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1 What do biologist consider to be the smallest unit of life? A. an atom; B.

cell; C. a tissue; D. an organism; E. an biosphere.
2 Organisms use receptors to help keep conditions in their internal
environment within ranges that their cells can tolerate. This process is
called A. evolution; B. metabolism; C. physiology; D. adaptation; E. homeostasis
3 An organism that is capable of making its own food is called A. producer;
B. consumer; C. decomposer; D. symbiont; E. none of the above
4 All living things exhibit each of the following characteristics EXCEPT A.
the ability to sense and respond to change; B. growth and reproduction based on
DNA; C. movement; D. homeostasis; E. metabolism
5 The person responsible for developing our current system of naming
organisms is A. Lynne Carle; B. Carolus Linneaus; C. Dr. Triplett; D. Charles Darwin;
E. none of the above
6 Each species is given a two part name scientific name (for example,
Aptostichus stephencolberti). The first part of the name also indicates the
________________ to which the species belongs. A. Family; B. Species; C. Phylum; D.
Genus; E. Order
7 The ultimate source of new genetic variation encoded in DNA is A. natural
selection; B. mutation; C. artificial selection; D. adaptation; E. viruses
8 Evolution that occurs as a result of some individuals being better
equipped than others to survive and reproduce is called A. natural selection;
B. artificial selection; C. genetic drift; D. competitive evolution; E. none of the above
9 Archaea and Eukarya are examples of _______________________. A. plants; B.
producers; C. domain names; D. shared, derived characters; E. viruses
10 These "fundamental forms of matter" are called A. electrons; B. neutron; C.
cells; D. atoms; E. elements
11 The nucleus of an atom is made up of A. protons; B. neutrons; C. electrons; D.
protons and neutrons; E. protons and electrons
12 The atomic number of an element is based on A. the number of protons; B. the
number of neutrons; C. the number of electrons; D. the number of quarks; E. the
periodic table
13 Chemists keep track of all known elements by arranging them... A. alphabetically
in a medicine cabinet; B. in the periodic table, based on atomic number and other
properties.; C. in glass jars in the laboratory; D. in digital libraries; E. in molecular
14 An atom that differs from other atoms of the same element because it has
additional neutrons is called a/an A. ion; B. isotope; C. mutation; D. quark; E.
Brownian body
15 The mass number of an atom is equal to A. number of protons + number of
electrons; B. the number of neutrons only; C. number of neutrons + number of
electrons; D. number of protons + number of neutrons; E. none of the above
16 The innermost shell of an atom can hold up to __?__ electrons, while the
outermost shell can hold up to __?__ electrons. A. 1, 7; B. 2, 8; C. 3, 9; D. 1, 8; E. 2, 9
17 This property is a measure of an atom's ability to pull electrons from other
atoms. A. corrosiveness; B. acidity; C. magnification; D. electronegativity; E.
18 An ion is an atom that A. carries a positive charge; B. carries a negative charge;
C. carries either a positive or negative charge; D. has an extra neutron; E. none of
the above
19 Covalent bonds are formed when A. electrons are shared; B. protons are shared;
C. electrons are taken; D. protons are taken; E. none of the above
20 When two are more atoms are joined in a chemical bond, the resulting structure
is called a A. protein; B. bionic atom; C. bipolar atom; D. molecule; E. compound
21. This type of bond occurs because atoms with different electronegativity do not
share electrons equally. A. positive covalent bond; B. negative covalent bond; C.
polar covalent bond; D. ionic bond; E. aquatic bonds
22 Many of the special properties of water are the result of bonds that occur
between individual water molecules. These bonds between water molecules are A.
ionic bonds; B. hydroxyl bonds; C. covalent bonds; D. aquatic bonds; E. hydrogen
23 A substance (usually liquid) that can dissolve other substances is called a(n)A.
amino acid; B. solvent; C. solute; D. base; E. functional group.
