the light from the ear, which is higher, become pure, there is no need to be concerned about the ability of the
the outside of the vessel while the inside of the vessel comes from inner light to penetrate and shine halfway through the inner wall
the nose, which is lower? [Page 49] The answer is as follows. of the vessel because of this lack of purity. [21]
We know that all of the light is exactly the same. But when You might say that there is still a question, because to our eyes
the light tries to enter and be confined within a vessel, the light it still appears that the inside of a vessel is more pure than the
that cannot be contained within it remains outside as surround- outside. The answer is that even though the inner light is smaller
ing light. The inner light that illuminates the vessel from within than the surrounding light it is confined within the walls of the
passes halfway through the thickness of the vessel's walls from the vessel, so the vessel receives all of it. On the other hand, while
inside. The surrounding light that shines on the vessel from the the surrounding light is very great, it does not shine on the out-
outside passes halfway through the thickness of the vessel's walls side of the vessel as strongly as the inner light shines on the in-
from the outside. The vessel is illuminated and purified by these side because it is not attached to the vessel or compressed within
two lights. [7] it. In this way, everything is correctly balanced. [28]

[Last Version]
You must understand that the outer half of the vessel is illumi-
nated only by the surrounding light. That light is very strong, but You should know that in every place in every world the partzufim
it does not penetrate far enough to be absorbed and shine in that world all have five parts: nefesh, ruach and neshamah-
through the wall of the vessel because of the great distance sepa- the lower, middle and upper levels of the sou1-chayyah (life-
rating it from the vessel. The inside of the vessel has to be more l'orce), and yechidah ( one-ness). These are doubled, since there
coarse than the outside to match the lesser quality of the inner are five inner aspects and five surrounding aspects. Each one of
light so that the two lights can shine on each other. The outside these also has two other aspects: The greater lights are in the
of the vessel, which is illuminated by the higher-quality surround- front and the lesser lights are in the back. All of this is true both
ing light, is also higher in quality. If this were not so, the out- for the lights and for the aspect of vessels, since vessels also have
side of the vessel would be left without light. [13] l>oth a front and a back. [34]
There is another reason for this as well, though it is really Everything that we said above applies both to the totality of
quite similar to the first. The surrounding light has the desire and .di of the worlds as a collective whole and to each of their sepa-
240 I Tree of Life Aspect.s of the Soul I 241

rate details, in all their individual partzufim. The totality is divided Table 17. Parallel Realities: Names, Letters, Scfirol,
differently depending on whether it is considered as a single and Partzufim
whole or as a collection of parts. This way there are many dis- Name Letters Sefirot Partzufim
tinct levels. [37)
~(72) Cantillation Marks Keter Arikh Anpin, Nukva
The highest level (yechidah) is never counted as a partzufbe- Abba, Imma
SaG(63) Vowel Points Chokhmah
cause it is considered to be the very highest aspect. It is differ- MaH(45) Crown lets Bin ah Israel Sava, Tevunah
ent from them because it is both the end of a higher level and BaN(52) Letters Tiferet* Ze'ir Anpin, Nukva
the beginning of a lower one. This is comparable to the Malkhut
of the World of Emanation, which becomes both the Malkhut of *Tiferet represents the lower sefirot (see Gate V, Chapter 1).
that world and the Atik Yomin of the World of Creation. Under-
stand this! Therefore, we find now that the collective whole With regard to Israel Sava and Tevunah, the Name MaH(45) has
(klalut) has only four aspects, which are: the same numerical value as the word "human" ( 'adam) because
they are the parents of the "children," who are in the Name
The Name 'AB(72): the cantillation marks, which are in the BaN(52). 5 It is the same way with all of the individual details: Each
Keter. one of them has the four aspects mentioned above.
The Name SaG(63): the vowel points, which are in All of this is, however, only when the worlds are completed.
[Column 2] The worlds will not be entirely complete, however,
The Name MaH(45): the crownlets, which are in Binah.
until the purification (birur) and the reconfiguration (tikkun) of
The Name BaN(52): the letters, which are in Tiferet. 2 [ 43)
the "kings" is completed. That is why they are not complete.
We have also already explained that: There is a time when the six "extremities" are completed, but they
are not entirely complete, as noted above. [3]
The Name 'AB(72) in the Keter has within it Arikh Anpin
and Nukva. 3
The Name SaG(63) in the Chokhmah has Abba and Imma. INNER LIGHT AND SURROUNDING LIGHT IN HIGHER
The Name MaH(45) has Grandfather Israel (Israel Sava) 4 AND LOWER WORLDS
and Tevunah.
About the higher worlds, you should know that whatever is on a
The Name BaN(52) has Ze'ir Anpin and Nukva, who are
the "children." [45] lower level is less complete than what is on a higher level. This
is why you will find that all five aspects of the inner lights and
surrounding lights are only revealed down to the World of Bound
In Gate V, Chapter 1, the Name BaN(52) is identified with the lower Lights (Akudim). [7]
seven sefirot, which are represented here by their cenual sefirah, Tiferet. There is also another difference between them. With some,
The Keter of each world, which is also the partzuf Arikh Anpin, the surrounding lights are closer to the inner lights, while with
enclothes the partzuf Atik Yomin, which is formed from sparks of light
from the lower seven sefirot of the Malkhut-Nukva of the next higher
world. See Gate III, Chapter 1.
Grandfather Israel is the personification (partzuf) of the Malkhut of
Abba. Tevunah personifies the Malkhut of Imma.
A + D + M = 1 + 4 + 40 = 45.
242 I Tree of Life Aspects of th<' Soul I 243

others they are farther apart. However, from the World of Bound away from them. These backs are the letters and the nownlets-
Lights downward to the last of the worlds there is one deficiency that is, the lower level (nefesh) and middle level of soul (nwch),
that is not revealed in any of their individual parts. No more than which are attached together so that nothing is exposed except
five of the inner lights and two surrounding lights are revealed the inner light-the upper level, which is Binah. [25]
there, which are the surrounding light of the highest level of soul But when the inner light of the life-force, which is the brain,
(yechidah) and the surrounding light of the life-force (chayyah). comes to them, then no Shells are able to seize hold of them at
The other three inner lights-nefesh, ruach, and neshamah--do all, even from behind, since the light of the life-force shines there.
not have the aspect of surrounding lights. They are encircled by Even while there is still nothing there except the upper level
the surrounding light of the highest level and surrounding light (neshamah), which is Binah, it is true that the Shells have no
of the life-force, but not by their own surrounding lights. [13] power to seize the neshamah itself, because it is in the front. They
There are also other deficiencies and differences in the order do have power over the backs, however, which is why the
of the partzufim and the world. As a general rule, however, there partzufim then stand back-to-back. But when the life-force arrives,
can never be less than five inner lights and two higher surround- the Outsiders are not able to seize them even from the back
ing lights. [16] because of the stronger light of the life-force, which shines on
their backs. Then, when the partzufim grow larger, they can turn
to face each other and couple together. [32]
A further explanation for this is that while there is nothing
You should know that when the partzufim do not have the inner there except the upper level of soul (neshamah) there is a rea-
light of the life-force ( chayyah), it is not possible for them to son to fear that the Outsiders could attach themselves to their
couple. This light is an aspect of the cantillation marks, which back lights, which are only the lower level (nefesh). Because they
are called "brains," for all of the brains are the secret of need protection, they have to turn back-to-back. There is still,
Chokhmah, which is the Name 'AB(72). 7 The rest of its lights- however, concern that the Outsiders could somehow penetrate
the inner lights of the nefesh, ruach, and neshamah-are called between those who are attached back-to-back and suck from them.
"back lights" because then the partzufim must stand back-to-back. So while there is only the upper level of soul, the Emanator ar-
The reason for this is that when they do not yet have the aspect ranges that the lights of the female are attracted only to the male.
that is mentioned above, they are still 'judgment" and are called Then the male takes two aspects-his and hers-and lights go out
"vowel points" (nekudot), which are the Name SaG(63) and the from him to her through his rear opening. The female clings
upper level of soul (neshamah), which is 'judgment" (din). there and attaches herself completely in a single wall, with no
Therefore, in order that there be no place for the Outsiders to open space between them into which the Strangers can enter.
seize them, there must also be some backs that are even farther [ 41]

In Etz Chayyim, the personified forces of evil, the broken Shells of the DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES IN HUMANS AND PARTZUFIM
sefirot of the World of Points, are also called Outsiders or Strangers.
In the Zahar, they are referred to as the Other Side (sitra 'achra).
You should understand this and see that in the lower Adam-
See Gate V, Chapter I, however, where the Name 'AB(72) is identi- the earthly human being-it happens in the same way. When the
fied with the Keter, rather than Chokhmah. human being is only at the stage of the lower level of soul
244 I Tree of Life

(nefesh), then he can be seized and held by the Evil Inclination,

which is the Shells. This is the secret of "If a soul (nefesh) sins . .. "
(Leviticus 5: 1). 8 When he is on the level of the secret of the 3
middle aspect (ruach) he does not sin as much, which is the se-
cret of " . . . a pure heart .. . and a firm spirit (ruach) ... "
(Psalms 51 : 12). When he reaches the level of the secret of the
The Emergence and
upper level (neshamah), he is far away from sin but still needs Withdrawal of the Bound
protection from the back. When he obtains the "soul of the soul"
he does not sin at all. But enough of this! Lights (Akudim)
Let us return to the situation where Ze'ir Anpin and Nukva
are still in the secret of the lower level (nefesh). [Page 50] They
must be in the secret of pregnancy in the womb of their mother,
Imma, where no Strangers can attach themselves to them. Even
there they are standing back-to-back. At the time when they
emerge, when the middle level (ruach) comes to them during
the time of suckling, then Imma, the Mother, hovers over them
protectively, which is the secret of "She hovers over her young ... " [Second Version]
(Deuteronomy 32: 11). During all this time they are still back-to-
back. After that, as they grow up, the greater soul (neshamah The three aspects of the cantillation marks have
degadlut) comes to them. This is the brain from the side of now been explained. There are also the aspects of
lmma. The brain from the side of Abba, which is the Chokhmah vowel pain ts, crownlets, and letters, which are all in-
and is called the life-force ( chayyah), has not yet entered them. cluded within the cantillation marks. These were not
With all this, they are already face-to-face and coupling, but there revealed, however, until lower down, in the light from
is still something lacking. Later on, however, when the life-force the eyes, which we will study in its own place with the
and highest level (yechidah) came to them, and still later, when help of God. We will now explain the emergence of
the surrounding light of the life-force and the surrounding light the lights that are called "bound" ( 'akudim) . [17]
of the highest level of soul comes, then they are complete. This
You should know that at the time when the lights
happens only when they are ascending to the beard of Arikh
came forth they were not yet complete. We will also
Anpin. But enough of this! [11]
study this later on, with God's help. The reason for
this is that the Emanator's intention at this time was
to bring vessels into existence to enclothe the light,
which required receptacles to receive it. Therefore
when the lights emerged they were not entirely whole
81nits biblical context, vanefesh kiy tachta . .. is usually translated as or finished, so they had to go back up above to their
"When a person sins ... " (JPS).
246 I Tree of Life The Emergence and Withdrawal of the Bound Lights I 247
roots in order to complete and perfect themselves. This, as we deepen your understanding and you will see how profound ar"
will learn, is how the vessels were made. [Column 2] In this re- the thoughts of the Blessed One, that even a world as high as the
gard, the vessels certainly had the potential to exist, but could World of Bound Lights is still only the lowest aspect of soul. [3)
not become real in the midst of the light. Because they were the
thicker aspects of light, which were all connected together, the
aspect of vessels was not revealed. [ 4]
When the light came out from the mouth everything was Note that all of the ten sefirot came out, but they did not all come
mixed together. But when the light emerged again from the out together. In the World of Bound Lights, the first to come
mouth after the lights had gone back up to the mouth to com- out was Malkhut. This was the opposite from the World of Points,
plete themselves, then it had the aspect of vessels, which are as we will learn in its own place with God's help. This Malkhut
thicker. Because it had now become thicker the light could came out only with the lower aspect of soul (nefesh). As we know,
not return to the source from which it had originated. So the there is no sefirah that does not have the lower, middle, and
purest light was separated from it, returning to its source, and upper aspects of the soul. Now, however, they came out only with
the thick light became even thicker and finished becoming a the lower aspect of the soul. (7]
vessel. [10]
Figure 36. Malkhut Comes Out
You might think that when the pure light came back down - -- --

again and entered into the vessel, the vessel would revert to its
previous state, becoming as pure as it was in the beginning and
ceasing to be a vessel. The answer to this, as we will learn in an-
other place, is that not all of the ten sefirot that went up to their
source returned and came all the way back down. Instead, the
~dmon I
nine lower sefirot came down by themselves, but the highest,
which is the Keter, remains with the Emanator forever. From this
we can conclude that when the light of the Chokhmah returned
it enclothed itself in the vessel of the Keter, and similarly with
all the rest of the sefirot. As a result, the vessels were now able
r Nefesh I
to receive the light, which was less now than what they had in
the beginning. (18]
Know that they all came out first only as the lower level of
soul (nefesh). This is the secret of "HVYH has sworn by his 1
nefesh .. . " (Jeremiah 51:14; Amos 6:8), because the emanation
that is called the World of Points (nekudim), which is called
by the Name HVYH, swore by something that is greater than it- . ~E 'IR ANPIN COMES OUT
self-by the World of Bound Lights-which came out only as the So Malkhut came out first with the lowest aspect of soul (nefesh).
lower aspect of soul (nefesh). [Page 51] From this you will Then, when the Yesod came out, the Yesod was also revealed
248 I Tree of Life The Emergence and Withdrawal of the Bound Lighls I 249
only with the lowest aspect of soul, but its light was added to
Figure 37. Ze'ir Anpin Comes Out
Malkhut, which was then revealed with the middle aspect of soul
The reason for this is that the secret of the middle level
comes from the six "extremities" of Ze'ir An pin-the six sefirot
from Chesed to Yesod-so when the Yesod came out the middle Kadmon
level of soul began to be revealed in Malkhut. It was not
completely finished, however, until all of the six "extremities"
came out, from Yesod to Chesed. Then all aspects of the middle
level of Malkhut's soul were completed. As each of the six "ex-
Ze'ir Anpin
tremities" came out, one more part of the middle level was re-
vealed in Malkhut, as it is written in the Zahar in the portion
I Nefesh I
Terumah. [15] Lights
We know that the Yesod is not really part of the six "extremi-
(Akudim) + Ruach
ties," for there are only the five Cheseds 1 from Chesed to Hod.
This is because the Yesod does not take its own separate Chesed, Nefesh
but only includes within itself those of the other five "extremi-
ties. "2 As a result, when the Yesod came out, only the collective
whole (klalut) of the middle level of soul was revealed in Malkhut,
but when Hod and Netzach and the rest of the sefirot came out,
then all aspects of the six "extremities" of the middle level were There is one more difference between the Yesod and the other
fully revealed in Malkhut. (See Figure 37.) [20] five "extremities." When Hod came, it again gave the totality of
All of this has to do with the aspect of Malkhut. It was also th e power of its lower level of soul only to the Yesod. It was this
this way with the six "extremities" of Ze'ir An pin. However, when way with all of them until Chesed came out, which also gave all
the Yesod came out, only the aspect of the totality (klalut) of the of its power to the Yesod. This is not so with the other five "ex-
five "extremities" of Ze'ir An pin revealed themselves as the aspect tremities" because when one came it did not add anything more
of lower level of soul. Then when Hod came, one "extremity" of to its neighbor, since they are all equal. Only when all six "ex-
the lower level of Ze'ir Anpin is revealed, and this goes on until tremities" were complete do we find that all aspects of the lower
all six "extremities" are completed. [24] level of Ze'ir Anpin's soul were finished. [29]

Binah Comes Out

Another version has five "extremities." Then Binah came out with the lowest aspect of soul (nefesh)
2The sefirah Yesod acts like a funnel, collecting all the forces above it only for herself, and with the middle aspect of soul (ruach) for
and channeling them into Malkhut. See the Tree of Life diagram in Ze'ir Anpin and the upper aspect of soul (neshamah) for
the Introduction (Figure 3) . Malkhut. (See Figure 38.)
250 I Tree of Life The Emergence and Withdrawal of the Bound Lights I 251
Figure 38. Binah Comes Out Figure 39. Chokhmah Comes Out

Kadmon Adam

v The
Binah World
[ Nefesh I of Chokhmah
Ze'ir Anpin
Bound I Nefesh j
[+ Ruach
1 (Akudim) Bin ah
+ Ruach
+Neshamah Ze'ir Anpin
Ruach +Neshamah
Nefesh Ruach

+ Chayyah
Chokhmah Comes Out
Then came Chokhmah with the lowest aspect of soul (nefesh)
for himself, bringing the middle aspects of soul (ruach) to Binah,
the upper aspect (neshamah) to Ze'ir Anpin, and the life-force
(chayyah) to Malkhut. (See Figure 39.) [Column 2]
252 I Tree of Life The Emergence and Withdrawal of the Bound LighLS I 253
THE KE:TER COMES OUT Figure 40. The Keter Comes Out
After that the Keter came out with the lower aspect of soul
(nefesh) for itself, the middle aspect (ruach) for Abba, the upper
aspect (neshamah) for Imma, the life force (chayyah) for Ze'ir Anpin, Adam
and the highest aspect (yechidah) for Malkhut. (See Figure 40.) Kadmon
When the Keter came, which was the last of them all, it had
only the lowest aspect of soul (nefesh) . This is the secret of
"JJVYIJ has sworn by his nefesh ... ,"as we explained above. Even
this aspect of the soul of the Keter did not remain in the World
of Bound Lights because, as we explained above, it immediately Keter
turned around to hide itself, and remained attached to the place
of its Emanator. [8]
Bound I Nefesh J

When the Keter comes out, Malkhut becomes more complete
than all the others, having all five of the inner lights, which are
the lower, middle, and upper levels, the life-force, and the high- Bin ah
est level of soul. All of the other sefirot are still lacking some- +Neshamah
thing, however, having come out incomplete, without their "fi- Ruach
nal payments" (tashlomin). This was entirely intentional, as men- Nefesh
tioned above, which is why it was necessary for them to return
back up to the Emanator to receive their "final payments." [13] Ze'ir Anpin
When they returned this time, however, the Keter, which had + Chayyah
been the last to come out, was the first to reenter the Emanator,
while Malkhut was just the opposite, since she had come out first
but was the last to reenter. (See Figure 41.) This is the secret of
"I am the first and I am the last . .. " (Isaiah 44:6; 48: 12). This
expression can be correctly applied either to the Keter or to
Malkhut, except that one is the opposite of the other. We know Malkhut
that "I am" ( 'aniy) is applied to Malkhut, and when you rearrange r + Yechidah
the letters you get "nothingness" ( 'ayin), which is applied to the Chayyah
Keter. [17] Neshamah
When the Keter disappeared from its own place, Chokhmah Ruach
went up to the Keter's place, and Binah took the place of Nefesh
254 I Tree of Life The Emergence and Withdrawal of the Bound Light.s I 255
Figure 41. The Keter Goes Back Up Chokhmah. All of them went up this way until we Lind Malkh11t
in the place of the Yesod. Because of Malkhut's elevation into the
place of the Yesod, one surrounding light was added to her, which
corresponds to the aspect of the inner life-force (chayyah). Ze'ir
Kadmon Keter Anpin also went up one level and the aspect of the inner light
of the highest level (yechidah) was added to him. Now all five
0 of his inner lights were complete. As for Binah, the inner aspect
The of life-force (chayyah) was added to her, while the inner aspect
World Chokhmah
+Neshamah of the upper level (neshamah) was added to Chokhmah. (See Fig-
Bound Ruach ure 41.) [24]
Lights Nefesh
+ Chayyah
Neshamah Then the Chokhmah went up to the Emanator and Binah went
Ruach 11p to the place of the Keter where the inner aspect of the high-
Nefesh t 'Sl level of soul (yechidah) was added to her, so that she was com-

ple te in all five inner lights. (See Figure 42.) Ze'ir Anpin added
Ze'ir An(!iD
011e surrounding light, corresponding to the inner light of the
Chayyah llld'orce ( chayyah), while Malkhut added the highest surround-
Neshamah i11 g light, corresponding to the inner aspect of the highest level
Ruach of soul (yechidah) . [27]


I ht n, when Binah went up to her Emanator, Chesed-the first

111 1he six "extremities" of Ze'ir Anpin-went up to the place of
tilt' K<'ter , and Ze'ir Anpin added the second, higher surround-
111g light, which corresponds to the inner light of the highest level
111 soul (yechidah). (See Figure 43.) From there on, Ze'ir Anpin
111d Malkhut did not benefit, and no more lights were added to

tlw111. [Page 52] This subject is discussed in the first Introduc-

li1111 to the Zahar, where it is explained that every aspect of ev-
' 1 y world and every partzufhas ten sefirot, neither less nor more.

