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CSWIP 3.

1 Welding
g Inspection
p

Practical Plate Inspection

TWI Training & Examination


Services

Course Reference WIS 5

Copyright 2006, TWI Ltd World Centre for Materials Joining Technology
Page 1 of 3 EXAMPLE PLATE REPORT
Name: [Block capitals] Mr. I C Plenty Signature: I C Plenty Test piece ident: 001
Code/Specification used: TWI 09-09-03
09 09 03 Welding process: MMA/SMAW Joint type: Single V Butt

Welding position: Flat /PA Length & thickness of plate: 300mm x 10 mm Date 22/08/2003
MEASURE

WELD FACE

A B C
Lack
ac oof s
sidewall
de a
fusion Gas pore Undercut smooth
1.5 1.5 max
FROM

87 236
22 230
30
THIS

51 8 153 40
Arc Strike
Slag
Centreline 241
inclusion
DATUM

crack
NOTES: Cap height : 4mm
4mm.
Weld width: 12-14mm
Toe blend: Poor
Misalignment: 2mm
EDGE

Angular Distortion 3mm in 50mm


Spatter along weld length or scale on the plate surface

Copyright 2006, TWI Ltd World Centre for Materials Joining Technology
Page 2 of 3
MEASURE
EXAMPLE PLATE REPORT

WELD ROOT

A B C
Root concavity
2 deep Lack of root
Fusion
FROM

23 247
10 20
THIS

128 50

Incomplete root
penetration
DATUM

NOTES: Penetration height : 4mm.


4mm
Linear Misalignment: 2mm
Angular Distortion: 3mm in 50mm
Any scale on plate surface
EDGE

Copyright 2006, TWI Ltd World Centre for Materials Joining Technology
EXAMPLE WELD INSPECTION REPORT/SENTENCE SHEET

PRINT FULL NAME I C Plenty


SPECIMEN NUMBER 001
EXTERNAL DEFECTS Defects Noted Code or Specification Reference

Defect Type Pipe/Plate Accumulative Maximum Section/ Accept/Reject


Section Total Allowance Table No 5
1 2 3 4

Excess weld metal height A-C 4mm 2mm 15 Reject


pp
Excess weld metal appearance A-C Poor blend Smooth 8 Reject
j

Incomplete filling A-C 22mm None 5 Reject

Inadequate weld width (PIPE) A-C N/A ------------ ---------- Accept

Slag Inclusions A-C 70mm long 50mm 9 Reject


Undercut A-C 1 5mm depth
1.5mm 1mm 6 Reject
Surface Porosity A-C 1.5mm 1mm 2 Reject

Cracks/Crack--like defects
Cracks/Crack A-C 40mm NONE 1 Reject*

Lack of fusion A-C 22mm NONE 3 Reject

Arc strikes A-C 3 NONE 7 Reject***


Mechanical damage A-C NONE ------------ ----------- Accept

Laps/Laminations A-C NONE ------------ ----------- Accept

Misalignment (Linear) A-C 2mm 2mm 15 Accept

Longitudinal seams (PIPE) A-C N/A ------------ ---------- Accept

Copyright 2006, TWI Ltd World Centre for Materials Joining Technology
Root Defects

Misalignment A-C 2mm 2mm 9 Accept

Excessive Root Penetration A-C 4mm 2mm 15 Reject

Incomplete Root Penetration A-C 50mm NONE 13 Reject

Lack of Root Fusion A-C 20mm NONE 11 Reject

Root Concavity A-C 2mm depth 1mm 10 Reject

Root Undercut A-C NONE ------------ ---------- Accept

Cracks/Crack--like defects
Cracks/Crack A-C NONE ------------ ---------- Accept

Slag inclusions A-C NONE ------------ 9 Accept

Porosity A-C NONE ------------ 2 Accept

Laps/Laminations A-C NONE ------------ ---------- Accept

This *pipe/plate has been examined to the requirements of code/specification TWI-N/WIS-PI


/
.........................................
and is accepted/rejected accordingly.

