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The basic objective of this project is to control one Heater and one Fan to
maintain constant temperature in an environment. For this we are using
ATMEGA8 microcontroller as the main controller and LM35 for Temperature
Sensor. One 16X2 LCD is attached with the microcontroller to display the Set
Temperature Value and Present Temperature Value. LCD will also to display the
status of Heater and FAN. For Heater we are using one Relay to control
230VAC Heater Element and we have attached on 12VDC Brushless DC FAN
directly with the board.

Working Principal:

Whenever the system is switched ON, LCD will display SV (for SET
Temperature Value) and PV (for Present Temperature Value) at the left side of
the display. On the right side we will display the status of FAN (as FN) and
Heater (as HT). We have interfaced three switches with the microcontroller.
Now to change the SV, we have used two switches as UP switch and DWON
switch. One another switch is left unused for further development of this
project. Now on pressing UP switch, value of SV will increase and DOWN
switch, value of SV will decrease. To do the main function of the project, i.e.
controlling of FAN and HEATER, we use three compare functions in our
software. To overcome the problem of frequently ON/OFF of HEATER and
FAN, we assume Hysteresis of 10C, i.e. HEATER or FAN status will be
changed if PV is out of +_ 10C. So, if PV is greater than +_ 10C of SV then
FAN will be on to cool down the environment and if PV is bellow +_ 10C of SV
then HEATER will be ON to increase the temperature of the environment. And
when PV is within +_ 10C of SV, HEATER and FAN will be OFF. This is to
note that in a moment either HEATER or FAN will be ON.