I ht '.~1 include ten inner lights and ten surrounding lights. How-
',.,., , the ten inner lights combine into only five, which corre-
256 I Tree of Life The Emergence and Withdrawal of the Bound Lights I 257
Figure 42. Chokhmah Goes Back Up Figure 43. Binah Goes Back Up

Adam Keter
Kadmon Chokhmah Adam Chokhmah
Kadmon Bin ah
+ Yechidah The
of World
Chayyah Ze'ir Anpin
Bound of
Ruach Bound
Nefesh Lights

258 I Tree of Life The Emergence and Withdrawal of the Bound LighLS I 259
spond to the five partzufim that we have mentioned elsewhere: in order to couple before any of the sefirot returned to their
Arikh Anpin, Abba, Imma, Ze'ir Anpin, and Nukva. These are also
Emanator. [23]
called the lower, middle, and upper levels, the life-force, and the You already know that coupling comes from the brains, which
highest level of soul of the collective whole (klalut) of every single are from Chokhmah downward. Ze'ir Anpin already had the as-
world. It is the same with the ten surrounding lights, which also pect of Chokhmah, which is the internal light of the life-force
combine into five, as we mentioned above. [6] ( chayyah), even before the Keter-which was the first of them all
You should also know, however, that in all the lights, worlds, to return-went back up to its Emanator. Even though Malkhut
and part.zufim that are from the nose of Adam Kadmon upward, was greater than they were because she had the inner light of
the five internal lights-which are combinations of the ten indi- the highest level of soul, we need not be concerned about this.
vidual sefirot, as we mentioned above-and the five surrounding This was not true of Abba, however, who did not have the inter-
lights, which are also combined from ten components, are com- nal aspect of life-force, even after the Keter had gone back up to
plete in every partzuf. However, from the mouth of Adam 1he Emanator. [28]
Kadmon down to the last of all the worlds, there are only the If you ask why Ze'ir Anpin and Nukva went up to the
five inner lights plus the two higher surrounding lights, which Emanator after they were already complete, the answer is that
correspond to the life-force (chayyah) and the highest level of 1heir whole existence came from Abba and Imma, and when Abba
soul (yechidah). Not only this, but the light is reduced from there .111d Imma disappeared upward, Ze'ir Anpin and Nukva did not
downward, so that, in our world, whose light comes to us from w;ml to be separated from them, but desired to cling and to bind
the mouth of Adam Kadmon, there are only five internal lights 1ltemselves to them, so they went up after Abba and Imma to re-
and two surrounding lights, and no more. Remember these in- ' 1ive light from them. Another reason was mentioned above, that
troductory matters. [16] 1ltt main purpose for returning to the Emanator was to make the
v1 -.~~ds. So they went up for that reason, as well. [34]



Notice that in the World of Bound Lights (Akudim), Ze'ir An pin

and Nukva are greater than Abba and Imma because they are
face-to-face, while Abba and Imma are back-to-back. This is be-
cause Ze'ir Anpin and Nukva had completed all that was neces-
sary for them-the five inner lights and two surrounding lights-
before they returned to ascend to their Emanator, which was not
so with Abba and Imma, for they were still incomplete: Abba had
only three internal lights, without any surrounding lights, while
Imma had only four internal lights and no surrounding lights
before any of her sefirot turned to go back up into her Emanator.
Ze'ir Anpin and Nukva, however, already had what they needed
Interruptions in the
Flow of Light

[Second Version]

You should know that when the Keter went back up

to the Emanator, [Column 2) the revealed aspect of
the highest level of soul (yechidah)-that is, the light
that was given to Malkhut when the Keter came out-
was removed from her during the entire time that the
Keter was going back up. The Keter had no inten-
tion of shining into her while it was going up to hide
itself, but instead it left within her only an impres-
sion (roshem) . When the Keter had finished conceal-
ing itself, and Malkhut had finished her ascent to the
end of the Yesod, then the internal aspect of her
highest level of soul returned to shine on her in the
same way that it had in the beginning. After the Keter
had gone up into the Emanator and Malkhut had
also risen into the place of the Yesod, she was one
level closer to the Emanator and she could now re-
ceive from the Emanator what she had previously
262 I Tree of Life

received from the Keter. But during the entire time when the
Keter had not yet finished its ascent it was separating the
Emanator from Binah. Nor was the Keter itself shining on
Malkhut. It is the same way with the aspect of life-force ( chayyah),
which she had received from the Keter. 1 [12]
It was also the same with Chokhmah, Binah, and the others.
Sources of Light and
When the Chokhmah went up into the Emanator, the portion
of its light that had shone into Malkhut was removed from her,
Levels of the Soul
leaving nothing behind for Malkhut except its impression, until
the Chokhmah finished ascending to its Emanator. Then the light
came back the way it was at the beginning. You can deduce from
this what happened to all of the other parts, because there are
many segments, for until the Chokhmah had finished going up
into the place of the Keter, the light was removed from every-
thing that was below it. After it had risen to the Keter, however,
the light returned to shine the way it had in the beginning. Then,
when the Chokhmah turned a second time to ascend into the [Second Version]
Emanator, the light was removed a second time. When it finished
its ascent, the light again returned to its former condition. If you We will now explain how the vessels were made
study this for yourself you will understand what happened with through the return and the disappearance of the
the rest of the segments. It was the same way with the lights sur- lights up above.
rounding Ze'ir Anpin and Nukva, which they take when they
return and conceal themselves up above. [22]

In this regard, when the lights went upward, the thick

and coarse light, which is also the aspect of vessels,
remained below, as mentioned above . Now, it is the
nature of lights to leave their impression below in the
place where they were before, so when these lights
ascended they all left their impressions behind, where
they themselves had once been. How did this happen?
First the Keter left its impression to shine on Chokh-
mah; Chokhmah did the same for Binah; Binah for
See Chapter 3, however, where it states that Malkhut received the life- Ze'ir Anpin; and Ze'ir Anpin, for Nukva. [31]
force from Chokhmah, not from the Keter. It is always the nature of what is above to shine
264 I Tree of Life Sources of Light and Levels of th<' Soul I 265
on what is below. Its desire to shine downward is like a mother's however, one difference among them. Chokhmah rcrt'ivcs light
desire for her children, which is why it leaves its impression be- from the back of only one other sefirah-the Keter-while Bi11ah
hind. So we find that they all left their impressions behind ex- receives light from two backs, which are the Keter and Chokh-
cept for Malkhut. Because there is no other sefirah below for her mah, so she is even more 'judgment." It goes on this way until
to shine upon, she does not leave her impression below her. (35] we come to Malkhut, who we find received light from the backs
of nine other se!irot. (23]
There is one more difference because, besides the difference
between a greater and lesser number of backs, Tiferet receives
We will now explain this beginning with the Yesod, which was the its light from the back of Gevurah, a very harsh back. This is not,
last among the sefirol to leave its impression behind. [Page 53] however, the case for the sefirot that are above it. Correspond-
We can say that at the time when it goes upward from the ing to these aspects are the differences in the light that extends
Yesod to the place of Hod it leaves its impression behind in its to them, which is total judgment, moderate judgment, or mild
place for the use of Malkhut. That impression never leaves its judgment. There is not enough power in my pen to enlarge on
place, even when Malkhut herself turns around and goes back these details, for there are too many of them. The wise will un-
up to the Emanator. The rest of the sefirot do the same with the derstand this. [32]
exception of Malkhut, as we explained above. [5]
This impression originated in the first, linear light that came
straight downward. Light that comes straight in is "compassion" FOUR KINDS m- LIGHT

(rachamim), while light that comes from the light that is return- We find that there are three kinds of light. One light, which is
ing upward is 'judgment" (din). Therefore this impression, which in all of them, is called "bound" ( 'akudim), as mentioned above.
is from the straight light, is "compassion." [8] The second is the impression that was left by the light that came
We know that when the sefirot of the World of Bound Lights straight in, through the straight line . This is "compassion"
(Akudim) emerged they were facing downward. They came out (rachamim). The third is the light that comes through the back
with the intention of shining downward, so they were facing those of a sefirah that is returning upward with its back turned down-
who were about to receive light from them. When they went back ward, which is 'judgment" (din). When the third light, which is
upward they turned their faces up toward the Emanator and 'judgment," meets the impression that remained behind, which
turned their backs downward. When the Keter goes up to the is "compassion," then they collide and strike against each other
Emanator there is, however, no question of the Emanator's light because they are two opposites: One is straight light, which is
being cut off even for an instant from those who receive its em- "compassion," and the other is returning light, which is 'judg-
anations. The only difference is that while the Keter is ascend- ment." [Column 2] The impression seeks to go back up to its
ing, the light comes down from the Emanator to the other se- source. Even though it does not actually ascend, however, it has
firot through the Keter's back, since it has turned its face upward a desire and a longing to be attached and to receive light from
with its back toward what is being emanated. This is the light that it. The returning light longs to go downward, so they are not of
is 'judgment," which we mentioned above. It was also this way the same nature, which is why they strike each other, as we know.
with the rest of the sefirot that returned and went up. There was, All these collisions and lights striking each other occur because
266 I Tree of Life Sources of Lighl and Levels of the Soul I 267

they are not equals. Then sparks-which are 'judgment"-fall IMPRESSIONS AND VESSELS

from the descending light, which is 'judgment." These sparks of We will begin to clarify this matter.
light are even lower in quality than the impression, and this makes The light of Malkhut did not leave behind any impression; all
a fourth kind of light. [7] of its aspects were entirely removed and went up with it. For this
So now we have four different aspects of light. They are the reason Malkhut is called "an unsh ining mirror" 1 that has noth-
secret of the four aspects of cantillation marks, vowel points, ing of her own, because she did not leave behind any impres-
crownlets, and letters that we discussed above. All of them were sion except for the impression left by the Yesod, which shone
included within the category of Bound Lights. More specifically: upon her. [23]
The first light corresponds to the cantillation marks. There is still another reason that Malkhut is described in this
The "back" lights are the vowel points, for the vowel points way. When the rest of the lights turned around again and came
are always judgment (din). hack downward a second time, the Keter remained attached to
The impression is the crownlets. the Emanator and did not come back down at all. As a result,
The light from the sparks that fall from the lights striking we find that Chokhmah came back to the place of the Keter and
each other is the letters. It is from this light that the ves- Malkhut took the place of the Yesod. This left Malkhut's vessel
sels were made. [11] without any light at all, so the vessel of Malkhut is called "an
11nshining mirror." We explain this at length in another place,
Table 18. Four Kinds of Light Within the World of Bound
where we discuss the World of Bound Lights. [28]
Lights (A.kudim)
When Malkhut rose up into the place of the Yesod, the Yesod
Letters Light Quality was shining backward on her, as noted above. When that same
light from the Yesod struck the light of Malkhut, sparks from the
Cantillation Marks Direct Light Compassion (rachamim)
light that came through the back of the Yesod fell down onto the
Vowel Points Back Light Judgment (din)
Crown lets Impression Compassion (rachamim)
wss<'l of Malkhut. [31]
Letters Sparks Judgment (din) When the Yesod rose up it left its impression in its place. The
light coming through the Yesod's back also struck this impression,
We have explained how the vessels were made from the lights 111d the sparks that fell from this collision formed the vessels of

colliding and striking each other, which we described above. Ac- 1ht Yesod. The light from the impression illuminated this vessel

cording to my humble opinion, based on what I heard from my I 10111 a distance but did not enter into it, which is like the secret
teacher of blessed memory, there were already vessels within the nl 1hc crownlets on the letters, as we will explain with God's help
World of Bound Lights, and the sparks mingled with them. This 111 om discussion of the World of Points. Look for it there. [36]

is analogous to the 284 sparks that remained in the vessels of the This happened with all the sefirot except for the Keter, which
World of Points, which we will study in its own place with God's ll'lt its impression for the use of the Chokhmah, but did not make
help. The evidence for this, which we already explained above, 1111y aspect of a vessel. Let us agree that the aspect of vessels was
is that when the light went back up above, the vessel that re-
mained behind was made from light that was thick and coarse.
[18] .11/1.11 I, 49 (Bereshit) et al.
268 I Tree of Life Sources of Light and Levels of lhe Soul I 269
made when the other sefirot rose upward and struck against The disappearance of the lights of the World of Bound Lights
whatever was above them. [Page 54] As for the Keter, however, and their ascent into their Emanator is also the removal of the
there was no one to strike against when it ascended, which is why "kings" referred to there. If you analyze it carefully, you will find
its vessel was not yet completed. So the Keter left an impression this. [21)
but without a vessel; the rest of the sefirot left both an impression There is, of course, a difference between them. Here in the
and a vessel, and Malkhut left a vessel but no impression. [ 4) World of Bound Lights the damage is for the sake of
reconfiguration and the destruction is for the sake of building,
VESSELS l 00R THE KETER because the primary purpose of the lights' ascent is to make ves-
sels. In the World of Points it was total elimination and real death.
It is certain that after the sefirot had received light from the However, because in the World of Bound Lights the vessels be-
Emanator, they all went back down to their places, except for the gan to reveal themselves only a little, there was only a partial
Keter, as noted above. The vessel of the Keter was only made then elimination here. [Column 2) The wise will understand this, for
by returning light, because when the Chokhmah came back and the same kind of contraction occurred with Adam Kadmon, as
entered into it, the light of the Chokhmah struck the impression we explained above. Later on we will explain, with God's help,
that the Keter had left behind in its place. This was a double blow. how the World of Points emerged from this and how the light
Because the impression of the Keter is a higher aspect than the of Adam Kadmon contracted itself and a "curtain" was spread out
Chokhmah, it struck the Chokhmah and produced sparks. But at the level of his navel. 3 All of this closely resembles the removal
in addition, now that the Chokhmah was coming down from of the "kings." We are not permitted to enlarge on these things
above, it stood higher, above the impression, so it struck the im- 01 to express them openly, but the wise will understand. [5]
pression, bringing forth other sparks. In this way two vessels were
made: one for the impression of the Keter, and one for the light
of the Chokhmah, which was now returning. [13)
We will explain at length elsewhere how the Keter includes You should know that the ten roots of the ten sefirot of the World
both male and female. These are the two lights that we are de- of Points remained in the Malkhut of the World of Bound Lights,
scribing here-the impression of the Keter and the Chokhmah. ~1s we will explain with God's help. It was this way with all of the
Look carefully there. 2 [15) cmanations, for the Malkhut of the roots that are in the mouth
of' Adam Kadmon consists of ten sefirot, which are the ten roots
of the ten sefirot of the World of Bound Lights ( 'akudim), and
111 1he Malkhut of the World of Bound Lights there are ten roots

You can understand from this how we also find a removal of 101 the ten sefirot of the World of Points (nekudim). Similarly,

"kings" in the World of Bound Lights. This is comparable to those 111 1he Malkhut of the World of Points there are also ten roots,

kings who ruled in the land of Edom, who died and were re- which are the roots of the ten sefirot of the World of "Spots"
moved, as we will explain in our discussion of the World of Points. (lwllldim). It is the same with the rest of the worlds. [10)

See Gate 7, Chapter 3. //// Chayyim, Vol. II, The Palace of Points, Gate I, Chapter 2.
Sources of Light and Levels of lhc Soul I 271
270 I Tree of Life
Malkhut has all five of these aspects:
[First Version]
Malkhut herself is her own lower level of soul (nefesh) .
In every one of these aspects there are four realities. These are: The lower level of Tiferet shines in her, becoming th e
1) The vessels. middle level (ruach) of Malkhut.
2) Th e inner aspects of the soul-lower (nefesh), middle The lower level of Binah is the upper level (neshamah) of
(ruach), and upper (neshamah). Malkhut.
3) The surrounding life-force (chayyah). The lower level of Chokhmah becomes the "soul of the
4) The highest aspect (yechidah), which surrounds the sur- soul" of Malkhut.
rounding life-force. [13) The lower level of the Keter becomes the highest level
(yechidah) of Malkhut. [22)
Of the last two aspects, one is called the "life force" (chayyah)
which is one surrounding light, also called the "soul of the soul." Similarly, Tiferet has his own lower level of soul (nefesh),
It comes from Chokhmah in the secret of "Wisdom (chokhmah) which is the aspect of the middle level (ruach) of Malkhut. 5 In
brings life (chayyim) to those who possess it" (Ecclesiastes 7:12). addition:
Note, too, that the numerical value of "life" (chayyim) is 68, which
is the same as that of "wise" (chakham). 4 [15] Tiferet himself is his own middle level (ruach).
The other, which is the second surrounding light, comes from The middle level of Binah is his upper level (n eshamah).
[Page 55]
the Keter and is called yechidah (one-ness) because unlike the
The middle level of Abba is his life-force (chayyah).
other partzufim, Arikh Anpin has no female counterpart. There-
The middle level of the Keter is the highest level (yechidah)
fore it is called "one-ness" with no second that is above it, as it is
of Tiferet.
written, "For he was only one ( 'echad) when I called him" (Isaiah
51:2). [18) Binah herself has her own lower level, middle level, and up-
This is the secret of what our teacher of blessed memory said: pe r level of soul. In addition:
The soul has five names, corresponding to the five The upper level of Abba is the life-force (chayyah) of Binah.
partzufim: [19)
The upper level of Arikh Anpin is her highest level
The lowest level (nefesh) is Malkhut. (yechidah).
The middle level (ruach) is Tiferet.
Abba himself has four of these aspects as his own-lower level,
The upper level (neshamah) is Binah.
111iddle level, upper level, and the life-force-but receives his high-
The life force (chayyah) is Chokhmah.
<'St level of soul (yechidah) from the life-force of Arikh An pin . [ 4]
The highest level (yechidah) is Keter.

~Th e middle level (ruach) of Malkhut is also the lower level (nefesh)
ChaYYiM = 8 + 10 + IO + 40 = 68 and ChaKhaM = 8 + 20 + 40 = 68. of Tiferet (see above).
272 I Tree of Life Sources of Light and Levels of the Soul I 273

Figure 44. Sources of the Soul in the Five Partzufim AsPECTS OF THE SOUL IN HUMAN BEINGS

Now, human beings have an inner vitality ( chayyut), which is the

Ket er
nefesh, ruach, and neshamah. These lights alone, however, would
Yechidah not be enough to enlighten the physical body. For that, we need
Chokhmah =
Lo have the "soul of the soul" surrounding us on the outside.
Because the internal neshamah is the aspect of Imma, and the
"soul of the soul" surrounding it on the outside is the aspect of
Binah = Abba, these two aspects-Abba and Imma-are never separated.
Imm a Because the inner light of Imma has a strong desire to join itself
to Abba, it pushes strongly and comes out, penetrating through
1h e substance of the body, and shining on the outside, where it
Tiferet = rnnnects with Abba. The opposite is also true. The light of Abba
Ruach Ze'irAnpin
penetrates and enters into the body where it connects with Imma.
This is what enables the body to exist, because it is illuminated
from all sides. This surrounding light is the "soul of the soul,"
Nefesh Malkhut=
Nukva called the "life-force" (chayyah), which entirely surrounds the
whole body. This light surrounds and illuminates each part only
with what is appropriate to that part. It surrounds the portion of
1hc upper level of soul (neshamah) with the aspect of the upper
l<vel. It surrounds whatever belongs to the middle level of soul
(m ach) with the aspect of middle level. It surrounds what belongs
10 the lower level of soul (nefesh) with the aspect of lower
Nefesh lc vcl. [18]
However, the greatest surrounding light-the highest level of
110111 (yechidah)-corresponds to the aspect, Arikh Anpin. It does
llOL surround the individual parts of the body in different ways,
h11t instead surrounds the whole body equally and gives light to
.ti I parts of the soul. That is another reason that it is called
J'<'Chidah (one-ness)-it has only one aspect and is uniformly the
~; 1mc everywhere. As for the three-part soul on the inside of the
h11man, the upper level (neshamah) shines primarily in the head,
within the brain; the middle level (ruach) is concentrated in the
lll'art; and the lower level (nefesh) is found in the liver, in the
fie-sh and in the blood. You should know, however, that all three
of these aspects are also found in the head itself. The upper
274 I Tree of Life

aspect (neshamah) is strongest in the head-primarily in the

brain-while the middle aspect (ruach) is in the nose and the
lower aspect (nefesh) is in the mouth. Every single aspect of the 6
body, however, has everything that we have mentioned here.
Returning to the
Emanator 1

[Second Version]

During the time that the lights of the ten sefirot of

the World of Bound Lights (Akudim) were first com-
ing down, the light that flowed to them from the
Emanator was in the form of straight light ('or
yashar). Later on, when the lights were returning
back upward, the light they received is called return-
ing light ('or chozer). (29]
We must now make known to you another intro-
ductory matter that includes all the worlds. This also
concerns the return of the lights to the Emanator, in
addition to what we explained elsewhere. (31]


Even though the lights go back up and disappear, an

This Chapter largely repeats material that is found in
Chapter 3.
276 I Tree of Life Returning to the Em:wntor I 277
aspect of light still continues to shine downward from the Ema- Keter does not move from there, even though the Chokhmah has
nator, which is called "returning light." There is also another gone up to the Emanator. [5]
important aspect that is good for you to know about. Even when It was the same later on, when the Chokhmah went up to the
the lights have removed themselves by going upward, they never Emanator and disappeared, leaving its impression in its vessel to
totally disappear in all of their aspects. Instead they leave behind provide light for Binah . Even after Binah had gone back up to
from their strength and from their own aspects a small amount the Emanator the impression of the Chokhmah did not disappear
of light that remains in the place where they first stood. That from its vessel. It went on this way with all of the sefirot down to
light, which is never removed from there, even when they go back the Yesod. But when the light of Malkhut disappeared, she did
up above, is called the "impression," which is the secret of "Place not leave behind an impression in her vessel because there was
me like a seal (chotem) upon your heart" (Song of Songs 8:6). no other sefirah beneath her to receive light from her. Even
This is discussed in the Zohar at the end of the chapter Mishpa- though other worlds were destined to come into existence be-
tim, p. 114a. [39] neath her and to receive light from her in the future, they are
The reason for this is that the upper lights relate to the lower in a different category. The connection between Malkhut and the
lights the way a father relates to his children, always desiring to other worlds is not as strong as the connections among the ten
bestow abundance upon them, which is the way we explain the s<firot within each individual world. [13]
commandment "Honor your father and your mother" (Exodus So we find that all of those sefirot leave in their place an im-
20:12; Deuteronomy 5:16), because a single spark is drawn out pression in their own vessel when they want to remove themselves
from father to son that never moves from the son. It is the same .111d go back up above. However, the light of Malkhut does not
here with regard to the ten sefirot. The higher ones leave behind l< ave an impression in her vessel, except for the impression that
in their place a small amount of light, which is called their "im- tile light of the Yesod leaves in his vessel. That light is attracted
pression," so that their light can continue to illuminate those that f1orn there to the vessel of Malkhut after her light disappears
are below. It follows that when the Keter ascends and disappears, 11pward. That is yet another reason we say that Malkhut is poor,
it leaves behind in its place an impression in its vessel to shine with nothing at all of her own, and call her "an unshining mir-
down from there onto the Chokhmah below, [Column 2] after ' or": When she ascended and the light was removed from her
which the Keter itself goes up and disappears. 2 After it disappears vc-sscl there was no light there at all, since none was left behind
up above, the light from the impression that the Keter leaves cvc-n in the form of an impression. Even her own vessel was kept
behind in its vessel is attracted toward the light of the Chokhmah. ,dive not by her own light, but by the impression that was left in
Even after the light of the Chokhmah itself goes up to the 111< vessel of the Yesod. That is what enlightens and keeps alive
Emanator and disappears, the impression left in the vessel of the ill<' vessel of Malkhut, which is why they say that she has nothing
,11 .ill of her own. [25]

Note that here it states that the impression is left in the vessel of the *****
Keter. In Chapter 5, however, it states that the light of the Keter ini-
tially left an impression but no vessel. Gate VII, Chapter 3, provides a It has now been clarified for you through these two introduc-
detailed description of how the vessel of the Keter was made during 1ions how the vessels of the ten sefirot can have two kinds of
the second emergence of the lights. l1gh1s, even while the lights were turning back upward and dis-
278 I Tree of Life Returning lO the Emanawr I 279
appearing into the Emanator. One, called returning light, is 'judg- the lights of the rest of the lower sefirot turned around and
ment" (din) and the second, which is the light that was left in moved up a second time, so that the light of Binah came to the
the vessels, is called the impression. This is straight light ('or place of the Keter and the light of Malkhut took the place of
yashar), which is "compassion" (rachamim) because it is light that I Iod. This time:
was left behind by the light that came down as the aspect of
straight light. [30] The higher of the two surrounding lights-the highest level
In the World of Bound Lights, we find that even though the of soul (yechidah)-was added to the light of Malkhut.
process of making the vessels was not yet finished, some aspects The other surrounding light-the life-force (chayyah)-was
of vessels existed as a thicker light that was mixed together with added to the light of Ze'ir Anpin.
The internal aspect of the highest level of soul (yechidah)
the purer light, as we have stated elsewhere. When the purer light
was added to the light of Binah.
returned upward, the thicker light remained below as vessels. Two
other aspects of the purer light-the impression and the return- Now Malkhut was complete in all aspects of her soul. [48]
ing light-were also left behind in the thick light that became After that, the light of Binah went up into the Emanator.
the vessels. [38] I Page 56] The light of Chesed, which is the first sefirah of Ze'ir
/\11pin, then went up to the place of the Keter and the light of
THE KETER, CHOKHMAH, AND BINAH RETURN Malkhut went up to the place of Netzach. This time, the higher
TO THE EMANATOR of the two surrounding lights, that of the highest level of soul
( 1<'chidah), was added to Ze'ir An pin. only, after which he, too,
We have explained elsewhere 3 that when the lights went back
w;1s also complete in all aspects. [2]
upward an additional aspect of light was added to each of them.
From then on, when the rest of the lower lights ascended, no
When the light of the Keter went up into the Emanator:
11101 c lights were added to Ze'ir An pin or to Nukva. They were
The surrounding aspect of the life-force (chayyah)-the tl11acly complete because, as we stated above, from the World of
lower of the two surrounding lights-was added to the light l\111111cl Lights onward only the two higher surrounding lights
of Malkhut. 1 .1111< out-the surrounding light of the life-force (chayyah) and
The internal aspect of the highest level of soul (yechidah) die surrounding light of the highest level of soul (yechidah) . [6]
was added to Ze'ir Anpin, which was one more aspect of
W<' said that when each of the lights turned and went back
light than he had in the beginning, before the returning
light began to go back upward. 11p 10 the Emanator, light was added to complete the lights be-
The internal aspect of the life force (chayyah) was added l11w ii. You should know that this did not happen while they were
to the light of Binah. 1111 i11 the process of ascending and disappearing. On the con-
The upper level of soul (neshamah) was added to the light 11.11 y, .Ill the lower lights lacked illumination then because when

of Chokhmah. [ 43] 1111' l11gher lights first turned their faces upward to rejoin the
l\111:111.110r they had no desire to shine on the lower lights beneath
Next, the light of Chokhmah went up to the Emanator and
ii 11111, nor did the Emanator itself shine down on them. In fact,
wltil1 1lw higher lights were in the process of disappearing they
Gate VI, Chapter 3. 1111:1111<' a barrier between the lower lights and the Emanator. The
280 I Tree of Life Returning lo the Emanator I 281
higher lights do not want to receive light and shine on the lower In fact, even more lights were added to them because when th"
lights during the entire time that they have a longing and a de- Keter finished disappearing into the Emanator, the rest of th<'
sire to go up and rejoin the Emanator. On the contrary, there lights rose up one level higher than they had been at the begin-
was a real lack of light in the lower lights compared to what they ning. They all went up one after another until the light of
had in the beginning. They received the additional lights that we Malkhut came to the place where the light of the Yesod had
described above, however, after the higher lights had finished originally been. Because she was now one step closer to the
going back up to their roots. [17] Emanator, she received from the Emanator all that she had first
received from the Keter-the internal aspect of the highest level
***** of soul (yechidah)-plus the lower surrounding light of the as-
We will now explain in an orderly way how all of this hap- pect of life-force ( chayyah). [ 44]
pened. The same thing happened with Ze'ir Anpin, Chokhmah, and
Binah, because they all received one more light, in addition to
what they had received.