Comments:
* Request MPI testing to confirm crack and length.
** Large amount of spatter on weld face.
face Recommend this is removed and re inspected.
inspected
*** Recommend arc strikes are ground flush prior to MPI testing for cracks.

I C Plenty
Signature.........................................................
22nd August 2003
Date.....................................................................................
*Delete which is not applicable. Use the other side for any comments.

Copyright 2006, TWI Ltd World Centre for Materials Joining Technology
Inspection Practice Specification
Number TWI 09-09-09
09--03
All dimensions are given in mm
No Imperfection Comments Allowance
1 Cracks All types of cracks Not permitted

2 Porosity/Gas pores/elongated Cluster Max dimension of area L = 13mm Max


Gas cavities (wormholes) pipes Single pore Max dimension L = 1mm Max
3 Solid Inclusions Non metallic. Individual size Maximum 1mm
4 Solid Inclusions Metallic. Individual size Not permitted
5 Lack of Fusion Side wall/Root/Inter-
wall/Root/Inter-run Not permitted
6 Incomplete Root Penetration Not permitted
7 Overlap/Cold lap Weld face/Root Not permitted
8 I
Incompletely
l t l filled
fill d groove N t permitted
Not itt d
9 Linear Misalignment 0.2t Maximum 4mm
10 Angular Misalignment Maximum 10
11 Undercut Smoothly blended 10%t Maximum d 1mm
12 Arc Strikes Area to be tested by MPI Seek advice
13 Laminations Not permitted
14 Mechanical Damage Not permitted
15 Cap
C H
Height
i ht Sh ll fall
Shall f ll below
b l plate
l t surface
f 0 3mm
3 h Maximum
M i
16 Penetration Bead 0 2mm h Maximum
17 Toe Blend Smooth
18 Spatter Clean & Re-
Re-inspect Refer to manufacturer
19 Weld Appearance All runs shall blend smoothly Regular
20 Root concavity 10%t Maximum

Copyright 2006, TWI Ltd World Centre for Materials Joining Technology
Plate Sample 6A Cap

Welding Process MMA (SMAW)


Incomplete Filled Groove
Porosity
?
Slag Cap Undercut
? Lack of
? Cap Undercut
f i
fusion
Inclusion Intermittent Intermittent

? ? ?

Cap Undercut ? Arc Strike ?


I
Intermittent
i ? A St
Arc Strike
ik

Note: spatter and surface slag requires removal


removal, arc strikes
require blending and crack detection
Copyright 2006, TWI Ltd World Centre for Materials Joining Technology
Plate Sample 6A Root

Welding Process MMA (SMAW)

Excess Excess
Penetration Penetration
? Gas Pore
?
?

Root Undercut
?
Linear Misalignment
? ? Lack of Root
Fusion ?
Surface Slag

Note: Spatter and surface slag require removal

Copyright 2006, TWI Ltd World Centre for Materials Joining Technology
Plate Sample 6B Cap

Welding Process MMA (SMAW)


? Incomplete
I l t Filled
Fill d Groove
G
Porosity Lack of Sidewall
Lack of Sidewall Fusion ? Fusion

? ?

?
Surface Slag

Overlap and Excess Cap Height Full Weld Length ?

Note: Surface slag requires removal and poor toe blending


full weld length
Copyright 2006, TWI Ltd World Centre for Materials Joining Technology
Plate Sample 6B Root

Welding Process MMA (SMAW)

Slag Inclusion

? ?
Crater Pipe

? ? ?
Lack of Root Lack of Root Fusion
Lack of Root Fusion Penetration

Copyright 2006, TWI Ltd World Centre for Materials Joining Technology
Plate Sample 6C Cap

Welding Process FCAW


Incomplete
Cap Undercut Filled Groove +
Lack of
? Sidewall Longitudinal
Surface slag & Spatter F i
Fusion Crack
? ? ?

