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College of Engineering

Department of mechanical Engineering

NORTHERN BORDER UNIVERSITY

College of Engineering

Mechanical Engineering Department

Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab)

**Northern Border University
**

College of Engineering

Department of mechanical Engineering

1- Investigation of Bernoulli's Theorem

1. INTRODUCTION

**The flow of a fluid has to conform with a number of scientific principles in particular the
**

conservation of mass and the conservation of energy. The first of these when applied to a liquid

flowing through a conduit requires that for steady flow the velocity will be inversely proportional

to the flow area. The second requires that if the velocity increases then the pressure must

decrease. Cussons P6231 Bernoulli's Apparatus demonstrates both of these principles and can

also be used to examine the onset of turbulence in an accelerating fluid stream. Both Bernoulli's

equation and the Continuity equation are essential analytical tools required for the analysis of

most problems in the subject of Mechanics of Fluids

. 2. DESCRIPTION OF APPARATUS

**Cussons P6231 Bernoulli's Apparatus consists essentially of a two dimensional rectangular
**

section convergent divergent duct designed to fit between Cussons P6103 Constant Head Inlet

Tank and P6104 Variable Head Outlet Tank. An eleven tube static pressure manometer bank is

attached to the convergent divergent duct. A dye injection system is provided which allows for a

single filament of dye to be introduced into the entrance to the convergent section to enable

laminar and turbulent flow regimes to be demonstrated. The differential head across the test

Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab)

**Northern Border University
**

College of Engineering

Department of mechanical Engineering

**section can be varied from zero up to a maximum of 450mm. The test section, which is
**

manufactured from acrylic sheet, is illustrated in figure 1 below.

**Figure 1 P6231 Bernoulli's Apparatus
**

The convergent divergent duct is symmetrical about the centre line with a flat horizontal upper

surface into which the eleven static pressure tappings are drilled. The lower surface is at an angle

of 4º 29'. The width of the channel is 6·35 mm. The height of the channel at entry and exit is

19·525 mm and the height at the throat is 6·35 mm. The static tappings are at a pitch of 25 mm

distributed about the centre and therefore about the throat. The flow area at each tapping is

tabulated below the dimensions which are shown in figure 2.

Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab)

THEORY 3. Bernoulli's equation shows that the sum of the three quantities is constant.1 Bernoulli's Theorem Bernoulli's equation is applicable to the steady flow of an incompressible and inviscid fluid. Northern Border University College of Engineering Department of mechanical Engineering Tapping 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Number Flow 102 · 56 90 · 11 77 · 66 65 · 22 52 · 77 40 · 32 52 · 77 65 · 22 77 · 66 90 · 11 102 · 56 Area Figure 2 Duct Dimension 3. Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab) .

if in a horizontal system the velocity head is increased then the pressure head must decrease. Consider the steady flow of a fluid through a streamtube of varying cross sectional area as shown in figure 3. The mass flow rate of fluid at any section along the streamtube must be constant so that : For an incompressible fluid the density is constant and the continuity equation can be written as : For an incompressible fluid flowing in a converging duct it follows that as the area reduces then the velocity must increase. Therefore the three terms must be interchangeable so that.2 Loss of Head due to Friction If the fluid is not inviscid then there will be a small loss of head due to friction within the fluid and between the fluid and the walls of the passage. Bernoulli's Equation can then be modified by the inclusion of the frictional head loss Hf where Bernoulli's equation has been written in the integrated form and has been applied between the upstream section 1 and the downstream section 2. 3. These processes are illustrated in figure 4 below. For steady flow the mass of fluid entering the streamtube at section 1 must equal the mass of fluid leaving the streamtube at section 2. whilst in a diverging duct as the area increases then the velocity must decrease. for example. Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab) . 3.3 The Continuity Equation The continuity equation is a statement of the conservation of mass. Applying Bernoulli's equation if the velocity increases then the pressure must decrease whilst as the velocity decreases the pressure must increase. Northern Border University College of Engineering Department of mechanical Engineering are constant.

Northern Border University College of Engineering Department of mechanical Engineering A decreases A increases V increases V decreases P decreases P increases This is a NOZZLE This is a DIFFUSER Figure 4 Nozzle and Diffuser 3. The flow area of the passage therefore also varies linearly.4 Application to Cussons P6231 Bernoulli's Apparatus In Cussons P6231 Bernoulli's Apparatus the passage is two dimensional with a constant width but with a linearly varying height. Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab) . A graph of static head against distance S will be an inverted parabola. From the continuity equation where For this channel w is constant in size throughout since the channel is formed between two parallel plates. The velocity head V2/2g will be proportional to h2 and therefore to S2. hence the product h V = Constant.

5 Laminar and Turbulent Flow Laminar and turbulent flow regimes may be seen by the behaviour of a fine line of dye injected into the centre of the converging passage. The degree of pressure recovery is given by : Experiments show very clearly that whilst it is possible to change pressure head to velocity head without appreciable loss of energy. Northern Border University College of Engineering Department of mechanical Engineering The effect of loss of head due to friction can be investigated by comparing the static head at positions of equal area for the converging and diverging parts of the duct. Using Bernoulli's equation Since the passage is horizontal Z1 = Z2. it is impossible to change velocity head to pressure head without loss. The Reynolds number is defined as Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab) . If a condition can be set up in which the flow velocity at the start of the converging duct is high but laminar then as the velocity increases in the converging duct the flow will become turbulent and this transition can be observed by the behaviour of the dye line. At two positions of equal area the two velocities will be equal thus the equation reduces to Most of the pressure loss in the converging part of the duct is recovered in the diverging part of the duct. 3.

this is usually caused by a failure to wash out all the ink when the equipment has been previously used. Fill the ink reservoir with a water miscible dye.VERIFICATION OF BERNOULLI'S EQUATION Aim. a sheet of paper should be positioned as in figure 1. The blockage can normally be rectified by flushing the dye injection system thoroughly with clean water. washable blue ink is recommended. To verify Bernoulli's equation by demonstrating the relationship between pressure head and kinetic head. Prepare the equipment to the following specification Inlet P6103 Constant Head Inlet Tank with overflow extension fitted. Equipment Preparation. EXPERIMENTS Equipment Preparation Position the Inlet Head Tank P6103 and the Variable Head Outlet Tank P6104 on the mounting studs provided on the Hydraulic Bench working surface and connect the Bernoulli Apparatus between them using the union connections. 4. Similarly. Make sure that the dye is free to flow through the dye injector needle when the spring clip is adjusted. the value at which turbulence finally subsides is indicative of the lower critical Reynolds number. In order to record the height of the water level in each of the manometer tubes. Connect the Bench Feed hose to the Inlet Head Tank and attach an overflow hose to the overflow outlet of the Inlet Head Tank. Attach the Dye Reservoir to the top of the Inlet Head Tank using the attached mounting clip and ensure that the spring clip is attached to the rubber hose so that ink cannot flow to the injector needle. Careful manipulation of the flow rate will show turbulence at the throat while the flow in the convergent passage is still laminar. EXPERIMENT 1 . Northern Border University College of Engineering Department of mechanical Engineering For a rectangular duct the equivalent dimension to diameter to include in the calculation of Reynolds number is : The value of Re at which turbulence commences is indicative of the higher critical Reynolds number of the fluid. Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab) . Remove the brass blanking plug from the side of the Inlet Head Tank and insert the Dye Injector Needle so that the tip protrudes approximately 20mm into the transparent Bernoulli Test section. One of the important aspects of this experiment is in the facility with which random variation of flow may be achieved and the corresponding flow patterns observed. If a blockage of the ink does occur in the injector needle.

Experimental Procedure. Record the results on a copy of the result sheet provided. Measure the height of the water level in each manometer tube by marking the paper positioned behind the tubes and record on the test sheet. 4. For each condition record the heights of liquid in the manometer tubes by once again marking the paper positioned behind the tubes and measure the flow rate. 1. For each set of results calculate at the cross-section adjacent to each manometer tube. Northern Border University College of Engineering Department of mechanical Engineering Test Section P6231 Bernoulli's Apparatus Exit P6104 Variable Head Outlet Tank Manometer Insert a sheet of graph paper 440mm high by 325mm wide behind the manometer tubes to provide an easy method of obtaining a record of the results.22 77.22 52. Increase the differential head between the inlet and outlet head tanks by 50mm increments. Plot a graph of head against distance and also H + V2 / 2g against distance.11 102. the flow velocity and the Reynolds number. Start the pump and initiate a flow of water through the test section. Results and Analysis. Measure the time taken to fill the bench measuring tank from zero to 10 litres and record. 2.56 2 mm Static Head mm Velocity m/s Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab) . Calculate the flow rate for each set of results. Regulate the flow to the inlet head tank so that there is a small but steady overflow from P6103. 3. until the water level in the centre manometer tubes drops off the scale. 3.66 90. 2.32 52.11 77. 1.56 90.77 40. Adjust the swivel tube of the outlet tank to obtain a differential head of 50mm. Water Vicosity of Density of Temperature 3 Water o Water kg/m 2 C Ns/m Volumetric Quantity of Time to Collect Flow Rate Water Water sec Q Collected litres litres/min Tapping 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Number Flow Area 102.66 65.77 65.