The Keter was the first of all the lights to begin to go back up-
ward to its own root and to disappear into its Emanator. During WHEN THE CHOKHMAH RETURNED TO THE EMANATOR

the time that it is going up and removing itself, the internal as- Similarly, when the light of the Chokhmah removed itself and
pect of the highest level of soul (yechidah), which had been giv- . 1 ~r e nded to the place of the Keter, it took away from Malkhut and
en to Malkhut when the Keter originally came down, is removed It om all the rest of the lights the portion of light that they had
from her. In addition, the inner aspect of the life-force (chayyah) 1crdved from it. From Malkhut, this was the internal aspect of the
of Ze'ir Anpin, which he had received when the Keter came lddorce (chayyah). It was the same with the lights of Ze'ir Anpin
down, is now removed from him. The upper level (neshamah) is ,111d Binah: Nothing remained with them except their impressions.
also removed from Binah, and the middle level (ruach) from WllC'n the light of Chokhmah finished going up to the place of
Chokhmah. But the impressions of all of those lights-the impres- 1111 Keter, then the lights shone again the way they had in the
sion of the upper level of soul, the middle level of soul, etc.- ltc ginning, so they again had all the aspects that they had at first,
are still left in all of them. [30] plus the additional lights that we mentioned above. [51]
Even though the lights removed themselves, it was not their After that, when the light of the Chokhmah again turned to
intention to disappear totally or forever, which is why they left will1draw from the place of the Keter and ascend to the
their impressions down below. Even when they removed them- l~ 111anator, all the lower lights were again diminished. Nothing at
selves it was still necessary for them to shine a little of their light .di was left from all the lights that had extended to them through
on those below them. If they had not, the lower lights would have die light of the Chokhmah except for their impressions. When
completely disappeared, as we will learn with God's help. [34] the: Chokhmah finished its ascent into the Emanator, all the lights
After the light of the Keter was completely removed and had 1c1111 ned to them along with an additional light since they, too,
disappeared into the Emanator, then all the lights that were be- we1 e doser to the Emanator than they had been in the begin-
low it returned, shining just the way they had in the beginning. 11i11g. [57]
282 I Tree of Life Returning to the EmanMor I 283
WHEN THE OTHER LIGHTS RETURNED everything they needed for them to couple. As we mentioned
above, Ze'ir Anpin already had the aspect of life-force (chayyah),
The rest of the lower lights ascended in the same way. When the
which is his Chokhmah, and Malkhut had an additional advan-
higher lights went upward the lower lights were diminished, but
tage because she also had the highest aspect of the soul
when the higher lights were completely removed, then all the
(yechidah), which enabled them to couple face-to-face. Even
lower lights were restored to the way they were in the beginning
though Malkhut had an advantage over Ze'ir Anpin, this is not a
but with an additional light, as mentioned above. [60]
matter of concern. So even before Ze'ir Anpin and Nukva went
There is, however, another difference between the lights.
up into the Emanator they were already complete in all the as-
When the light of the Keter removed itself, only one light turned
a101mcl and went up to disappear into the Emanator. We have
pects that were necessary and appropriate for them. These in-
luded all five of the inner aspects--lower level (nefesh), middle
found that there were only two aspects to this process: [Column
2J First, during the time that it was removing itself, there was a level (ruach), upper level (neshamah), life-force ( chayyah), and
lessening of light for the lower sefirot, second, when it finished highest level (yechidah)-and the two surrounding aspects of the
disappearing into the Emanator, light returned to those lights life-force and the highest level of soul. Because of this, they had
II that they needed, from the aspect of life-force downward, to
below. With the Chokhmah, however, this all happened twice:
enable them to turn face-to-face. [25]
Once, when it moved up into the place of the Keter; again, when
With Abba and Imma it was different. Even though the Keter
it disappeared into the Emanator. Each of these two withdrawals
had two aspects: First a diminishing, then an increase, in light. had already turned around to go back up to the Emanator, Abba
In the same way, Binah removed herself in three stages, each of still did not have the aspect of Chokhmah, which is the life-force.
which was also doubled, making six. It went on in this way until So they were not complete in all the aspects that they needed,
all ten lights had finished returning to their roots in the which are the five inner lights and two surrounding lights. Even
Emanator, which is the mouth of Adam Kadmon, because their after Abba had finished adding lights, he still had only three of
roots were there. That is one of the ways that the World of Bound them-the internal aspects of lower level (nefesh), middle level
Lights (Akudim) is different from the World of Emanation (ruach), and upper level (neshamah). Imma, on the other hand,
(Atzilut). In the World of Emanation, Abba and Imma are more had four inner aspects, but lacked the inner aspect of the high-
complete than Ze'ir Anpin and Nukva, who are not entirely com- est level (yechidah) and the surrounding aspects of the life-force
plete in all their aspects, as we will learn in another place with ( chayyah) and the highest level of soul (yechidah). Since Abba
God's help. But in the World of Bound Lights, Ze'ir Anpin and did not yet have the internal aspect of the life-force to produce
Nukva were more nearly perfect than Abba and Imma, and all the drop from the brain that was required for them to couple,
of their aspects were more complete. This meant that Ze'ir An pin they remained back-to-back. [31]
and Nukva were face-to-face, while Abba and Imma were back-to- Then why, you may ask, did Ze'ir Anpin and Nukva have to
back. [14] ascend to the Emanator, since their lights were already complete
It is well known that in coupling, the drop from the male origi- in all their aspects? The reason for this, as we know, is that all of
nates in his brain, which is, the "soul of the soul." Even before their life and their well-being comes to them from Abba and
any of the sefirot-including Keter, the highest-turned around Imma. So when Abba and Imma went away from them and rose
to ascend to the Emanator, Ze'ir Anpin and Nukva already had upward, Ze'ir Anpin and Nukva also went up after them because
284 I Tree of Life

the receiver always desires to pursue and remain close to the giver.
They wanted to stay close to Abba and Imma and continue to
receive their light. Even after they had gone upward they did not 7
want to be separated and left far away from them. [33]
There is another explanation, which we have already men-
tioned. The reason these lights returned to their Emanator was
Light from the Front and
so that while they were absent their vessels could thicken and the
work of making them could be completed. That is the other rea-
Light from the Back
son that the lights of Ze'ir Anpin and Nukva went upward-so
that their vessels could be made.

[Second Version]

It is now necessary to explain what kind of light

reached the lower lights during the time when the
higher lights were going up.


We began to explain this matter previously. Its expla-

nation will clarify a major principle that will be use-
ful to you in other contexts. This has to do with the
straight light and the light returning upward from
below, which is mentioned in many places in the
Tikkunim and in the Zahar. [48]
You should know that there can be no -doubt that
the outflow of light from the Emanator extends to the
emanated without any interruption, even for a single
instant. This is true even when there is a defect in
the lower lights, and the higher lights tum their faces

286 I Tree of Life Light from the Front and Lighl from lhe Back I 287

away from the lower ones to remove themselves and go up. Even self up and ascends, turning its face upward toward the Emanator
then the higher light watches over the lower ones as much as is and its back downward toward the Chokhmah, then the back light
needed to keep them alive, never ceasing at all, as we learn from that the Chokhmah receives comes to it from the Emanator
the verse, "A moment in His anger, a lifetime in His favor" through only one back, which is that of the Keter. When the
(Psalms 30:6). [54) Chokhmah itself ascends to the Emanator, it also turns around,
The light that extends from the Emanator and shines on the turning its back downward toward Binah. Then the light that
lower sefirol while the others are going upward is not, however, Binah receives from the Emanator comes to it through two
omparable lo the light that extended to them when the upper backs-Keter and Chokhmah. It is the same with all the sefirot,
lights are coming down to shine on them. [Page 57] We now until we find that the light that Malkhut receives from the
find that two aspects of light are emitted from the Emanator to Emanator comes to her through nine backs. [25)
those down below. One is when the lights are coming down- It has already been explained that the light shining through
ward-the way of descent-and the other is when the lights with- the backs is 'judgment" (din) and that anything that increases
draw and go back upward-the way of ascent. However, when the the number of backs makes the light harsher and the judgment
lower lights have the will, the strength, and the wholeness to more severe. This is one difference between the sefirot, based on
receive the higher light of the Emanator, then the upper lights an increase or a decrease in the number of backs through which
have a desire and a yearning to shine downward and therefore, the light shines. [28)
turning their faces downward toward the recipients of their light, There is another difference based on the qualities of the backs
they come down and shine on them face-to-face. [8] themselves, which are not all the same. The back of Chesed is
However, when the lower lights are not yet whole the higher not like the back of Gevurah, for the back of Gevurah is extremely
lights withdraw, turning their faces around toward the Emanator harsh judgment. It is similar with all the rest of the sefirot, the
with the intention of going up there, and turning their backs .1spects of judgment that are in their backs are not the same from
toward those on a lower level. When they do this, the light that one to another. Because Tiferet receives its light through the back
shines on the lower ones comes through their backs, so the lower of Gevurah, it is extremely harsh light, more harsh than anything
ones receive it from the rear. That is just enough to keep them that is above it. [34)
alive and no more. [13) We conclude that there is a difference in the returning light
that extends to each sefirah, depending both on a greater or
l<sser number of backs through which it receives light and on
whether the light comes through backs that are "sweetened" or
The light that is drawn downward is straight light ('or yashar), harsh. This determines whether the returning light will be harsh
and "compassion" (rachamim), and is also called "front light" ('or judgment, soft judgment, or intermediate judgment. Many other
panim). At the time when the lights are going back upward the details can be derived from this, but they are self-evident. [ 40)
light is called "returning light" ('or chozer), "back light" ('or All of these matters apply to the ten sefirot of the World of
'achor), and 'judgment" (din). We find these two aspects in all Bound Lights (Akudim). In order to explain more fully the vari-
of the ten sefirot. [ 16) ous aspects of straight light and returning light, front light and
There is, however, a difference between the various aspects of hack light, I will analyze this for you with reference to Ze'ir Anpin
returning light ('or chozer). When the light of the Keter lifts it- .ind Nukva. You can then compare these two to the others. [ 42)
Straight Light and
Returning Light

With regard to the concepts of back and front ver-

sus outside and inside, it might appear as if they are
one and the same. [ 45]
When the light comes out to shine downward, it
desires to produce additional new souls in the lower
worlds-souls that have never existed before that
time. When this is so, the light is totally "compassion"
(rachamim), for if the lower levels did not deserve
compassion , the light would have reached out and
come down to illuminate the additional souls that did
not exist before then. [Column 2] That is why that
light is called "straight" light ('or yashar), because it
comes straight down from above to below, shining
straight on to the lower levels. Its nature is love
(chesed) and compassion (rachamim), which brings
good things into the world, so it is called the light
of compassion. It is also called "male" light for the
same reason-because it is the role of the male to

290 I Tree of Life
Straight Light and Returning Light I 291
bestow abundance upon his female companion. It is also the
Ye t another difference is that the straight light almos1 leaves
nature of the male to bestow truly new souls. It is called the "light
i1 s own place to come down and pour itself oul onlo those h<'-
of the face" ('or hapanim), because the light looks on those be-
low it. That is why the letters Y, H, V, and Hof lhe Divine Name
low it with a tender gaze and a shining face, which is why he turns
a t c always written with a separation between them, both in lheir
his face toward them. It is called "inner light," because the souls
simple form and when the letters are spelled out fully. The re-
come from the inner coupling of the two parts of the brain called
111rning light, however, is "squared" (ribbu'a) like this: E, EL,
by lhe Name HVYJI lo indicate compassion, and not from the F.LOH, ELOHI, ELOHIM These letters are always connected to
name Elohim, which signifies judgment. [11]
show that when they go up they remain attached to each other
When the lower ones do not deserve this, however, the lights 1111til they connect themselves to their roots and to their
wilhdraw, turning lo go up above because they do not want to Em anator, because they want to remove themselves from those
shine downward. Even then, however, the Emanator does not wish 1h al are below. [32]
to destroy the world so he shines onto the lower ones just the There is another difference as well. The part of Ze'ir Anpin's
amount of life, nourishment, and abundance that they need for I> ra in that is the aspect of life-force ( chayyah) comes from
themselves, but not enough to produce additional new souls. Chokhmah. It brings about the coupling of the male and the
Because he does not wish to bestow this light upon them he li:male to bring out new souls, and is in the front, since il is male.
extends his light to them only from his outer aspects, which is The aspect of Ze'ir Anpin's brain that comes from the side of
sufficient to keep the worlds alive, but no more. This is called lmma is called the upper level of soul (neshamah). It is in the
"outer light" and "back light" because he turns his face away from hack and is female. [36]
them in anger, like the secret of "My love is like a gazelle" (Song
of Songs 2:9) . 1 Even while he is withdrawing from them he shines
on them the light that they need, but he gives them this light
only by turning his back toward those below him. That is why it
is called "the light of judgment" and "returning light," because ll is necessary to understand very clearly the truth about the
during the time that he is turning around and withdrawing up- maller of front (panim) and back ( 'achor). When the lights are
ward he does not bestow great abundance upon them, emitting be ing emitted they are called linear (yosher), and when they are
only the light that is absolutely necessary for them . This is also wilhdrawing they are called "returning" ( chozer). In the vessels
called "female" light for two reasons. As was mentioned above, it this is called front and back. The lights themselves do not have
is the nature of the female to receive, not to bestow. For this a front or a back because they are completely internal. They do,
reason she does not have the power to generate souls like the however, include judgment (din) and compassion (rachamim).
male, though she is able to feed them, as it is written, "She gives When the light is emitted downward and enters its proper place
food to her household" (Proverbs 31: 15). This is expressed by the il is called straight light ('or yashar) because it shines with the
name Elohim, which represents judgment (din). [26] light of compassion. When it turns around to ascend to its place
of origin, it shines with its aspect of judgment and is called re-
lurning light. Then the vessel is not called the front of the ves-
sel, which it would be called if it were receiving straight light, but
'See the Zahar on Exodus 14:1.
is called the back of the vessel. [ 45]
292 I Tree of Life Straight Light and Returning Light I 293

COUPLING FACE-TO-FACE AND BACK-TO-BACK the internal aspect is when the brains come to Ze'ir Anpin from
I he life-force ( chayyah), which, as we noted above, is from
We have found that it is said about Ze'ir Anpin and Nukva that C:hokhmah. [17]
they can stand either face-to-face or back-to-back. When the brains Even Binah is called the "back" in relation to Chokhmah be-
of Ze'ir Anpin arrive, which are an aspect of the life-force e .111se she cannot give birth to new souls except with the aid of
(chayyah) of his Chokhmah, then that light is called "straight" the Chokhmah, which is male. If so, then Ze'ir Anpin does not
because it is from the brain itself, which is the "soul of the soul." h.1w his inner aspects until after he has received the aspect of
Then their vessels are referred to as "face-to-face." But while he lll<force (chayyah)-which is the Chokhmah-from the brain of
still lacked brains-that is, the aspect of Chokhmah, which is the Ahha. Then he was able to produce offspring.
main source of straight light-the light removed itself and went The proof of this is found in the Priestly Blessing, which re-
upward. [Page 58] Then the lights had to shine as returning IC'1 s to the surrounding light of the image (tzelem) of Abba. 2 In
lights, which are ''.judgment." These are the other parts of the 1h1 weekday prayers, this comes before "And HVYH passed by,
lights of Ze'ir Anpin that are lower than the level of life-force. 1 I< ." (Exodus 34:6f), which refers to the coupling of Ze'ir Anpin
Then Ze'ir Anpin stood back-to-back, receiving light only onto with Leah. 3 [Column 2] After that, when one bows down, comes
the back of his vessel, and was not able to couple. [3] 1lt1 coupling of Jacob and Rachel. 4
When it is written in the Zahar that the soul of the first Adam There is another proof that is even better than that one, for
came from coupling "back-to-back" it means to say that Ze'ir 1 vc 11 though we mention the outside and the back of the higher
Anpin and Nukva go up into the place of Abba and Imma where hKht s, they are actually the face of the lower lights. Then there
they receive "brains," i.e., straight light, the light of Chokhmah 1 ~ 110 coupling involving Ze'ir Anpin himself, but only between
or the life-force ( chayyah). Once there, their vessels turn face-to- I'' oh and Rachel. With all of this there is the image (tzelem) of
face and they couple. They did not, however, have the power to \hl>a in the Priestly Benediction. 5 It seems to me that the reason
receive brains in their own place when the light was spreading
downward because that would have required straight light, and
while they remained down there they received only returning I he Priestly Benediction, "May HVYH bless you and keep you ... "
(r~11111bers 6:24-26), is recited both on Shabbat and in the daily morn-
light. That is why they were only back-to-back when they were
down below, but when they went up above they were face-to-face. '"K prayer service.
1111 ~ passage, which includes the Thirteen Attributes (" ... compassion-
These two aspects-lights and vessels-must, however, be studied ''' ,111d gracious, slow to anger, etc.") is recited as part of the confes-
further. [10] 11111.d litany during weekday morning prayers.
1111llowing the Zahar, kabbalists have interpreted the various parts of
One might say that the three aspects of the image (tzelem)
of the brain of Ze'ir Anpin-the lower level (nefesh), middle level !Ill' weekday and Shabbat services as paralleling activities in the divine
11 .il111, culminating on Shabbat in the coupling of the female and male
(ruach), and upper level of soul (neshamah)-correspond to the
~1 wc IS of divinity, the supernal Bride and Groom. The partzufim Jacob,
three internal aspects, which are: pregnancy, suckling, and men- I 1.1h, and Rachel are secondary aspects of Ze'ir Anpin and Nukva, who
tal development (muchin). All three of these aspects of the soul 1111 Shabbat become the supernal Bridegroom and Bride.
are internal, as we know, and the brains are also internal. If so, "I 11 k.1bbalistic terminology, the tzelem ("image") is the link between
there is a difficulty, because only the two aspects of pregnancy t 111' hody and the soul, a distinctly spiritual aspect, but one that has a

and suckling are left for the outside. It is also possible to say that li .IJ>I' like the body. (See the Zahar, III 43a.)
294 I Tree of Life
Straight Light and Returning Light I 295
for this is that if there had been a union involving Ze'ir Anpin
111 soul (ruach) because the Chesed is truly male and the aspc< L
himself, then it would have been like Shabbat, 6 when he raises
n l middle level corresponds to Ze'ir Anpin. [Page 59] It is men-
himself up to the image of Abba and Imma, in all their aspects
tio n e d in another place that this is the aspect of life-force
and in their true place. Here, however, this image goes down-
(' hayyah), which has three surrounding lights for the lower level
ward, since the brains of Ze'ir Anpin are not yet complete. With
( 111 fc sh), middle level (ruach), and upper level of soul
regard to Jacob, however, all of this is complete and the light is
(111'shamah). It is possible that these three are the image (tzelem)
called I.he "front" light. You should know this because we learn
n l Abba that is mentioned above. [2]
from the Tikkunim that the inner soul of Ze'ir Anpin is the Di-
With regard to coupling "back-to-back," it is not so obvious.
vine Name with the letters spelled out using 'alefs-that is, the
\ 1111 should know that when the coupling occurs, the male pro-
Name MaII(45)-which is in the Chokhmah, with its letters re-
' ic 'o 1t es by bringing down the male waters, while the female brings
arranged to spell koach mah, "the power of MaH(45)." This must
11p th e purified female waters. 8 While they were still back-to-back,
refer to the aspect of the Chokhmah of Ze'ir Anpin, since the
~ II!' did not yet have the power to purify the female waters, so
higher Chokhmah of Abba is the Name 'AB(72), which is spelled
Ill' did not have any female waters in her yesod to bring up. If
with yods. [11)
11 1. 11 is so, how could there be any coupling? For this to occur it
You should also understand the elevating of the male waters
w; 1 ~ necessary for both Ze 'ir Anpin and Nukva to go up above to
through the Name MaH(45), which, as we know, is in Ze'ir
1I w place of Abba and Imma. Then she herself could bring up
Anpin. With regard to the male waters, which are the drop that
ilw fem ale waters of Binah while he brought down the male
brings out new souls, they only come down through the male,
w. 111 ~ 1 s from Abba. While they were there, they definitely turned
which is the Chokhmah of Ze'ir Anpin. This is his life-force
11 th .11 th ey were facing each other, which was necessary for their
( chayyah), which is not the aspect of pregnancy or of suckling,
11111pli11g since it would not be possible for them to couple if they
but is the Chokhmah that we mentioned above as the aspect of
1 11 1wt face-to-face. While they were still down below they were
the life-force of Ze'ir Anpin. [17)
11111 1omplete enough for them to stand face-to-face because of
Now, we know that the Name BaN(52), which brings up
!111 1 li11 ging of the Shells. They had to prevent the Shells from
the female waters, corresponds to Benjamin and its root is from
111 .11 hing themselves to the outside of their backs, as we have
the male of the Name 'AB(72), which is spelled with yods. This
1111 111io11 ed above. That is why they went up to Abba and Imma
is the Chokhmah, which also equals 72, the numerical value of
111d 1111ned face-to-face there, where there was no reason to fear
Chesed. 7 This Chesed, which is in the Name 'AB(72), could bring
1111 Shdls. There they could couple through the female waters
up the female waters, which are necessary for the coupling of
1of l\111.1h , which she took from her own yesod and brought up
Abba and Imma. It was extended to Ze'ir Anpin from Abba, who
i11 1111 s('cret of female waters. It follows that, because this cou-
is the sefirah Chokhmah. It is therefore called the middle level
11li11 ,.; look place high above it is called not by their own names,

6The confessional litany and Exodus 34:6 (the Thirteen Attributes) are
read only on weekdays, not on Shabbat.
7 1111 "It-m ale waters" that Nukva brings up are the purified sparks of
ChoKhMaH = 8 + 20 + 40 + 5 = 73, minus 1 for the whole = 72. liHlil 1h .11 have been cleaned by being separated out from the Shells
CheSeD = 8 + 60 + 4 = 72.
0 /1111 1111 ) by our actions in this world.
296 I Tree of Life

but by the names of Abba and Imma, since it is from the power
of their female waters that Ze'ir Anpin and Nukva were joined
together. Then, after they were fully completed and were able to
face each other down below in their own place, they were able
to bring up their own female waters, and this is called coupling
"face-to-face." (18]
(Mati v'lo Mau)
The First Spreading and
Withdrawal of the Light

We have already explained at length in several

places that the highest emanation began as bound
lights ( 'akudim), points (nekudim), and spots
(berudim). Now we will go back and clarify these
matters at greater length, explaining the existence of
the bound lights. [24]
Before the bound lights came into existence, the
highest light was unable to enclothe itself in any ves-
sel because no vessel could contain it. This great light
remained there without being enclothed in a vessel
until the time came when it extended itself as the
aspect of bound lights, and a single vessel was made
for that great light. Now this emanation began to
have some real borders for its light, which had not
been possible until then. [31]
At first, all parts of the light that reached this ema-
nation were concealed in only one vessel-the high-
est one, which is the aspect of the vessel of the Keter.