?
? Incomplete Filled
Groove + Lack of
Slag Inclusion
Sidewall Fusion + Cap
Undercut Intermittent

Note: Spatter and surface slag requires removal

Copyright 2006, TWI Ltd World Centre for Materials Joining Technology
Plate Sample 6C Root

Welding Process FCAW

Mechanical Damage ? Poor Stop/Start + Lack of


Root Penetration
B
Burn Th
Through
h
? ? Excess Penetration ?

?
Lack of Root Fusion ?
Lack of Root Fusion

Copyright 2006, TWI Ltd World Centre for Materials Joining Technology
Plate Sample 6D Cap
Welding Process MMA (SMAW)

Porosity Incomplete
Filled Groove
Excess Cap
Height Cap ? Lack of Sidewall
Cap ?
Undercut Fusion
Undercut
? ? ? ?

?
Overlap between Capping Passes

Note: Excess cap height and poor cap profile throughout


throughout.

Copyright 2006, TWI Ltd World Centre for Materials Joining Technology
Plate Sample 6D Root

Welding Process MMA (SMAW)

?
Lack of Root Fusion
Mechanical Damage
?

?
Lack of Root Fusion

Copyright 2006, TWI Ltd World Centre for Materials Joining Technology
Plate Sample 6E Cap

Welding Process MMA (SMAW)


Lack of
Sidewall Cap
Fusion Undercut
? I t
Intermittent
itt t Cap Undercut Intermittent

? ?

?
?
Incomplete Filled Groove
Excess Cap Height ?
Incomplete Filled Groove

Copyright 2006, TWI Ltd World Centre for Materials Joining Technology
Plate Sample 6E Root
Welding Process MMA (SMAW)

?
Poor Stop/Start + Crater Pipe ?
Lack of Root Fusion
?
Lack of Root Fusion
?
Root Undercut

?
Excess Root Penetration
?
Excess Root
Penetration
Crater Pipe ?Lack of Root
fusion
?

Copyright 2006, TWI Ltd World Centre for Materials Joining Technology
Plate Sample 6F Cap
Welding Process MMA (SMAW)

Mechanical
Damage
?

?
Lack of Sidewall fusion
?
Crater pipe

Poor Toe Blend Lack of Sidewall Fusion + Incomplete Filled Groove


? ?
?
Tack Weld
? Arc
Strikes

Note: Arc strikes require blending and crack detection

Copyright 2006, TWI Ltd World Centre for Materials Joining Technology
Plate Sample 6F Root

Welding Process MMA (SMAW)

Arc Strikes Poor Stop/Start + Lack of Root Blow Hole Lack of

?
Penetration + Crater Pipe Lack of
Root
? Root
? Mechanical Damage + Fusion
Lack of Root Fusion Fusion
?
? ?

? ? ?
Lack of Root Fusion Arc Strikes Arc Strikes

Note: Arc strikes require blending and crack detection

Copyright 2006, TWI Ltd World Centre for Materials Joining Technology
Plate Sample 6G Cap

Welding Process MMA (SMAW)

?
Parent Material Damage Arc Strikes
?
?
Arc Strikes
Lack of Sidewall Fusion +
Incomplete Filled Groove ?

? ?
Poor Toe Blend + Excess Cap
p Height
g Porosity
y

Note: Arc strikes require blending and crack detection


detection, Seek
advise on parent material damage
Copyright 2006, TWI Ltd World Centre for Materials Joining Technology
Plate Sample 6G Root

Welding Process MMA (SMAW)

Parent material
? Plate corrosion ? gas cavities
Poor Stop/Start

?
Lack of Root Fusion
?

Crater pipe ? ? ?
Surface slag Surface Slag

?
Li
Linear Misalignment
Mi li t

Note: Surface slag requires removal


removal, plate corrosion requires
wire brushing
Copyright 2006, TWI Ltd World Centre for Materials Joining Technology
Plate Sample 6H Cap

Welding Process MMA (SMAW)

Incomplete Filled Groove Arc Strikes Arc Strikes Slag Inclusion Arc Strikes

? ? ? ?
?