while carefully observing the condition of the fluid in the channel. reduce the flow until a continuous stream of dye is visible along the passage. Prepare the equipment to the following specification Inlet P6103 Constant Head Inlet Tank with overflow extension fitted. Open the small cock on the base of the reservoir to permit dye to flow from the nozzle at the entrance to the channel. When instability occurs leading to the break-up of the dye stream. Adjust the swivel tube of the outlet tank to obtain a differential head of 20mm. 4. To demonstrate visually laminar (or streamlined) flow and its transition to turbulent flow at a particular velocity. This will be visible as a coloured stream along the passage.DEMONSTRATION OF LAMINAR AND TURBULENT FLOW Aim. Equipment Preparation. 2. If this is not so. 3. note the position in the passage and measure the corresponding value of the flow rate. 6. Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab) . Test Section P6231 Bernoulli's Apparatus Exit P6104 Variable Head Outlet Tank Manometer Insert a sheet of graph paper 440mm high by 325mm wide behind the manometer tubes to provide an easy method of obtaining a record of the results. Northern Border University College of Engineering Department of mechanical Engineering Reynolds Number Table 1: Experimental Results EXPERIMENT 2 . Regulate the flow to the inlet head tank so that there is a small but steady overflow from P6103. 1. 5. Raise the dye reservoir to the top of its column (the spring loaded bracket can be freed by squeezing the two ends together between the fingers) and open the tube clip. Continue to maintain close observation of the passage while further increasing the flow rate until the whole system is turbulent with no visible dye stream at any point. If the dye accumulates around the nozzle. Start the pump and initiate a flow of water through the test section. increase the velocity of flow in the passage and/or check the flow from the dye reservoir. Steadily increase the flow rate by increasing the total differential head. Experimental Procedure. Under laminar flow conditions the stream will be visible along the whole length of the passage.

Measure the flow rate and position of the last traces of turbulence. 4. Do not use water containing dye in other apparatus 10. 2. For a set of results in which the flow changed from laminar to turbulent determine the higher critical Reynolds number. the flow velocity and the Reynolds number. Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab) . Calculate the flow rate for each set of results. Results and Analysis. For each set of results calculate at the cross-section adjacent to each manometer tube. 3. Note : Continuous use of the dye will tint the circulating water. 1. 9. Completely clean all the apparatus of any trace of water containing dye before returning the apparatus to store. 8. When this becomes severe the water should be changed. Record the results on a copy of the result sheet provided. Reduce the flow rate to the point at which turbulence disappears and stable laminar flow conditions are regained along the whole passage. Continuous manipulation of the flow rate while observing the flow conditions may be conducted as a useful visual aid to the appreciation of laminar and turbulent flow conditions. Northern Border University College of Engineering Department of mechanical Engineering 7. Switch off the pump and allow the apparatus to drain back to the main reservoir.

1 P6220 Laminar Flow Apparatus The P6220 Laminar Flow Apparatus consists of a tubular test section of 3mm internal bore and 508mm long. Two static pressure tappings are provided. the loss of head at changes in pipe section. the head loss through pipe fittings. It is also of significant interest in such diverse fields as Civil and Chemical Engineering. Early work in the subject was essentially empirical and despite many advances in mathematical analysis the complexity of the flow of real fluids is such that very few complete solutions of flow situations exist and therefore a large part of the topic of fluid flow in closed conduits remains an empirical science. Flow in Pipes and Fittings 1. the pressure loss across valves and valve characteristics. the first tapping being 95mm from the entry plane with a distance between the two tapping points of 360mm. It is intended that the test section should be mounted between the Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab) . Northern Border University College of Engineering Department of mechanical Engineering 2. and Biology and Medicine. INTRODUCTION The flow of fluids in closed conduits or pipes is a major topic in the Mechanical Engineering subject of Mechanics of Fluids due to its practical importance in so many fields of study. including a 13mm bell nose entry. 2. DESCRIPTION OF APPARATUS 2. three sets of experiments are considered which are all concerned with the flow of water through circular pipes or tubes. In this. the head loss which occurs at entry and exit to pipes. the third part of Cussons Hydraulics Bench manual. which is supported inside a protective outer 25mm tube and is terminated at each end in bushed unions.

d. 10mm nominal bore pipe incorporating four bends 40mm bend radius with two static pressure tappings with a total pipe length of 540mm between the tappings. c. 10mm nominal bore pipe incorporating an angle seat valve. Northern Border University College of Engineering Department of mechanical Engineering P6103 Constant Head Inlet Tank and the P6104 Variable Head Outlet Tank. two static pressure tappings are provided 360mm apart. 10mm nominal bore pipe incorporating four elbows with two static pressure tappings with a total pipe length of 540mm between the tappings. e. f. Figure 1 3mm Bore Laminar Turbulent Flow Test Section 2. The P6106 Manometer Board is to be used to measure the head loss across the tubular test section. The six test sections.2 P6221 Losses In Pipes And Fittings Apparatus. The P6221 Losses In Pipes and Fittings Apparatus consists of a set of six test sections each 464mm long. 10mm nominal bore pipe incorporating a ball valve. which are shown in figure 2 are : a. Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab) . 7mm nominal bore pipe with two static pressure tappings 360mm apart. The test section is shown in figure 1 below. The test sections may be used one at a time by mounting the required test section between the P6103 Constant Head Inlet Tank and the P6104 Variable Head Outlet Tank. 10mm nominal bore pipe with two static pressure tappings 360mm apart. two static pressure tappings are provided 360mm apart. b.

Northern Border University College of Engineering Department of mechanical Engineering a) 7mm Bore Test Section b) 10 mm Bore Test Section c) Bore Test Section With Four Bends Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab) .

Northern Border University College of Engineering Department of mechanical Engineering Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab) .

Each of the two test sections can be used by mounting them either way round between the P6103 Constant Head Inlet Tank and the P6104 Variable Head Outlet Tank. They are designed to be used by inserting them into the experiment attachment boss of the inlet head tank or outlet head tank as appropriate. The two test sections consist of a 10mm nominal bore pipe at one end and a 20mm nominal bore pipe at the other end. Northern Border University College of Engineering Department of mechanical Engineering P6222 Energy/Exit and Contraction/Expansion Losses Apparatus The P6222 Entry/Exit and Contraction/Expansion Losses Apparatus comprises of a set of two test sections each 464mm long and four adaptor test pieces. sudden exit enlargement. Alternatively they can be used in pairs with the 10mm test section of P6221. The four adaptor test pieces can be used with the 10mm section to provide either a sudden inlet contraction. whilst the other test section has a 30 included angle gradual transition between the two sections. as shown in figure 3 below. one of the test sections has a sudden or stepped transition between the two diameters. Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab) . gradual inlet contraction (30° ) or a gradual exit enlargement (30° ).

.. The Variable Speed Pump Control Unit may also be used to control the pump speed and hence the flow rate.1 Flow In Pipes.(4) where f is an experimentally determined friction factor which varies with both Reynolds number and the internal roughness of the pipe...... Different laws of fluid resistance apply to laminar and turbulent flows For laminar flow it is found that the pressure drop or head loss is proportional to velocity and that this can be represented by Poiseuille's equation for the hydraulic gradient .... 3.4 Use of Accessories To provide a greater range of inlet heads and hence a large differential head across the test units the P6105 Feed Block may be used instead of the P6103 Constant Head Inlet Tank.. 3..(1) Fluid motion was found to be laminar for values of below 2000 and turbulent for values of Re greater than 4000. Reynolds was able to show that the character of the flow could be described with the aid of a dimensionless parameter...... At low flow rates it may be convenient to use graduated measuring cylinders (not supplied) of approximately 100cc and 1000cc capacity to measure the flow rate...(2) For turbulent flow the relationship between head loss and velocity is exponential ... -. Northern Border University College of Engineering Department of mechanical Engineering Figure 3 P6222 Enery/Exit and Contraction/Expansion Losses Apparatus 2. THEORY.....(3) and although there is no simple equation for turbulent flow it is accepted engineering practice to use an empirical relationship for the hydraulic gradient which is attributed to Darcy and Weisbach.... which is now known as Reynolds Number... .. Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab) .

2 Newton's Law of Viscosity. The pressure loss as a head loss due to friction.. 3. Note that V is now taken to signify the mean velocity.. A measure of the ‘fluidity’ of a substance is the kinematic viscosity which is defined as :- i.4 Turbulent Flow in Circular Pipes.. H over the pipe length l: The head loss per unit length of pipe hf /L which is known as the hydraulic gradient ...e.3 Laminar Flow in a Circular Pipe. where f = is the Darcy friction factor. Northern Border University College of Engineering Department of mechanical Engineering 3.(8) which is known as Poiseuilles equation for laminar flow.. is then given by .symbol `i'. 3... Expressing the pressure loss as a head loss due to friction.. Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab) .

In the turbulent flow region the hydraulic gradient is proportional to the mean velocity raised to some power n the value of n being influenced by the roughness of the pipe wall. Since the velocity marking the transition from laminar to turbulent flow is not precisely defined.6 Critical Velocity. Figure 6 Graph of Log i Against Log e V The dimensionless group Reynolds number (Re) = Vd / has a value below 2000 for laminar flow and above 4000 for turbulent flow (when any consistent set of units is used) .5 Reynolds Number. two values of critical velocity can be obtained from the plot of log i against log V as shown in figure 6. In the laminar region the hydraulic gradient is directly proportional to the mean velocity.the transition Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab) . i V for smooth pipes i V for very rough pipes i V to in the transition region 3. Northern Border University College of Engineering Department of mechanical Engineering The alternative definition of friction factor is often shown as f (f dash) and the head loss equation is then written as 3.