300 I Tree of Life The First Spreading and Withdrawal of th e Lig ht I 301
After that, the light spread further downward from the aspect sary for it to be made into the aspect of bound lights. After th t'
called bound lights and ten vessels were made. All of them were li ght had spread downward it turned around and went bac k up
still, however, aspects of the vessels of the Keter. The reason for into its source in the mouth of Adam Kadmon. [16)
this is that every one of the ten sefirot is, as we know, made up We know that after the higher light had spread downward and
of ten sefirot, so each of them includes an aspect of Keter. The was turning around to go back upward and disappear it had to
part of the vessel that was related to the existence of the ten leave a seal impression down below. That light-the impression
Ke te rs of the ten sefirol [Column 2] had the ability to become 1hat was left below when the higher light withdrew and disap-
a vessel, so all ten of th e sefirol were concealed there in the ves- I H~ared into its source-was left alone down there without the
sel of the Ke ter. The othe r parts of the sefirot were not able to high er light. Then, because the higher light had distanced itself
m ake vessels for themselves because their vessels were not yet able Ii o m it, the light that remained became a vessel. The purpose of
to contain that light. This is the reality called the World of Points 1h c spreading and withdrawal of the light was to cause the vessel
(Nekudim), which is what we call the ten sefirot of the vowel 10 come into existence. (See Figure 45.) [23)
points (nekudot), which came before the World of Emanation When that light turned back upward and withdrew it departed
(Atzilut). This aspect of bound lights ( 'akudim) was at first called .tit at once, in an instant. As a result, all of the light that remained
only a single point (nekudah). Later on this became the secret
h<'came only one vessel, which is called the vessel of the Keter.
of the World of Emanation, as we will learn with God's help. [7]
T he ten sefirot could not yet be recognized because the higher
li ght was not yet divided into ten sefirot. Why is it called Keter
,1 11d not some other sefirah? Because the Keter is always closest
10 th e Emanator. [29)
The first vessel that was emanated by the Emanator is definitely
<.tiled Keter, but what would be emanated afterward through the
We will begin by explaining how the bound lights ( 'akudim) came wssel called Keter would be called Chokhmah, Binah, and so on.
into existence. Fo r now, however, they were all still the secret of ten Keters. The
You should know that the portion of the highest light that is 1< 'S t of the parts-the other nine sefirot-were made after the
capable of being enclothed within the World of Emanation al- liKIH spread itself out a second time. As a result, only the vessel
ways had the power of ten sefirot, even though the ten lights 1h at came out from the Emanator itself is called the Keter. We
themselves were not revealed until after the World of Bound will now explain the subject of that higher light's withdrawal. [34)
Lights was completed, which we will learn about with God's help. We can estimate the size of the vessel that contained all of that
However, while it is certain that the power of those ten lights was lig ht. It must have been large enough so that when the light
present from the beginning, their existence was not yet appar- withdrew from it there were portions of the vessel that were able
ent as ten sefirot because their light was not contained within a 10 look at the light. As the light was receding from them, their
vessel. [ 12] .d>ility to look face-to-face was proportional to their distance from
When the Emanator above wanted to bring out the vessel for 11. [Page 60] An example of this is when the light disappeared
the bound lights, what did he do? He extended his light down- f 1 om the tenth part of that vessel-the part that, as we will learn,
ward to the navel of Adam Kadmon , which is as far as was neces- would later be called by the name of Malkhut-a vessel was made
The First Spreading and Withdrawal of the Light I 303
302 I Tree of Life
for it in that part of the original vessel. Then this vcsst'l 11111Hcl
Figure 45. Making the Vessel of the Keter: Malkhut
11s face downward because now that it had become a vessel its
light was separated from its root and it was not strong enough
10 look at that light face-to-face. (See Figure 45.) It turned its face
Adam downward after it became a vessel because it could not look up
.11 the higher light that had removed itself from it face-to-face,
hut only through its back. While the higher light is removing itself
ii is called "back light" and the vessel is back-to-back with the light.
I!) l
After that, the light withdrew a distance of one more level, re-
111oving itself from the part that would later be called Yesod. When
1he light had disappeared from that part of the vessei, it, too,
111rned its face away from the higher light, because it was not able
10 receive it.
Now, because the light had become more distant from it, the
vessel of the first aspect, which is called Malkhut, was able to turn
its face upward. (See Figure 46.) Then Malkhut and Yesod were
Ltce-to-face, but Yesod was back-to-back with the light above it.
I 14)
When the light of Hod withdrew, Hod was back-to-back with
1he higher light. The Yesod then turned its face to Hod so that
I lod and Yesod were face-to-face but Malkhut was front-to-back,
with the face of Malkhut toward the back of Yesod. (See Figure
'17.) [17)
All of the sefirot have a desire and a longing to turn their faces
IOward the light, but the sefirah that is closest to the light can-
not turn its face toward it until the light has removed itself a
distance of one sefirah. When the light was removed from
Netzach, it was back-to-back with the higher light and face-to-face
with Hod. Then Yesod was facing the back of Hod and Malkhut
was facing the back of Yesod. [23)
It continued in this way until the light removed itself from all
ten parts of the vessel. Then the vessels of all the sefirot were
front-to-back, with the front of the lower one toward the back of
the higher except for Keter and Chokhmah, which were face-to-
304 I Tree of Life The First Spreading and Withdrawal of th e Light I 305
Figure 46. Making the Vessel of the Keter: Yesod Figure 47. Making the Vessel of the Kctcr: Hod

Kadmon . " - Adam
I \r- I

l\ I
of The
Lights II World

306 I Tree of Life The First Spreading and Withdrawal or the Light I 307
face. Because the Keter was back-to-back with the higher light for First the light was "reaching" (mall) into the vessd of the
the reason mentioned above, Keter and Chokhmah had to be Keter; then it withdrew itself from it. Next the light was "reach
face-to-face. [27) i11g" into the vessel of Chokhmah, after which it turned around
.111d withdrew again. It did this with all ten vessels. [Column 2)
This is called "reaching and not reaching" (mati v'lo matI), which
the Zahar mentions repeatedly. It is always the nature of that light
to come in and shine and then to withdraw like the light of a
We have explained the secret of the lights' withdrawal and how IL11ne that is always flickering, so that the light was continually
the vessels came into existence as a result of that withdrawal. Even " 1 caching and not reaching" into the vessels that are called
though our explanation dealt with the vessels of Malkhut, Yesod, "bound" ( 'akudim). Because all of the lights were in only one
and so on, it was not because of this withdrawal that they are VC'ssel, there would not have been enough strength in that vessel
called ten vessels, since the distinction between the ten sefirat had to endure the light if it had not been "reaching and not reach-
not yet appeared. In addition, because the light withdrew all at
i11J{." [6]
once, it was more like one long vessel whose parts were unequal,
just like their distance from one end of the vessel to the other. *****
We have also explained the phenomenon of the light itself-
its spreading and its withdrawal, which are two different aspects
that we will learn about with God's help. Then there was another We have explained the four aspects of light, which are the first
spreading and withdrawal, which we will also explain with God's ~ prcading and the first withdrawal of the lights, then their sec-
help, after which all four aspects of spreading and withdrawal were cm<l spreading and withdrawal. We also explained that the sec-
completed. In this regard, after that vessel was completed, hav- rn1d spreading and withdrawal, which is called "reaching and not
ing become a vessel because of the light's withdrawal, then when 11aching," is the reason that this vessel is called "bound"
the light came back down and spread into it again there could ( ';1kudim): This one vessel tied together and bound ten lights
be aspects both of lights and of vessels. When the light spread within it. This also explains why the vessel is only called one ves-
into this vessel a second time it did not, however, extend itself 'c I even though we say that there are ten lights: The first time
in the same way that it had at first, but instead it appeared and 1h1 light was withdrawn to make the vessel the light was removed
disappeared. This is what the Zahar means by the expression .ill at once. That is why it is all called only one vessel, and not
"reaching and not reaching" (mati v'lo matI). 1 These are the as- tt n vessels. [ 14]
pects that we described above as a second spreading and with- This is not so with the lights that are within the vessel. When
drawal. With this, these four aspects of spreading and withdrawal the light returned to spread the second time-the real spread-
were completed. [ 42) i11g-it did not extend into the vessel all at once the way it with-
1li ew, but instead it entered and left ten times: once in the Keter,
011ce in Chokhmah, and so on with all of the ten sefirot. That is
Note that here, mati (reaching) and lo mati (not reaching) represent
the reason they are called ten lights. The vessel, however, was
the presence or absence of light-a state, rather than a process.
308 I Tree of Life The First Spreading and Withdrawal of lhe Lighl I 309
made all at once when the light withdrew suddenly the first time, T h e second time the light extended itself there was also a d<'-
which is why it is called one vessel. [19] ti( icncy in the nine lower sefirot, but not in the Keter. This makes
1wo d eficiencies in the other nine sefirot, but none in the Ke tcr.
It th e re had been no emanation of any light at all we would not
c ,ill them "deficient," but after the light had already begun to
Those four aspects of spreading and withdrawal are the reality of cx tcnd itself, spreading first into the Keter, then the other nine
the four letters, Y, H , V, and H Two of the letters-Yand V- ,\l'liro l could be called deficient in light because the light of the
are the two aspects of spreading, while the two Hs are the two l\ctcr had preceded them . [39]
aspects of withdrawal. You already know that the Name HVYH T he re were, in addition, two other deficiencies, which were
begins only from Chokhmah downward, because these four as- i11 both the Keter and the other nine sefirot. These are the two
pects belong only to Chokhmah and below. The Keter itself, 11111 es when the light withdrew itself. This is truly called a defi-
however, has two aspects and the whole is therefore called YI-I 1 ic ncy, both from the nine lower sefirot and from the Keter it-

HVYH. This is the secret of the verse "For with YaH HVYH, He c lf'. [ 42]
formed worlds" (Isaiah 26:4), 2 because with them he first began We will now explain why we say that these are the aspects
to form and to create the world . This is the secret of the bound 1c fc rred to by the phrase "For with YaH HVYI-I, He formed
lights and also the secret of YaH HVYH, because the name YaH w01 lds" (Isaiah 26:4). This is the secret of "Extol Him Who rides
is in the Keter and the Name HVYH is in all the rest of the 0 11 the clouds, His name is with YaH' (Psalms 68:5). One must
partzufim. [27] lw very precise. It needed only to say, " .. . His name is YaH" Why
The reason for this is that there were four deficiencies in the d ocs it say, "His name is with YaH'? [Page 61] The answer is
nine sefirot below the Keter. The first deficiency occurred during 1li ,11 the whole Divine Name is included within this YaH, which
the first time that the light was spreading. At that time, all of the 1 ~ why it says, " ... His name is with YaH" This is because when
nine sefirot below the Keter were deficient in light because the yo11 spell out the letters Y and H as YOD H'E their numerical
light began by spreading into the Keter first, before it reached valn e is 26, which is equal to the value of the whole Name
the rest of them. As a result, when the light became a reality in the l IVYII. 3 So the Name HVYI-I is really present within the name
Keter it was still lacking in the rest of them. This is the first de- lid!. The name YaH is in the Keter to hint at the way the Name
ficiency in the lower nine vessels, which occurred during the first / IVYH came out, since all four letters-Y, H, V, and H-are in-
spreading. In the Keter, however, there was no lack of light. [35] < lnded within it. [ 4]

"Kiy bYaH HVYH tzur 'olamim." The JPS translation of tzur 'olamim
is "an everlasting rock." Older versions render this as "rock of ages."
Here, tzur is treated as a form of the verb yatzar, "to form," 'olamim is ' l'OD= 10 + 6 + 4 = 20. H'E = 5 + 1 = 6. Note that here the letter H
interpreted literally as "worlds," and bis "with." The biblical name YaH 1~spelled with an 'alef (H'E) rather than one of the alternate spellings,
is a shortened form of the Divine Name. lid! or HeY.
The Second Spreading:
"Reaching and Not
(Mati v'lo Mati)



It is now necessary to explain how the phenomenon

of "reaching and not reaching" (mati v'lo matJ) oc-
curred. [6]

"Reaching" in the Keter

We can say that when the light first started to
come into the Keter, all of the other nine lights were
included along with it. (See Figure 48.)

"Reaching" in Chokhmah
Afterward, when the light that had arrived at the
place of the Keter turns around and departs from
there, it changes and becomes "not reaching" in the
Keter. However, the nine other lights remained
behind in the Keter because the Keter had the
The Second Spreading: "Reaching and Nol Reaching" I 313
312 I Tree of Life
Figure 49. "Reaching" in Chokhmah
Figure 48. "Reaching" in the Keter


etc. etc.

1111 ned its face back up toward the Keter and gave its light to it,
strength to contain them. Then while the light was "not reaching"
ln1L Lhe light of Binah, which was within the Chokhmah, did not
in the Keter, the Keter extended toward Chokhmah face-to-face
go up with him to the Keter because of her desire to be with the
and gave the other nine lights to Chokhmah. (See Figure 49.)
"< hildren," since she is their mother. We already explained that
After Chokhmah received the nine lights, he turned his face
1h e light itself does not really turn toward the front and the back,
to shine on Binah face-to-face. He did not, however, give her the
only the aspect of vessels. With the lights themselves it would not
eight lights yet. [13)
he right to refer to front and back, only to spreading and with-
d rawing. After its light had gone back up, however, the vessel of
"Reaching" in Binah Chokhmah, which had turned its face toward the Keter, then
111rned around and faced downward toward Binah and gave the
After that, the light of the Keter turned around and again be-
oth er eight lights to her. (See Figure 50.) [23)
came "reaching" in the Keter. Then the light of Chokhmah
You should know that lights are always given face-to-face. Binah
turned back upward to disappear into the Keter, because of its
did not, however, turn her face to shine downward onto Chesed
desire to join itself to the Keter. The vessel of Chokhmah then
314 I Tree of Life The Second Spreading: "Reaching and Nol Reaching" I 315
Figure 50. "Reaching" in Binah 1n receive the light of Chokhmah. This was not possible with
I :h<scd. Because there is such a great difference between the light
111 Chesed and the light of Binah, Chesed was not able to recciv1'
Adam l\111ah's light face-to-face. [36]

"Reaching" in Chesed
The World of
Bound Lights: Let us turn now to the subject of the light's turning around
111 become "not reaching" (Jo mau) in the Keter. Then it was
11,1rhing" in Chokhmah because the light of Chokhmah went
lt.11 k down into its own vessel. By then, the seven "children" that
w1 1(' with Binah were already grown up and did not need their
111other any more, so Binah went up to Chokhmah because she
(Not Reaching) the desire to cling to him. This is called "not reaching in
l\111 ah." [Column 2] The vessel of Binah then turned its face
downward and the other seven lights that were in it all went down
Bin ah .111d were given to Chesed face-to-face. (See Figure 51.)

etc. "Reaching" in Gevurah

Then the light turned again to become "reaching" in Keter.
(Stc Figure 52.) The light of Chokhmah and Binah then both
because Chesed and the rest of the six "extremities" did not have go up to the Keter together because of their desire. We find, as
the strength to receive a light as great as hers face-to-face. They it 1 <'Sult, that there is a great distance between the "children" and
could only receive it back-to-back, since this light included both 1lt1 light of the first three sefirot because there are now two spaces
the six "extremities" and the light of Binah herself, which is lwtween them-Binah and Chokhmah-neither of which have
greater than all of the rest combined. Before this, when there 111y light. Because of that, the light of Chesed goes up to the place
were still no lights in Binah-only what had been given to 111 Hinah and the light is called "not reaching in Chesed." The
Chokhmah-Chokhmah had turned his face to shine a ray of 11sscl of Chesed then turns its face downward and gives the six
light toward Binah face-to-face, but this is not what happened with 111 her lights to Gevurah.
Chesed. Binah was strong enough to receive all those lights be-
cause the lower seven are insignificant compared to her own light
which she could, of course, receive. Even though the light of "Reaching" in Tiferet
Chokhmah is greater than hers, you already know that Abba and After this the light went back up above so that it was "not
Imma are linked together and come out as one, so Binah was able 11arhing" in the Keter. (See Figure 53.) It was, however, "reach-
316 I Tree of Life l11 e Second Spreading: "Reaching and Nol Renchinf{" I 317
Figure 51. "Reaching" in Chesed Figure 52. "Reaching" in Gevurah

The World of
Bound Lights:
Bound Lights:
(Not Reaching)
Cho kb mah

Bin ah
(Not Reaching)

(Not Reaching)
(Not Reaching) \ I

318 I Tree of Life The Second Spreading: "Reaching and Nol Reaching" I 319
ing" in Chokhmah. It would have been appropriate for Binah to Figure 53. "Reaching" in Tifcrcl
remain there with Chokhmah the way they were at first, but be-
cause the light of Chesed was in her place she went down below
to be with him. This is what is meant by " ... because (s)he de- Adam
lights in Chesed" (kiy chafetz chesed hu') (Micah 7:18). You al- Kadmon
ready know that Binah is sometimes referred to as "he" (hu') .1
When Binah went back down into her place, Chesed did not The World of
need her any more, so he, too, went down to his own place, which Bound Lights:
is called "reaching in Chesed." The light of Gevurah then went
up to Chesed, which is called "not reaching in Gevurah." Then Keter
(Not Reaching)
the vessel of Gevurah turned its face downward, giving the other
five lights to Tiferet. This is called "reaching in Tiferet."
"Reaching" in Netzach
After that the light returned to become "reaching" in Keter.
Then it became "not reaching" in Chokhmah and Binah because Binah
the two lights of Chokhmah and Binah went up together to the (Reaching)
Keter. (See Figure 54.)
It then became "not reaching" in Chesed because the light of
Chesed went up to the place of Binah as it had before, because (Reaching)
of the two spaces between them, as mentioned above.
Then it became "reaching" in Gevurah, but it was "not reach-
ing" in Tiferet because the light of Tiferet had gone up into
Gevurah because of its desire. Gevurah
(Not Reaching)
The vessel of Tiferet then turned its face downward and gave
the four other lights to Netzach. This is called "reaching in
Netzach." [20]
"Reaching" in Hod
After that, the light turned back, to become "not reaching"

'In Hebrew, hu' is the masculine pronoun, while Binah is female.

320 I Tree of Life !11e Second Spreading: ''Reaching and Not Rene/Jing" I 321
Figure 54. "Reaching" in Netzach 111 Kcter. Then it became "reaching" in Chokhmah. (S<'<' Fig-11n
It was also "reaching" in Binah, who went there to be wi1h
Kadmon CllC'scd "because (s) he delights in Chesed" (Micah 7:28).
It was also "reaching" in Chesed, because Chesed went down
The World of 111 his own place.
Bound Lights: It became "not reaching" in Gevurah because Gevurah went
(Reaching) 11p to be with Chesed.
Then, when the light went down to Tiferet, it became "reach-
111g" in Tiferet. It was "not reaching" in Netzach, however, because
Chokhmah 1111' light of Netzach went up to be with Tiferet.
(Not Reaching) It became "reaching" in Hod when the vessel of Netzach
111111cd its face downward and gave the three remaining lights to
Binah 1lod.
(Not Reaching) Then Hod turned its face to shine on the Yesod. It happened
tl1is way with all of the six "extremities" because when the lights
w11 c given to them they turned their faces to shine downward.
Chesed This is different from Binah, who did not turn her face toward
(Not Reaching)
< :hcsed because Chesed did not have the strength to receive her
li ght. The six "extremities" however, have the ability to receive
li ght from each other because all six of them are equal. [31]

"Reaching" in Yesod
Tiferet After this the light returned to become "reaching" in Keter.
(Not Reaching) (Sec Figure 56.)
Then it was "not reaching" in Chokhmah and Binah because
the two of them went up there.
Netzach It was also "not reaching" in Chesed because Chesed went up
10 Binah.
It was "reaching" in Gevurah, but it was "not reaching" in
etc. Tiferet.
It was "reaching" in Netzach but "not reaching" in Hod.
Then Hod turned its face and gave the two lights to the Yesod,
so then it was "reaching" in Yesod.

322 / Tree of Life The Second Spreading: "Reaching and Nol Reaching" I 323
Figure 55. "Reaching" in Hod The Yesod then turned its face to shine on Malkhut, as we
11w11Lioned above with all the six "extremities." [36]

Adam "Reaching" into Malkhut

After that the light turned back again, to become "not reach-
The World of 111g 11in the Keter, but then it was "reaching" in Chokhmah, Binah,
Bound Lights:
,111d Chesed. (See Figure 57.)
(Noc Reac hing) 11 was "not reaching" in Gevurah, "reaching" in Tiferet, "not
11at hing" in Netzach, "reaching" in Hod, and "not reaching" in
\c sod, because Yesod went up to Hod.
Chokhmah Then Yesod turned its face downward and gave one light to
M.llkhut in her own place so that it was "reaching in Malkhut."

