© All Rights Reserved

6 views

© All Rights Reserved

- Module 3
- VHDL Codes for Flip Flops
- 7-clocking_strategies
- m7000
- Simulation of Se Qu Ntial Ck t
- 74112
- 80c51 Fam Hardware 1
- DLD
- Introduction DigitalDesign
- DigDesignCh06L10.pdf
- easa
- A 2.2GHz 32×4 bit 6T-SRAM Design in 45nm CMOS(Report)
- Robert BOSCH Visited PSG College of Technology on August 2 2014
- Digital
- 1391969261
- Pa3 Libguide Ug
- setup and hold basics.pdf
- l11_maj_min_fsm
- EDITOR DE APLICACIONES.pdf
- Logic Families Post Lab

You are on page 1of 27

I. NUMBER SYSTEM

1. GENERALIZATIONS

b. The number of symbols in any number system is the radix or the base

c. The highest symbol in any number system is equal to radix 1.

d. The highest symbol plus 1 equals 0 with carry 1.

a. Decimal System

Said to be of the base 10 because it uses 10 digits and the coefficients are

multiplied by powers of 10

Highest digit is 9

b. Binary System

There are only two possible values 0 and 1

Used in digital systems

c. Octal System

With radix of 8

Highest digit is 7

d. Hexadecimal System

Uses 15 characters of numbers (0 9) and letters(A F)

Often used in registers addressing

use the positional notation method as illustrated

15-2 Digital Electronics

1 0 1. 01

2 2 = 0 . 2 5

2 1 = 0

20 = 1

21 = 0

22 = 4

5 .2 5

b. Decimal to any base (r)

For the integer part, divide the integer part repeatedly by base (r), then use the

remainder to form the required base (r) number in an up-ordered manner

For the fractional part, multiply the decimal part repeatedly by base (r) until you

find digits less significant, and then use the integer part to form the base (r)

fractional number. To illustrate:

0 .6 8 7 5 b in a r y

c o e ffic ie n t

1

0 .6 8 7 5 x 2 = 1 .3 7 5

0

0 .3 7 5 x 2 = 0 .7 5

0 .7 5 x 2 = 1 .5 1

0 .5 x 2 = 1 .0 1

0 .6 8 7 5 0 .1 0 1 1 2

c. Binary to Octal

group bits by three and convert each group to its equivalent

0 1 0 1 1 0 .1 1 1 0 1 1

2 6 . 7 3

d. Octal to binary

each Octal digit can be represented in its equivalent 3 bits.

e. Binary to Hexadecimal

group bits by four and convert each group to its equivalent hexadecimal

character. To illustrate:

0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 .1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0

1 6 . E C

f. Hexadecimal to Binary

each hexadecimal character can be represented in its equivalent 4 bits

g. Other Conversion

if there is no direct conversion as shown previously, make a sequence

conversion or practically makes use of the calculator even for the conversions

given previously.

Digital Electronics 15- 3

4. COMPLEMENTS

Used in digital systems and computers for simplifying the subtraction

operations and for logical manipulations

rs complement 2s 10s

(true complement)

(r-1)s complement 1s 9s

(radix-1 complement)

Note:

1. The 10s complement of a decimal number can be formed by leaving all the least

significant zeroes unchanged, subtracting the 1 st non-zero least significant digit from

10 and subtracting all other significant digit from 9.

Example:

9s complement 10s complement

2513 7486 7487

unchanged and the 1st non zero unchanged and then replacing 1s by 0s and 0s by

1s in all other higher significant digits.

Example:

1s complement 2s complement

10100100 01011011 1011100

15-4 Digital Electronics

A set of elements, set of operators and number of unapproved axioms or

postulates

Introduced a systematic treatment of logic and developed or this purpose an

algebraic system.