7 Friction Factors. The selection of the best size for a pipe to carry a given flow rate. is made easier if the relationship between the head loss and pipe diameter is known for the specific case of constant flow rate For a given flow rate. the mean velocity in the pipe is given by: Substituting for V into Poiseuille's equation for laminar flow Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab) . and remembering that there are two definitions of the friction factor. The head loss due to friction for both laminar and turbulent flow can be predicted by the Darcy Weisbach equation. which is a very common design exercise.8 Selection of Pipe Size. 3. and therefore in choosing the appropriate relationship between the friction factor and the head loss. When using graphs of friction factor against Reynolds number always check the relationship for laminar flow as a means of distinguishing between the two For turbulent flow the friction factor is a function of Reynolds number. f and For laminar flow the friction factor is a function of Reynolds number only Care has to be used due to these two different definitions of the friction factor. and the relative dependent on the pipe wall roughness only and becomes independent of the Reynolds number in a flow regime known as fully developed turbulent flow. Northern Border University College of Engineering Department of mechanical Engineering zone lying in the region of Re 2000-4000 (i. `lower critical velocity' LCV at a Reynolds number of 2000 and 'upper critical velocity' UCV at a Reynolds number of 4000). 3. which are both in equally common use.e.

Figure 7 Stanton Diagram Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab) . Northern Border University College of Engineering Department of mechanical Engineering And using the Darcy-Weisbach equation for turbulent flow The head loss is therefore inversely proportional to the diameter of the pipe raised to the fourth power for laminar flow and inversely proportional to the diameter raised to the fifth power for turbulent flow.

by the clear plastic tube provided. The Variable Head Outlet Tank (P6104) is positioned on its appropriate positioning pegs and connected to the right hand side of the test section. With the outlet head tank overflow pipe adjusted to give a maximum pressure drop across the experiment of approximately 500mm of water. The required test section is then clamped to the Inlet Tank with the pressure tapping points situated at the bottom. Northern Border University College of Engineering Department of mechanical Engineering 4. ensure that the inlet head tank overflow pipe is still discharging. The pressure tapping points are then connected. Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab) . It will then be necessary to use the water on mercury manometer to measure the higher head losses. i. switch on the Bench Pump and allow water to be pumped to the experiment by controlling the opening of the Flow Regulating Valve until water just begins to flow into the Inlet Head Tank overflow pipe. The delivery hose from the Bench is connected to the Constant Head Inlet Tank.e. EXPERIMENTS. 4. To achieve higher flow rates than can be obtained with a differential head of 500mm it is necessary to replace the Constant Head Inlet Tank (P6103) with the Feed Block (P6105). The overflow hose from the inlet tank is inserted into the overflow pipe situated in the volumetric measuring tank With the Flow Regulating Valve of the bench closed. With this pipe in the vertical position there is only a very small head to cause any flow to take place.2 GENERAL EXPERIMENTAL METHOD The Constant Head Inlet Tank (P6103) is positioned on the horizontal operating surface of the Hydraulics Bench (P6100) using the locating pegs situated on the left hand side at the rear of the bench.1 LIST OF EXPERIMENTS The experiments which can be carried out with the equipment covered by this part of the manual include: P6220 Experiment 1 Laminar and Turbulent Flow P6221 Experiment 2 Friction Losses in Pipes 4. to the water manometer of the Manometer Board (P6106). This may be considerably reduced by the use of Variable Speed Pump Control Unit to control the fluid flow. The overall head across the test section can now be regulated by adjusting the position of the variable overflow pipe of the Variable Head Outlet Tank. minimum value. A source of disturbance in the equipment can be vibration transmitted from the pump mountings when the pump speed is high. By swiveling the pipe to give an angle of about 5 to the horizontal a maximum flow is achieved without allowing the level in the second leg of the manometer to fall below zero. as measured on the manometer.

5. 3. 3. and hence express the head loss in terms of the velocity for each region using an equation of the Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab) . For each result calculate the mean velocity and hence the Reynolds number and the friction factor . Set up a series of flow conditions with differential heads in steps of 25mm of mercury. 2. Measure the water temperature Results and Analysis. Northern Border University College of Engineering Department of mechanical Engineering EXPERIMENT 1 LAMINAR AND TURBULENT FLOW Aim: To investigate the laminar and turbulent flow regimes of the flow of a liquid in a pipe and to determine the lower and upper critical Reynolds numbers. When using the feedblock change to the water on mercury manometer Assembly Ensure the bell mouthed entry end of the P6220 test section is at the left hand end and that it is correctly inserted into the inlet tank or feedblock Experimental Procedure 1. At each condition carefully measure the flow rate using the volumetric tank and a stop watch. Equipment Preparation: Prepare the equipment to the following specification referring as necessary to section 4. Set up a series of flow conditions with differential heads starting at 25mm in steps of 25mm up to 150mm and thereafter in steps of 50mm up to a maximum of 500mm. Stop the water flow. Connect the test section pressure tappings to the water-mercury manometer. Adjust the bench regulating valve (or pump speed) to provide a small overflow from the inlet tank and overflow pipe. 1. Record the results on a copy of the results sheet. Draw separate straight lines through the lower set of results (laminar) and the upper set of results (turbulent). Ensure that any air bubbles are bled from the manometer tubes. Start the pump and establish a water flow through the test section. 4. Plot a graph of against V. Establish a water flow and bleed the manometer. Determine the water density and viscosity from Annex 1 of Part 1 of the manual. Inlet Initially P6103 Constant Head Inlet Tank with overflow pipe extension fitted but replaced later by P6105 Feedblock Test Section P6220 Laminar and Turbulent Flow Experiment Outlet P6104 Variable Head Outlet Tank Manometer Initially use two of the single manometer tubes. Raise the swivel tube of the outlet tank so that it is close to the vertical. 2. allow the test unit to drain and replace the inlet tank with the feedblock. At each condition measure the volumetric flow rate.1. 4. Measure the slope of these lines to establish a separate index n for the laminar and turbulent regions.

.............................................................. Draw a straight line through the results for the laminar region and measure the slope and interception obtain an expression in the form Draw on the graph the line representing RESULT SHEET FOR LAMINAR AND TUBULAR FLOW EXPERIMENT...................... Extrapolate the two lines and estimate the highest velocity for the laminar flow and the width of the transition region..cP Test Section Diameter............... Calculate and report these points as lower and upper critical Reynolds numbers...... Northern Border University College of Engineering Department of mechanical Engineering form ......mm Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab) ............................................. Experiment Number Water Temperature........ Plot a graph of loge against loge Re.........kg/m2 Test Conditions Viscosity.. Experiment Title Density.... 5.

Northern Border University College of Engineering Department of mechanical Engineering Quantity of Water Collected Q Litres Time To Collect Water T Seconds Time To Collect Water T Seconds Volume Flow Rate Q litres/min Mean Velocity V m/sec Logic eV Reynolds Number Re Loge Re Inlet Head h1 mm Outlet Head h2 mm Friction Head Loss hf mm Loge hf Friction Factor f1 Loge f1 Observations Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab) .

Ensure that the P6221 7mm bore test section is installed the correct way round with the conical inlet at the left hand end. Establish a water flow and bleed the manometer. FRICTION LOSSES IN PIPES. Experimental Procedure. and to compare the relationship between the friction factor and Reynolds number with empirical data. Adjust the bench regulating valve (or pump speed) to provide a small overflow from the inlet tank and overflow pipe. 1. Record the results on a copy of the results sheet. P6220 Laminar and Turbulent Flow Experiment test section (if available) Outlet P6104 Variable Head Outlet Tank Manometer Initially use two of the single manometer tubes. To investigate the pressure loss due to friction in a pipe. Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab) . Measure the water temperature. On a photocopy of the graph on page 16 plot the points of friction factor against Reynolds number. Set up a series of flow conditions with differential heads starting at 25mm in steps of 25mm up to 150mm and thereafter in steps of 50mm up to a maximum of 500mm. 3. Raise the swivel tube of the outlet tank so that it is close to the vertical. Assembly Ensure the bell mouthed entry end of the P6220 test section is at the left hand end and that it is correctly inserted into the inlet tank or feed block. Inlet Initially P6103 Constant Head Inlet Tank with overflow pipe extension fitted but replaced later by P6105 Feedblock. Northern Border University College of Engineering Department of mechanical Engineering EXPERIMENT 2. 2. For each result calculate the mean velocity and hence the Reynolds number and the friction factor 4. At each condition measure the volumetric flow rate. Equipment Preparation. Ensure that any air bubbles are bled from the manometer tubes. Aim. 2. Repeat the test with the other test sections. Manometer Initially use two of the single manometer tubes. Start the pump and establish a water flow through the test section. 6. 5. When using the feedblock change to the water on mercury manometer. 4. allow the test unit to drain and replace the inlet tank with the feedblock. Connect the test section pressure tappings to the water-mercury manometer. draw a straight line through the results and measure its slope to express the relationship between and V in the form 5. Set up a series of flow conditions with differential heads in steps of 25mm of mercury. Stop the water flow. 3. Test Section P6221 Losses in Pipes 7mm and 10mm test sections. Determine the water density and viscosity from Annex 1 of Part 1 of the manual. At each condition carefully measure the flow rate using the volumetric tank and a stop watch. Plot a graph of against loge V. Results and Analysis 1. When using the feedblock change to the water on mercury manometer.