Bin ah
I I () I

The Next Phase

Chesed We have now completed the first aspects, which are the real-
11y of spreading (hitpashtut). As you can see, the ten lights have
cxtcnded all the way to Malkhut. Now the second aspect, which
Gevurah 1 ~ simpler because, when the light comes back and is "reaching"
(Noc Reaching)
111 the Keter, it is "not reaching" in Chokhmah, Binah, and
<:ti csed. [Page 62] It is "reaching" in Gevurah and "not reach-
ing" in Tiferet; "reaching" in Netzach and "not reaching" in Hod;
(Reaching) "1<aching" in Yesod and "not reaching" in Malkhut. After that it
11111rns to the way it was before. (See Figure 58.) [2]

(Not Reac hing)
(Reaching) There are still a few other aspects. One is that the lower lights
.dways have the desire to cling to the higher ones. So when it is
etc. " 1 caching" in Yesod, it is "not reaching" in Malkhut because then

1hc light of Malkhut goes up to be with Yesod because of her

desire. It is the same with all the rest of the sefirot except for
324 I Tree of Life Th e Second Spreading: "Reaching and Not Reaching" I 325
Figure 57. "Reaching" in Malkhut
Figure 56. "Reaching" in Yesod

Adam Kadmon

The World of
The World of
Bound Lights:
Bound Lights:
Kctcr (Not Reaching)

(Not Reaching)

Bin ah
(Not Reaching)

(Not Reaching)
(Not Reaching)

(Not Reaching) Netzach
(Not Reaching)

Netzach Hod
(Reaching) (Reaching)

Hod Yesod
(Not Reaching) (Not Reaching)

Yesod (Reaching)

326 I Tree of Life /11 e Second Spreading: "Reaching and Nol Reaching" I 327
Figure 58. The Next Phase of "Reaching and Not I .llC'scd and Binah. When the light is "not reaching" in Binah it
Reaching" i~ .tlso "not reaching" in Chesed when Chesed goes up IO tlw
111.111 of Binah because of the double distance between them . And
wllC'n the light is "reaching" in Binah it is also "reaching" in
Adam I l1 1scd because the light of Chesed is not equal to the whole light
Kadmon 111 Hinah. This happens as soon as Binah comes back down and
l111cl11 Chesed in her place, because an instant later Chesed also
The World of
Bound Lights:
111 ~ back down to his own place. This is why the six "extremi-
Keter 1It , .. are all on the same level and are unable to cling to Binah,
1" li t1 is one of the first three sefirot. [11]
With regard to "reaching and not reaching" in the first three
(Not Reaching) ~1'11101 it is another matter, because when it is "reaching" in the
l{c 11 1, then Chokhmah and Binah go up above together to be
Binah wi 1h the Keter. That is the reason why the first three sefirot are
(Not Reaching)
tl11111ght of as one. When it is "not reaching" in the Keter, then
11 1 ~ "1caching" in Chokhmah. It would have been appropriate for
Chesed lli1 1o1h to remain there and for the light to become "not reach-
(Not Reaching)
i11g" in Binah. But, as mentioned above, "because (s)he delights
i11 <:h esed " (Micah 7:18) the light also becomes "reaching" in
(Reaching) l\111 ,1h . [Column 2]

(Not Reaching) A LIFETIME IN His FAVOR"

\1 111 should also know that the length of time that the light is "not
(Reaching) 11 .11 hing" in a sefirah is only an instant. This is the secret of "A
11111111ent in His anger" (Psalms 30:6), because the withdrawal of
1ht light-which is when it is "not reaching"-is caused by indig-
Hod 11 .11 ion and anger toward the lower sefirot due to their lack of
(Not Reaching)
111 11gth. However, the aspect of "reaching," which is when the
ll f.1 hl is coming back downward to give life to the worlds, is with-
(Reaching) 11111 limit. They do not, however, receive a predetermined amount
nl light, because that depends on the actions of those below. This
Malkhut ~ " .. . a lifetime in His favor" (Psalms 30:6)-His favor lhen, that
(Not Reaching)
i~ . 111 other words, the length of one's life depends on one's own
. it ti ons. [8]
328 I Tree of Life Th e Second Spreading: "Reaching and Nol Reaching" I 329

WHY THE VESSELS WERE NOT NULLIFIED turn ed downward, as we will explain with God's help. A~ a 1c-
s11lt, there is now enough strength in the vessel for all of tht' lights
As we explained above, the first time the light withdrew it was to
to enter it together. Because the entire nine lights that now en-
make vessels. When the lights returned to spread out a second
te r the vessel of the Keter are less than the first light of the Kcter
time the vessels could have been nullified, which is why it was
it self, the vessel has enough strength to receive them. Similarly,
necessary for the first light-the light of the Keter-to remain up
wh en all eight lights enter the vessel of Chokhmah it has the
above and not reenter those vessels. As a result, only the nine
powe r to receive them because all of them together are smaller
lights came down by themselves in the following order: the light
th an the light of Chokhmah . It is this way with all of them. [20]
of Chokhmah in the vessel of Keter, the light of Binah in the
vessel of Chokhmah, and so on, until we find that the light of
Malkhut entered the vessel of Yesod. Because this time the light
did not come back to the same place from which it had departed,
[Page 63] what reached the vessels was another light that was
smaller than the one they had before. That is why the vessels
remained in the form of vessels and did not turn back into lights,
the way they were in the beginning. [3]
When the lights started to enter the vessels, nine lights entered
the Keter and this is called "reaching in the Keter," as we men-
tioned above. After this, the light that had arrived at the Keter-
which is the light of Chokhmah-was withdrawn . This is called
"not reaching," as we noted above. We do not need to expand
on this because we already discussed it extensively above in our
discussion of the aspect of "reaching and not reaching." There
is a reason, however, that this time all nine of the other lights
could enter the vessel of the Keter together, which was not so
during the first spreading, when they entered one by one. The
first time, after the light of Malkhut had entered into the vessel
of the Keter, her light pushed its way down into the place of
Chokhmah. Then the light of the Yesod entered the Keter. It went
on this way until all ten lights entered in just the right amount
for each of the ten vessels. The reason for this should be clear
from what was discussed above: In the beginning the light of the
Keter was together with them and all of the lights were shining
along with it, so none of the vessels had the strength to contain
more than one light at a time. Now, however, the light of the
Keter does not enter into its vessel but remains above with its back
Forming the ~ssels


Now, you should know that the roots of those ten
sefirot-Keter, Chokhmah, Binah, and so on, down
to Malkhut-came before the bound lights, and are
located above them. [Column 2] The light of the
Keter, which, as mentioned above, begins below the
root of Malkhut, faces up toward its root with its back
downward toward the vessel of the Keter of the World
of Bound Lights. All that is necessary for the life of
those bound lights flows down to them from those
higher roots, passing through the light of the Keter,
as noted above. This is only what they need in order
to live, but not a truly abundant inflow of light, ex-
cept when the light of the Keter is "not reaching" in
its vessel, because then the ten sefirot all go up and
receive a great inflow of light from their roots, as we
will learn with God's help. [7]
Let us return now to the subject that we were dis-

332 I Tree of Life
Forming the Vessels I 333
cussing above. When the light is "reaching" in the Keter, then
nine lights are given to the vessel of the Keter, and when it turns 11 is considered to be connected. Similarly, we find that wh<'ll th<'
back so that it is "not reaching" in the Keter, eight lights are given li ght of Chesed went up to the Keter, which is a distance of tl11 cc
to Chokhmah. Chokhmah also turns his face downward to Binah p.tces, then the vessel of Chesed finished becoming a vessel. [5 J
and shines on her but does not give anything to Binah until the We find, however, that Keter, Chokhmah, and Binah still had
light is "reaching" in the Keter for the second time. If this is so, 11ot become vessels because the light had not yet departed from
it is necessary to explain this matter of turning face-to-face to 111<111 a distance of three whole levels. And since anything less
shine on Binah, since the seven lights have not yet been given 111.111 three spaces distant is considered to be connected, the ves-
tohcr . [14) ~c l s were not yet complete in any of these first three sefirot. Even
1ll , Binah's vessel would certainly be called more complete than
In this regard, you must understand that after what we ex-
plained-that the lights that are coming in now have changed tl1< first two because there were already three spaces between it
places so that the light of Chokhmah is given to Keter, the light .111d the light that had withdrawn, which had gone up above the
of Binah is given to Chokhmah, and the light of Chesed is given of the Keter. So we find that there is a difference between
to Binah-a difficulty arises because their worlds are reversed, with l\i11ah and both Chokhmah and Keter, as we will learn with God's
the male entering the place of the female and the female enter- l1C'lp. [11]
ing the place of the male. [18) With this, one difficulty is explained, which is that while the
li ghts were withdrawing to enable the vessels to come into exist-
c1He and the light of the Keter was still shining on them, how
VESSELS FOR THE LOWER SEVEN SEHROT w<re they able to become vessels? And while the light was spread-
Regarding this, you should know that when the light first with- 111g, which was when the light of the Keter was not shining into
drew in order to make a vessel, the part from which it withdrew them, how can they be called lights? The answer is that a vessel
did not make a vessel that was complete enough to be called a was not completely finished until the light had distanced itself
vessel until the light had distanced itself from it by three spaces. It om it by three whole spaces. But when the light really enters
The explanation for this is that when the light started to with- 111to the vessels the light that is within them is called "light" even
draw from the portion that would later be called Malkhut, that though the light of the Keter does not enter them. [18]
part began to become darker. Then, after the light had withdrawn
from the vessel that would later be called the vessel of Yesod, the VESSELS FOR THE FIRST THREE SEHROT
first part became even darker, until the light that had originally
extended to Malkhut was three whole spaces distant from her. l'h e problem that we have brought up is especially relevant with
[Page 64] Then, when the light had gone up to the place that 1 <gard to the first three sefirot. While the light of the Keter was
would become Tiferet, the vessel of Malkhut finished becoming still close to them, how could they become vessels? And afterward,
a vessel. 1 This is because whenever a gap is less than three spaces, when the light comes back to reenter them, how can they be
c ailed lights? In fact, their light was weaker than it had been at
first because the lights that came back now lacked the light of
See Gate VII, Chapter 1. the Keter, which had been shining at the time when they with-
drew. [22]
334 I Tree of Life Forming Lhc Vessels I 335
With regard to this, however, it is always the secret of with- Figure 59. Forming the Vessel of the Kctcr
drawal that makes a vessel, when the light turns its face away from
the vessel. When the lights came back and reentered the vessels,
the light of Chokhmah went into the place of the Keter. At that
time, the light of the Keler that was left behind when the lights
removed themselves, was within it, because the vessel was not com-
pleted until the light was three levels distant from it, which does
not apply, however, to the first three sefirot, as noted above. Then 1. 2. 3.
the light of the Keter that was left there entered into the light Kitdmon Keter
of Chokhmah, which was now coming into the vessel, and
en clothed itself within it, becoming its "soul." Because it is light The World of
from the Keter it becomes the male, while the Chokhmah, which Bound Lights

surrounds it, becomes the female. Then the superior light is
enclothed within the light of Chokhmah, and the part of the light

that becomes a little darker because of the higher light's distance
from it becomes a vessel for two reasons: The light had distanced Vessel
itself from it, causing it to become darker; and the superior light ofthe Keter of the Keter
was enclothed within the light of Chokhmah. [Column 2] Then
the first light that was left behind by the Keter finished becom-
ing a vessel for the Keter, because the light of Chokhmah sepa-
rated the two lights from each other. [2]
Understand, then, that it was the return of the lights and their
spreading into the first three sefirot that caused them to become
vessels at this time, rather than at the time when the higher light
withdrew from them. [ 4]


There is also another reason for this. Because the light of the
Keter remains up above, it never again enters into those vessels,
but remains at the end of the roots of the ten lights-which are
above it-with its back turned downward. Therefore the lights are
now weaker than they were at first, or even when they were re-
moving themselves. It was like this, for example, in the second
vessel-that of Chokhmah-into which the light of Binah entered.
Forming the Vessels I 337
336 I Tree of Life
Figure 60. Male and Female in the Vessels of Kc1er,
The light of Chokhmah enclothed itself within the light of Binah, Chokhmah, and Binah
darkening and becoming a vessel because of its distance, even
though that distance was not complete. Now a male and a female
were together in the vessel of the Keter and a male and female
were also in the vessel of Chokhmah. So we find that the natures
of the Keter and Chokhmah are never nullified by changing from AdamKadmon
male to female because their own lights remain behind in their
places, even though they are not as complete as they were at first.
Instead, other lights from lower sefirot are added to these lights, The World of
becoming the "female" in relation to them. [16] Bound Lights:
The same thing also happened with Binah, but with a differ-
ence. The light of Binah that remained behind was diminished at Vessel of
the time when the lights withdrew. Then, when the lights came the Keter
back, the light of Chesed entered her place. Now Chesed is, as we
know, the child of Binah, so it was not possible for him to become
the male, with the light of Binah herself becoming the female in
relation to him. But if we were to say that the light of Binah
should be male and the light of Chesed should be female, that
too is impossible. So it was necessary for Chokhmah and Binah,
who were together in the vessel of Chokhmah, to turn face-to- Vessel of +
face, as we explained to you above. When Chokhmah turned his Chokhmah Impression of
face downward after the eight lights were given to him, the male Chokhmah (m)
and female that were in the vessel of Chokhmah coupled there
in their place. Through their union, they brought forth one light,
a letter yod, which was sent downward when they turned their
faces toward Binah. That yod was enclothed within the light of
Binah the same way as the other lights-the yod as the male and
Binah as female. (See Figure 60.) Afterward, when the seven lights
Vessel of
are given to the vessel of Binah, they include the light of Chesed,
which remains within her as the aspect of "female waters." [29]


Even though the light of Binah comes from the first lights that
remained behind, the yod that came into her from the union of
338 I Tree of Life Forming the Vessels I 339
the male and female in Chokhmah is a new light. If so, how could Binah herself is female and is called Y-0-D benmsc of the
Binah, who is the root, become the female to this new light from three lights that are in her, which are in th<' order yo<i,
Chokhmah? The answer, as we have already explained, [Page 65] dalet, vav--Chokhmah, Binah, and Chesed. This time tlH'
is that the light of Binah is not a great light because there are vessel is not mentioned. (19]
now three spaces between it and the light, even though these are Another reason that the drop of the yod from the union
not three whole spaces. This is not the case with Chokhmah, who within the vessel of Chokhmah is the husband of Binah, who is
is above her, as we mentioned above. (2] l>t'low, is that when the male and female within the vessel of
Another reason is that the light of Binah that remained be- <:hokhmah mated, they did not bring forth that drop all by them-
hind at the time when the lights departed was not intended to s<lves, but only from above-that is, from the Keter. That is why
shine. The higher female, on the other hand, came into the its strength is greater than the lower light of Binah. [22]
Chokhmah at the time when the lights were spreading out with
the intention of shining. Therefore the child that came from the
two of them was better able to become the male than was Binah.
This is even more true in comparison to Chesed, who also came
in now, because even though Chesed also came while the lights
were spreading, he is three levels below Chokhmah. [9]
To conclude these matters: In the highest Keter there is the
name YaH, which is male and female-Keter and Chokhmah. In
the Chokhmah there is also a male and female-another name
YaH-which is Chokhmah and Binah. In Binah there is yet an-
other name YaH that is male and female. Here the Y is the re-
newed Chokhmah that was made from the union of the male and
female that are above in the Chokhmah. Binah, who is the fe-
male to this yod, is the letter H. So you have a Y and a H-the
name YaH-even here. Binah also has within her the light of
Chesed, which is the aspect of a son. [15]
In addition, each one of those first three sefirot is called a
letter yod that is spelled out fully as Y-0-D. 2

The Keter has within it a male and a female-yod and vav---

and the vessel is the dalet in the Y-0-D.
Chokhmah also has within it a Y-0-D: a male, a female, and
the vessel, which is the letter D.

Note that here the letter vav stands for the vowel sound "o."
"Reaching and Not
Reaching" in the Keter



In the rest of the sefirot, however, nothing like male

and female exists because they are entirely male .
Their vessels are already completed and there is no
light in them except the new light that enters them .
The light of Gevurah enters the place of Chesed, and
so on, until we find that the light of Malkhut is in
the vessel of Yesod. With this comes the first difficulty:
How is it possible for a male (Yesod) to become a
female (Malkhut)? [27]
You should know, therefore, that it was necessary
for the male and female that are in the vessel of
Binah to mate in order to bring forth in her image
one letter hey, (i1) which is divided into two-a dalet
(1) and a vav (1). The letter vavwent into the vessel
of Yesod as the secret of the male for Malkhut, who
was already there. The reason that they are male and

342 I Tree of Life "Reaching and Not Reaching" in lh e K eler I 343
female is that the letter vav comes from several levels higher than (ls,tiah 57:1), for when "the righteous "2 is not couplin g with
the light of Malkhut, which is in the Yesod. (31] M.dkhut he also loses because Abba and Imma do not giv<' any
Afterward, the letter dalet came down into Malkhut and made 1lting to him except when he, too, is pouring light out onto those
her complete there in her own place. 1 So you can see that there lwlow him . (10]
are four aspects that contain both male and female: the Keter, It is the same way here. When the Keter does not let its light
Chokhmah, Binah , and Yesod. That is the solution to the prob- ll ow into those below it, then the root of the higher Keter also
lem cited above-these four have something that the others do ho lds back its portion-not willingly, because it wants to let its
not. [33] li gh t flow, but only because of the deficiency in the lower ones,
who are not able to receive it. [ 13]
Another reason for this is that if the light were to continue
We must now explain the reality of "not reaching" in the Keter. wi th out interruption, the vessels would be nullified and turned
How does this occur? As we explained, there are male and fe- k into light the way they were at the beginning. Now, how-
male in the vessel of the Keter-the Keter and Chokhmah-and ' V<"r, light does not flow into the vessels until after the light that
it is necessary for them to go up to their roots in order to suckle w;is in the vessels has gone up above to suckle. In this way, the
from them. The reason that those bound lights go up is their v1ssels are not nullified. After these lights have suckled up above,
desire to obtain light from their roots, because all ten of the roots 11t cn th e Keter turns around to face upward and the rest of the
are facing downward to shine on them. After they go up and li gh ts go back down against their will because they do not have
suckle from there, however, the Keter of the World of Bound ,1 11 y place from which to suckle. (19]
Lights remains at the end of the roots and turns its back on the There is still one more reason. These lights also have their own
rest of the lights so they can no longer suckle. [Column 2] That d1 sire to return to their vessels, similar to the soul when it leaves
is why they then turn around, go down, and reenter their ves- tl H' body, so after their suckling they turn back to go down. Then
sels, as we will learn later with God's help. [2] tit .it Keter of the World of Bound Lights, which is at the end of
In this regard , all the higher roots turn their faces downward tl1 1 roots, suckles from the root of the Keter up above, receiving
toward the lower ones, pouring out only enough light for the rn ily what is necessary for it to live and no more. (22]
secret of their life, but not what they need in order to procre-
ate. Of course, the root of the Keter up above has the desire to *****
pour its light downward because the roots always want to shine
We will now explain the subject of the light's going up. When
onto their branches. In this case, however, the light of the Keter
w1 say that the light is "not reaching into Keter" it is because the
that is at the end of all those roots turns its back downward, and
111.1le and female of the Keter-that is, the impression of the Keter
when the root of the Keter above sees that the light that it is
,111<1 the light of Chokhmah-have gone up to be with the Keter
giving there is not flowing downward, it withdraws its portion back
1lt at is at the end of the roots up above. They are not, however,
up. This is like the verse, "The righteous (tzaddik) perishes ... "
.1hle to be together there because the light of the Keter is too

1The dalet (1) plus the vav (1) make a complete letter heh (:i). Malkhut
corresponds to the final letter in the Divine Name, HVYH. I. I'., the sefirah Yesod. See Gate I, Chapter 5, note 3.
344 I Tree of Life "Reaching and Not Reaching" in U1e Keter I 345
great for them, so while the other two remain in the place of the Figure 61. The Female Included Through the Mal
Keter, the light of the Keter itself goes up to the root of Malkhut.
Then the root of Malkhut goes up to the root of the Yesod,
and they both remain together there as male and female in the
place of the Yesod. The root of the Keter up above then lets its Roots
light flow downward abundantly, since the lower levels are pre-
pared to receive it. Then the female of the Keter is included in
the male. [30)

The Female Included Through the Male

There are several different kinds of "inclusion" (klalut) to be

'.; :-:>1
considered when interpreting this matter. One is when the two
lights start out in two different vessels-each one in its own ves- :

sel. Afterward, when the two lights enter into one vessel, this will
be called "inclusion," because both of them are included in one Kadmon
vessel. [33)
It is different when the two lights are male and female. What
happens to them is described in the Zahar in the portion
Terumah, p. 147, "For then they have the secret of love
( 'ahavah)." This means that the male light is included in the
female and both are in one vessel, and also the reverse, when
the light of the female .is included within the vessel of the male.
Then there are four lights included in each other, two in each
vessel. This is the secret of the four letters of the word 'AHa VaH
There is still another kind of inclusion, which is the one we
have here: Two lights without vessels, which are the male and The World of
female of the Keter that went up above and are not in a vessel. Bound Lights:
Their type of "inclusion" is not because they are inside a vessel. Vessel
of the
It is, rather, an aspect of their receiving light from each other, Keter
which is their kind of "inclusion." [Page 66) Now the female is
included through the male, because the female is the light of
Chokhmah, as we mentioned above, and the male is the light of
the Keter that remained in the vessel. As a result, it is now the
346 I Tree of Life ''Reaching and Not Reaching" in he KNer I 347
male that receives light from his root, which is the root of the Figure 62. The Male Included Through the Female
Keter. This light comes to him purified by the Keter, which re-
mains above at the end of the roots. By means of the higher light
from the root of the Keter, the light of the Keter becomes very
pure and an abundance of light shines through it onto the male
of the Keter. Then the female, which is included through the
.... "t1
male, receives the light from him, until we find that these three-
the male and the female from the vessel of Keter, and the Keter
that is above them-become equal in their illumination. After
these three are equal they all receive their light from the root of
the Keter above. (9)

