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TRAFFIC SIGNALOPTIMIZATION

A project report submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the


award of the degree of

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY IN
CIVIL ENGINEERING

Submitted by

K.MOUNIKA REDDY (1210212241)


D.SAI GOWTHAM(1210212219)
B.NAVEEN(1210212211)
K.KOTISIVA REDDY(1210212234)
G.SATHVIK(1210212257)

Under the esteemed guidance of


DR.DANGETI MUKUND RAO(Associate Professor)
Civil Department, GITAM UNIVERSITY

Department of Civil Engineering


GITAM Institute of Technology, GITAM University
Visakhapatnam 530045
Batch:2012-2016
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
GITAM INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
GITAM UNIVERSITY

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the project report entitled TRAFFIC


SIGNALOPTIMIZATION IN VISAKHAPATNAM REGION, a work done
by K.Mounika (1210212241), D.SaiGowtham (1210212219), B.Naveen
(1210212211), K.KotiSiva Reddy (1210212234) and G.Sathvik (1210212257)
students of 4/4 B.TECH CIVIL ENGINEERING is carried out at GITAM
UNIVERSITY,VISAKHAPATNAM in partial fulfilment of the requirements for
the award of degree in B.Tech and it has been found worthy of acceptance
according to the requirement of the university.

Dr.DangetiMukundRao Professor M.Ramesh

Associate Professor Head of the Department

Dept. of Civil Engineering Dept. of Civil Engineering

Gitam University Gitam University


S.NO TITLE PAGE NUMBER
1 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 1
2 ABSTRACT
3 INTRODUCTION
4 SCOPE AND PURPOSE
5 REVIEW OF LITERATURE
6 5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We have taken efforts in the project and gained valuable knowledge and
our sincere gratitude to our Associate Professor Dr. D. MukundRao,
Department of Civil Engineering for his excellent support, encouragement
and valuable guidance throughout the project and his personal involvement
in the partial completion of the project.
We express our sincere thanks to professorDr. M. Ramesh, and Head of the
Department, Civil Engineering, GIT, GITAM UNIVERSITY for providing
necessary initiation and valuable support.
We are also thankful to teaching and non-teaching staff of department ,
Civil Engineering and all other people involved in completion of the
project.

K.MOUNIKA REDDY (1210212241)


D.SAI GOWTHAM (1210212219)
B.NAVEEN (1210212211)
K.KOTISIVA REDDY (1210212234)
G.SATHVIK (1210212257)

TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT

Traffic signal timing optimization has been recognized as one of the most cost-
effective methods for improving mobility within the urban transportation
system. Inappropriate signal timing plans can cause not only discomfort (extra
delay) to drivers but also increased emissions and fuel consumption. Thus, it is
important to investigate the practice of signal optimization methodology to
ensure that newly developed timing plans will improve the system performance.
At complex intersections, traffic congestion causes pollution and leads to
accidents, high commute times and many other problems. Correct traffic signal
timing helps to reduce the congestion and it improves the traffic flow. The
primary objective of this study is to develop an optimization traffic signal cycle
length model for signalized intersections. Traffic data were collected from 15
signalized intersections in Visakhapatnam city. To evaluate the effects of the
optimization cycle length model, major intersections were selected.
INTRODUCTION

Urbanization has its own merits and demerits, the merit part is
it increase the standards of living of the people residing in the
city, the demerit part of it being it brings increased traffic flow
which leads to traffic congestion if the roads are not been
developed on par with the increased traffic flow the traffic
congestion worsens and leads to serious problems in the day to
day activities of people.

In most cases the extension of the roads in the city core


has the existing buildings cant be demolished and land
acquisition and compensation to be paid are too high and
hence the existing routes are to be used with full efficiency for
this traffic signals are used. This signals are to be optimized to
regulate the traffic with highest efficiency for which where
traffic surveys and studies has to be done as signal
optimization is one of the most economic step that can be
taken and which highly effects traffic regulation.

In Visakhapatnam the national highway runs through the


entire length of the city and most of city is developed on either
sides of the highway. To access the various parts of the city, the
city traffic enters the highway and combines with the highway
traffic. The NH5 connects major cities on south east coast and
hence experiences heavy commercial traffic. The
Visakhapatnam being a developing city itself has a high traffic,
intersection both of this traffic is the major cause for the
various traffic problems of the city. Hence optimization of the
signals on this route has to be highest extent for the efficient
traffic regulation and its flow.