............. From the graph of friction factor against Reynolds number determine the empirical friction factor using the Reynolds number for each result and assuming a pipe roughness of 0.....0015mm... Northern Border University College of Engineering Department of mechanical Engineering 6...mm Quantity of Water Collected Q Litres Time To Collect Water T Seconds Volume Flow Rate Q litres/min Mean Velocity V m/sec Loge V Reynolds Number Re Loge Re Inlet Head h1 mm Outlet Head h2 mm Friction Head Loss hf mm Loge hf Friction Factor f1 Loge f1 Observations Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab) .... RESULT SHEET FOR FRICTION LOSSES IN PIPES................................kg/m2 Test Conditions Viscosity......cP Test Section Date Diameter.......... Experiment Title Density..............................................................

Northern Border University College of Engineering Department of mechanical Engineering 3. Water is supplied to the tank via a hose connection to the base inlet. and is then distributed within the tank by a vertical perforated sparge pipe. straightforward ma nner by the application of Bernoulli's equation. The study of water flow through an orifice is therefore a classic topic to illustrate the need for a semi-empirical approach which is so often required in Mechanics of Fluids. experimental tests typically produce a result which is only some 65% of the solution indicated by the simple analysis.Flow through orifices 1. Two threaded holes are cut into the tank in which to mount the orifice being studied. 2. An orifice can be screwed into either of the threaded holes and the unused aperture sealed with the blanking plug provided. and the other in the tank side for 'horizontal' discharge.1 General Description The Cussons Inlet Head Tank P6103 can be used for the investigation of the flow of water through a horizontal or a vertical orifice. However. This arrangement avoids excessive turbulence and enables a steady level surface to be maintained. INTRODUCTION The analysis of the quantity of water which can be discharged through an orifice is arrived at in a simple. The union adaptor piece supplied with Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab) . one in the tank base for 'vertical' discharge. DESCRIPTION 2. This tank is detailed in Part 1 of the manual.

2 P6223 Elementary Orifices A set of three circular orifices are supplied in a plastic case. Northern Border University College of Engineering Department of mechanical Engineering the Inlet Head Tank is not required for the orifice experiments and should be removed before insertion of the orifice under test. square edged 1·22mm thick c) 8mm diameter orifice. Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab) . square edged 0·61mm thick b) 5mm diameter orifice. The details of the gauge are given in Part 1 of the manual. but note that the face of the bottom outlet position is 38mm below the centre line of the side outlet. square edged 1·22mm thick. d) Square shaped orifice of side 7mm square edged 1·22mm thick. The orifice details are :- a) 3mm diameter orifice. square edged 1·22mm thick 2.3 P6224 Advanced Orifices A set of four orifices each mounted in a threaded orifice holder. Entry radius 2mm Bell mouth semi angle 23º Orifice diameter 8mm c) Triangular shaped orifice of side 10mm (equilateral). The orifice details are : a) Borda mouthpiece consisting of an orifice with extended upstream inlet tube which projects into the inlet head tank thus preventing flow of water across the face of the orifice. The leading edge of the inlet tube is reduced to a knife edge. When an orifice is fitted in the horizontal discharge position a Trajectory Profile Hook Gauge P6107 can be used to determine the jet profile. The zero of the scale coincides with the centre of the side outlet position. A scale is mounted on the side of the tank to enable the height of the water above either orifice position to be determined. Details of the orifices are given below and are illustrated in figure 1. a pair of calipers and an orientation tool are supplied in a plastic case. Orifice diameter 8mm Length of inlet tube 7mm Internal Diameter of inlet tube 8mm b) Bell mouthed orifice having a bell shaped entry section. Each orifice is mounted in a 1" BSP threaded orifice holder. 2. secured between an 'O' ring and a circlip.

Northern Border University College of Engineering Department of mechanical Engineering P6223 Elementary Orifice Set P6224 Advanced Orifice Set Figure 1 Orifice Details Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab) .

The alternative analysis for large orifices takes into account the variation of velocity with height within the jet of water issuing from the orifice. this is known as small orifice analysis. to surface tension and due to resistance of the air. In this case variations in velocity with height within the jet of water can be ignored and the velocity is assumed to be constant.2 Flow Through A Small Orifice Consider a small orifice in either the base or side of a vessel with the head of water above the orifice kept constant. 3.1 Introduction There are two methods of analysing the discharge of a vessel through an orifice. Northern Border University College of Engineering Department of mechanical Engineering 3. THEORY 3. The first of these applies when the orifice is small in comparison with the head above the orifice. The disparity between the theoretical discharge velocity and the actual discharge velocity is allowed for by introducing a factor Cv known as the Coefficient of Velocity so that Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab) . Figure 2 Discharge Through an Orifice The theoretical velocity of the water passing through the orifice is given by hence the quantity of water being discharged through the orifice is given by = However in practice the discharge is always less than this theoretical amount due to the viscosity of the fluid.

the actual flow through a sharp edged orifice is approximately 60% of the theoretical value.e. The plane at which this occurs is known as the Vena Contracta. The value of the Coefficient of Discharge may be determined by measuring the quantity of water discharged over a period of time whilst the head is maintained at a constant level. Northern Border University College of Engineering Department of mechanical Engineering If the discharge from a sharp edged orifice is examined closely it will be observed that the minimum diameter of the jet of water discharging from the orifice is smaller than the orifice diameter. 3. which is the plane where stream lines first become parallel. Applying the discharge equation at the vena contracta which can be written as where or more simply as where Typical values of Cd range from 0·6 to 0·65. The jet will be subjected to a downward acceleration of g due to gravity. i.3 Trajectory Of Horizontal Jet Consider the trajectory of a jet formed by the discharge of water through an orifice mounted in the side of a tank. Figure 3 Trajectory of Horizontal Jet Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab) .

Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab) . In the horizontal direction In the vertical direction solving simultaneously by eliminating t but therefore It may be difficult to accurately locate the position of the vena contractor in which case measurements may be taken from any convenient datum for two points in the trajectory and in which case it can be shown that 3.4 Time To Empty A Vessel Consider a vessel being emptied through an orifice in the base (or side) of the vessel. Northern Border University College of Engineering Department of mechanical Engineering Taking the origin of co-ordinates at the vena-contracta and applying the laws of motion in the horizontal and vertical planes then ignoring any effect of air resistance on the jet.

1 List Of Experiments Cussons P6223 Elementary Orifice Set and Cussons P6224 Advanced Orifice Set allow the following experiments to be performed. P6223 Elementary Orifices Experiment 1 Flow Through a Circular Orifice Experiment 2 Trajectory of a Horizontal Jet Experiment 3 Time to Empty a Vessel Cussons P6103 Constant Head Inlet Tank is an essential accessory for all of these experiments. Northern Border University College of Engineering Department of mechanical Engineering Figure 4 Emptying a Vessel Whilst the head falls from height H1 to height H2 in time T seconds. P6107 Hook Gauge and Scale is necessary for experiment 2. consider the situation in If the cross sectional area of the vessel is A and that of the orifice is a then let the volume of through the orifice. separating the variables and integrating between H1 at T = 0 and H2 at time t = T then 4. EXPERIMENTS 4. Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab) .

2 Setting Up The Orifice Experiment a) If the Hook Gauge and Scale P6107 are to be used to measure the trajectory of horizontal jets then place the two positioning rails on the worktop of the Hydraulics Bench engaging them onto the locating pegs. Measure the flow rate. c) Remove the hexagonal (37mm across flats) bush and adaptor from the side of the inlet tank. d) Measurement of Head The scale attached to the side of the inlet tank has its zero level with the centre line of the side outlet boss. Ensure that the engraved rail is placed closest to the front of the Hydraulics Bench with the engraved side uppermost. 2. Fit the required orifice into either the screwed hole in the base or in the side and plug the unusued hole using the blanking plug provided. The face of the bottom outlet is 38mm below the centre line of the side outlet. Equipment Preparation Prepare the equipment following the general experimental method detailed in section 4·2. Remove the overflow extension pipe.12) for all orifices except the Borda mouthpiece where the increment is 19mm (38 . If the orifices are to be fitted into the base of the inlet tank then the left hand support feet of the inlet tank should engage with the locating pegs so that the orifice can discharge downwards into the weir channel. Measure the flow rate using the volumetric measuring tank. Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab) . EXPERIMENT 1 FLOW THROUGH A CIRCULAR ORIFICE Aim To investigate the discharge characteristics of circular orifices subjected to a constant head. Start the pump and set up an inlet head of 25cm. Fit the 3mm diameter orifice into the side of the inlet head tank. Vessel P6103 Constant Head Inlet Tank. Experimental Procedure 1. When the bottom outlet is used. Replace the overflow extension pipe and set up an inlet head of 50cm. 5 and 8mm circular orifices. If the orifice is to be fitted into the side of the inlet tank then it should be moved to the left so that the right hand support feet engage with the locating pegs. Northern Border University College of Engineering Department of mechanical Engineering 4. b) Position the Constant Head Inlet Tank P6103 onto the worktop of the Hydraulics Bench (over the Hook Gauge positioning rails.7).12 . if fitted) at the left hand side engaging two of the feet of the Inlet Tank onto the locating pegs. a fixed increment should be added to the scale reading of 26mm (38 . Orifice P6223 3.