The Male Included Through the Female

It is also necessary for the female of the Keter to receive light
from her own higher root, which is that of the Chokhmah up Adam
above. Therefore that root of the higher Chokhmah comes down Kadmon

to the root of Binah, Binah goes down to Chesed, and so on until

the root of the Yesod goes down to the place of Malkhut. Then
the Keter that had gone up to the place of the root of Malkhut
goes down into its own place because it is unable to remain up
there, since it has no resemblance to the root of Malkhut. Also,
it is a branch and this Malkhut is a root, which is why it is lower
in quality than she is even though it receives light from the Keter.
So it goes back down to its own place, where it is now possible
for it to be together with the male and female lights that are
there, because now the three of them are equal, after having all

received equally from the root of the Keter up above. Then the The World of
Bound Lights:
light from the root of Chokhmah flows downward. (19)
Because the female has become equal in quality to the male of the
and because the female receives the light first, the male is now Keter

included through the female. Since the two of them are now etc.
equals, after having received light from the root of the Keter
above, and because they are now receiving light from the root
of Chokhmah, the female is the first among the three of them
348 I Tree of Life "Reaching and Not Reaching" in th e Keler I 349
to receive it. When they receive light from her they are included tills that empty place there is a pathway for the ligh 1 of~
through her, which is the secret of "A valorous woman is a crown Emanator to flow across into the root of the Chokhmah, so it docs
to her husband" (Proverbs 12:4) . [22] not lose anything at all. [ 43]
There is, however, a reason-in fact, there are several rea- After the male and female have also received light from the
sons-that the root of th e Chokhmah went down to the place of 1 oot of Chokhmah they do not need to suckle any more, and they

the root of Binah , and so on . The first is that when a light is hoth go back down into their vessels. Then the root of the
very close to the root of the Keter it is not able to shine because C:hokhmah goes back up to its own place and the root of the
its light would be nullified by the light that flows from the Keter. Keter also withholds part of its light, so the Keter that is at the end
Also, it is necessary for it to move farther down so that the fe- of the roots receives only what is required for its own life. Now
male of the Keter can receive light from it first, as we mentioned we say that the light is "reaching" in the Keter because the light
above. This caused it to come one level closer to her than the is returning to its vessel. However, the root of the Keter up above
distance between the male of the Keter and its root. [29] is "not reaching" downward into the World of Bound Lights. [ 49]
In addition, we have already explained that the roots can never We conclude from all this that the light of the first vessel,
refrain from pouring their light downward when the lower levels which is called Keter, has only the light of Chokhmah because
want to receive it. Therefore the root of the Keter never ceases 1he light of the Keter stays up above at the end of the roots. This
to flow abundantly as long as the male and female of the Keter is the secret of "He made them all with wisdom (chokhmah) ... "
are outside their vessels. 3 This prevents the root of the Chokhmah (Psalms 104:24). [51]
from pouring out its light. But when it distances itself from the
Keter by going down to the place of Binah, leaving its own place
vacant, then the root of Chokhmah pours its light downward
while the light pouring from the root of the Keter is filling up
the empty space that it left behind. So we find that even though
the Keter is pouring out an abundance of light, it does not nul-
lify the light of the Chokhmah. [36]
The descent of the root of the Chokhmah does not, however,
cause it to lose its light when it has distanced itself by one level
from the Emanator, because the Keter above it fills up that empty
space. If that space had remained vacant and empty, then the flow
of light from the Emanator to the Chokhmah would have
stopped, and the Chokhmah would have lost its light. In that case
it would have been better for the root of the Chokhmah to have
stayed in its own place. However, because the light of the Keter

' I.e., when they have gone up above to suckle from the roots.
"Not Reaching" in
Chokhmah and Binah

And now, after having explained "reaching" in the

Keter, we need to explain the subject of "not reach-
ing" in Chokhmah and Binah.
We know from what we have described above that
all the lights that are in the vessels of Chokhmah and
Binah go up to the place of the Keter when the male
and female of the Keter are in its place. [Column
We already explained that there are five lights in
two vessels : male and female in the vessel of
Chokhmah ; and male, female , and the Name
BaN(52) in the vessel of Binah. The actions of those
that are below determine whether or not they go up.
Sometimes all five lights go up and sometimes only
four, leaving the light of Chesed, which is the Name
BaN(52) , below in the vessel of Binah. [ 4]
We also explained above that there are male and
female in each one of the first three sefirot, and that

352 I Tree of Life ''Notpmmg" in Chokhmah and Binah I 353
they are called ThH-Yfor the male and H for the female. You 1he secret of withdrawal, as we stated above , because in 01 ck1 to
should also know that when all five of these lights go up to the 111ake a vessel, these lights withdrew. Then those lights- in other
Keter, sometimes they are included in the female, sometimes with words, the impressions-remained behind in the Kcter,
the male, and sometimes some of them are in the female and < :hokhmah, and Binah. So we find that the male light in the
others are in the male. You should know, however, that when only wssel of the Keter is from the secret of withdrawal, while the
four lights ascend, they are always included in the female. [9] f<omale light in the Keter is, as we know, from the secret of "fac-
111g." That is why the light of the male and the light of the fe-
MALE AND FEMALE IN THE VESSEL OF THE KETER 111ale were equal at this time. [29]
Moreover, because the light of the Keter itself had settled
We will now explain this distinction. Let us say that before those
down beneath the roots, the male that was left in the vessel of
lights would go up above to be included in the Keter, the Name
1he Keter has a great longing to turn around and go upward,
ThH, which is in the Keter, was in its "simple" form, without its
which is not the case with the female. Therefore almost the whole
letters spelled out fully. But when those lights go up above, then
light of the male goes up above and only a little of its light re-
its letters will be fully spelled out in one of three possible ways:
111.iins. But because the female, unlike the male that was left in
with yods, with heys, or with 'ale!S. 1 When only four lights go up
1hc Keter, does not have a root up above, she does not have such
they are all included in the female that is in the Keter, which is
.1 great longing and desire to go up and she leaves much of her
the H of the name ThH Then that H is spelled with a yod, as
light in her vessel. That is another reason that they are able to
HeY. This is because when four lights go up into the female the
IH'come equals. [34]
lower three are nullified by the first light, because the light of
So the two Malkhuts of the male and the female were together.
Chokhmah always nullifies the rest. Then the three of them are
But when the male and female return and come back down again,
nullified by the letter yod, which is the Chokhmah. That is why
1he male comes with all of his light and also with a greater light
this letter HeYis spelled out with a yod. [18]
1.1kcn from the root of the Keter that is above him. As a result,
You should know, however, that when the male and female
when they come back, the female is unable to receive all the light
that are in the Keter go up above to their roots--which is the
nl the male except from the secret of six "extremities." 3 [39]
secret of "not reaching"-only nine of the sefirot that are in each
of them go up. Down below, they leave in their place two
Malkhuts--the Malkhut of the male and the Malkhut of the fe-
male-in the two vessels that are called ThH, which, as we men-
tioned above, are simple letters, without being fully spelled out. TnE NAME YAH
You should know, however, that then those two Kings I11 order for this to become clear to you, you need to know about
(melakhim) 2 are equal. Even though the male is greater than the one more introductory matter, which is that there is a difference
female, they are now equal, however. The light of the male is in l>C' lween one time-during the emanation-and the time that

11.e., YH can be spelled out either as YOD-HeY, YOD-HeH, or YOD-H'E. 1

1.1-., the six lower sefirot from Chesed to Yesod, which also form the
Another version has, "those two Malkhuts" (malkuyoc). 111ale partzuf, Ze'ir Anpin.
354 I Tree of Life "Not Reaching" in Chokhmah and Binah I 355
follows it. This is because the first time of all was when the male 1h e full spelling of the letter YOD. This is called a letter yod 1h a1
light of the Keter was left behind during the first withdrawal. After 1 ,~ both male and female. [3]
that, during the second spreading when the Chokhmah entered After this comes the letter Hof the name YaH, which is th<'
the vessel of the Keter, it did not enter the vessel of the male vessel of the female. The Malkhut of the female remains there,
but only the vessel of the female , which is the secret of the Hin .1s we mentioned above. [Column 2] When the four lower lights
the name YaH So there were a male and a female in two ves- KO up into this letter H, then it is fully spelled out by adding the
sels. [ 44) l<tter Y-i.e., HeY-as mentioned above. The form of that H (il)
During the second withdrawal, however, when both the male 1s, however, shaped like the letters vav (1) and dalet (1), which
and th e female went up above together, they became equal and 1qu als 10. 8 [3]
both received the light equally from the higher Keter. Therefore
when they came back down and returned to their vessels, both *****
of them entered the vessel of the male, and the Malkhut of the We find no more about this subject from here on. Nor is there
female remained in the vessel of her own letter H, as mentioned .rny more about it in the rest of Etz Chayyim.
above. After the first time, this always happens because the male This completes The Palace of Adam Kadmon.
and female always stay in the vessel of the male, where they
couple together as one. We find that the yod 4 is the vessel of
the male. 5 There, the two of them are male and female. When
they are coupling, the female can endure the light of the male
only from his six "extremities." Then from the mating of this male
and female, which are included within the simple letter Y, came
for~h two children in their image, a male and a female, who are
the secret of the letters vav and the dalet in the full spelling of
the letter yod--spelled out as yod-vav-dalet. Because the male
unites with the female only through the secret of his six "extremi-
ties," his son is also in the form of the letter vav (1) .6 The fe-
male, however, has the form of a letter dalet (1) because, while
she has all ten vessels, [Page 67] the light of her six "extremi-
ties" is nullified within her first four sefirot. That is why she is
called the letter dalet. 7 Thus we have the vav and the dalet in

I.e., the Y of YaH.
Another version has " . . . in the vessel of the male."
In this spelling of the letter yod, the vowel sound "o" is represented
by the letter vav, which is also the number 6.
The letter dalet is also the number 4. "V(6) + D(4) = Y(l 0).
Epilogue I 356a

only some aspects of its fully-developed teachings. Jn order to

obtain a sense of the evolution of kabbalistic thought, we would
1 ccommend approaching this body of literature in the following

,~cquence, beginning with its biblical precursors and ending with

a modern exposition of its central ideas:
The Bible: Genesis 1, Ezekiel 1, The Song of Songs;
Sefer Yetzirah (Aryeh Kaplan, trans.);
The Zohar (preferably in an edition with notes and com-
Moses Cordovero, Introduction to Kabbalah: An Annotated
Translation of His 'Or Ne'erav (Ira Robinson, trans.);
Chayyim Vital, The Palace of Adam Kadmon (re-read);
Adin Steinsaltz, The Thirteen Petalled Rose.

As interest in Kabbalah continues to grow, more and more

books will be written about it, along with additional translations
of its primary texts. We would encourage those who want to study
Tiie Palace of Adam Kadmon is only the first of the Kabbalah to explore the original source material for themselves,
seven palaces of Etz Chayyim. In length, it represents and not to rely only on other people's interpretations of their
approximately one fifth of the total. The reader who meaning. If this translation of The Palace of Adam Kadmon has
is fluent enough in Hebrew to have read this volume helped spark such an interest in its readers, it will have achieved
in its original language-ideally with the guidance of its most important goal.
a teacher who has already mastered the text-has still
only begun his or her study of Etz Chayyim, and Etz
Chayyim itself is only the first volume in the body of
writings known as Kitvei Ar~"Writings of the Ari."
(See Appendix B.)
Even the student who has only read The Palace
of Adam Kadmon in English is now prepared, how-
ever, to benefit from sampling the growing number
of other texts of Kabbalah that have been translated
into English, most of which are listed in our Bibliog-
raphy. When doing so, he or she should be aware that
Etz Chayyim represents the final stage in the evolu-
tion of the Kabbalah, and that earlier works contain

Bibliography: Texts of
Kabbalah in English


Mathers, MacGregor, The Kabbalah Unveiled,

Arkana, London: Penguin Books (1926), 1991.
An English occultist's translation of Ka.bbala
Denudata by Knorr von Rosenroth (d. 1689),
which is itself a translation into Latin of Sifra
de-Zeni 'uta (Book of Concealment), Idra Rabba
(the Greater Assembly) and Idra Zuta (the
Lesser Assembly), none of which were included
in the Soncino edition of the Zohar (see be-
low) .
Matt, Daniel, Zohar, The Book of Enlightenment,
New York: Paulist Press, 1983. A poetic render-
ing of selected passages.
Scholem, Gershom, Zohar, The Book of Splendor,
New York: Schocken Books, 1949. Selected
short passages.
Sperling, Harry, and Simon, Maurice, The Zohar (5

Bibliography I 359
358 J Bibliography

vols.), London: Soncino Press, 1984. The most complete ANTHOLOGIES AND COLLECTIONS

translation of the Zohar, including most of the main sec- Ben Zion, Raphael, An Anthology ofJewish Mysticism , N('w Yo1 k:
tions up to, but not including, the portion Pinchas. The The Judaica Press, 1981 .
translators also omit some important parts (e.g., Idra Rabba, Blumenthal, David R., Understanding Jewish Mysticism: A Source
Idra Zuta) and abbreviate or omit passages that they con- Reader (2 vols.), New York: KTAV Publishing House Inc.,
sidered too difficult or too explicit for their readers. 1972.
Tish by, Isaiah, The Wisdom of the Zohar, trans. David Goldstein, Bokser, Ben Zion, The Jewish Mystical Tradition, Northvale, NJ:
ondon: Oxford University Press, 1991. An anthology of Jason Aronson, 1993.
short passages, arranged by topic, with extensive introduc- Dan, Joseph, and Kiener, Ronald C., The Early Kabbalah, New
tions and commentaries. York: Paulist Press, 1986.
Fine, Lawrence, Safed Spirituality, New York: Paulist Press, 1988.
Jacobs, Louis, Jewish Mystical Testimonies, New York: Schocken
Books, 1977.
Cordovero, Moshe, The Palm Tree of Devorah, R. Moshe Miller Kaplan, Aryeh, Meditation and Kabbalah, Northvale, NJ: Jason
(trans.), Southfield, MI: Targum Press, 1993. Aronson, 1995.
Luzzato, Moses Hayyim, The Path of the Upright, Mordecai M. Matt, Daniel, The Essential Kabbalah, the Heart ofJewish Mysti-
Kaplan (trans.), Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson, 1995. cism, San Francisco: HarperSan Francisco, 1994.


Gikatilla, Joseph, Gates of Light (Sha 'are Orah), Avi Weinstein A TRADITIONAL PERSPECTIVE
(trans.), San Francisco: HarperCollins, 1994. Bar Lev, Yechiel, Song of the Soul, Petach Tikvah, Israel: (Avail-
Ginsburg, Elliot K (trans.), Sod ha-Shabbat (The Mystery of the able through Moznaim Publishing, New York), 1994.
Sabbath) by R. Meir Ibn Gabbai, Albany: State University Kaplan, Aryeh, Inner Space, New York: Moznaim Publishing,
Press, 1989. 1990.
Glotzer, Leonard R., The Fundamentals ofJewish Mysticism: The Steinsaltz, Adin, The Thirteen Petalled Rose, Northvale, NJ: Ja-
Book of Creation (Seier Yetzirah) and its Commentaries, son Aronson, 1992.
Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson, 1992.
Kaplan, Aryeh, The Bahir (Illumination), Northvale, NJ: Jason
Aronson, 1995.
Kaplan, Aryeh, Seier Yetzirah: The Book of Creation, York Beach,
ME: Samuel Weiser, 1990.
Robinson, Ira, Moses Cordovero's Introduction to Kabbalah: An
Annotated Translation of His Or Ne'erav, Hoboken, NJ:
KTAV Publishing House, Inc, 1994.

Appendix A. Glossary of Hebrew Terms

Appendix B. An Outline of the Complete

Contents of Etz Chayyim
Glossary of Hebrew
Terms 1

'AB(72) The Divine Name with its letters

fully spelled out to be numerically
equal to 72, in which the letters
heh and vav are spelled with yods.
YOD, He Y, VYv, He Y.

'ABaYA Acronym for the four worlds,

1,tzilut, f1riy'ah, Yetzirah, and
Asiyah: Emanation, Creation, For-
mation, and Action (or Making).

Abba "Father." The partzuf (personifica-

tion) of Chokhmah, the second

'acherim "Others." One of several terms for

the forces of evil. See also klippot
(Shells), and chitzonim (Outsiders).

'Note that Etz Chayyim frequently uses the Aramaic plu-

ral ending (-in) in place of the Hebrew (-im).

364 I Appendix A Appendix A I 365

'a dam "Human" or "Adam." Either Adam Kadmon, or pression 'erekh 'appayim, which mea11s "slow 10
the biblical Adam, representing all human be- anger" or "the Patient One" (Exodus 3'1 :!i) .
ings. Asiyah "Action" or "making." The World of Actio11
'adam ha'elyon 'The higher Adam." Adam Kadmon, in contrast ( 'olam ha 'asiyah) is the final stage in the cre-
to 'adam hatachton, "the lower Adam" of Gen- ation of the cosmos. The last and lowest of the
esis. four worlds of Emanation, Creation, Formation,
and Action, the World of Action is identical to
'adam hatachton "The lower Adam." The biblical Adam, repre- our own universe of matter and energy, both
senting all human beings. in its physical and its spiritual dimensions.
Adam Kadmon "Primordial Human." The linear conduit Atik Yamin "Ancient of Days." Originally meaning simply
shaped like a human, through which the light "very old," in Daniel's description of his vision
of the Infinite ( 'or Eyn Soi} passes before be- of God (Daniel 7:9). In the Zahar, the name
ing emanated into the finite worlds of Emana- Atika Kadisha, "the Ancient Holy One," is used
tion, Creation, Formation, and Action. in reference to the first sefirah, Keter, envi-
'akudim "Bound." Originally one of the three patterns sioned as a head whose beard has thirteen
on the sheep tended by Jacob, ( 'akudim, curls, from which flow the thirteen divine "at-
nekudim, and berudim), where it is usually tributes of mercy" enumerated in Exodus
translated as "striped." (Genesis 31:10,12). Etz 34:6,7. In Etz Chayyim, Atik Yomin is the per-
Chayyim interprets 'akudim in the light of Gen- sonification of the "soul"-the innermost es-
esis 22:9 (the Binding of Isaac) as referring to sence-of Arikh Anpin, who personifies the
the lights that emanated from the mouth of Keter.
Adam Kadmon, forming the World of Bound Atzilut "Emanation." The World of Emanation ( 'olam
Lights ( 'olam ha 'akudim). ha 'atzilut) is the closest to the Infinite (Eyn Soi}
'amiran "Utterances" or "sayings." God's ten creative ut- of the four worlds of Emanation, Creation,
terances ("And God said ... ,"), a phrase that Formation, and Action. The World of Emana-
occurs nine times in the first chapter of Gen- tion represents a structured realm of divine
esis and once in Genesis 2:28. Some, seeking to energy continuously flowing from the Infinite
find all ten utterances in the first chapter, through Adam Kadmon. In Etz Chayyim, the
interpret Genesis 1.1 as the tenth utterance, World of Emanation is formed by the
even though the phrase itself does not appear reconfiguration of the sefirot after the shatter-
there. ing of the vessels in the World of Points
Arikh Anpin The name of the partzuf (personification) of
Keter, the first sefirah. Literally "long face," an 'atzmut "Essence." The innermost spiritual aspect of
Aramaic expression paralleling the Hebrew ex- anything, e.g., the soul in relation to the body.
366 J Appendix A Appendix A I 367
In Etz Chayyim, the inner light of the sefirot, of mitzvot, prayer, study and acts of kind1wss,
as opposed to the vessel that contains it. we liberate the sparks of divine light that ar('
hidden within the Shells (klippol) of evil, <'tt-
'avir "Space." See chalal.
abling the light to return to its source.
'a yin "Nothingness." A term applied to Keter, the
bohu "Emptiness." A term used with tohu in Genesis
highest sefirah, which is beyond all comprehen-
1:2 to describe a state prior to God's creative
sion and which no words can describe.
activity. In Lurianic kabbalah, bohu refers to
BaN(52) The Divine Name with its letters fully spelled the reconfiguration of the sefirot as a group of
out to be numerically equal to 52, with the let- interacting partzufim in the World of Emana-
ter H spelled with two Hs: YOD, HeH, Va V, tion, following the state of chaos and disorder
HeH (tohu) among the seflrot in the World of
bechinah Points.
"Aspect." An individual element in a complex,
(pl. bechinot) multifaceted totality (klalut). The sefirot and Briy'ah "Creation." The World of Creation ( 'olam
the partzufim are aspects of the worlds of Ema- habriy'ah) is the second of the four worlds of
nation, Creation, Formation, and Action. Emanation, Creation, Formation, and Action.
berudim "Spots." Originally one of the three patterns on ch alal "Void." The empty, open space created when
the sheep tended by Jacob: 'akudim, nekudim, the light of the Infinite ('or Eyn Soi} withdrew
and berudim (Genesis 31:10,12). In Etz away from its midpoint.
Chayyim, the term berudim is applied to the chasadim "Loves." When the ten sefirot are divided into
World of Emanation, which follows sequentially two groups, the male sefirot are called the five
after the Worlds of Bound Lights ( 'olam chasadim-Keter, Chokhmah, Chesed, Tiferet,
ha 'akudim) and the World of Points ( 'olam and Netzach-in contrast to the five female
hanekudim). gevurot (strengths): Binah, Gevurah, Hod,
Bin ah "Understanding." The third sefirah. The begin- Yesod, and Malkhut.
ning of definition, distinction, and detail in the chayyah "Life force." The fourth-highest level of the five-
creative process. Analogous to the female womb part soul. In Etz Chayyim, the chayyah is asso-
in relation to the male seed of Chokhmah, ciated with moral consciousness, following the
Binah is personified by the partzuf Imma, the development of the intellectual faculties of the
archetypal "mother" of the seven lower sefirot. neshamah.
In the anatomical analogy of the ten sefirot,
Chesed "Lovingkindness" or "Grace." The fourth
Binah is the left brain.
sefirah. Chesed is characterized by the attributes
birur "Purification" or "sifting." In Lurianic Kabbalah, of expansion and unconditional giving, in con-
the process through which, by the performance trast to gevurah, which represents limitation
368 I Appendix A Appendix A I 369
and restriction. In the anatomical analogy of continuing action, w.ilhoul regard LO past,
the ten sefirot, Chesed is the right arm. present, or future Lime.
chitzonim "Outsiders." One of several terms for the forces Elohim "God." One of the biblical divine names, iden-
of evil. See also klippot (Shells) and 'acherim tified with the sefirah Binah, and the allribulc
(Others). of judgment (din). The name Elohim is con-
sidered lower in importance than the Divine
Chokhmah "Wisdom." The second sefirah. Following after
Name, HVYH, which is associated with the at-
lhe Keler, which remains concealed within the
tribute of mercy (rachamim).
Infinile, Chokhmah represents the beginning
(reshit) of God's creative activity. Chokhmah is 'elyon "Supernal," "highest," or "supreme." The upper-
compared to a seed, a starting point, a seminal most aspect of anything.
idea, a flash of intuition, which still needs to be
'etzem "Essence." See 'atzmut.
defined and nurtured in the third sefirah,
Binah. In the anatomical analogy of the ten Eyn Soi "The Infinite." God as ultimate, absolute perfec-
sefirot, Chokhmah is the right arm. Among the tion, beyond all limits of time and space, un-
partzufim, Chokhmah is personified as Abba knowable and incomprehensible to human
(Father). thought or imagination.
Da'at "Knowledge." A quasi-sefirah that harmonizes gem atria The use of the numerical values of the letters
Chokhmah and Binah in the same way that of a word to derive additional meanings, based
Tiferet balances the opposing forces of Chesed on the principle that words with the same nu-
and Gevurah. When the first sefirah, Keter, is merical value are related to each other. (In
concealed within the Emanator, Da'at is in- Hebrew, the letters of the alphabet also stand
voked to maintain the total of ten sefirot. for numbers.)
din 'Judgment." The opposite of rachamim ("com- Gevurah "Strength." The fifth sefirah, representing limi-
passion" or "mercy"). The primary attribute of tations and restrictions on the unconditional
the fifth sefirah, Gevurah. loving kindness of Chesed. Characterized by the
drush "Explanation." A rabbinic commentary on a attribute of judgment (din), Gevurah is the har-
subject in scripture or kabbalah. shest of the ten sefirot. In the anatomical anal-
ogy of the ten sefirot, Gevurah is the left arm.
Ehyeh "I am," "I was," or "I will be." One of the bib-
lical divine names (Exodus 3: 14), traditionally gevurot "Strengths." When the ten sefirot are divided
identified with the highest sefirah, Keter. Gram- into two categories, the five "female" sefirot are
matically, the first person singular imperfect called the five gevurot-Binah, Gevurah, Hod,
tense of the verb havah, (to be). Note that the Yesod, and Malkhut-in contrast to the five
imperfect tense in biblical Hebrew represents chasadim (loves): Keter, Chokhmah, Chesed,
370 I Appendix A
Appendix A I 371