Factors that influence signal coordination:


Increased traffic
Balanced traffic flow
Traffic signal spacing
Common cycle length
Transit signal priority
Updated signal coordination studies
Reliable communication systems
In-pavement vehicle detection
Pedestrian timings
Lane reductions

These above factors help in studying the nature of the traffic


and help in the co-ordination and optimization of the signals.

What is signal coordination and optimization? This


involves the implementation of the best possible timing
settings to govern the operation of a traffic signal. The
objective is to respond to the demands of motor vehicles,
bicycles, and pedestrians in a safe and optimum manner.
Signal optimization leads to the minimization of stops and
delays, fuel consumption and air pollution emissions and
maximizing the progression along an arterial.

Why is it necessary to optimize signals? Traffic signal


optimization is one of the most cost-effective ways to improve
traffic movement and make our streets safer and efficient.
Signal optimization is performed for any or all of the following
reasons:

To adjust signal timing to account for changes in traffic


patterns due to new developments and traffic growth

To reduce motorist frustration and unsafe driving by


reducing stops and delay
To improve traffic flow through a group of signals, thereby
reducing emissions and fuel consumption

To postpone the need for costly long-term road capacity


improvement by improving traffic flow with existing
resources

Benefits of the signal optimization:

Decrease in the travelling time


Reduction in travel delays
Reduction of fuel consumption
Reduce the vehicle wear
Reduction of the road accidents
Improving accessibility
Reduction of motorist frustration and road rage
Elimination of street widening needs
Control on the travel speeds
Reduction in the pollution
Improved emergency response time

Multi-Objective Optimization of Traffic


Signal Timing for Oversaturated
Intersection
By
Yan Li,

Lijie Yu,
Siran Tao,

Kuanmin Chen
Current traffic signal control technologies usually have lower
efficiency when the saturation degree is high. Many methods
were proposed to improve the efficiency of traffic signal under
traffic conditions with high saturation degree. However, very
little of those methods can be widely utilized for the reason of
the requirements or limitations of those methods. In order to
establish one specific traffic control method with the capability
of dealing with oversaturated condition, the nature of traffic
signal control should be discovered.

Traffic signal control methods try to establish the connection


between observed traffic parameters, like counts, delay and
queue length, with traffic signal parameters, such as phase
sequence, cycle length, and split. In this way, various traffic
signal optimization algorithms can seek for the values of traffic
signal parameters to obtain the optimal values of one or
several traffic parameters by considering traffic signal
parameters as independent variables under specific traffic
condition. This principle is followed by almost all the commonly
used traffic control optimization methods, which include TRRL
(Transport and Road Research Laboratory) method , HCM
(Highway Capacity Manual) method and adaptive traffic control
software like SCATS (Sydney Coordinated Adaptive Traffic
System) and SCOOT (Split Cycle Offset Optimizing Technique).
Then, it can be indicated that the descriptions of traffic flow
characteristics are the most critical factor in traffic signal timing
optimization. However, the traffic flow becomes unstable when
the traffic demand approaches or exceeds the capacity. The
detrimental effects, such as spillback, residual queue, or De-
facto red, make it hard to describe traffic flow characteristics
accurately. Thus, traffic signal optimization methods
established by traffic flow formulas under normal traffic
condition are no longer suitable for oversaturated conditions.
The data-driven based heuristic algorithms could be an ideal
method to obtain optimized traffic signal timing plan under
oversaturated conditions. The heuristic algorithms do not rely
on the traffic flow formulas but to seek for optimization
scenarios based on real time traffic data. For the reason that
various factors can affect the effects of traffic signal control
under oversaturated condition, it will be better to consider
more impact factors in the process of traffic signal optimization.