2. Repeat the readings with the inlet head tank levels of 25 and 50cm. Plot a graph of square root of the head against the flow rate for each orifice diameter. Repeat the procedure using the 5mm and 8mm orifices. Results and Analysis 1. which are now equivalent to a head above the orifice of 27·6 and 52·6cm.0686E . Record the results on a copy of the result sheet for discharge characteristics. For each result calculate the flowrate.6 d mm m2 Orifice Position Base Slide Base Slide Head Ho cm Quantity of Water Collected Q litres Time to Collect Water t secs Volume Flow Rate Q litres/min Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab) . the results should lie on a straight line passing through the origin to confirm that Measure the slope of each graph and calculate the coefficient of discharge for each orifice from EXPERIMENT 1 RESULTS SHEET . Northern Border University College of Engineering Department of mechanical Engineering 3. 4. 3. Remove the orifice and refit it into the base of the inlet tank and refit the blanking plug into the side of the tank.FLOW THROUGH A CIRCULAR ORIFICE Results and Analysis Orifices Diameter Orifice Area a 3 7 .

............... C d ....9635E ........ a 2g Ho Orifices Diameter Orifice Area a 5 1 . C d ......5 d mm m2 Orifice Position Base Slide Base Slide Head Ho cm Quantity of Water Collected Q litres Time to Collect Water t secs Volume Flow Rate Q litres/min Slope Of Graph 1 Q ............0265E ........5 d mm m2 Orifice Position Base Slide Base Slide Head Ho cm Quantity of Water Collected Q litres Time to Collect Water t secs Volume Flow Rate Q litres/min Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab) . a 2g Ho Orifices Diameter Orifice Area a 8 5 . Northern Border University College of Engineering Department of mechanical Engineering 1 Q Slope Of Grapg ...

..... Accessories P6107 Hook Gauge and Scale.. Start the pump and set up an inlet head of 250mm. C d . 2. Draw a graph of y against x to represent the trajectory. Measure the trajectory of the jet using the hook gauge by positioning the cross wire through the centre of the jet. Measure the slope of the line and hence calculate the coefficient of velocity from : Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab) .. Remove the overflow extension pipe... 2. Fit the 3mm diameter orifice into the side of the inlet head tank.. Draw a graph of y0..... Replace the overflow extension tube and establish an inlet head of 500mm.... Measure the trajectory of the jet..5 against x and draw the best straight line through the points to represent the results. 4.. Northern Border University College of Engineering Department of mechanical Engineering 1 Q Slope Of Graph . Repeat the experiment using the 5mm and 8mm diameter orifices. Tank P6103 Constant Head Inlet Tank. Equipment Preparation Prepare the equipment to the following specification following the general method detailed in Section 4·2.. Record the horizontal and vertical distances. Experimental Procedure 1... Results and Analysis 1.. a 2g Ho EXPERIMENT 2 TRAJECTORY OF A HORIZONTAL JET Aim To investigate the trajectory of a horizontal jet issuing from an orifice and hence determine the coefficient of velocity for the orifice. Orifices Any circular orifice fitted into the side of the Inlet Tank. 3...

Northern Border University College of Engineering Department of mechanical Engineering Results and Analysis Orifice 3 5 8 Diameter d mm Head Ho cm 25 50 25 50 25 50 Horizontal Verticle Distance below Orifice Distance x cm centre Line y cm 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 Slope of Graph Coefficient of Discharge Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab) .

Experimental Procedure 1. Northern Border University College of Engineering Department of mechanical Engineering EXPERIMENT 3 TIME TO EMPTY A VESSEL Aim To investigate the time required to empty a vessel through an orifice and hence determine the coefficient of discharge for the orifice. repeat the test with the orifices installed in the base of the tank. Repeat this procedure twice more and record an average of the readings. Vessel P6103 Constant Head Inlet Tank with overflow extension tube fitted. Orifice 3mm orifice from the P6223 Elementary Set. Start the pump and open the bench regulating valve sufficiently to just maintain a constant head of water above the 50cm scale. Repeat the test using the 5mm and 8mm diameter orifices. 2. Equipment Preparation Prepare the equipment to the following specification. Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab) . Compare the results for the coefficients of discharge obtained from experiment 1 (which used a constant head test and volumetric flow measurement) with the results from this experiment. 2. Record the results on a copy of the results sheet. 20cm and 10cm. 4. Results and Analysis 1. 5. If required. Close the bench regulating valve as quickly as possible. Measure the time taken for the water level to fall in the inlet tank from 45cm to 30cm. 3. Draw a straight line from the origin through the results for each orifice to confirm that Measure the slope of the lines and calculate the coefficient of discharge for each orifice from 3. Plot a graph of the discharge time against the difference between the square roots of the initial and final heads.

Cd ..TIME TO EMPTY A VESSEL Results and Analysis Orifice Position Orifice Diameter d 3 mm Initial Head H1 cm Final Head H2 cm Time to Discharge Water t secs H1 H2 m 1 H 2 D 2 H ....... 2 Slope of Graph d g T Orifice Position Orifice Diameter d 5 mm Initial Head H1 cm Final Head H2 cm Time to Discharge Water t secs H1 H2 m Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab) ...... Northern Border University College of Engineering Department of mechanical Engineering EEXPERIMENT 3 RESULTS SHEET .......

.... Cd ... Northern Border University College of Engineering Department of mechanical Engineering Orifice Position Orifice Diameter d 8 mm Initial Head H1 cm Final Head H2 cm Time to Discharge Water t secs H1 H2 m D 2 2 H1 H2 ....... Slope of Graph d g T Observations Conclusions Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab) .......

In open channel hydraulics.Flow over weirs. which is described in Part 1 of the manual. Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab) . The P6107 Hook Gauge and Scale. weirs are often referred to as notches and invariably are sharp edged and manufactured from thin plate material. For small scale applications. Cussons have provided two sets of weirs and a hook gauge. P6225 Elementary Weirs comprises a set of three stainless steel weirs each 1. 1. Included with this set of weirs is a very effective flow smoothing basket. they are of particular use in large scale situations such as irrigation schemes. The weir channel is fitted with an acrylic 60° triangular notch weir with an integral scale which can be used to provide an approximate indication of the flow rate. is an essential accessory for the accurate measurement of the upstream head. Northern Border University College of Engineering Department of mechanical Engineering 4. 2.625mm thick and 215mm wide by 160mm deep. and two triangular or V notch weirs having included angles of 90° and 60° with a depth of 90mm. The flow pattern over a notch or weir is complex and there is no analytical solution to the relationship between discharge and head so that once again a semi-empirical approach has to be used. DESCRIPTION Cussons P6100 Hydraulics Bench incorporates a weir channel which is 158mm wide tapering to 152mm wide at the bottom. canals and rivers. For a detailed study of the discharge over weirs. the three weirs comprise: a rectangular weir with a 100mm wide by 90mm deep notch. INTRODUCTION. x 150mm deep x 735mm long in the working surface. weirs are commonly used to either regulate or to measure the volumetric flow rate. The dimensional details of the weirs are shown in Figure 1 below.

A 9mm thick full width or suppressed weir. manufactured from upvc. and secondly a weir with a special profile notch which produces a linear head-flow characteristic. Details of these weirs are also shown in Figure 1 below. A) Elementary Weir Set B) Advanced Weir Set Figure 1 Details of Weirs Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab) . is also supplied. which enables both conditions of clinging and free nappes to be studied. Northern Border University College of Engineering Department of mechanical Engineering P6226 Advanced Weirs comprises two stainless steel weirs: first a trapezoidal or Cippoletti weir.

A rectangular notch in a thin square edged weir plate installed in a weir channel as shown in figure 2. THEORY 3. Assuming that the flow is everywhere normal to the plane of the weir and that the free surface remains horizontal up to the plane of the weir. There will be a considerable change in the shape of the nappe as it passes through the Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab) . The free surface is not horizontal and viscosity and surface tension will have an effect. Figure 2 Rectangular Notch Consider the flow in an element of height at a depth h below the surface. Northern Border University College of Engineering Department of mechanical Engineering 3. then velocity through element Integrating between h = O and h = H Total theoretical discharge In practice the flow through the notch will not be parallel and therefore will not be normal to the plane of the weir.1 Flow Through A Rectangular Notch.

2H is to allow for the two end contractions. the velocity of approach is less than 1m/s and the base of the weir channel is more than 3H below the sill of the weir and that H>0. An empirical equation known as the modified Francis formula is often used for large weirs.1. This formula provides solutions within if B>2H. of the theoretical analysis due to these curvature effects.1 Francis Formula. in particular the width of the nappe is reduced by the contractions at each end. The formula takes into account the contraction in the physical size of the nappe as it issues over the notch where the –0. A coefficient of discharge is therefore introduced so that However. approximately 60%. 3. is not a true constant tending towards a constant only for large heads and a low velocity of approach in the weir channel.1m. Figure 3 Shape of a Nappe The discharge from a rectangular notch will be considerably less. Northern Border University College of Engineering Department of mechanical Engineering notch with curvature of the stream lines in both vertical and horizontal planes as indicated in Figure 3. Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab) .