HVYH The letters of the unpronounced Divine Name

Tiferet, and Netzach. In the Zahar and in Etz
of God, with its first letter moved to third pl;1< <'.
Chayyim, the five "final" forms of the Hebrew
a rearrangement that forms th e word "ex isl
letters M, N, Tz, P, and K, are called the five
ence" (havayah), derived from the verb h;iv;1/i
(to be). When written with its correct spelling,
gilgul "Transmigration ." The cycle of successive rein- this most holy of divine names is not supposed
carnations of a soul as it seeks to perfect itself to be erased or otherwise destroyed, and spe-
through a process of correction or improve- cial treatment is required of any page on which
ment (t.ikkun), primarily through the perfor- it is found, hence this substitution.
mance of the biblical commandments (mitzvot).
'igulim "Circles." The circular sefirot which, in contrast
hevel degarmey "Breath of the bones." A residual bit of life that to the linear sefirot, represent all of the non-
remains in the bones after death. linear aspects of reality. In their circular aspect,
hishtalshelut "Development" or "evolution." One of several the "higher" worlds surround the "lower" ones,
terms used to describe the sequential, step-by- with the outermost circles being closest to the
step emergence of the system of linear and cir- Infinite, which surrounds them all.
cular sefirot within the open void at the center "Mother." The partzuf (personification) of the
Im ma
of the Infinite. Etymologically related to third sefirah, Binah, the archetype of the recep-
shalshelet (chain) . tive, nurturing, and developmental aspects of
histaklut "Observation" or "look." The light emitted from the creative process. In the Zahar and Etz
the eyes of Adam Kadmon. When the light Chayyim, lmma is never parted from the partzuf
from this "look" struck the breaths of the ears, Abba (Father), thereby maintaining the flow of
nose, and mouth, it was reflected back upward divine energy from the Infinite into the finite
to the eyes, leaving behind its thicker compo- worlds.
nents, which formed vessels for the lights. 'ispaklaJY'a "Mirror." Malkhut is called 'ispaklary'a
hitpashtut "Spreading." One of several terms used to de- she'eynah me'irah-"a mirror that does not
scribe the gradual extension, from the Infinite shine"-a term applied by the Talmud ( l'evamot
into the void, of the line of light forming the 49b) to the medium through which the bibli-
linear sefirot. cal prophets received their visions. In Etz
Chayyim, this is applied to the sefirah Malkhut,
Hod "Majesty" or "Splendor." The eighth sefirah. because she has no light of her own, but only
Hod represents a restraint on the assertiveness what she receives from the higher sefirot.
of the sefirah Netzach. Among the patriarchs,
Hod is associated with the biblical figure of Israel "Israel." In the Bible, another name for Jacob.
Aaron, the priest. In the anatomical analogy of A secondary aspect of the partzuf, Ze'ir Anpin,
the ten sefirot, Hod is the left leg. just as Rachel and Leah are aspects of Nukva.
372 I Appendix A Appendix A I 373

In terms of location, Israel personifies the Keter "Crown." The highest sefirah, identified wi1h
sefirot of Ze'ir Anpin that extend from the the divine will (ratzon) or desire to create. I 11
head down to the chest, while Jacob personifies Etz Chayyim, the Keter is the intermediary b<'-
those from the chest downward. In Lurianic tween the Infinite and the finite worlds, which
kabbalah, when Ze'ir Anpin couples with transmits the divine light to the lower selirol,
Nukva, the aspect called Israel unites with Leah, but which remains hidden within the Emanator.
while Jacob unites with Rachel. Because the Keter is beyond the power of words
to describe, it is sometimes referred to as 'ayin,
Isracl Sava "Grandfather Israel." A personification (partzuf)
"nothingness," in contrast to Malkhut, who is
of the ten th sefirah of the partzuf Abba, corre-
called 'aniy-"1." When the Keter is concealed,
sponding to Tevunah in relation to the partzuf
the quasi-sefirah Da'at is invoked to maintain
Imma. Even though Abba and Imma are called
the total of ten revealed sefirot.
the "brains" (i.e., the higher, innermost aspects)
of Ze'ir Anpin, during the period of his infancy ketzavot "Extremities." In Seier Yetzirah, the six ketzavot
Ze'ir Anpin's "brains" are formed by the cou- are the six spatial directions--right, left, front,
pling only of the Israel Sava and Tevunah of back, up, and down. Etz Chayyim refers to the
Abba and Imma. six sefirot from Chesed to Yesod as the six
Jacob ''.Jacob." Among the patriarchs, Jacob (who was
renamed Israel) is identified with the sixth klalut "Totality." A collective whole. The sum total of
sefirah, Tiferet. In Etz Chayyim, Jacob is a sec- a grouping of individual parts or aspects of the
ondary aspect of the partzufZe'ir Anpin, per- whole. (See pratut.)
sonifying the sefirot from his chest downward,
klippot "Shells." The broken remains of the vessels that
while Israel extends upward from the chest.
shattered in the World of Points and fell down
When Ze'ir Anpin couples with Nukva, the as-
into the lower worlds, especially our physical
pect called Jacob unites with Rachel, while Is-
universe, the World of Action (Asiyah). These
rael unites with Leah.
Shells are the source of all that we experience
kav "Line." The ray of light extending from the in this world as evil-including our own "evil
Infinite into the void ( chalal). Also called the inclinations"-but still contain within them
yosher (straight line), it is the ultimate source some sparks of divine light, which must be
of all linear aspects of the finite worlds. purified by human actions.
kelim "Vessels." Containers for the light emanated Leah "Leah." A secondary aspect (together with
from Adam Kadmon, made from the thicker as- Rachel) of the female partzufNukva-Malkhut.
pects of the light that emanated from Adam In terms of their location, Leah extends from
Kadmon's eyes. the head down to the chest of Nukva, while
3 7 4 I Appendix A Appendix A I 375
Rachel extends from her chest downward. plify or explain by analogy some aspen ol lit<'
When Ze'ir Anpin and Nukva are coupling, unseen worlds of the sefirol or the divitH' < 1 <"
Leah unites with Israel, while Rachel unites with ative process.
Jacob. mayim dukrim "Male waters." Corresponding in the part:wfim
ma'atzil "Emanator." A term applied both to the Infinite to the seminal fluid in humans. Originating in
in relation to the void into which the primor- the sefirah Chokhmah of the male partzufim,
dial ray of light was emanated, and to Adam the "male waters" combine with the "female
Kadmon as the conduit and source of light for waters" during the coupling of male and female
the worlds of Emanation, Creation, Formation, partzufim, stimulating the flow of divine energy
and Action. through the sefirot into the lower worlds.
MaH(45) The Divine Name with its letters fully spelled mayim nukvim "Female waters." The "stimulus from below" that
out to be numerically equal to 45, with the two facilitates the coupling of the male and female
Hs spelled with 'alefs. YOD, H'E, V'.A V, H'E. aspects of the supernal realms. In the Zahar
makif "Surrounding." See 'or makif (surrounding and in Lurianic kabbalah, the performance in
light). this world of the biblical commandments
(mitzvot), prayer, study, and acts of kindness to
Malkhut "Malkhut." The tenth sefirah. Although others stimulates the "female waters" of
Malkhut is the lowest level of each world, it also Malkhut-Nukva. These combine with the "male
forms the highest level of the next lower world waters" of Ze'ir Anpin, facilitating their cou-
by extending its light through the "curtain" that pling as the supernal Bride and Groom, which
separates the worlds, forming the "soul" of the in turn enables divine energy to flow from the
Keter of the next lower world. Malkhut is also Infinite into the finite worlds.
the female counterpart to the first nine sefirot,
when they are conceptualized collectively as the milui "Full." The full spelling-out of the names of the
"male" aspects of Adam Kadmon or of Ze'ir individual letters in any word, e.g., YOD, HeH,
Anpin. Because Malkhut only receives light Va V, HeH The numerical value of the letters
from the higher sefirot, she is called "an un- in the full spelling may be used in gematria, just
lighted mirror" and characterized as "poor, with as in the simple spelling of the word.
nothing of her own." From our perspective,
mochin "Brains." In general, the inner aspect of any-
Malkhut is the Shekhinah, the divine presence
thing, in contrast to its surrounding shell.
active in our world, who is our gateway to the Among the partzufim, the higher ones (e.g.,
unseen realms of the spirit. Abba and Imma) form the "brains" (i.e., the
mash al "Analogy." Anything from the realm of ordinary inner aspect) of the lower ones (e.g., Ze'ir
human experience that can be used to exem- An pin), which enclothe them.
376 J Appendix A Appendix A J 377

NaRaNChay Acronym for the five levels of soul: nefesh, ferred to as 'olam hanekudol. Dcspil<' 1ht'i1
ruach, neshamah, chayyah, and yechidah. technical distinction, Etz Chayyim oftt11 11s1s
nekudot interchangeably with nekudim.
nefesh "Lower level of soul." The lowest of the five as-
pects of the soul, associated in the Bible with neshamah "Upper level of soul." Associated with intcllef
the blood. In Etz Chayyim, the nefesh is said tual development and centered in the brain . In
to enter the fetus gradually over the nine- Etz Chayyim, the neshamah is said to begin to
month period of gestation and to be centered be acquired only after the initial period of suck-
in the liver, from which it is distributed ling is completed, and develops gradually as the
throughout the body by the blood. child grows to maturity.

nekudim "Points." Sometimes translated as "dots" or Netzach "Victory" or "Endurance." The seventh sefirah,
"spots." Originally one of the three patterns on representing the attribute of assertiveness and
the sheep tended by Jacob: 'akudim, nekudim, the overcoming of obstacles to the flow of di-
and berudim (Genesis 31:10,12). In Etz vine energy. Among the biblical patriarchs,
Chayyim, the World of Points ( 'olam Moses is identified with the sefirah Netzach . In
hanekudim), in which the ten sefirot existed as the anatomical analogy for the ten sefirot,
isolated, uncoordinated points of light, was Netzach is the right leg or thigh.
formed primarily from the light that emanated
nimshak "Drawn" or "extended." One of the terms used
from the eyes of Adam Kadmon. Because the
to describe the descent of the linear aspect of
sefirot of the World of Points-also called the
light of the Infinite in to the void (ch alal).
world of chaos (tohu)-did not interact with
each other, the vessels of the lower seven sefirot nitzotzim "Sparks." The fragments of light created by the
were unable to contain the great light and shat- shattering of the vessels in the World of Points.
tered, forming the Shells (klippot), the source Most of the sparks returned to their emanator,
of all evil. In the Zahar, Sifra deZeni'uta (Book Adam Kadmon, where they were reconfigured
of Concealment), these seven sefirot are iden- into the partzufim of the Worlds of Emanation,
tified with the biblical kings of Edom (Genesis Creation , Formation, and Action, but some fell
36:31-39), about whom it is said only that they down into the lowest world, where they remain
ruled and died. See also 'akudim, berudim, and hidden among the Shells (klippot). See also
nekudot. birur (purification, sifting).
nekudot "Vowel points." The dots representing the He- Nukva "Female." The partzuf (personification) of the
brew vowels, which do not appear in Torah tenth sefirah, Malkhut, Nukva is the female in
scrolls. In Lurianic kabbalah, the nekudot were relation to the male partzuf, Ze'ir Anpin. She
first emanated in the World of Points ( 'olam is the supernal Bride, who rejoins her Bride-
hanekudim), which is therefore sometimes re- groom each Friday night. (Also see Malkhut.)
378 I Appendix A Appendix A I 379

'olam "World." Any of the realms created or emanated 'or makif "Surrounding light." The excess ligh1 th a t ran
(pl. 'olamot) by the Infinite (Eyn Soi) through Adam not be contained within its vessel, and that s 111
Kadmon, especially the four worlds of Emana- rounds it on all sides.
tion, (Atzilut), Creation (Briy'ah), Formation 'or panim "Front light." The light emanating from Adam
( Yetzirah) , and Action (Asiyah). Kadmon through the sefirot, during the tim es
'ofanim "Wheels." The four wheels of the chariot-throne when they are facing downward toward those
in Ezekiel's vision (Ezekiel 10) . Also, the name below them, so that the light emanates from the
of the order of angelic beings associated with front of their vessels.
the World of Action. In Etz Chayyim, the 'or yashar "Straight light" or "direct light." The light that
firmaments and heavenly spheres surrounding is emanated directly from Adam Kadmon, char-
the Earth, each of which is associated with its acterized as "compassion" (rachamim) in con-
own "angel," are also referred to as 'ofanim. trast to the returning light ('or chaser), which
'or (pl. 'orot) "Light." The primary metaphor associated with is characterized as 'judgment" (din).
the Infinite (Eyn Sof) and with the essence of 'odyot "Letters." The 22 letters of the Hebrew alpha-
the sefirot, in comparison to the vessels that bet. See also ta 'amim (cantillation marks),
contain their light, which are themselves made nekudot (vowel points), and tagin (crownlets) .
of "thicker" aspects of the light. As the ema-
panui "Vacant." One of the terms used to character-
nated light extends farther from its source, it
ize the void (chalal) at the center of the light
becomes more coarse, but is still essentially the
same light. of the Infinite.
partzuf "Personification." Any of the family of archetypal
'or 'achor "Back light." The light emanated from Adam
(pl. partzufim) figures representing the sefirot after they were
Kadmon through the sefirot, during the times
reconfigured due to the shattering of the vessels
when they are returning to their emanator,
in the World of Points. In Etz Chayyim, follow-
when the light shines through the backs of
ing the terminology of the Zahar (Idra Rabba
their vessels.
and Idra Zuta), the five major partzufim are
'or chaser "Returning light." A term applied to the light Arikh Anpin, Abba, Imma, Ze'ir Anpin, and Nukva,
that emanated from Adam Kadmon during the personifying respectively Keter, Chokhmah,
times when it is returning to its emanator, in Binah, the six sefirot from Chesed to Yesod,
contrast to 'or yashar (straight or direct light). and Malkhut. In addition, the partzuf Atik
Returning light is characterized as 'judgment" Yomin is characterized as the "soul" of Arikh
(din) , while direct light is "compassion" Anpin. Secondary partzufim include Jacob, Is-
(rachamim). rael, Israel Sava, Tevunah, Rachel, and Leah.
'or Eyn Sof "Light of the Infinite," see 'or. pashut "Simple" or "undifferentiated"; also "obvious" or

380 I Appendix A Appendix A I 381
"fundamental." Anything that is plain, or un- to the supernal realms of the scfirol and the
complicated. The term pashut is used to de- partzufim.
scribe both the divine Will (ratzon) and the un- reshimo "Impression." In Etz Chayyim, the residual ligh1
differentiated state of the light of the Infinite left behind by the lights of the sefirol when
prior to its contraction to form the void (chalal) they withdraw and disappear back into their
into which the finite worlds were emanated. emanator, Adam Kadmon. Elsewhere, the resi-
pnimiyul "Inwardness." The inner essence of something, due of light left by the Infinite when it with-
e.g., the light of the sefirot in contrast to the drew from its midpoint to form the void
vessel that contains it. (chalal ).
pralul "Detail." The individual aspect of a whole, in riqui "Empty." One of the terms used to describe the
contrast to its comprehensive totality (klalut), void (chalal) created when the light of the In-
e.g., partzufim, as aspects of worlds. finite was withdrawn away from its midpoint.
rachamim "Com passion." In early rabbinic thought, ruach "Middle level of soul." (Also "breath," or
rachamim is the opposite of din Uudgment). In "spirit.") The second-lowest level of the five-part
kabbalah, rachamim is associated with the soul. Centered in the heart, in Etz Chayyim the
sefirah Tiferet. In Etz Chayyim, the "straight" ruach is said to enter the infant gradually dur-
light ('or yashar) coming directly from Adam ing the period of suckling, i.e., in the first few
Kadmon is characterized by the quality of years after birth, prior to the acquisition of the
rachamim, while the reflected light returning to intellectual faculties, which are associated with
its emanator is identified as din. the neshamah.
Rachel "Rachel." A secondary aspect, along with Leah, ruchaniyut "Spiritual essence." The inner light of the
of the female partzufNukva-Malkhut. In terms sefirot.
of their location, Rachel extends from the chest SaG(63) The Divine Name with its letters fully spelled
of Nukva downward, and Leah from the head out to be numerically equal to 63, in which the
down to the chest. When the partzufim are cou- two Hs are spelled with yods and the V is
pling, Rachel unites with Jacob, who personifies spelled with an 'alef: YOD, He Y, V:4 V, He Y.
the lower sefirot of Ze'ir Anpin, and Leah
unites with Israel, who is his upper sefirot. sefirah The ten sefirot provide the structure that
(pl. sefirot) enables Eyn Sof, the infinite, transcendant God,
ratzon "Will." The original impetus toward creative to interact with the finite worlds, and form the
activity within the Infinite, also associated with fundamental pattern and source of order un-
the sefirah Keter. derlying all reality. Sefer Yetzirah relates sefirah
remez "Hint." A disguised allusion in scripture or the etymologically to sah.r (to count or to number),
Zohar, understood by kabbalists with reference sipper (to recount or tell), and sefer (book). A
382 I Appendix A Appendix A I 383
sefirah is the basic unit of divine energy. In Etz cal interpretation-literal (pcslwl), alkgo1 i<ll
Chayyim, the sefirot consist of an inner light, (remez), sermonic ( drush), and sen el (sod) .
contained within a vessel (itself made of a
ta'amim "Cantillation marks." The marks insc1 tcd al>ow,
thicker form of light), encompassed by sur-
below, and between the Hebrew letters to indi
rounding light. Each sefirah also has both lin-
cate the melodic patterns used in chanting Lhc
ear and circular aspects. (See yashar and
text. Neither these marks nor the vowel poinLS
(nekudot) appear in the Torah scroll itself.
sher, "Abundanceor" "in-flow." The divine energy that
t.agin "Crownlets." Ornamentations on the tops of
flows abundantly from the Infinite through the
some of the Hebrew letters in the Torah scroll.
sefirot and the partzufim, to enliven and sustain
the finite worlds. This flow is stimulated from Tevunah "Discernment." In Etz Chayyim, Tevunah con-
below by human actions, especially the perfor- stitutes the lowest sefirah (Malkhut) of the
mance of the biblical commandments (mitzvot) partzuf Imma, paralleling Israel Sava in the
and other good deeds that arouse the "female partzuf Abba. It is also the final Ile Yin the
waters" (mayim nukvim), bringing about the Name SaG(63) of Binah, the lowest part of
coupling of the partzufim in the supernal which extends downward into Ze'ir Anpin.
realms. It is this coupling that enables the di- Tiferet "Beauty" or "Glory." The sixth sefirah, Tiferet
vine abundance to flow from the roots of the harmonizes and balances the opposing forces of
sefirot in the supernal emanator, Adam Chesed and Gevurah. As the central sefirah,
Tiferet also stands for the six sefirot from
Shekhinah "Presence." The divine Presence acting within Chesed to Yesod, and is used synonymously with
this world, especially in relation to the people the male partzuf, Ze'ir Anpin, who personifies
Israel. Identified with the tenth sefirah, Malkhut these six sefirot. In the anatomical analogy of
(the partzuf Nukva). the ten sefirot, Tiferet is the torso.
shoresh "Root." The immediate source of the flow of tikkun "Correction," "reconfiguration" or "adjustment."
energy into a sefirah or other element of the The process of restoration, repair, and recon-
worlds. Each sefirah of a lower world has its struction, especially of the ten sefirot after the
root in the Malkhut of the next higher world shattering of the vessels in the World of Points.
above it.
tohu "Chaos" or "formlessness." A term used together
sod "Secret." The innermost, hidden meaning of a with bohu (emptiness) in Genesis 1:2 to de-
biblical text or of any aspect of reality, reveal- scribe the state of the world prior to the begin-
ing truths about the concealed realms of the ning of God's creative activity. In Etz Chayyim,
sefirot and partzufim. To the kabbalist, sod is tohu refers to the initial, diffuse state of discon-
the most significant of the four levels of bibli- nected, isolated sefirot in the World of Points,
384 I Appendix A Appendix A I 385
prior to their shattering and reconfiguration as third of the four worlds of Emanation, ( :1 <'
a group of interacting partzufim in the World ation, Formation, and Action. This is th< 1 tali11
of Emanation (Atzilut). of the spiritual forces that lie immecfo11!'1y lw
yond (and just beneath the surface of) th< vis
tzaddik "Righteous." Used as a synonym for the male
ible universe.
genital organ and the sefirah Yesod.
yasher "Straight line." The linear aspect of the emana-
tzelem "Image." Genesis 1:27 states that God made
tion from the Infinite into the void, which de-
Adam "in Ilis image (b'zalma)." In kabbalistic
veloped into the form of the supernal human,
terminology, the tzelem is the link between the
Adam Kadmon. In their linear aspect, the
body and the soul, a distinctly spiritual aspect,
"higher" worlds are inside the "lower" ones,
but one that has a shape like the body. (See
with the innermost level being closest to the
Zahar III, p. 43a.)
tzimtzum "Contraction." The withdrawal of the light of
Ze'ir Anpin The name of the partzufthat personifies the six
the Infinite away from its midpoint to create a
sefirot from Chesed through Yesod. Literally
void (chalal); an empty, open space into which
meaning "short face," or the Impatient One, in
the finite worlds could be emanated.
contrast to Arikh Anpin (the Patient One),
yanak "Suckle." One of the primary modes of inter- Ze'ir Anpin is depicted in the Zahar (Idra
action between lower and higher partzufim. Ra.bba and Idra Zuta) as having a black beard
with nine curls, corresponding to the nine at-
yechidah "One-ness." The highest of the five levels of the
tributes of God mentioned in Numbers 14:18.
soul. In Etz Chayyim, yechidah is the final stage
(In a similar passage-Exodus 34:6,7-thirteen
in the human developmental process, represent-
attributes are mentioned, which the Zahar as-
ing the ultimate level of consciousness of the
sociates with 13 curls in the beard of Arikh
Divine. Like the next lower level, chayyah (life
An pin). Ze'ir An pin is the supernal Bride-
force), yechidah extends beyond the boundaries
groom, whose Bride is Nukva, the personifica-
of body, surrounding it like an aura. Yechidah
tion of Malkhut, the tenth sefirah.
is also the link between the inner soul and its
divine source. ziwug "Coupling." The primary mode of interaction
between male and female partzufim. It is the
Yes ad "Foundation." The ninth sefirah. Yesod receives
marital union of male and female partzufim
the energy flowing through all of the higher that enables them to receive and to transmit the
sefirat, channeling it into the tenth sefirah,
flow of divine energy from the Infinite (Eyn
Malkhut. In the anatomical analogy for the ten
Soi) to the finite worlds. Coupling occurs be-
sefirat, Yesod represents the reproductive organ.
tween the primary partzufim Abba and Imma,
Yetzirah "Formation." The World of Formation is the and Ze'ir Anpin and Nukva, and also between
386 I Appendix A

the secondary partzufim: Israel Sava and

Tevunah; Jacob and Rachel; and Israel and B
Leah. The supernal couplings are stimulated by
our performance of the biblical commandments An Outline of the
(mitzvot), prayer, study, and acts of kindness.
From a kabbalistic viewpoint, one of the pur- Contents of Etz Chayyim
poses of worshipping God in religious services
is to facilitate the coupling of Nukva and Ze'ir and of Kitvei Ari
Anpin, the supernal Bride and Groom. All of
these actions on our part arouse the "female
waters" (mayim nukvim) from below, which in
turn stimulate the "male waters" from above,
both of which are necessary for coupling to
occur. This, in turn, brings about the abundant
flow of energy and blessings from the Infinite
into the finite worlds.
ZON Acronym for "Male and Female" (zakhar
v'nekevah) and "Ze'ir Anpin and Nukva."
Gate I. Circles and a Line
Gate II. The Development of the Ten Sefirot
Gate III. A Summary of the Order of Emana-
Gate IV. The Ears, the Nose, and the Mouth
Gate V. Cantillation Marks, Vowel Points,
Crownlets, and Letters
Gate VI. The World of Bound Lights
Gate VII. "Reaching and Not Reaching" (Mati
v'lo Mau)