The focus of this paper is to present a multi-objective


optimization method to obtain a relatively better signal timing
plan for oversaturated intersection. Before we design the
algorithm, the characteristics of oversaturated traffic flow are
analyzed to acquire the optimized objectives of the algorithm.
Then, we present the details of the algorithm, which include
coding scheme, optimization objectives, and algorithm
selection. At last the convergence and simulation results of the
algorithm under different conditions are summarized and
analyzed.
Critical Review and Analysis of Traditional
Approach for Pre-Timed Traffic Signal
Coordination and Proposed Novel
Approach
By
Pranay M. Shah
Dr. H. R. Varia
Khushboo M Patel
Dipesh K. Kadiya
Traffic congestion in urban areas has become a global
phenomenon now a day. Speedy urbanization and
industrialization have caused radically growth of vehicles all
over the world. Particularly in India, a developing country the
problem of rapid urbanization and increase in growth of vehicle
is much more severe than other part of the world considering
the speedy increase in population of the country. In view of the
increasing traffic congestion and lack of possibilities for
infrastructure expansion in urban road networks, the
importance of efficient signal control strategies, particularly
under saturated traffic conditions, can hardly be
overemphasized. The difficulty like congestion, delay, energy
consumption, environmental pollution, etc which ultimately
leads to increase in vehicle operation cost (VOC) still remain in
question if the traffic signals are not coordinated. Coordination
of signals is achieved when the flow of traffic on a given phase
of movement at one intersection will receive green phase on its
arrival at the next signalized intersection. It enhances
progressive movement of traffic streams at some specific speed
without enforced halts and reduced overall delay. It reduces the
speed variations and provides smooth traffic operation, which
increases capacity, decreases energy consumption and reduces
air and noise pollution, thus reducing overall Vehicle Operation
Cost. Goal of signal coordination is to get the maximum number
of vehicles through the system with the smallest amount of
stops in a comfortable manner. In urban areas, traffic volumes
are higher during peak hours in all the approaches of the
signalized intersections, i.e. on the major and minor streets.
Therefore, it is necessary to coordinate the signals of the
network in all the directions, rather than to coordinate on a
single corridor. It is quite difficult to improve the performance of
urban traffic signal control system efficiently by using
traditional methods of modeling and control because of time-
variability, non-linearity, fuzziness and non determinacy in the
system. It becomes the research hotspot in this area to apply
artificial intelligence methods to urban traffic signal control
system. In fact, urban traffic signal control is the product of
vehicle modernization: in order to separate the traffic flows that
may result in traffic conflict, it is necessary to guide and
schedule it effectively by using traffic signals. The problem of
urban traffic is more and more serious, and many people are
trying hard to solve it. On one hand, people are ceaselessly
presenting new theories and new methods, and on the other
hand, many area coordinated traffic control systems based on
computers are developed one after the other. Generally, traffic
control methods include fixed-time control, time-of-day control,
vehicle actuated control, semi-actuated control, green wave
control, area static control and area dynamic control. In order to
solve some of the previously mentioned problems it is
necessary to design an optimum signal timing plan. The signal
timing plans seek to optimize (i) the cycle length of a signal,
that is defined as the duration time from the center of the red
phase to the center of the next red phase (ii) green splits, the
percentage of time devoted to each phase during a cycle and
(iii) offsets, the phase difference between signal transitions at
consecutive intersections regulated by traffic signals.
Traffic Signal Optimization for Important
Routes

By

Kishor Bambode

Vishal Gajghate

In India number of vehicles are increasing day by day hence


major cities in India like Nagpur facing to so many problems
such as loss of time, increased in fuel consumption, increase in
noise pollution and it caused long queues which produce
inconvenience , frustration to drivers or road users. The city
Nagpur have too many intersections and too many traffic
signals. It rely on pre timed control signal system or fixed cycle
control signal system hence it is beneficial to optimize traffic
signal and coordinated it by means of Intelligent transportation
system. It is not yet adopted on Indian roads. This paper
presents an intelligent transportation system for traffic flow
prediction and control it through traffic signal optimization and
coordination.