1938 C.E. Cannon

Introduced a 2-valued Boolean Algebra called Switching Algebra in which he

demonstrated that the properties of bistable electrical switching circuits that can

be represented by this Algebra.

a. Duality Principle

Every algebraic expression deducible from the postulates of Boolean Algebra

remains valid if the operators and identity elements are interchanged

If the dual of an algebraic expression is desired we simply interchange OR and

AND operators and replace 1s by 0s and 0s by 1s.

x+0 =x x1 = x

x + x = 1 xx = 0

x+x=x xx = x

x+1=1 x0 = 0

(x) = x (involution)

x +y = y + x (commutative)

x + (y + z) = (x + y) + z (associative)

x (y + z) = xy +xz (distributive)

b. De Morgans Theorem

A B = A B

A B = A +B

Digital Electronics 15- 5

Minterms

logical product of all the function variables that may or may not be

complemented

Product Terms

logical product of the function variables but not necessarily all the variables

that may or may not be complemented

Maxterms

sum of all the function variables that may or may not be complemented

Sum terms

sum of the function variables but not necessarily all the variables that may or

may not be complemented

Canonical Forms

Sum of Minterms: f (x,y,z) = xyz + x yz + x y z

Product of Maxterms: f(x,y,z) = (x + y +z)( x y z )

Standard Forms

Sum of Products: f (x,y,z) = xyz + y z + x y

Product of Sums: f (x,y,z) = (x+y)( x y z )

a. Truth Table

A table that describes a logic function by listing all possible combinations of the

inputs and indicating the logical output value

Invented by Veitch

Patented by Karnaugh

The essence of the map is by means of overlapping subrectangles such that

the intersection represents a unique combination of logic variables

15-6 Digital Electronics

xy

zw 00 01 11 10

00

01

11

10

4 -Variable

Group must be in the power of 2

Group must be in rectangular form

The group must be as large as possible and as few as possible

Combination of input variables that never occur

As a result we dont care what the output function is to be for these combination

of the variables because they are guaranteed never to occur

Dont cares can be assumed to be either 0 or 1 and that depends if it can aids

to further simplification

1. Enter a 1 on the K-map for each fundamental product that corresponds to 1

output in the truth table. Enter 0s elsewhere

2. Encircle the octets, quads and pairs. Remember to roll and overlap to get the

largest groups possible

3. If any isolated 1s remain encircle them

4. Eliminate any redundant groups if they exist

5. Write the Boolean equation by getting the logical products corresponding to

the encircled groups

6. Draw the equivalent logic circuits

Digital Electronics 15- 7

1. LOGIC GATES

Block of hardware that produces a logic 1 or logic 0 output signal if input logic

requirements are satisfied

Used in digital and switching circuits

Follows the rule of Boolean Algebra

a. AND Gate

A logic circuit where output is high only when all inputs are high represented by

a dot in Boolean operation

b. OR Gate

Logic circuit whose output is high as long as one of its inputs is high and

represented by plus sign in Boolean operation

c. NOT (Inversion)

15-8 Digital Electronics

A gate with only one input and one output(complement) and is represented by a

prime or a bar in logical operation

d. NAND Gate

Complement of AND

Abbreviation of Not-AND

e. NOR gate

Complement of the OR function and its name is an abbreviation of Not-OR

f. Exclusive OR Gate

Similar to OR but excludes the combination of both inputs equal to 1

Digital Electronics 15- 9

A gate whose output is high if the inputs are equal or of the same state

h. Buffer

Produces the transfer function but does not produce any particular logic

operation since the binary value of the output is equal to the binary value of the

input.

An isolating device used to prevent a driven circuit from the influence of the

driving circuit

15-10 Digital Electronics

Fan Out

Specifies the number of standard loads that the output of the gate can drive

without impairment of its normal operation

Fan In

Number of standard inputs

Power Dissipation

Power consumed by the gate which must be available from the power supply

Propagation Delay

The average transition delay time for the signal to propagate from input to

output when the signal change in value

Noise Margin

The limit of a noise voltage which may be present without impairing the proper

operation of the circuit.

2. UNIVERSAL GATES

a. Nand Gate

b. NOR Gate

Digital Electronics 15- 11

3. LOGIC FAMILIES

Resistors and transistors are its circuit elements

Simple and inexpensive but sensitive to noise and have a low fan out ratios

Can be represented by NOR gate in terms of operation

Uses diodes, transistor and resistors as circuit elements

It has a good noise rejection than RTL but low speed

Can be represented by NAND gate in terms of operation

A High Level DTL (HDTL) used in industry requires a higher supply voltage than

DTL typically 25 V

Most widely used logic family

Uses multiple emitter transistor at the input

High speed but generates noise spikes

Can be represented by NAND gate in terms of operation

Basically uses Schottky or a hot carrier diode between base -collector junction

of its transistor

Faster but dissipates more power than TTL

Of all logic families, it is the fastest

Its operation is based on a differential amplifier

15-12 Digital Electronics

Makes use of p-channel enhancement type MOSFET

0.1 mW approximate power per gate

Slow and delicate

Makes use of n-channel enhancement type MOSFET

0.1 mW approximate power per gate

Faster than PMOS

Makes use of both p and n-channel enhancement type MOSFET

Low power consumption with only 10 nW power per gate

Delicate and sensitive to static electricity

Consists of logic gates whose outputs at any time are determined directly from

the present combination of inputs without regard to previous output.