24 Polar molecules are said to be _____________, because they dissolve in water and
are therefore water-loving. A. compounds; B. ionic; C. hydrophilic; D. hydrophobic;
E. solvents
25 On the pH scale, acids are substances that have a pH A. less than 1; B. greater
than 7; C. equal to 7; D. greater than 14; E. less than 7
26 Molecules that contain carbon are referred to as A. compounds; B.
carboniferous; C. inorganic; D. organic; E. none of the above
27 An organic molecule that consists only of hydrogen and carbon atoms is called
a(n) A. element; B. carbohydrate; C. hydrocarbon; D. nucleic acid; E. amino acid
28 What are "functional groups"A. molecules of life that are used in metabolism; B.
a cluster of atoms that imparts specific chemical properties to a molecule; C.
molecules that only function when they are in groups; D. a cluster of carbon
molecules that can bond with other molecules; E. molecules that funcion in genetics
29 The chemical reaction in which two molecules are covalently bonded together to
form a larger molecule (also forming water as a byproduct) is called A. hydrolysis; B.
evaporation; C. metabolism; D. electron transfer; E. condensation
30 A double bond between two carbon molecules is indicated with A. bold
lettering on the carbon atoms; B. two dots next to the carbon atoms; C. two lines
between the carbon atoms; D. the word "double" written next to the bond; E. a
dotted line between the carbons
31 Organic molecules that consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio
are called A. fatty acids; B. carbohydrates; C. monodimonomers; D. functional
groups; E. waxes
32 Cellulose, starch, glycogen, and chitin are examples of the complex
carbohydrates known as A. oligosaccharides; B. disaccharides; C. polysaccharides;
D. steroids; E. lipids
33 Phospholipids are important for living organisms because A. they are energy
sources; B. they make up the cell membrane; C. the make up cilia and flagella; D.
they make up mitochondria; E. they associate with Golgi bodies
34 Which of the following is a lipid that contains fatty acids with only single covalent
bonds, allowing the molecules to pack tightly and become solid at room
temperature? A. nucleic acid; B. cellulose; C. saturated fat; D. unsaturated fat; E.
35 What are fatty acids? A. molecules that cannot be made by the body and must
come from food; B. molecules consisting of a carboxyl group joined to a backbone of
4 to
36 carbon atoms.; C. molecules consisting of a long chain of amino acids.; D.
molecules that are saturated with fat; E. none of the above 36 These fats are built
from three fatty acids attached to glycerol. They also represent the most abundant
energy source in vertebrate animals, and are often concentrated in adipose tissues
for insulation and cushioning. A. unsaturated fats; B. cholesterol; C. trans fats; D.
triglycerides; E. steroids
37 Which of the following is not part of a typical amino acid? A. an amine group (
NH3+); B. a carboxyl group (COO-, the acid); C. an R group; D. a five carbon
sugar (ribose or deoxyribose); E. none of the above are found in amino acids
38 Amino acids are important because they are used to make A. proteins; B. cell
membranes; C. cell walls; D. cytoplasm; E. energy
39 Sickle cell anemia is ultimately caused by A. insufficient exercise and a diet low
in omega- 3 fatty acids; B. a change in a single amino acid, which changes the
shape of hemoglobin; C. a change in the structure of white blood cells; D. alcohol or
tobacco abuse; E. none of the above
40 RNA and DNA are both assembled as chains of smaller building blocks called A.
amino acids; B. proteins; C. functional groups; D. genes; E. nucleotides
41 This nitrogen-containing polysaccaride can be found in both animals and fungi,
often in a structural role. A. cellulose; B. nitrogenous base; C. omega-3 amino acids;
D. chitin; E. nitroglycerine
42 Which one of the following has the most sugar units per molecule? A.
monosaccharides; B. disaccharides; C. oligosaccharides; D. saturated fats; E.
unsaturated fats
43 Which of the following functional groups tends to make a molecule polar? A.
amine; B. sulfhydryl; C. hydroxyl; D. methyl; E. carboxyl
44 Which of the following functional groups tends to make a molecule acidic? A.
amine; B. methyl; C. carbonyl; D. carboxyl; E. phosphate
45 What is the primary result of cleavage reactions? A. Gases are released into the
air; B. Electrons are tranferred among molecules; C. one molecule digests another;
D. Two larger molecules bond into one larger one.; E. a molecule splits into two
smaller ones
46 One generalization of the cell theory is that A. all cells have a nucleus; B. all cells
have cell walls; C. the cell is the smallest living thing that displays the properties of
life; D. cells can arise from nonliving matter; E. all cells are microscopic
47 Which cell feature is absent in prokaryotic cells? A. plasma membrane; B.
nucleoid region; C. cytoplasm; D. nucleus; E. DNA
48 The semifluid mixture within all cells and within which all the components of a
cell are suspended is called theA. cytoplasm; B. ectoplasm; C. cellular matrix; D.
nucleus; E. plasma membrane
49 What is the primary location of DNA in a prokaryotic cell? A. the nucleolus; B.
the nucleoid region; C. the nucleus; D. the nucleotide; E. nowhere; prokaryotes do
not have DNA!