598 0.018 0.0009 0.0042 0.1.591 0. where The relationships between the constants are tabulated below.7 0.6 0.0024 o ( Full 0.596 0.602 0.0023 0.030 0. the Kindsvater- Carter formula is used for thin plate rectangular weirs.5 0.2 0. which covers the measurement of liquid flow in open channels by the use of weirs and flumes.075 -0.592 0.0031 0.064 0.0027 0.2 Kindsvater-Carter Formula.4 0.9 0.0041 0.587 -0.045 0.593 0.594 0. The Kindsvater-Carter formula can be applied if B/W A 1.0 0. Northern Border University College of Engineering Department of mechanical Engineering 3.0024 Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab) .0059 0. In British Standard BS3680 : Part 4a : 1981.010 0.8 0.0036 0.0031 0.0028 0.589 -0.

2 Flow Through A Triangular Notch A sharp edged triangular notch with an included angle of is shown in Figure 4 Figure 4 Triangular or V Notch Again consider an element of height at a depth h Breadth of element Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab) . The values of the constants applying to this weir by graphical interpolation from the table for: Substituting these values into the Kindsvater-Carter formula gives which reduces to 3. Northern Border University College of Engineering Department of mechanical Engineering Width) For the rectangular weir provided as part of P6225 the vertical height between the bed of the upstream channel and the crest of the weir is 0.07m whilst the limiting value for the proper application of the Kindsvater-Carter formula requires this height to be at least 0.1m. Nevertheless it is a useful empirical standard with which to compare the experimental results.

**Northern Border University
**

College of Engineering

Department of mechanical Engineering

Hence area of element

Velocity through element

Discharge through element

Integrating to obtain the total discharge between h = o and h = H

Again, a coefficient of discharge has to be introduced.

Actual discharge

The triangular notch has advantages over the rectangular notch since the shape of the nappe does

not change with head so that the coefficient of discharge does not vary so much. A triangular

notch can also accommodate a wide range of flow rates.

3.2.1 Kindsvater-Shen Formula.

British Standard BS3680: Part 4a: 1981 uses the Kindsvater-Carter formula for triangular weirs.

**The coefficient of discharge is a function of the vertex angle , and to a lesser extent the value
**

of and . The effective head is given by:

Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab)

**Northern Border University
**

College of Engineering

Department of mechanical Engineering

**Values of and are tabulated below for weirs in which the approach velocity in the weir
**

channel is negligible. The British Standard tabulates data for some cases where the approach

velocity is not negligible.

20 0.592 0.0029

40 0.581 0.0017

60 0.577 0.0011

80 0.577 0.0009

90 0.578 0.0008

100 0.580 0.0008

For the 60° weir the Kindsvater-Shen formula reduces to

and for the 90°weir

4 EXPERIMENTS

4.1 List of Experiments.

**The following experiments can be carried out using Cussons P6225 Elementary Weirs and
**

Cussons P6226 Advanced Weirs. Cussons P6107 Hook Gauge and Scale is an essential

accessory for these experiments which is required to measure the approach head to the weirs.

**P6225 Elementary Weirs
**

Experiment 1 Discharge over rectangular and triangular weirs

4.2 Set Up Procedure.

a) If the P6107 Hook Gauge and Scale is to be used to measure the upstream water level

Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab)

**Northern Border University
**

College of Engineering

Department of mechanical Engineering

**then place the two positioning rails on the worktop of the Hydraulics bench engaging
**

them onto the locating pegs. Ensure that the engraved rail is placed closest to the front of

the bench with the engraved side uppermost.

b) Place the Hook Gauge across the two positioning rails engaging the pegs into any pair of

locating holes in the rails. If necessary remove the thumb nut and reposition the scale so

that the weir logo is at the top of the scale and facing the front of the bench. If necessary

remove the hook from the block and reinsert it into the block so that the hook is concave

upwards, that is shaped. Refer to figure 7 of Part 1 of the manual for an illustration of

the correct assembly of the Hook Gauge.

c) Place the flow stilling basket of glass spheres into the left end of the weir channel and

attach the hose from the bench regulating valve to the inlet connection into the stilling

basket.

d) Remove the five thumb nuts which hold the standard acrylic weir in place, remove the

standard weir and replace it with the specific weir plate which is to be tested first. Ensure

that the square edge of the weir faces upstream

4.3 Operation.

**a)Flow Measurement. The discharge from the weir may be measured using either the P6108
**

Rotameter (if fitted) or by using the volumetric measuring tank and taking the

time required to collect a quantity of water. The quantity should be chosen so

that the time to collect the water is at least 120 seconds to obtain a sufficiently

accurate result.

b) Measuring the Weir Fill the weir channel with water up to the weirplate crest level and use the

Datum. Hook Gauge to measure the level of the water. This will be the zero or datum

level for the weir. Ensure that the weir channel is filled to the correct level

when making this measurement, to do this look at the weir from the

downstream side and check that the channel has not been overfilled by

ensuring that a meniscus is not present, also look at the weir from the

upstream side and check the reflection of the weir in the water meets the weir

notch at a point or a line as appropriate.

c) Measuring the Head. The surface of the water as it approaches the weir will fall, this is particularly

noticeable at high rates of discharge caused by high heads. To obtain an

accurate measure of the undisturbed water level above the crest of the weir it

is necessary to place the hook gauge at a distance at least three times the head.

d) Suppressed Weir. The suppressed weir is fitted with an aeration tube which can be used to

demonstrate how an initial clinging nappe can be made to spring clear as air is

blown into the tube.

EXPERIMENT 1 RECTANGULAR AND TRIANGULAR WEIRS

**Aim To investigate the discharge-head characteristics of a rectangular weir and 60° and 90°
**

triangular weirs.

Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab)

2 Weirs P6225 Elementary Weirs Accessories P6107 Hook Gauge and Scale Experimental Procedure. 1. 2. Results and Analysis. Observe the shape of the nappe. Prepare the equipment to the following specification in accordance with section 4. Record the results on a copy of the results sheet. 3. Start the pump and slowly open the bench regulating valve until the water level reaches the crest of the weir and measure the water level to determine the datum level. stop the pump and then replace the weir with the next weir to be tested. Repeat the test procedure.5 for the triangular weirs. From the intercept calculate the coefficients of discharge and from the slopes of the graphs confirm that the index is approximately 2. and of the end contraction and general change in shape. 5. At each condition measure the flow rate and observe the shape of the nappe. 4. Northern Border University College of Engineering Department of mechanical Engineering Equipment Preparation. shape and type of nappe paying particular attention to whether the nappe was clinging or sprung clear. Plot a graph of loge Q against loge H for each weir. Close the regulating valve. 2. Measure the flow rate using the volumetric tank or the rotameter. Calculate the coefficient of discharge from the intercept. Repeat the test with the third weir.5 for the rectangular weir and 1. Record any observations of the 1. Measure the slopes and the intercepts. Express the relationship between the head and the discharge in the form: for each weir. Adjust the bench regulating valve to give the first required head level of approximately 10mm. Increase the flow by opening the bench regulating valve to set up heads above the datum level in steps of approximately 10mm until the regulating valve is fully open. Compare the results with those predicted using the empirical Kindvater -Carter and 3. Kindsvater-Shen formula for rectangular and triangular weirs respectively Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab) .

.... 2 g d 2 B 3 60O TRIANGULAR WEIRS Head H mm Quantity of Water Collected Q litres Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab) ........ . Intercept =...... Northern Border University College of Engineering Department of mechanical Engineering RESULTS SHEET EXPERIMENT 1 RECTANGULAR AND TRIANGULAR WEIRS RECTANGULAR WEIRS Head H mm Quantity of Water Collected Q litres Time to Collect Water t secs.......... Volume Flow Rate q litre/min Loge Q Loge H e int ercept C Slope of Graph = ...

... Volume Flow Rate q litre/min Loge Q Loge H e int ercept Cd Slope of Graph = .......... Intercept = .... 8 15 tan 2 2 g .... Intercept = ............ Northern Border University College of Engineering Department of mechanical Engineering Time to Collect Water t secs......... g Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab) ............... 8 tan 15 2 2.................. RECTANGULAR WEIRS Head H mm Quantity of Water Collected Q litres Time to Collect Water t secs... Volume Flow Rate q litre/min Loge Q Loge H eint ercept Cd Slope of Graph = ..

this type of meter is in common use with a wide variety of proprietary models being available from a number of manufacturers. Cussons Water Flow Measuring Apparatus P6239 includes three commonly used flow measuring devices. The pressure drop across any length of pipe can be used as a means of measuring the flow as can the pressure drop across any fitting or combination of fittings. however. The third device is a tapered area tube and float which uses a constant pressure drop but a variable geometry. In this apparatus a sudden enlargement and an elbow are also included. INTRODUCTION The measurement of water flow rate is an important topic in the study of fluid dynamics. Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab) . Venturi. Northern Border University College of Engineering Department of mechanical Engineering 5. Water flow Measuring Apparatus 1. the pressure drop across them is very small and the possibility of secondary effects detracts from their use. Orifice plate and Variable area meter. The first two of these devices utilise pressure drop across a fixed geometry and there design has been standardised by the publication of both national and international standards.

Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab) . Water enters the apparatus through the lower left-hand end and flows horizontally through a sudden enlargement into a transparent venturi meter. 2. and into an orifice plate. Cussons P6239 Water Flow Measuring Apparatus is designed as a free-standing apparatus for use on the Cussons Hydraulics Bench P6100. a 90º elbow changes the flow direction to vertical and connects to a variable area flow meter. The water flow through the apparatus is controlled by the delivery valve of the Hydraulics Bench and the flow rate may be confirmed by using the volumetric measuring tank of the Hydraulics Bench.1. The static head at various points in the flow path may be measured on a manometer panel. although it could be used in conjunction with a low pressure water supply controlled by a valve and a discharge to drain. Introduction. Northern Border University College of Engineering Department of mechanical Engineering 2. a second bend passes the flow into a discharge pipe which incorporates an atmospheric break. DESCRIPTION OF APPARATUS.

The test section consists of a 10mm diameter bore with a sudden enlargement to 20mm diameter. Orifice Plate. 2.3.4. The venturi is manufactured from transparent acrylic materials and follows the classic 21º-10º convergent-divergent design which forms the basis of most engineering standards for venturi flow meters The design of the plate conforming with the British Standard for flow measurement BS1042 for venturies in all respects other than that of minimum size. Sudden Enlargement. The design of the orifice plate conforming with the British Standard for flow measurement BS1042 for D and D/2 orifices in respects other than that of minimum size for orifice plates. Northern Border University College of Engineering Department of mechanical Engineering 2. The downstream bore of Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab) . The orifice flowmeter consists of a 20mm bore tube with an orifice of 12mm. Two manometer are provided.2. Venturi Meter. 2.

Consider a sudden enlargement in pipe flow area from area A1 to area A2. 3. Rotameter.35mm. The head Loss at Sudden Enlargement. This can be arranged by either guiding the float or. 2. Head Loss at Sudden Enlargement. Upward fluid flow causes the float to be lifted upwards until the pressure drop occurring across the annular space surrounding the float and acting on the cross sectional area of the float exactly matches the weight of the float. The rotameter utilises a transparent tube and a stainless steel float providing a visual indication of the flow rate by measuring the position of the float relative to the position of the tube by using the integral scale. Manometer tappings are positioned 20mm before the orifice and 10mm after the orifice plate. as is more usual. A 90º elbow is placed immediately after the orifice plate and before the rotameter. The rotameter is a variable area constant pressure drop device which consists essentially of a float which is free to move up or down in a vertical tapered tube with the small end of the tube at the bottom. The float is then stabilised in the centre of the tube by the gyroscopic effect due to the spin. otherwise erroneous readings will occur. To ensure good repeatability the float should be concentric with the tube.5 to 10 litres/minute. by causing the float to spin by incorporating angled grooves or vanes on the float. Northern Border University College of Engineering Department of mechanical Engineering the orifice is chamfered at 40º to provide an effective orifice plate thickness of 0. THEORY. There is a constant bore diameter throughout the bend with manometer tappings positioned normal to the plane of the bend before and after the elbow. 2.1.5. Elbow. which is calibrated from 1. By defining a loss coefficient so that then where so that Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab) .6. The static head at various points in the flow path may be measured on a manometer panel. In operation it is essential that the float should not touch the sides of the tapered tube. 3. With no flow the float rests at the bottom of the tapered tube. The water flow through the apparatus is controlled by the delivery valve of the Hydraulics Bench and the flow rate may be confirmed by using the volumetric measuring tank of the Hydraulics Bench.

The pressure loss across the venturi meter is less than the pressure difference measured between the mouth and the throat due to the pressure recovery which occurs in the divergence as the kinetic energy is reduced.995. 3.975 and 0. Due to the sharpness of the contraction in flow area at the orifice plate a vena contracta is formed downstream of the throat in which the area of the vena contractor is less than that of the orifice. therefore it is necessary to introduce an experimentally determined coefficient of discharge . Applying the continuity equation between the upstream conditions of area A1 and the vena contracta of area A2: The volumetric flow rate is then given by The flow area at the vena contracta is not known and therefore a coefficient of contraction may be introduced so that Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab) . Typical values for a machined venturi meter are between 0.2 The Venturi Meter. Northern Border University College of Engineering Department of mechanical Engineering 3.3 Orifice Plate. The actual discharge will then be given by : The coefficient of discharge varies with both the Reynolds number and area ratio. From consideration of continuity and Bernoulli’s equationsbetween the mouth of the venturi of area A1 and the throat of area A2 : The volumetric flow rate is then given by The actual discharge will be less than this due to losses causing the velocity through the throat to be less than that predicted by Bernoulli’s theorem.

Reynolds 1x 2x 3x 5x 7x 1x 3x 1x 1x Number 104 104 104 104 104 105 106 106 107 D & D/2 0.6127 .2:1984.6068 0.6079 0. not orifice diameter. which is quoted from British Standard BS 1042:section 1. For orifice plates with D and D/2 tappings there are two additional terms to be included so that : 3. due to Stolz. with pipe size and with Reynolds number.6032 taps The discharge coefficient can be calculated from an empirical equation.6060 0. For orifice plates with corner tappings : where the additional suffix D applied to the Reynolds number shows that it is based on pipe diameter. Northern Border University College of Engineering Department of mechanical Engineering The coefficient of contraction will be included in the coefficient of discharge and the equations rewritten in terms of the orifice area with any uncertainties and errors eliminated by the experimental determination of the coefficient of discharge.4 Flow Round Bends and Elbows. The variations of with Reynolds number is tabulated below for orifice plates with . Whenever the direction of the flow is changed at a bend or elbow. The volumetric flow rate is then given by : The position of the manometer tappings has a small effect on the values of the discharge coefficients which also vary with area ratio.06102 0. the velocity distribution across the pipe is disturbed.6043 0. A centrifugal effect causes the maximum velocity to occur towards the outside of the bend or elbow whilst at the inside of the bend or elbow the flow is slowed or even Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab) .6036 0.

Northern Border University College of Engineering Department of mechanical Engineering reversed in direction if the flow separates from the wall and a vena-contracta formed. This constant may also be treated as an equivalent length of straight pipe expressed as diameters by using the Darcy Weisbach equation hence For single 90º bends and elbows the bend resistance coefficient and the equivalent Length are typically: R/D Elbows 1 1. A secondary flow is set up at right angles to the pipe cross section which increases the velocity gradient and hence the shear stress of the wall. The fluid passing through the Rotameter flows upwards through the tapered tube and lifts the float due to the pressure drop across the float as the fluid passes through the annular orifice Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab) .5 Rotameter.5 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 30D 20D 14D 12D 14D 17D 24D 30D 34D 38D 120 80 56 48 56 68 96 120 136 158 30 20 14 12 14 17 24 30 34 38 Note that Which suggests a significant advantage in the use of in comparison with using for pipe work design 3. The loss of head is related to the velocity head by defining a bend loss coefficient so that Values of are related to the pipe friction factors or by a constant which is dependent on the ratio of the bend radius to the pipe diameter R/D.

Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab) . Since the tube enclosing the float is tapered. The position of the float is automatically determined within the tube when there is a balance between the downward gravitational force on the float and the upward fluid drag force. The effective weight of the float immersed in the fluid is : The fluid drag force generated by the pressure drop across the float acting on the cross sectional area of the float is : The pressure drop across the float is related to the volumetric flow rate by an equation of the form where is a flow coefficient for the annulus between the tube and the float. Northern Border University College of Engineering Department of mechanical Engineering formed between the tube and the float. the area of the annular orifice is dependent on the vertical position of the float within the tapered tube. Substituting for and replacing by the equation for the volume flow rate is given by : and the mass flow is then The annulus area can be related to the height of the float in the tube from a knowledge of the float and tube geometry.

a. At each steady state condition record the heights on each manometer tube and the flow shown on the rotameter. With the flow regulating valve of the bench closed. b. if necessary open the supply valve until water spills out of the top of the manometer tubes so that the water flushes out all air bubbles.1. Insert the overflow hose from the inlet tank into the overflow pipe of the volumetric measuring tank. close the valve and allow the level to stabilise with no flow when the height of the water in each manometer tube should be level with the top of the air vent. a. Northern Border University College of Engineering Department of mechanical Engineering 4. switch on the bench pump and allow water to be pumped into the apparatus by controlling the opening of the flow regulating valve until water just begins to flow into the equipment and just overflows through the air vent above the rotameter. Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab) . Connect the delivery hose from the bench to the inlet connection of the Water Flow Measuring Apparatus. EXPERIMENTS.3. Position the P6239 Water Flow Measuring Apparatus on the horizontal operating surface of the P6100 Hydraulics Bench using the locating pegs on the top surface of the bench. Ensure that there are no air bubbles trapped in the manometer tubes. Flow Rate. b. c. Determine the water density and viscosity from Appendix 1 of Part 1 of the manual. Calculate the flow rate from the time and quantity collected in the volumetric measuring tank. The maximum flow which can be achieved for the experiment is when the height of water in the left hand manometer tube reaches the top of the manometer scale. Also measure the flow using the volumetric flow tank of the hydraulics bench with a stop watch. 4.2. Record the results on a copy of the results sheet. c. The experiment which can be carried out with the P6239 Water Flow Measuring Apparatus provides a comparison of flow measurement using the following devices:- Flow measurement using a sudden enlargement Flow measurement using a venturi meter Flow measurement using an orifice plate Flow measurement using an elbow Flow measurement using a rotameter 4. Introduction. Results and Analysis. 4. Adjust the supply valve to obtain 6 or 7 readings with the height of water in the left hand manometer tube increasing in increments of approximately 50mm. General Experimental Method.