a. Half Adder

Performs addition of 2 binary inputs with two binary outputs including the sum

and the carry

b. Full Adder

A combinational circuit that performs the arithmetic addition of three input bits

(two binary inputs and the previous carry) producing an output that is the sum

digit and a new carry digit

c. Decoder

A combinational logic circuit that recognizes the presence of a specific binary

number or word

Converts binary information from n inputs to a maximum of 2 n unique output

lines

Digital Electronics 15-

13

d. Encoder

A digital function that produces a reverse operation from that of a decoder

Generates a number or code in response to an input

e. Multiplexer

Data selector switch

An electronic switch that permits any one of the number of inputs to be chosen

and routed to the output

Main function is to control the routing of data from one place to another

f. Demultiplexer

A combinational circuit that receives information on a single line and transmits

this information on 1 of 2n possible output lines

15-14 Digital Electronics

Their outputs are function of the inputs and the state of the memory elements

Two types of sequential circuit includes synchronous and asynchronous

Synchronous sequential circuits are clock controlled to achieve proper circuit

timing

Asynchronous sequential circuits has no clock input

a. Flip Flops

Are memory elements capable of storing a bit of information

Memory elements present in sequential circuits

Also called bistable multivibrator

An external can trigger the output

It has two outputs that are complement to each other

RS Flip Flop

D Flip Flop

D latch

Eliminate the possibility of race condition

Can be clocked or unclocked

Digital Electronics 15-

15

JK Flip Flop

Ideal memory element when it comes to circuit that counts

Also it eliminates the undefined state of the RS flip flop

Can be positive edge triggered or negative edge triggered

x dont care

T Flip Flop

Toggle Flip flop

JK Flip Flop with both inputs tied together

Edge Triggering

Changing the output state of a flip flop on the rising and falling edge of a clock

pulse

15-16 Digital Electronics

Hold Time

Minimum amount of time the input signals must be held constant after the clock

edge has struck

Set-up time

Minimum amount of time the inputs to a flip flop must be present before the

clock edge arrives

Propagation Delay time

Time it takes for the output of a gate or flip flop to change after the inputs have

changed

Level Clocking

Type of triggering in which the output of a F/F responds to the level of the clock

signal

Latch

Simplest type of F/F consisting of 2 cross coupled NAND and NOR latches

Type of triggering using two cascaded latches

Master for half cycle and slave for the other half

c. Registers

Group of memory elements that work together as a unit

Primary purpose is to store a word

Buffer Registers

A register that temporarily stores a word during data processing

Shift Register

A register that can shift the stored bits one position to the left or to the right

Has control inputs that determine what it does on the next clock pulse

Serial Loading

Means storing a word in the shift register by entering 1 bit per clock pulse

Parallel Loading

Loading all bits of a word in parallel during one clock pulse

d. Counters

Register capable of counting the number of clock pulses that has arrived at its

clock input

Digital Electronics 15-

17

Controlled Counter

Count pulses only when commanded to do so

Synchronous Counters

A counter in which the clock drives each F/F to eliminate the ripple delay

Ring Counter

A counter producing words with 1 high bit which shifts one position per clock

pulse

UP/DOWN Counter

Bidirectional counter, can count up or down

Presettable Counter

A counter that allows you to preset a number from which the count begins

e. Memories

Where the programs and data are being stored before operations begin

Read/Write Memory

Popularly known as Random Access Memory (RAM)