? ? ?
Cap Undercut
Arc Strikes Cap Undercut Intermittent
?
A St
Arc Strikes
ik

Note: Parent plate damage throughout


throughout, seek advice
advice. Arc
strikes require blending and crack detection.
Copyright 2006, TWI Ltd World Centre for Materials Joining Technology
Plate Sample 6H Root

Welding Process MMA (SMAW)

Crater pipe Excessive root penetration Linear misalignment +


lack of root fusion
? ? ?

Arc strikes
? ? ? ?
Poor stop/start
p
Lack of root fusion Lack of root fusion
Arc strikes

Note: Arc strikes require blending and crack detection


detection, Seek
advise on parent material damage
Copyright 2006, TWI Ltd World Centre for Materials Joining Technology
Plate Sample 6I Cap

Welding Process MMA (SMAW)

Cap undercut Spatter

? ? Arc strikes
?

Poor toe blend full weld length

?
Note: Arc strikes require blending and crack detection
detection.
Spatter requires removal.
Copyright 2006, TWI Ltd World Centre for Materials Joining Technology
Plate Sample 6I Root

Welding Process MMA (SMAW)

Lack of root penetration Burn through Arc strike

? ? Poor stop/start
?
?

? Lack of root penetration


?
Linear misalignment Lack of root fusion
?
?
Mechanical damage ?
Lack of root fusion
+ poor stop/start

Note: Arc strikes require blending and crack detection


detection, Seek
advise on parent material damage
Copyright 2006, TWI Ltd World Centre for Materials Joining Technology
Plate Sample 6J Cap

Welding Process MMA (SMAW)

Suspect crater cracking Porosity


Cap undercut
Cap undercut
?
Arc strikes
? ?
?

?
? Cap undercut Cap undercut intermittent

Note: Material damage throughout


throughout, seek advice
advice. Arc strikes
require blending and crack detection.
Copyright 2006, TWI Ltd World Centre for Materials Joining Technology
Plate Sample 6J Root

Welding Process MMA (SMAW)

?
Lack of root fusion Linear misalignment +
Mechanical damage lack of root fusion
? ?
Lack of root penetration
? ?
Linear misalignment +
lack of root fusion

Note: Material damage seek advice on course of action


action.

Copyright 2006, TWI Ltd World Centre for Materials Joining Technology
Plate Sample T4 Cap

Welding Process MMA (SMAW)

Mechanical damage
Cap undercut
? Cap undercut

? ?

?
Spatter/irregular cap profile

Note: Grinding marks throughout seek advice on course of


action.
Copyright 2006,Excess
TWI Ltd cap World
heightCentre for Materials
and poor Joining
cap profile Technology
throughout.
Plate Sample T4 Root

Welding Process MMA (SMAW)


Root undercut
intermittent ? Arc strike

? Lack of penetration intermittent

?
Ground flush root

Copyright 2006, TWI Ltd World Centre for Materials Joining Technology
Plate Sample H8 Cap

Welding Process MMA (SMAW)


Mechanical
Arc strikes damage Cap undercut intermittent Surface slag
? ? ? ?

? Cap
p undercut intermittent
?
Mechanical
g
damage

Note: Mechanical damage seek advice on course of action.


Excess cap height and poor cap profile throughout.
throughout Arc
strikes require blending and crack detection.
Copyright 2006, TWI Ltd World Centre for Materials Joining Technology
Plate Sample H8 Root

Welding Process MMA (SMAW)

? Arc strike Lack of root Lack of root Lack of root Spatter


Lack of root fusion f i
fusion f i
fusion
fusion
? ? ?
? ?

? ?
Root undercut intermittent
Spatter

Note: Arc strikes require


q blending
g and crack detection.
Spatter requires removal
Copyright 2006, TWI Ltd World Centre for Materials Joining Technology
Any Questions

Copyright 2006, TWI Ltd World Centre for Materials Joining Technology