Gate I. A Discussion of Vowel Points


388 I Appendix B Appendix B I 389
Gate II. The Breaking of the Vessels Gate XVI. The Light of the Brains of Ze' ir An pin and Nukva
Gate III. The Reconfiguration ( Tikkun) Gate XVII. Deception ('Ona 'ah)
Gate IV. The "Kings"

Ga te I. Atik Yomin Ga te I. The Reconfiguration ( Tikkun) of Nukva

Gate IT. Arikh Anpin Gate II. The Moon
Gate III. The Waning of the Moon
Gate IV. Jacob and Leah
Gate V. Leah and Rachel
Gate I. Abba and Imma Gate VI. Female Waters and Male Waters
Gate II. Coupling Gate VII. Inner Lights and Outer Lights
Gate III. The Birth of Ze 'ir Anpin and Nukva Gate VIII. The Electrum ( Chashmal)


Gate I. Ze'ir Anpin AND ACTION (AsIYAH)
Gate II. The 248 Sparks
Gate I. A Discussion of the Four Worlds
Gate III. The Lights of the Sparks and the Vessels
Gate II. 1 The Totality (Klalut) of the Four Worlds
Gate IV. The "Brains" (Muchin)
Gate III. The Form ( Tziur) of the Four Worlds
Gate V. Birth of the "Brains"
Gate IV. The Names
Gate VI. The Lesser "Brain"
Gate V. Surrounding Lights
Gate VII. The Brain of the Image ( Tzelem)
Gate VI. The Throne of Glory
Gate VIII. The Parts of the Image
Gate VII. The Order of the Four Worlds
Gate IX. A Discussion of the Image
Gate VIII. The Shells (Klippot)
Gate X. The Image
Gate IX. The Shell of the Planet Venus
Gate XI. Gestation, Suckling, and Mental Development
Gate XII. Gestations
Gate XIII. The Fall, or "Miscarriage" (Nefilah)
Gate XIV. The Partzufim (Personifications) 1The first two Gates of the seventh Palace are counted as one in com-

Gate XV. The Partzufim of Ze'ir Anpin and Nukva puting the total of 50 gates.
390 / Appendix B



By Chayyim Vital:
Etz Chayyim (Tree of Life)
Mavoah She'arim (Entrance to the Gates)
Sha 'ar hallakdamol (The Gate of Introductions)
Sha 'ar haPesukim (The Gate of Verses)
Sha 'ar haMitzvol (The Gate of Commandments)
Sha 'ar haKawanot (The Gate of Meditations)
Sha 'ar Ruach haKodesh (The Gate of the Holy Spirit)
Sha 'ar haGilgulim (The Gate of Reincarnations)
Sha 'ar haMa 'amerei R 'Shimon bar Yochai (The Gate of the Say-
ings of Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai)
Likutei Torah (Torah Selections)
Adam Kadmon, 6, the Name SaG(63),
Sefer Ta 'amei haMitzvot (Book of the Reasons for the Com-
38-39 lights from the ears
circular and linear of, 167-169
Pri Etz Chayyim (Fruit of the Tree of Life)
aspects of, 17-18, Netzach-Hod-Yesod of,
400 Shekalim Kesef (A Discourse on the "Four Hundred Shek- 21, 23, 31, 32, 40, 43
els of Silver")
41, 43, 46, 50-51 and the ten sefirot,
By R. Meir Papirash, edited by R. Sar Shalom Mizrachi: emanation of, 7 75-79
feet of, 51-53 vessels and inner lights,
Likutim (Selections)
the four worlds and, 50-51
42 World of Creation and,
light from the ears, 95, 97
nose, and mouth World of Emanation
of, 167-169, 188, and, 93, 94, 95, 97
189-190, 233-234 World of Formation
light of the Infinite, and, 97
and the World of World of Points and,
Emanation, 89-92 43-44, 45, 175
lights from the inside Arikh Anpin, 24, 46, 50, 53
of, 171-172, 173 Atik Yomin, 41, 46, 50, 53

392 I Index Index I 393
Binah how the vessels were made by Correction ( tikkun) See Da'at (knowledge), 52, 55, I :17,
delights in Chesed, 318, 321, the light from the eyes Reconfiguration 139, 139, 192, 2CM, 21!)
327 and the three breaths, Coupling
Eliezer, Rabbi, 218
the He Yin Tevunah and the 122-125 Abba and Imma, 201, 294
Emanator (Adam Kadmo11)
Name SaG(63), 135-139 face-to-face and back-to back,
Chesed (lovingkindness) lights come out from, 245-252
male and female in the vessel 292-296
letters in the, 197-199 lights return to, 252-259,
of, 336-339, 341-342 first coupling of the Names
"reaching" in, 315, 316 278-284
the Name Ehyeh, 133-134 'Ab(72) and SaG(63),
the Name SaG, 133-134, Chokhmah (wisdom)
172, 174 Female waters, 103, 213, 294,
135-139 in the World of Bound
Jacob and Rachel, 293 295, 296
"reaching" and "not Lights, 250-251, 255
second coupling and the
reaching" in, 312-315, male and female in the vessel Gevurah (strength, might,
World of Emanation,
351-355 of, 341-342 force)
relative size of Binah and "reaching" and "not "reaching" in, 315
Ze'ir Anpin and Leah, 293
Tevunah, 135 reaching" in, 311-312,
Ze'ir Anpin and Nukva, 91,
returns to the Emanator, 351-355 HaLevi, Gedaliah, 122
244, 283, 292
255-258, 278-280 returns to the Emanator, 255, Hebrew letters
Creation and redemption,
Tevunah, and the Name 278-280, 281 cantillation marks placed
SaG(63), 131-133 worlds made with, 90, 92, between the letters,
110, 349 the days of the Messiah,
in the World of Bound 183-186
Isaiah 52:13 and Daniel
Lights, 249-250, 255-258 cantillation marks written
"Circular" aspects 2:23-34, 106-108
Bohu, 206-207 below the letters, 231-232
circles and surrounding Malkhut and the creation of
Bound lights (akudim), 30, 62 "foundation" letters, 210-211
lights, 44, 46-48 the worlds, Genesis 2:4
emergence and withdrawal of four 'alefs from the letters
circular lights, linear lights, and 1:1, 102-105
the, 245-259 yod, heh, and vav,
meaning of bound, 232-233 and vessels, 31-35 Creation of the worlds, 3
186-188, 189
roots of the, 331-332 circular sefirot, 73-74, the four worlds, Emanation, the four-letter Name, 4,
Breath and speech, 231-235 77-78 Creation, Formation, and 59-60, 64, 93
"Breath of the bones" (hevel de lower soul (nefesh), 39-40 Action, 6-7 four spellings of the Name
garmey), 208-210 of reality, 65-66 the Infinite, Adam Kadmon, and four aspects of the
Breaths of the ears, nose, and of the ten 'sefirot, 16-19, and the World of Points, letters, 170-171
mouth, 117-118, 127-129 20-21, 23 6 four ways of spelling out the
and three aspects of the soul, The Contraction, (tzimtzum) order in which the worlds letters yod, heh, vav, and
118-119 at the center of the Infinite, were created, 5 heh, 60-62, 165-166
the eyes and the "soul of the 11-14, 24-25 within Adam purpose of creation, 3-5 gevurot, 192, 207, 210, 217
soul", 120 Kadmon 269
Index I 395
394 I Index
emergence and withdrawal of sources of light for 1lw Wo1 Id
the letter heh, 93, 98, 135, Inclusion, 344-349
the bound lights, 245-259 of Points, I 7<i
137-139 The Infinite (Eyn Sof), 6, 11-13
first spreading and withdrawal straight light and n111111i11g
the letters 'A-M-Sh and Israel, 119, 125
of the, 299-306 light, 289-296
Y-H-V, 227-228 Israel Sava, 62, 172-175, 240,
four aspects of spreading and vessels and inner lights,
the letters 'A, M, Sh, B, G, D, 241
withdrawal, ~07-308 48-51, 72-73
K, P, R, and T, 223-228
letters and crownlets, 202-205 Jacob, 62, 119, 293, 294 from the front and light from "Linear" aspects
the back, 285-287, 291 linear lights, circular lights,
letters and the sefirol of the Kabbalah how the vessels were made by and aspects, 31-35
middle soul, 218-220 kabbalistic interpretation of the light from the eyes linear sefirot, 73-74, 79
the letter vav, 96 Genesis 1: 1, 205-206 and the three breaths, middle level (ruach), 40-43
the letter yod, 93 Keter (crown) 122-125 ray of light from the Infinite,
the Nin 'ozen, 153-155 first spreading of the light, inner lights and surrounding 14-15
"simple" letters, 244 the vessel of the, 300-306 lights, 72-73, 82-85, of the ten sefirot, 19-20,
the 100 in Tevunah, 155-161 in the World of Bound 179-180, 238, 241-242 21-24
sources of light for the letters Lights, 252-255 interruptions in the flow of, vessels and inner lights,
G, Y, K, Q, 'ale[, Ch, H, male and female in the vessel 261-262 48-51
and 'Ayin, 235 of the, 341-342, 352-353 light from the ears, nose, and
twenty-two "foundation" "reaching" and "not Male and female
mouth of Adam Kadmon,
letters, 210-211 reaching" in the , 311, bones and blood, 208
167-169, 188, 189-190,
twelve "simple" and six 312, 341-349 the female included through
"doubled" letters, returns to the Emanator, the male, 344-346
light of the Infinite, 13,
223-226 252-255, 278-281 in the vessel of Binah,
14-16, 65-67, 89-92
twenty-two letters plus the five vessels for the, 268, 335, 336-339, 341-342
lights and vessels, 30, 32-35,
gevurot, 191-194 341-342, 352-353 in the vessel of the Keter,
48-51, 82, 231-235
vowels, cantillation marks, "Kings of Edom" (the World of 341-342, 352-353
lights from the inside of
and crownlets, 195-200 Points), 34, 44, 103, 193, in the vessels, 341-342
Adam Kadmon, 171-172,
See also under The Names 241, 268-269 173 lights, 334, 336
Image ( Lzelem) male and female lights, 334, the male included through
Leah, 52, 62, 119, 125, 134,
of God, 19, 26, 54 336 the female, 346-349
138, 156, 293
of Abba, 292-294, 296 second spreading: "reaching Male waters, 213, 294, 295
Letters. See Hebrew letters
Images and analogies, why we and not reaching", Malkhut (sovereignty)
use, 53-54 306-307, 311-329 and the creation of the
circles and surrounding
Imma (mother), 46-47, 50 sources of light for the letters worlds, 102-105
lights, 44, 46-48
The Impression (reshimo), G, Y, K, Q, 'ale[, Ch, H, in the World of Bound
circular lights, linear lights,
263-264, 275-278 and 'Ayin, 235 Lights, 247
and vessels, 32-35
396 \ Index Index \ 397

"reaching" in, 323, 325 Nukva (female), 47, 49-50 returning to, 226, 246, 280, letters and the sclimr or l he
Messiah, the, 106-108 Ze'ir Anpin and, 220-221, 342-353 middle level, 218 220
258-259 linear aspecLS, middk levl'I
The Name 'AB(72), 60-62, Sefirot, 57 (ruach), 40-43, 7n
166-167, 170-171 'Ofanim (wheels), 33, 79 circular and linear, 16-24, lower level (nefesh) and
first coupling of, 172, 174 "Outsiders," 242-243 73-74, 77-79 middle level (ruach),
The Name BaN(52), 60-62, letters and the sefirot of 29-32, 71-72, 211-215
170-171 Partzufim (personifications), the middle soul, worlds as soul, body, and
The Name Ehyeh, 133-134 41, 44, 242-243 218-220 clothing, 109-111
The Name Elohim, 211-215 aspects of the soul in the, 270 mutual attraction, 323, 327 Tevunah
The Name IIVYH, 4, 54, 59, developmental stages in ten, 16-24, 311-323, 327, Binah and, 131-134
60-62, 211-215, 308-309 humans and, 243-244 332-334 the He Yin Tevunah and the
The Name MaH(45), 60-62, the five, 55-57 and the twenty-two letters, Name SaG(63), 135-139
the four-letter name, 59-60 225
170-171 the Name SaG(63) in
The Name SaG(63), 60-62, Shells, 22, 103, 106-107, 214 Tevunah and Ze'ir
Rachel, 119, 125, 134, 135, 191,
131-133, 166-167, 170-171 Shimon bar Yochai, 10, 38, 64, Anpin, 141-143
293 77, 90, 218
the descent of the Name Reconfiguration, correction relative size of Binah and,
Song of Songs, 218, 219, 220, 135
SaG(63) into Ze'ir Anpin, (tikkun) 276 Tiferet (beauty)
143-148 Arikh Anpin incense, 102 Soul "reaching" in, 315, 317-318
first coupling of, 172, 174 Kings of Edom, 44, 103, 241 anatomy of the, 121 Tiferet, sefirah, 223-224
the HeYin Tevunah and, sefirot, 11, 204, 205 aspects of the, 239-241 Tahu, 206-207
135-139 World of Bound Lights, 269 aspects of, in human beings,
in Tevunah and Ze'ir Anpin, World of Emanation 53, 62 273-274 Utterances ( 'amiran), ten
141-143 Worlds, 103 aspects in partzufim, 270-272 divine, 212, 215, 217, 218
lights from the ears of Adam "Reaching and not reaching" body and, 202-205
Kadmon, 167-169 (mati v'lo matJ), 306-355 Vessels
breaths of the ears, nose, and
three kinds of SaG(63), Righteous (tzaddik), 341-343 and inner lights, 48-51,
mouth and three aspects
150-151 Roots 72-73
of the, 118-119
The Name YaH, 353-355 five partzufim 169 first spreading of the light,
circular aspects, lower soul
The Name YaH HVYH, four worlds, 269 (nefesh), 39-40, 77-78 the vessel of the Keter,
308-309 Jacob and Israel, 119 the eyes and the "soul of the 300-306
Netzach-Hod-Yesod of Adam vessels, 124, 132 soul", 120 for the first three sefirot,
Kadmon, 43 vowel points, 213 inner lights and surrounding 333-334
Netzach (victory, endurance) World of Bound Lights, 331 . lights of the, 179-180, how the vessels were made by
"reaching" in, 318, 320 334 237-244 the light from the eyes
398 I Index Index I 399
and the three breaths, World of Formation ( Yetzirah), REFERENCES TO BIBLICAL AND
122-125 6--7,42,48,49,62,96,97,99 POST-BIBLICAL TEXTS
impressions and, 267-268 World of Points (Nekudim), 21,
inner lights, surrounding 34, 40, 62, 174-176
lights, and, 72-73 Adam Kadmon and, 6, 43-44,
the inside and the outside of 45
Genesis Numbers
the, 238-239 Worlds
1:1 103 6:24-26 179, 293
lights and , 30, 32-35, 48-51, Divine Name and the
1:2 206 11:1 54
82, 231-235 four, 93
for lhc lower seven sefirol, inner light and surrounding 1:4 124, 132
332-333 light in higher and lower, 1:6 220 4:32 58
male and female in the, 241-242 1:27 20, 26, 54 5:4 54
336--339' 341-342 many worlds, 37-38, 76--77 2:4 102, 104 5:16 278
vessel of Binah, 336--339, roots of the, 269 2:7 202 12:23 32n, 212,
341-342 See also Creation of the 3:6 106 213
vessel of Chokhmah, 341-342 worlds 3:15 107 32:11 244
vessel of Yesod, 341-342 Worlds as soul, body, and 6:9 151
vessels of the Keter, 268, clothing, 109-111 184 Isaiah
335, 341-342, 352-353 6:3 225
8:21 54
Yesod (foundation) 26:4 308, 309
22:9 232
Will (ratzon), divine, 13, 77 male and female in the vessel 30:26 108
31:10 232
Wisdom of Sirach, 58 of, 341-342 40:26 57, 91
31:12 232
World of Action (Asiyah), 6--7, "reaching" in, 321, 323 44:6 252
36:31-39 34, 103 48:12 252
42,48, 49, 51, 59, 62, 98,99
Ze'ir Anpin, 47, 50 37:2 225
World of Bound Lights 51:2 270
and Nukva, 220-221, 258-259
(Akudim), 245-259, 266 51:6 107
the descent of the Name Exodus
World of Creation (Briy'ah), 52:13 106, 107
SaG(63) into, 143-148 2:12 154
6--7, 42, 47, 49, 62, 93, 95, 57:1 342
the Name SaG(63) in 6:10 54
96, 97, 99
Tevunah and, 141-143 20:12 276 Jeremiah
World of Emanation (Atzilut),
in the World of Bound 26:19 159 31:12 123
6--7, 37, 38, 42, 46--47,
Lights, 247-249 28:21 19ln 31:21 91
49-50, 59, 62, 89-92, 93, I 34:6 4, 293 31:22 180
94-95, 97, 99 Zohar 51:14 246
second coupling, 177-179 interpreting the, 62-67 Leviticus
5:1 244 Amos
19:32 103 6:8 246
400 I Index Index I 401
Micah 12:4 348 Shabbat 104b 138 Bemidbar, 145b 180
7:18 128, 3I8, I9:2 2I4 Shevuot I8a I75 Bereshit, I 9 22, 77
32I,327 20:27 82 Yoma 54b 207 Bereshit, 23 38, 77
3I:I5 290 Bereshit, 49 267
Zechariah Sefer Yetzirah
Bereshit, 246b I93
4:10 54 Job I:I 20I Bo, 42 5, I4, 8I,
I4:4 I06 14:22 209 I:2 206 110
28:7 58 1:11 207
Psalms Mishpatim, 94 30
37:6 207 3:6 218
I9:2 205 Mishpatim, 114 276
37:22 I07 5:2 224
22:3I 20I Mishpatim, I22 220
3:7-9 227-228
29 215 The Song of Songs Mishpatim, I23 I92
30:6 286, 327 I:4 220 Sefer haBahir Noah, 59b I5I
31:6 2I3 2:9 290 70 I59 Noah, 65 77, 306
39:3 192 4:I2 2I4 95 224 Pekudei, 226 38, 77
5I:l2 244 5:2 2I2, 2I3 Pekudei, 258 14
68:5 309 8:6 276 Sefer haZohar Pekudei, 268 38, 90
84:12 64 First Preface, 1 57 Pekudei, 269 77
89:3 20I Ecclesiastes First Preface, I 255 Pinchas, 2I 7 I79
I04:24 349 7:12 270 Second Preface, 204 Pinchas, 222 2I4
147:4 205 7:23 69 12 Pinchas, 225, 10
Idra Rabba 34, 58, I02 226
Proverbs Daniel
(Naso) Pinchas, 242 204
3:19 92, 110 2:23-24 I07
Idra Rabba 128 I03 Pinchas, 257b 4-5
3:23 64 2:34 107
Idra Rabba 135 104 Shelach, 169 209
4:I2 64 7:8 192
Idra Zuta 220 Terumah, I36b 205
4:15 56 9:19 159 I (Ha'azinu) Terumah, 147 344
Idra Zuta 288 92, I05 Toldot, 134 22
Sitrel Torah I, 191 Vayetze, 162 56
The Wisdom of Sirach Chagigah 12b 57 I 9I Vayikra, 9, 10 22
320 58 Chulin 54b Song of Songs 218-220 Vayikra, 43 293
Nedarim 38a 58 Vayikra, 54 219
The Talmud On Biblical Portions:
Berakhot Rosh Hashanah 58 Acherei, 78b 218 The Tikkunim
Chagigah I I b 5 21b Behar, 109 10 Preface, 4 10, 192
Chagigah I2a I56 Sanhedrin lOa 106 Bemidbar, 119b 156 Preface, 12 202
402 I Index

Preface, 16 202, 215 Tikkun 13 64

Tikkun 1, 18 109 (end)
Tikkun 5 (end) 209 Tikkun 28 210, 211
Tikkun 6, 23 96, 98, 111, (end)
215 Tikkun 69 64
About the Translators
Tikkun 9, 4lb 39 (end)
(42) Tikkun 70, 119 39, 76, 89
Tikkun 45 76 Tikkun 70, 121 90 Donald Wilder Menzi, a graduate of Oberlin College, studied
Tikkun 11, 46 191 Tikkun 70, 126 197 Semitic languages, Bible, and Rabbinic literature at Hebrew Union
Tikkun 11, 48 160 Tikkun 70, 128 215 College under a Levi A. Olan Fellowship from 1963 to 1967. He
Tikkun 11, 62 58 Tikkun 70, 132 39, 76 holds Master's degrees in Sacred Theology from Rochester
Tikkun 11, 65 64 Tikkun 70, 134 38, 77 Eastman Theological School (Bexley Hall) and in Urban Planning
Tikkun 11, 71 192 Tikkun 70, 135 192 from Hunter College, as well as a Ph.D. in Public Administration
from New York University. He has served as President of West End
Synagogue, a Reconstructionist Congregation in New York City. He
was first introduced to kabbalah by Rabbi Salomon Friedlander,
z ''l, the Lisker Rebbe, in the early 1970s. A father of four, he lives
in New York City.
Zwe Padeh attended Yeshivas in Israel before settling in the
United States. He has studied kabbalah for over ten years both at
The Kabbalah Center and as a private student of Rav Gideon
Lipovsky. Mr. Padeh is a devoted follower of Rabbi Shlomo
Carlebach, z"l, and founded the Carlebach Yeshiva with Reb
Shlomo. Currently he serves as Dean of the Yeshivah and is in-
volved in Jewish outreach work.