Uses bipolar or MOS F/Fs for static RAM (SRAM) wherein data will be retained

without the need of refreshing

Uses MOSFETS and capacitors for dynamic RAM (DRAM) whose time interval

to undertake a refresh operation is a bout 2 ms

Volatile memories-data is lost when power is turned off

Data is permanently stored by manufacturer and can be accessed whenever it

is needed

Hold fixed set of data in the circuit

Popularly known as ROM

Non volatile memories-data is not loss even the power is turned off

1. Programmable ROM (PROM)

Allows data to be written into the device by a programmer

Programmed by blowing fuse using a hardware called PROM programmer

ROM that can be reprogrammed

Data can be erased by ultraviolet light

Non volatile like EPROM

15-18 Digital Electronics

pulses

Bubble Memory

Sandwiches a thin film with magnetic material between two permanent bias

magnets

Logical 1s and 0s are represented by magnetic bubbles in the thin film

Solid state memory where 1s an d0s are being represented by the presence

and absence of a charge

Non Semiconductor Memories

Includes the magnetic core, magnetic disk, magnetic drum and even the CD-ROM

TEST YOURSELF 15

Review Questions

a. 10.24

b. 8.24

c. 8.5

d. 1.24

Answer a. 10.24

a. 67427

b. 56317

Digital Electronics 15-

19

c. 56327

d. 67437

Answer c. 56327

Solution

7s KPL = 6666-1035 +1 = 5632

a. 64

b. 63

c. 128

d. 127

Answer b. 63

a. 2

b. 1

c. 3

d. 4

Answer a. 2

a. 12

b. 120

c. 110

d. 100

Answer d. 100

Note: The succeeding term is binary 1 + previous term of the progression

a. works on binary algebra

b. makes logical decision

c. alternates between 1 and 0

d. allow the flow of current in a single direction

Answer b. makes logical decision

a. 1

b. 0

c. 10

d. either 1 or 0

15-20 Digital Electronics

Answer a. 1

a. 5A

b. nA

c. A

d. infinite

Answer c. A

a. AND gate

b. NAND gate

c. NOR gate

d. OR gate

Answer d. OR gate

a. common base amplifier

b. common emitter amplifier

c. common collector amplifier

d. common gate amplifier

a. OR gate

b. NOR gate

c. NAND gate

d. Not gate

Answer a. OR gate

a. 2

b. 3

c. 4

d. 5

Answer b. 3

a. a NAND gate with OR gate

b. a NAND gate with XOR gate

c. only AND gate

d. neither OR nor XOR nor AND gate

Digital Electronics 15-

21

a. it is used by everybody

b. any logic function can be realized by NAND gates alone

c. all the minimization techniques are applicable for optimum NAND gate realization

d. many digital computers use NAND gates

a. 0

b. A

c. ABC

d. 1

Answer d. 1

16. The bubble or small circle on the output of a NAND gate and NOR gate represents;

a. addition

b. subtraction

c. product

d. complementation

Answer d. complementation

17. Current drawn when the number 8 is on the LED display is________.

a. 140 nA

b. 140A

c. 560 mA

d. 5.6 A

Answer a. 140 nA

18. Current displayed for a four-digit liquid crystal display that reads the number 8888 is of the

order of

a. 560 nA

b. 560 A

c. 560 mA

d. 2.6 A

Answer c. 560 mA

a. 2 TTL

b. 5 TTL

15-22 Digital Electronics

c. 8 TTL

d. 10 TTL

Answer a. 2 TTL

a. weight

b. radix

c. decimal

d. multiplier

Answer a. weight

a. 1 second

b. 20 millisecond

c. less than 20 nanosecond

d. less than 20 picosecond

a. 2 microseconds

b. 2 milliseconds

c. 50 milliseconds

d. 500 milliseconds

Answer b. 2 milliseconds

a. OR gate

b. NOR gate

c. AND gate

d. NAND gate

24. Emitter Coupled Logic (ECL) has a very fast switching speed as compared to the rest of logic

families, what is then its typical switching time?