50 Which one of the following factors best explains why cells tend to be small in
size? A. weight limits; B. packing capacity; C. DNA security issues; D. cellular
etiquette; E. surface-to-volume ratio
51 What is the "lipid bilayer"? A. a double layer of phospholipid molecules,
organized with their water-loving heads facing outwards; B. a double layer of
phospholipid molecules, organized with their water-loving heads facing inwards.; C.
a complex layer of two different barriers around most cells (the plasma membrane
and the cell wall); D. a fatty substance secreted on the outside of cell membranes,
for protection; E. a double layer of proteins that form the plasma membrane of all
52 The multiple hair-like structures on the outer surface of bacteria cells that help
cells move across surfaces and aid in sexual reproduction are called A. archaeans;
B. capsules; C. flagella (singular = flagellum); D. pili (singular = pilus); E. bristles
53 Which of the following statements is FALSE? A. Archaeans are a type of bacteria;
B. Archaeans are a type of prokaryote; C. Archaeans and Bacteria have few, if any,
internal membrane enclosed compartments; D. If a cell has chloroplasts, then it
must be a Eukaryote.; E. Archaeans do not have mitochondria
54 The dense region within the nucleus where subunits of ribosomes are assembled
from proteins and RNA is called the A. endoplasmic reticulum; B. chromatin; C. golgi
body; D. nucleolus; E. nucleoplasm
55 This organelle is an extension of the nuclear envelope that forms as a folded
membrane in the cytoplasm, and it features ribosomes on its outer surface; it plays
a role in folding polypeptides into their tertiary forms. A. endosymbiotic bacterium;
B. rough endoplasmic reticulum; C. smooth endoplasmic reticulum; D. nucleoplasm;
E. golgi body
56 This organelle is a membrane-enclosed sac that primarily functions for waste
storage and disposal. A. lysosome; B. endsome; C. gomi body; D. vesiculum; E.
57 Which one of the following organelles contains enzymes that break down
hydrogen peroxide, alcohol, and other toxins? A. mitochondria; B. peroxisomes; C.
chloroplasts; D. lysosomes; E. vacuoles
58 The eukaryotic organelle that makes energy through aerobic respiration and may
have evolved from bacteria is called the A. energizer; B. nucleus; C. golgi body; D.
aerobic bactorespirator; E. mitochondrion
59 The eukaryotic organelle that is specialized for photosynthesis and may have
evolved from cyanobacteria is called the A. cyanoplastid; B. photoblast; C.
chlorophyll; D. chloroplast; E. midichlorian
60 The inner membrane of a chloroplast is folded back on itself, foming a series of
stacked, flattened disks. Each stack is called a A. stroma; B. chlorphyll; C. thylakoid;
D. phycopile; E. phytodeck
61 A single one of these organelles may occupy as much as 90 percent of a plant
cell's interior. A. nucleus; B. chloroplast; C. central vacuole; D. nucleoid; E. starch
62 Where would you be most likely to find a "secondary" cell wall? A. around the
nucleus of plant cells; B. between the primary cell wall and the plasma membrane
of a plant cell; C. on the outside of a primary cell wall of a plant cell; D. on the
epidermis of older trees; E. on the inside of the plasma membrane of plant cells
63 The waxy covering that protects exposed surfaces and limits water loss in plants
is called A. cuticle; B. capsule; C. cell wall; D. sheath; E. Teflon
64 Where would you find plasmodesmata? A. in the cytoplasm of a prokaryotic cell;
B. in the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell; C. in the cell walls of plants, connecting the
cytoplasm of two cells; D. on the inner membrane of chloroplasts; E. on the inner
membrane of mitochondria
65 What is the term to describe the nonliving mixture of proteins and
polysaccarides that surrounds certain cells, including bone cells? A. adhering
junctions; B. tight junctions; C. cuticle; D. ectoplasm; E. extracellular matrix