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November 14, 2016

pressible viscous flow

In this task we are looking for a steady 2-dimensional incompressible viscous flow through a straight delimited

fluid pipe, in which a rectangular object is found, see Fig. 1. Therefore, the Navier-Stokes equation to be solved

together with the continuity equation,

v

+ (v )v = 2 v 1 p,

and v =0 (1)

t

We solve this non-trivial task hydrodynamic numerically. For this we give away the skeleton of the model

program, where only the boundary conditions and the discretized equations must be supplemented.

We solve the problem with the object in the formulation( the same formalism as in the potential flow) using

the stream function (script p.117). Show that the 3 equations (1) can be written in the following form using

, the vorticity and the pressure p :

1

2 = (2)

2 = (3)

y x x y

2 2

1 2 2 2

p = 2 2

, (4)

2 x y xy

where the vorticity and the stream function are given by,

vx = vy = = ( v)z (5)

y x

In the problem we are only interested in the scalar functions and , the uncoupled equation (4) need not

to be considered. Additionally because of the mirror symmetry of the problem, the functions and satisfy

(x, y) = (x, y) and (x, y) = (x, y), thus we only need to simulate the upper half of the system.

Far from the object we can easily determine the velocity field using the translation symmetry in the x-

coordinate. The velocity field must be of the form v0 = vx (y)ex .Thus the continuity equation is satisfied

p

trivially. The y-component of the Navier-Stokes equation yields y = 0. Verify that the x-component of the

Navier-Stokes equation is solved for non-slip boundary conditions at y = H by

p H 2

y 2

v0 (y) = v0 1 ex with v0 = (6)

H l 2

where p/l is the pressure gradient. The respective stream function and vorticity yield,

1 y 2

0 (y) = v0 y 1 , 0 (y) = 2v0 y/H 2 (7)

3 H

For numerical purposes, the problem must be discretized. For simplicity we choose a regular discretization

with discretization length h, see Fig. 2. Additionally it is practical to work with dimensionless quantities, so we

define = , = , y = y/h,

v0 h v0 /h x = x/h and v = v/v0 , then the Eq. (2-3) are rescaled in the following way:

2 =

(8)

" !#

2 R

= 0 (9)

y x

x y

where R = v0h is the Reynolds number for our discretization. Note that the differential operators are also

affected with the new spatial coordinates x

and y. We also use the Finite Differences method to numerically

solve the above equations; We use symmetrical form for the derivatives,

2 f = fi(j+1) + fi(j1) + f(i+1)j + f(i1)j 4fij

f = f(i+1)j f(i1)j /2 (10)

ij x

ij

If one writes the discretized Eq. (8-9) in matrix form, one obtains in multi-index notation,

The matrix A is constant and the vector q is given by the vorticity and the boundary conditions at .

The matrix B depends on and the vector r is equal to 0, except for a few components which determine the

boundary conditions. The solution is obtained in an iterative process:

2

and (for

1. Initialize 0 and0 );

example, by

= q and obtain the new stream function ;

2. Solve A

Figure 2: Discretization of the problem, only the upper half is shown; W = wh, T = th.

Boundary conditions

The stream function has been chosen to have the value 0 on the axis of symmetry y = 0. The edges of the

object, together with the symmetry axis, form a single stream line, hence on the object edges must be equal

to 0. The upper edge at y = H is also a stream line, since we can also use the Dirichlet boundary condition

(y = H) = 0 (y = H) = (2v0 H)/3. For the left and right edges, we can write the Neumann boundary

condition x = 0 (translation invariance).

1

The vorticity must vanish on the axis of symmetry on the basis of the symmetry, ie. (y = 0) = 0. For the

left and right edges, we use Neumann boundary conditions x = 0 (translation invariance). Slightly less obvious

are the conditions for the stream boundaries at the object and at the upper edge. For this reason the non-slip

condition for viscous liquid with Taylor expansion of the stream function comes to the aid - for the upper edge

of the object , for example, the vorticity is

2 2

iw = = (12)

y2 iw

iw

1 2

i(w+1) = iw + + + .... (13)

y iw 2 y2 iw

Let us now consider that the non-slip condition at the upper object edge states that y = vx = 0 , we get

condition

iw = 2 i(w+1) iw (14)

Similar conditions are to be applied to other edges. For the corners of the object, a symmetrical form is

offered by the condition for the upper and the respective side edge, for the left corner

1 Note: a Dirichlet boundary condition using the asymptotic solution 0 could also be used.

3

aw = a(w+1) + (a1)w 2aw

inside the object - a

We need additional (fictitious) boundary conditions for the apparent variable ,

Dirichlet condition that fixes the value to 0 satisfies this.

The program consists of 4 modules written in the programming language Python,

main.py: contains the iterative solution for the coupled equations;

core_routines.py: contains the skeletons of the functions that implement the eq. (11), which must be

supplemented in this problem;

plotting.py: includes everything for the graphical representation of the solution.

The Python libraries NumPy, SciPy and Matplotlib are used for this purpose. To start the program, down-

load the 4 files from the continuum mechanics web page, save them to a directory, and execute the command

python main.py in the directory.

Instructions

Complete the missing lines with discretized equations and the boundary conditions for the upper, lower,

left, and right edges, and test the program in debug_mode (i.e., without the object). 2

Complete the boundary conditions for the object, switch off debug_mode, and make test simulations for

the problem with H = 4W , W = T with (physical) Reynolds number Re 2W v0 / equal to 3 and 24.

Increase the precision of the self-consistent calculation, given by variable aimed_precision in the module

main.py (to about 108 ).

Investigate the effect of the boundary conditions - increase the distance in front of the object upstream

(ah F ) together with the length to the right edge (L F T ) and find suitable F and L.

Investigate the effect of discretization by increasing the node points density (points_per_unit_length

in the module parameters.py ).

2 Note: the analytical solution in Eq.(7) for problem without object is not an exact solution of the discretized problem.

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