a. 5 sec

b. 5 millisec

c. 5 microsec

d. 5 nanosec

Answer d. 5 nanosec

25. Logic circuits can be sequential or combinational, what is the output of a sequential circuit?

a. present input states

b. past input states

Digital Electronics 15-

23

d. past and the present input states

26. For a TTL gate, the recommended and standard fan out is _____.

a. 5

b. 10

c. 15

d. 20

Answer b.10

a. speed circuit

b. toggle circuit

c. data circuit

d. delay circuit

a. 4

b. 5

c. 6

d. 7

Answer c. 6

29. When a logic circuit rejects an unwanted signal, this is termed as______.

a. logic levels

b. noise margin

c. power consumption

d. propagation delay

30. In a system with MOS devices, the main bus loading factor is likely to be:

a. resistive

b. current

c. capacitive

d. inductive

Answer c. capacitive

a. encoder

b. decoder

15-24 Digital Electronics

c. multiplexer

d. demultiplexer

Answer c. multiplexer

32. Refers to the ability of a logic circuit to withstand noise superimposed on its input signal

a. low noise immunity

b. high noise immunity

c. noise immunity

d. noise figure

33. CMOS, NMOS and PMOS belong to MOS family, what is (are) their significance?

a. they have lower power dissipation than bipolar devices

b. they are slower than bipolar devices

c. they are most sensitive to electrostatic

d. all of the above

a. Multiplexer

b. decoder

c. Demultiplexer

d. shift register

Answer a. Multiplexer

35. It is an undesirable condition which may exist in a system when 2 or more inputs change

simultaneously.

a. race condition

b. contest

c. drive condition

d. noise immunity

36. What is the memory element used in clocked sequential logic circuit?

a. gates

b. Flip-flop

c. Static Ram

d. Read Only Memory

Answer b. Flip-flop

a. stores binary data

b. generates clock signal

Digital Electronics 15-

25

c. relay data

d. makes decision

a. RS

b. Latch

c. D

d. register

Answer d. register

39. ______is a device that stay on once triggered and store one or two conditions as a digital

circuit.

a. gate

b. latch

c. integrator

d. differentiator

Answer b. latch

40. A flipflop whose output is the same as its input. This is sometimes used as a delay element.

a. RS flipflop

b. D flipflop

c. T flipflop

d. JK flipflop

Answer b. D flipflop

41. Memory whose contents are lost when electrical power is removed.

a. non volatile

b. volatile

c. dynamic

d. static

Answer b. volatile

a. parallel register

b. shift register

c. dynamic RAM

d. EEPROM

a. ROM

15-26 Digital Electronics

b. RAM

c. PROM

d. EPROM

Answer d. EPROM

44. In register index addressing mode the effective address is given by:

a. index register value

b. sum of the index register value and operand

c. the operand

d. difference of the index register value and the operand

45. The Integration Injection Logic has higher density of integration than TTL because it

a. does not require transistors with high current gain

b. uses compact bipolar transistor

c. does nor require isolation diffusion

d. uses dynamic logic instead of static logic

46. Dynamic RAM uses capacitor as its data storage element, while static RAM uses_____.

a. inductor

b. register

c. flip flop

d. magnet

47. An electronic counter in which bistable units are cascaded to form a loop

a. ring counter

b. twisted ring counter

c. bistable counter

d. UP/DOWN counter

48. This type of memory sandwiches a thin film with magnetic material between two permanent

bias magnets

a. bubble memory

b. soap memory

c. magnetic memory

d. RAM

49. A memory circuit has 9 address inputs has how many storage locations?

Digital Electronics 15-

27

a. 255

b. 256

c. 512

d. 511

Answer c. 512

Solution

# of address = 2n = 29

= 512

a. units per inch

b. tracks per inch

c. packs per inch

d. bytes per inch

- Module 3Uploaded bydemos2011
- VHDL Codes for Flip FlopsUploaded byAnil Kumar
- 7-clocking_strategiesUploaded byapi-3762689
- m7000Uploaded byhppaulalex
- Simulation of Se Qu Ntial Ck tUploaded bySivaprakasam Karthikeyan
- 74112Uploaded byMagdielScheroki
- 80c51 Fam Hardware 1Uploaded byYojy Jzf
- DLDUploaded byMannal Javed
- Introduction DigitalDesignUploaded byRony Mathews
- DigDesignCh06L10.pdfUploaded bysaurabhjerps231221
- easaUploaded byAlaa Mortada
- A 2.2GHz 32×4 bit 6T-SRAM Design in 45nm CMOS(Report)Uploaded byMary Bakhoum
- Robert BOSCH Visited PSG College of Technology on August 2 2014Uploaded byManoj Desai
- DigitalUploaded byNakia Henson
- 1391969261Uploaded byjeetendrasidhi
- Pa3 Libguide UgUploaded byUsman Shehryar
- setup and hold basics.pdfUploaded bykishoreroy88
- l11_maj_min_fsmUploaded byGaurav Upadhyay
- EDITOR DE APLICACIONES.pdfUploaded byAlejandro Cereceda Campos
- Logic Families Post LabUploaded byEranga
- The D flip flopUploaded byAlinChan
- vhdffUploaded byAmirul Asyraf
- Technical Manual MP2 CS130Uploaded byArvin Matabang
- ALS_MCQUploaded bymanojkumar
- New Metrics for the Reliability of Approximate and Probabilistic AddersUploaded byNick để học
- assifn2_sol.docxUploaded bysenthilkumar
- d-ch08-12thUploaded byestraj1954
- 2.1mux design differnt techniques.pdfUploaded bycNeera
- jolpe paperUploaded byAdireddy Satyatrinadh
- CD4027BCNUploaded byMarcio Luiz Da Silva