An important factor that affects the development and restricts


the economic construction of cities. Its a complex system in a
random way so it was necessary to optimize traffic control
signals to cope with so much urban traffic problems.
Inappropriate signal timing. Plans can cause not only
discomfort (extra delay) to drivers but also increased emissions
and fuel consumption. Thus, it is important to investigate the
practice of signal optimization methodology to ensure that
newly developed timing plans will improve the system
performance. Cross intersection is an important part of the
urban road system. Signal timing optimization is most
important method that improves the intersection level.
Intersection is an important part of the urban road system. It is
very easy to cause the low efficiency in vehicle operating that
vehicle have diverging, merging or intersecting repeatedly on
the grade crossing. This case will cause the decline of the
ability in traffic capacity, the increasing of vehicle delay, and
thus the noise pollution and exhaust emission will increase. On
the other hand, once the intersection is blocked, it is not only
the roads near the intersection but also the roads which are far
away will be affected. Therefore, organizational optimization is
needed for traffic operating on the intersection. Nowadays,
traffic simulation techniques are increasingly being used to
optimize the intersection condition. It becomes an essential tool
in researching and solving the traffic problem. Traffic simulation
investigates the characteristic of reappearing practical traffic
system through modern computer technique for pursuing an
optimum solution for practical traffic problem. Traffic simulation
describes the complicated traffic property accurately and
directly through reappear the order of traffic flow. Currently,
according to the level of detail traffic model can be divided into
micro-model, meso model and macro-model. Among them,
micro-simulation model can be at a high level of detail to
describe the whole system and its internal relationship. In
congested traffic conditions, the study of individual behavior
and individual characteristics of the vehicle is often the factor
of traffic congestion and traffic congestion analysis for those
data to determine the rush hour flow. Moreover, researchers
can make analysis and calculations for the rush hour traffic
characteristic, the remaining capacity and the saturation
through determining the nature and the quantity, and then
investigate the vehicle correlation non-vehicle correlation and
mixing problem by observing the video recording and
surveying. Collection, problem analysis, program optimization,
and program evaluation). Synchro system specially engages in
signal timing. It sets the time delay, number of stop and queue
length these three indices as the target function, and consider
the maximum period, minimum period and phase minimum
green light time as the limitation. Synchro is an easily and
excellent signal timing optimization software to make up for the
trouble of manual calculations. James Mulandi and some other
researchers make comparative experiments on various
simulation softwares under the same geometry and traffic
conditions and carried out that in many simulation softwares,
VISSIM based genetic algorithm optimization of signal timing
and Synchro programs produce signal timing of the highest
quality and provide extremely similar performance.
Review of Road Traffic Control Strategies

By

MARKOS PAPAGEORGIOU, CHRISTINA


DIAKAKI, VAYA DINOPOULOU, APOSTOLOS
KOTSIALOS, AND YIBING WANG
Traffic congestion in urban road and freeway networks leads to
a strong degradation of the network infrastructure and
accordingly reduced throughput, which can be countered via
suitable control measures and strategies. After illustrating the
main reasons for infrastructure deterioration due to traffic
congestion, a comprehensive overview of proposed and
implemented control strategies is provided for three areas:
urban road networks, freeway networks, and route guidance.
Selected application results, obtained from either simulation
studies or field implementations, are briefly outlined to
illustrate the impact of various control actions and strategies.
The paper concludes with a brief discussion of future needs in
this important technical area.

A Traffic Congestion and the Need for Traffic Control


Transportation has always been a crucial aspect of human
civilization, but it is only in the second half of the last century
that the phenomenon of traffic congestion has become
predominant due to the rapid increase in the number of
vehicles and in the transportation demand in virtually all
transportation modes. Traffic congestion appears when too
many vehicles attempt to use a common transportation
infrastructure with limited capacity. In the best case, traffic
congestion leads to queueing phenomena (and corresponding
delays) while the infrastructure capacity (the server) is fully
utilized. In the worst (and far more typical) case, traffic
congestion leads to a degraded use of the available
infrastructure (reduced throughput), thus contributing to an
accelerated congestion increase, which leads to further
infrastructure degradation, and so forth. Traffic congestion
results in excess delays, reduced safety, and increased
environmental pollution. The following Manuscript received
December 6, 2002; revised July 18, 2003. The authors are with
the Technical University of Crete, Dynamic Systems and
Simulation Laboratory, GR-73100 Chania, Greece (e-mail:
markos@dssl.tuc.gr). Digital Object Identifier
10.1109/JPROC.2003.819610 impressive statement is included
in the European Commissions White PaperEuropean
Transport Policy for 2010: Because of congestion, there is a
serious risk that Europe will lose economic competitiveness.
The most recent study on the subject showed that the external
costs of road traffic congestion alone amount to 0.5% of
Community GDP. Traffic forecasts for the next 10 years show
that if nothing is done, road congestion will increase
significantly by 2010. The costs attributable to congestion will
also increase by 142% to reach 80 billion a year, which is
approximately 1% of Community GDP. The emergence of
traffic (i.e., many interacting vehicles using a common
infrastructure) and subsequently traffic congestion (whereby
demand temporarily exceeds the infrastructure capacity) have
opened new innovation needs in the transportation area. The
energy crisis in the 1970s, the increased importance of
environmental concerns, and the limited economic and physical
resources are among the most important reasons why a brute
force approach (i.e., the continuous expansion of the available
transportation infrastructure) cannot continue to be the only
answer to the ever increasing transportation and mobility
needs of modern societies. The efficient, safe, and less
polluting transportation of persons and goods calls for an
optimal utilization of the available infrastructure via suitable
application of a variety of traffic control measures. This trend is
enabled by the rapid developments in the areas of
communications and computing (telematics), but it is quite
evident that the efficiency of traffic control directly depends on
the efficiency and relevance of the employed control
methodologies. This paper provides an overview of advanced
traffic control strategies for three particular areas: urban road
networks, freeway networks, and route guidance and
information systems.
TRAFFIC SIGNAL COORDINATION PLANNING
EFFORT