Venturi Meter. Northern Border University College of Engineering Department of mechanical Engineering d. Use this graph to draw conclusions on the repeatability and accuracy of each flow measuring device. Calculate the head loss across the venturi and plot a graph of the flow rate against the square root of the head and draw the best straight line from the origin through the results. f. Elbow. Express this head loss per bend as a loss coefficient k by dividing the head loss by the velocity head. Express the head loss as a loss coefficient k by dividing the head loss by the velocity head. Calculate the error in reading for each device using the flow rate obtained by the volumetric tank as the correct volume flow rate. Rotameter. comparison of Results. Results sheet Quantity of Water Collected Q Litres Time To Collect Water t Seconds Volume Flow Rate Q litres/min Mean Velocity V m/sec Velocity Head V2/2g Head at Tapping 1 h1 mm Head at Tapping 2 h2 mm Head at Tapping 3 h3 mm Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab) . Calculate the head loss across the orifice plate and plot a graph of the flow rate against the square root of the head for the orifice. Compare the result with that predicted from the results given in theory section for the appropriate area ratio . g. Draw a straight line from the origin to obtain a best fit of the results. h. Orifice Plate. Draw the best straight line from the origin. Measure the slope of the line and hence determine the coefficient of discharge for the orifice plate. i. Measure the slope of this line. Plot a graph of the volumetric flow rate measured with the rotameter against that obtained using the volumetric measuring tank. Sudden Enlargement. Measure the slope of the line and hence determine the coefficient of discharge for the meter. e. Calculate the head loss due to the enlargement and the velocity head for the smaller pipe diameter. Calculate the head loss due to the bend and the velocity head for the pipe section. Compare the result with that predicted from the results given in the theory section. Draw a graph of the flow error for each device against the volumetric tank measured flow rate.

Northern Border University College of Engineering Department of mechanical Engineering Head at Tapping 4 h4 mm Head at Tapping 5 h5 mm Head at Tapping 6 h6 mm Head at Tapping 7 h7 mm Head at Tapping 8 h8 mm Friction Loss at Sudden Enlargement Head Loss Across Venturi Head loss Across Orifice Head Loss Across Elboe Rotameter Flow Rate Reading Error in Sudden Enlargement Flow Rate Error in Venturi Flow Rate Error in Orifice Flow Rate Error in Elbow Flow Rate Error in Rotameter Flow Rate Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab) .

Two interchangeable plain bore nozzles are supplied. which passes through a plain bearing in the top flange assembly. 2. has provision for attaching the target vane at its lower end. Screwed studs are Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab) . A weight carrier and a set of brass weights are supplied. one 5mm diameter and one 8mm diameter. A vertical shaft. Northern Border University College of Engineering Department of mechanical Engineering 6. (Prior to serial no. one conical and one semi-spherical. The top of the shaft is screwed to a weight platform and a spring between the top flange and the weight platform provides vertical support to an equilibrium position. The study of these reaction forces is an essential step in the subject of mechanics of fluids which can be applied to hydraulic machinery such as the Pelton Wheel and the Impulse Turbine. dimensional details of the three target vanes are shown in figure 2 overleaf. one flat. is intended to be used with Cussons P6100 Hydraulics Bench which provides the water supply and the means of measuring flow rate.INTRODUCTION Cussons P6233 Impact of Jets Apparatus enables experiments to be carried out on the reaction force produced on vanes when a jet of water impacts on to the vane. Three interchangeable target vanes are supplied. The apparatus consists essentially of a UPVC base assembly with a vertical nozzle supply pipe inside a transparent acrylic tube which supports a removable top flange assembly.DESCRIPTION Cussons P6233 Impact of Jets Apparatus. 199 a weight beaker and lead shot were provided instead of a weight carrier and brass weights).Impact of Jets 1. which is illustrated in figure 1 below.

In operation water from the Hydraulic Bench issues vertically from the nozzle and impacts onto the target vane. Figure 1 P6233 Impact of Jets Apparatus Figure 2 Interchangeable Target Vanes Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab) . shaft and weight platform to its equilibrium position. The impulse force produced by the impact of the jet onto the vane lifts the vane. Northern Border University College of Engineering Department of mechanical Engineering provided on the base plate of the apparatus for storage of the nozzle and target vanes which are not in use.

Unlike the impact of solid bodies there is no rebound and unless the flow is highly turbulent there will be no splashing. In the absence of friction the magnitude of the velocity across the surface is equal to the incident velocity V1. If friction is neglected by assuming an inviscid fluid and it is also assumed that there are no losses due to shocks then the magnitude of the water velocity is unchanged. Northern Border University College of Engineering Department of mechanical Engineering 3. Figure 3 Impact of a Jet Consider a jet of water which impacts on to a target surface causing the direction of the jet to be changed through an angle q as shown in figure 3 above. The pressure exerted by the water on the solid surface will everywhere be at right angles to the surface.1 General Analysis. The impulse force exerted on the target will be equal and opposite to the force which acts on the water to impart the change in direction. Applying Newton’s Second Law in the direction of the incident jet Force = Mass x Acceleration = Mass Flow Rate x Change in Velocit y Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab) .THEORY 3. When a jet of water flowing with a steady velocity strikes a solid surface the water is deflected to flow along the surface.

The cone semi-angle q = 45º Cos q = 0.Impact on Semi-spherical Target. Northern Border University College of Engineering Department of mechanical Engineering and dividing through by ᵖ Q V1 which is the incident momentum 3. Effect of Height. a.Impact on Conical Target.7071 d. For the normal plane target q = 90º Therefore Cos q = 0 c. Vn = Q/A However.2 Application to Cussons Impact of Jet Apparatus In each case it is assumed that there is no splashing or rebound of the water from the surface so that the exist angle is parallel to the exit angle of the target. b.Impact on Normal Plane Target.7071 Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab) . The jet velocity can be calculated from the measured flow rate and the nozzle exit area. The target exit angle is 135º Cos q = -0. as the nozzle is below the target the impact velocity will be less than the nozzle velocity due to interchanges between potential energy and kinetic energy so that : where h is the height of target above the nozzle exit.

Record the results on a copy of the results sheet provided. Close the control valve and switch off the pump. conical target and hemispherical target respectively. If an Auxiliary Pump P1601 is fitted to the Hydraulics Bench. Move the pointer so that it is aligned with the weight platform. Place additional weights onto the weight carrier until the weight platform is again floating in mid position. Start the pump and establish the water flow by steadily opening the bench regulating valve until it is fully open. Calculate for each result the flow rate and the nozzle exit velocity. EXPERIMENT IMPACT OF JETS Aim. 2. Fit the 5mm nozzle and the normal flat target. Correct the nozzle velocity for the height of the target above the nozzle to obtain the impact velocity. Replace the normal vane with the 45º conical vane and repeat the test with both the 5mm and 8mm nozzles. Northern Border University College of Engineering Department of mechanical Engineering 4. The vane will now be deflected by the impact of the jet. arrange the pump valves so that only one pump is used. Results and Analysis. 1.7071 for the normal plane target. together with the corresponding value of weight on the tray. 5. 1. Set up the apparatus on top of the Hydraulics Bench with the left hand support feet of the Impact of Jets Apparatus located on the two left hand locating pegs of the Hydraulics Bench so that the apparatus straddles the weir channel. 8. Calculate the impact momentum and plot graphs of impact force F against impact momentum and determine the slope of the graphs for each target. Reduce the weight on the weight carrier in steps and maintain balance of the weight platform by regulating the flow rate in about eight or ten even steps. Equipment Preparation. 7. each time recording the value of the flow rate and weights on the weight carrier. 6. 2.2929 and 1. To investigate the reaction force produced by the impact of a jet of water on to various target vanes. Experimental Procedure. Observe the form of the deflected jet and note its shape. 0. 3. 3. Compare with the theoretical values of 1. Measure the flow rate and record the result on the test sheet. Connect the feed tube from the Hydraulics Bench to the boss on the rear of the base of the Impact of Jets Apparatus. Replace the 5mm nozzle with the 8mm diameter nozzle and repeat the tests. Position the weight carrier on the weight platform and add weights until the top of the target is clear of the stop and the weight platform is floating in mid position. 4. Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab) . Record the value of weights on the weight carrier. Replace the 45º conical vane with the hemispherical vane and repeat the tests with both the 5mm and 8mm nozzles. Allow the apparatus to drain.

Northern Border University College of Engineering Department of mechanical Engineering Instructions Manual (Fluid Mechanics Lab) .

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