- COMMS 2 - Antenna & Radio Wave AnswersUploaded byVinnie Segovia
- Est Question for Iecep 2012Uploaded byEricson Blue Sta Maria
- Transline Part 2Uploaded byHaw-Chyun
- Uuuuuuu Uuuuuuu UuuuuuuUploaded byHaw-Chyun
- ResistanceUploaded byDanika Jan
- Calcu TechniquesUploaded byHaw-Chyun
- Integral Calculus ExamUploaded byHector Ledesma III
- Trigonometry multiple choice questionsUploaded byAldrin Kenneth Allanigue
- TB Chapter4 (1)Uploaded byHaw-Chyun
- 09 Single Line DiagramUploaded byHaw-Chyun
- 07 Schedule of LoadaUploaded byHaw-Chyun
- AquinoUploaded byHaw-Chyun
- 07 Schedule of Loadb (1)Uploaded byHaw-Chyun
- microelectronics.docUploaded byHaw-Chyun
- 2013 Day 2 NotesUploaded byHaw-Chyun
- ce2_sample1Uploaded byHaw-Chyun
- FA_105_S07Uploaded byHaw-Chyun
- Exam1.docUploaded byHaw-Chyun
- CalculuswithGeometry.pdfUploaded bybogoeski
- hheheheUploaded byHaw-Chyun

- Microeconomic Theory and Computation- Michael R. Hammock • J. Wilson Mixon.pdfUploaded byshudhai jobe
- EverythingScience_Grade10Uploaded byAnonymous vp91y160U
- Kok Et Al, 2018. Integrative Taxonomy of the Gymnophthalmid Lizard Neusticurus Rudis Boulenger,Uploaded byKevin Jaico
- Ann April2011Uploaded byladdu
- GMAT Sample Sat ques.docUploaded bySaima Abedin
- Experiment 2 Chem 26.1.docxUploaded byLorraine M. Del Rosario
- NumericalUploaded byishqi92
- 91044 Piping DrawUploaded byNapoleon Son Polo
- Lecture Set 3Uploaded byPavan Deep
- 5116 Prelim P2 BBSS 2009Uploaded bytopcat
- ArimaUploaded bySofia Lively
- TI89TitaniumGuidebook_Part2_EN.pdfUploaded bychanmancalvin
- par-br2-u1Uploaded byapi-293721221
- Articles Www.raechandran.com 02.2016Uploaded byAndrada Visan
- Development of Composites Based on Recycled Polypropylene for Injection Moulding Automobile Parts Using Hierarchical Clustering Analysis and Principal Component EstimateUploaded byJose Luis Molto
- TableUploaded bySaúl Torres
- forecast1-1Uploaded byHarish Sharma
- Schneider ECT158 Calculation of Short-circuit CurrentsUploaded bykarthik1eee2007
- LaserWORKS v8 Manual.pdfUploaded bylimguoping
- Damage in FEMUploaded byar_tkian
- Quantum Gravity, Generalized Theory of Gravitation, And Super String Theory-Based Unification - Mintz,PerlmutterUploaded byGopal Kumar
- 6211 PIDControl invensysUploaded byLockon Kum
- Math - McGraw Hil - Probability Random Variables and Stochastic Processes Solutions Manual - Papoulis - 2002Uploaded byMustafa Dinç
- Assisted-launch Performance Analysis Using Trajectory and Vehicle OptimizationUploaded byTudorel Afilipoae
- 07 - Valuation TechniquesUploaded byAdriana Rezende
- The Common Ion EffectUploaded byWaleed Emara
- Article_JAS_Cyclone_Revised_R2.pdfUploaded byAina
- desasaUploaded byNath Oru
- Speed Studies HandoutUploaded byVaradharajan S
- Stephen Hawking - Godel and the End of the UniverseUploaded byCamille Sigrid Vasquez

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.