By

Traffic Engineering Division Colorado


Springs, Colorado
This report sets forth a flexible plan that will guide us in our
efforts to improve traffic signal coordination along our heaviest
traveled arterial streets. Over the years, traffic flow along these
streets has grown rapidly due to community growth and
dependence on the automobile. To address this growth, we
need to continually examine our plans, practices and policies to
improve our performance.

With this plan, we are focusing on efforts to improve traffic


signal coordination. Such signal coordination ranks as one of
the most cost effective and successful strategies to reduce
congestion problems. Each dollar spent optimizing signal timing
and implementing system improvements can yield up to $40 in
fuel savings.

Additionally, signal coordination can also have a dramatic


impact on the drivers themselves. As most of us realize, delays
and frustrations caused by the operation of traffic signals can
lead to accidents and road rage.

By bettering our equipment, maintenance practices, and signal


programming methods, we can improve the lives of our
motoring public by shortening their travel times and providing
easier drives.

This report provides a brief discussion on the benefits of


coordinating traffic signals, signal timing efforts, influencing
factors, complementary system operations, and short-range
improvements.
We coordinate traffic signals to insure optimum travel speeds,
reduced delays, and minimal stops. As national studies
indicate, coordinating previously uncoordinated signals can
result in a reduction in travel time ranging from 10% to 20%.

According to our own recent studies conducted along Academy


in February, there is a 10% to 30% improvement in travel times
resulting from coordinated signals. These studies coincided with
the traffic signal upgrade project, which shut down signal
coordination along the Academy corridor for equipment
upgrades.
METHODOLOGY

Visakhapatnam is the largest city, both in terms of area and population in the Indian state
of Andhra Pradesh. Visakhapatnam is the principal commercial hub of the state, and
contributes to its economy in many sectors such as heavy industries, tourism, industrial
minerals, fishing, information technology, busiest port and headquarters of Eastern Naval
Command of Indian Navy and therefore NH 5 passes through the city which in turn is a part
of Golden Quadrilateral. As a result, the city witnesses tremendous growth in traffic over the
past decade. A total of fifteen traffic junctions in the stretch of 12 kilometers starting from
Venkojipalem junction to NAD junction on NH5 have been identified. These include
Venkojipalem Junction, Isakathota Junction, Automotive Junction, Maddilapalem Junction,
Satyam Junction, Gurudwara Junction, NGGOs Junction, Akkayapalem Junction, Port
Stadium Junction, Thatichetlapalem Junction, Urvasi Junction, Birla Junction, Punjab hotel
Junction, R and B Junction and NAD Junction

Based on the studies conducted several inferences are drawn regarding the number of traffic
signals and their working condition with signal timings, pedestrian crossings, etc. In the
identified fifteen signals 11 are in good working condition and 12 are manned signals but the
traffic congestion increases during the peak hours. In the places without traffic signals the
flow on the highway and the junctions is comparatively low and hence the traffic flows
smoothly but congestion is unavoidable during the peak hours. This necessitates the need to
control the traffic during peak hours in order to avoid delay and accidents.

The junctions at which the study is conducted include one of the three types of junctions
among Y,T and 4 cross junctions with maximum being 4 cross junctions and controlling
traffic along the 4 roads is the most difficult. Though, many of these roads have pedestrian
crossings to facilitate the pedestrians several of the pedestrian crossings are weathered out
and improvement is needed. Most of the regions on the highway are found to be highly
commercial with the already heavy traffic on the highways. The hourly variation in the traffic
occurs with the roads being busiest in the morning and the evening.

The average speed was computed along these routes by travelling at the common public
speed and noting the distance and time of travel. The average of all the speeds calculated at
different junctions is found to be 30.38kmph and the range is between 22.15kmph the lowest
and 38.02kmph the highest. The reasons for the driver delays and manual delays are
identified. The data thus collected was analyzed and critical inferences are drawn.
ISAKATHOTA JUNCTION

APPROACH 1 2 3 4
DIRECTION FromMaddilapal FromVenkojipal From From Mvp
em em Isakathota
RED 1:42 1:42 2:17 2:07
YELLOW 0:03 0:03 0:03 0:03
GREEN 0:51 0:51 0:16 0:26
CYCLE 2:36 2:36 2:36 2.:36
LENGTH

MADDILAPALEM JUNCTION

APPROACH 1 2 3 4
DIRECTION From Satyam From Mvp From RTC From
Complex Maddilapalem
Depot
RED 1:36 1:31 1:37 2:01
YELLOW 0:03 0:04 0:05 0:04
GREEN 0:36 0:40 0:33 0:10
CYCLE 2:15 2:15 2:15 2:15
LENGTH

SATYAM JUNCTION

APPROACH 1 2 3 4
DIRECTION From From From Rama From Eenadu
Maddilapalem Gurudwara talkies
RED 2:10 2:10 2:25 2:15
YELLOW 0:05 0:05 0:05 0:10
GREEN 0:45 0:45 0:30 0:35
CYCLE 3:00 3:00 3:00 3:00
LENGTH

GURUDWARA JUNCTION

APPROACH 1 2 3
DIRECTION From Satyam From NAD From RTC
Complex
RED 1:10 1:10 1:20
YELLOW 0:05 0:05 0:04
GREEN 0:36 0:36 0:27
CYCLE 1:51 1:51 1:51
LENGTH
AKKAYAPALEM JUNCTION

APPROACH 1 2 3
DIRECTION From From NAD FromAkkayapa
Gurudwara lem
RED 1:00 1:10 1:17
YELLOW 0:04 0:03 0:03
GREEN 0:41 0:32 0:25
CYCLE 1:45 1:45 1:45
LENGTH

NGGOs JUNCTION

APPROACH 1 2 3 4
DIRECTION From From NAD FromPortStadi FromDiamondp
Gurudwara um ark
RED 1:35 1:35 1:55 1:55
YELLOW 0:05 0:05 0:05 0:05
GREEN 0:40 0:40 0:20 0:20
CYCLE 2:20 2:20 2:20 2:20
LENGTH
THATICHETLAPALEM JUNCTION

APPROACH 1 2 3 4
DIRECTION From NAD From From RLY FromSanthoshn
Gurudwara CLNY agar
RED 1:19 1:40 1:54 1:59
YELLOW 0:04 0:03 0:03 0:03
GREEN 0:54 0:35 0:20 0:15
CYCLE 2:17 2:17 2:17 2:17
LENGTH
URVASI JUNCTION

APPROACH 1 2 3 4
DIRECTION From NAD From From Urvasi From Police
Gurudwara CLNY
RED 1:30 1:35 2:05 2:05
YELLOW 0:05 0:04 0:04 0:04
GREEN 0:50 0:46 0:16 0:16
CYCLE 2:25 2:25 2:25 2:25
LENGTH
BIRLA JUNCTION

APPROACH 1 2 3 4
DIRECTION From NAD From From Birla From
Gurudwara JyothiNagar
RED 1:20 1:26 1:59 1:59
YELLOW 0:04 0:03 0:03 0:03
GREEN 0:51 0:46 0:13 0:13
CYCLE 2:15 2:15 2:15 2:15
LENGTH
R&B JUNCTION

APPROACH 1 2 3 4
DIRECTION From NAD From From From
Gurudwara Madhavdara Marripalem
RED 1:21 1:27 1:59 1:59
YELLOW 0:03 0:03 0:03 0:03
GREEN 0:51 0:45 0:13 0:13
CYCLE 2:15 2:15 2:15 2:15
LENGTH

NAD X ROADS

APPROACH 1 2 3 4
DIRECTION From Airport From FromGopalpat From 104 area
Gurudwara nam
RED 2:23 2:33 2:43 3:00
YELLOW 0:05 0:05 0:05 0:03
GREEN 1:05 0:55 0:45 0:30
CYCLE 3:33 3:33 3:33 3:33
LENGTH

TIME AND DISTANCE BETWEEN THE JUNCTIONS:

SEGMENT DISTANCE TRAVEL AVG DESIGN REMARKS


S (KM) TIME SPEED SPEED or
(MINUTES (KMPH) SPEED
) LIMIT
(KMPH)
1 0.68 1:38 25.01 40 NOT OK
2 0.7 1:53 22.15 40 NOT OK
3 0.51 1:19 23.10 40 NOT OK
4 0.72 1:21 31.66 40 OK
5 0.59 1:28 25.85 40 NOT OK
6 0.32 0:50 23.01 40 NOT OK
7 0.61 1:23 26.32 40 NOTOK
8 0.64 1:12 31.97 40 OK
9 0.85 1:39 31.67 40 OK
10 1.77 2:53 36.75 40 OK
11 1.4 2:13 38.02 40 OK
12 0.7 1:06 37.84 40 OK
13 0.8 1:19 35.79 40 OK
14 1.38 2:13 37.20 40 OK
SEGMENTS:

SEGMENTS NAME OF JUNCTIONS


SEGMENT : 1 VENKOJIPALEM TO ISAKATHOTA
SEGMENT : 2 ISAKATHOTA TO AUTOMOTIVE
SEGMENT : 3 AUTOMOTIVE TO MADDILAPALEM
SEGMENT : 4 MADILLAPALEM TO SATYAM
SEGMENT : 5 SATYAM TO GURUDWARA
SEGMENT : 6 GURUDWARA TO NGGOs
SEGMENT : 7 NGGOs TO AKKAYAPALEM
SEGMENT : 8 AKKAYAPALEM TO PORT STADIUM
SEGMENT : 9 PORT STADIUM TO THATICHETLAPALEM
SEGMENT : 10 THATICHETLAPALEM TO URVASI
SEGMENT : 11 URVASI TO BIRLA
SEGMENT : 12 BIRLA TO PUNJAB HOTEL
SEGMENT : 13 PUNJAB HOTEL TO R&B
SEGMENT : 14 R&B TO NAD X ROADS
Complete Route: Venkojipalem to NAD X Roads

Number of intersections: Fifteen(15)

1. Venkojipalem Junction

2. Isakathota Junction

3. Automotive Junction

4. Maddilapalem Junction

5. Satyam Junction

6. Gurudwara Junction

7. NGGOs Junction

8. Akkayapalem Junction

9. Port Stadium Junction

10. Thatichetlapalem Junction

11. Urvasi Junction

12. Birla Junction

13. Punjab Hotel Junction

14. R&B Junction

15. NAD Junction

DISTANCE : Venkojipalem to NAD x Roads --- 11.84km

NAD x Roads to Venkojipalem --- 11.95km

The distance varies as the road from Venkojipalem to NAD falls in the inner
curvature, but NAD to Venkojipalem falls in the outer curvature.
VENKOJIPALEM JUNCTION

TRAFFIC SIGNAL: YES

CONDITION: NOT WORKING

MANNED SIGNAL: YES

TYPE OF JUNCTION: Y

TYPE OF LOCATION: COMMERCIAL

PEDESTRIAN CROSSING: AVAILABLE BUT WEATHERED OUT

REASONS FOR TRAFFIC:

Busy highway being intersected by a commercial road.


Passing by traffic in highway and heavy traffic from MVP.
Sudden increase in traffic during morning and evening hours.
A busy road merging into the highway just before the junction.
ISAKATHOTA JUNCTION

TRAFFIC SIGNAL: YES

CONDITION: WORKING

MANNED SIGNAL: YES

TYPE OF JUNCTION: T JUNCTION

TYPE OF LOCATION: COMMERCIAL CUM RESIDENTIAL

PEDESTRIAN CROSSING: YES (Available only on Double road)

REASONS FOR TRAFFIC:

Heavy traffic from the residential areas of MVP and presence of many
commercial buildings.
Heavy traffic on highway.
Important location.
Presence of the bus stop right before the junction which makes buses and
autos to stagnate there.
AUTOMOTIVE JUNCTION

TRAFFIC SIGNAL: YES

CONDITION: NOT WORKING

MANNED SIGNAL: NO, BUT PRESENT AT THE TIME OF PEAK HOUR

TYPE OF JUNCTION: YJUNCTION

TYPE OF LOCATION: COMMERCIAL

PEDESTRIAN CROSSING: NO

REASONS FOR TRAFFIC:

Presence of fuel filling station which is used by the majority of the highway
traffic this causes obstruction to the traffic.
Minor traffic from the HB colony road this causes jam at the junction while
crossing.
Improper crossing.
Insufficient turning radius for heavy automotive.
MADDILAPALEM JUNCTION

TRAFFIC SIGNAL: YES

CONDITION: WORKING

MANNED SIGNAL: YES AND PRESENCE OF A CONTROL ROOM

TYPE OF JUNCTION: FOUR ROAD (IMPROPER)

TYPE OF LOCATION: PURELY COMMERCIAL

PEDESTRIAN CROSSING: YES

REASONS FOR TRAFFIC:

Pretty much well aligned but heavy traffic passing over the junction.
Poor visibility of signal for traffic coming out of maddilapalem depot.
Major junction of the city.
Presence of major bus stop right at the junction.
Crucial junction for various important routes to in & out of the city.
Heavy traffic due to the presence of the multiplex.
SATYAM JUNCTION

TRAFFIC SIGNAL: YES

CONDITION: WORKING

MANNED SIGNAL: YES

TYPE OF JUNCTION: FOUR ROAD

TYPE OF LOCATION:COMMERCIAL

PEDESTRIAN CROSSING: YES

REASONS FOR TRAFFIC:

Channelized junction but presence of IT companies causes traffic.


Major working place and companies like EENADU, MAHINDRA SATYAM,
WIPROe.t.c., and presence of super market.
GURUDWARA JUNCTION

TRAFFIC SIGNAL: YES

CONDITION: WORKING

MANNED SIGNAL: YES

TYPE OF JUNCTION: Y JUNCTION

TYPE OF LOCATION: COMMERCIAL

PEDESTRIAN CROSSING: YES

REASONS FOR TRAFFIC:

Traffic coming from R.T.C complex merges with the highway traffic
causing a delay due to turning of buses.
Presence of hospital and fuel filling station and residential complexes.
NGGOS JUNCTION

TRAFFIC SIGNAL: YES

CONDITION: WORKING

MANNED SIGNAL: YES

TYPE OF JUNCTION:FOUR ROAD

TYPE OF LOCATION: COMMERCIAL CUM RESIDENTIAL

PEDESTRIAN CROSSING: YES

REASONS FOR TRAFFIC:


VENKOJIPALEM JUNCTION

TRAFFIC SIGNAL:

CONDITION:

MANNED SIGNAL:

TYPE OF JUNCTION:

TYPE OF LOCATION:

PEDESTRIAN CROSSING:

REASONS FOR TRAFFIC:


VENKOJIPALEM JUNCTION

TRAFFIC SIGNAL:

CONDITION:

MANNED SIGNAL:

TYPE OF JUNCTION:

TYPE OF LOCATION:

PEDESTRIAN CROSSING:

REASONS FOR TRAFFIC:


VENKOJIPALEM JUNCTION

TRAFFIC SIGNAL:

CONDITION:

MANNED SIGNAL:

TYPE OF JUNCTION:

TYPE OF LOCATION:

PEDESTRIAN CROSSING:

REASONS FOR TRAFFIC:


VENKOJIPALEM JUNCTION

TRAFFIC SIGNAL:

CONDITION:

MANNED SIGNAL:

TYPE OF JUNCTION:

TYPE OF LOCATION:

PEDESTRIAN CROSSING:

REASONS FOR TRAFFIC:


VENKOJIPALEM JUNCTION

TRAFFIC SIGNAL:

CONDITION:

MANNED SIGNAL:

TYPE OF JUNCTION:

TYPE OF LOCATION:

PEDESTRIAN CROSSING:

REASONS FOR TRAFFIC:


VENKOJIPALEM JUNCTION

TRAFFIC SIGNAL:

CONDITION:

MANNED SIGNAL:

TYPE OF JUNCTION:

TYPE OF LOCATION:

PEDESTRIAN CROSSING:

REASONS FOR TRAFFIC:


VENKOJIPALEM JUNCTION

TRAFFIC SIGNAL:

CONDITION:

MANNED SIGNAL:

TYPE OF JUNCTION:

TYPE OF LOCATION:

PEDESTRIAN CROSSING:

REASONS FOR TRAFFIC:


VENKOJIPALEM JUNCTION

TRAFFIC SIGNAL:

CONDITION:

MANNED SIGNAL:

TYPE OF JUNCTION:

TYPE OF LOCATION:

PEDESTRIAN CROSSING:

REASONS FOR TRAFFIC:


VENKOJIPALEM JUNCTION

TRAFFIC SIGNAL:

CONDITION:

MANNED SIGNAL:

TYPE OF JUNCTION:

TYPE OF LOCATION:

PEDESTRIAN CROSSING:

REASONS FOR TRAFFIC: