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7/8/13

1 Copyright 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Oracle Real Application


Clusters (RAC) 12c
Markus Michalewicz
Director of Product Management
Oracle Real Application Clusters (RAC)

1
7/8/13

Safe Harbor Statement

The following is intended to outline our general product direction. It is


intended for information purposes only, and may not be incorporated
into any contract. It is not a commitment to deliver any material, code, or
functionality, and should not be relied upon in making purchasing
decisions. The development, release, and timing of any features or
functionality described for Oracles products remains at the sole
discretion of Oracle.

3 Copyright 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Agenda

Oracle RAC 12c Overview

Oracle RAC 12c for:


Better Business Continuity and High Availability
Cost-effective Workload Management
Standardized Deployment and System Management

4 Copyright 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

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7/8/13

The New Oracle RAC 12c


Oracle RAC 12c provides:
1. Better Business Continuity
M
and High Availability (HA)
CR

2. Agility and Scalability

AC
) 3. Cost-effective Workload Management
(R
rs
ste
Clu
on I): )
ati (G SM
lic re t (A
pp ctu en
lA tru gem CW)
ac
le
Re
a
Inf
id e M ar
s
ra ana (O
e
Using
Or Gr rag terw
le o
ac c St Clus
r
O ati le
tom Ora
c A standardized and improved
Au
deployment and management

AS
M A familiar and matured HA stack
x
Fle
a cle
Or

6 Copyright 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Standardize on Oracle RAC


Different flavors, same management
C
Scalability

RA
cle
a
Or
de DB A
e No
C On DB A
RA DB A GI
cle le
a ac
Or Or

rt DB A
sta
Re DB A GI
a cle ac
le
Or Or

DB A
GI
le
ac
Or

High Availability

8 Copyright 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

3
7/8/13

Standardize on Oracle RAC


For better availability during maintenance operations
C
Scalability

RA
cle
a
od
e Or
neN
CO DB A
RA DB A
le
ac
Or DB A GI
le
ac
Or
DB A
DB A le
GI
Or
ac
ation
U A pplic
nd PS
at ch a
ng) P
ne (rolli
Onli

High Availability

9 Copyright 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Standardize on Oracle RAC


For all the flexibility you need
C
Scalability

RA
cle
a
Or
de DB A
e No
C On DB A
RA DB A GI
cle le
a ac
Or Or

ine
rt DB A Onl de
ta ra
R es upg
le DB A le
GI
ac ac
Or Or

tion
nf igura ster
o u
DB A Re-c able cl
o e n
ac
le
GI t
Or

Flexibility

10 Copyright 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

4
7/8/13

Standardize on Oracle RAC


For better agility and consolidation
Agility

C
RA
e cle
od a
Or
neN
CO DB A
RA
le DB A
ac
Or
DB A le
GI
ac
Or
DB A
rt DB A GI
sta ac
le
Re Or
a cle
Or

DB A
GI
le
ac
Or

Consolidation

11 Copyright 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Standardize on Oracle RAC and Oracle Multitenant


The new standard for Oracle Database Consolidation C
RA
le
Agility

ac
de Or
No
ne
ACO
R
le
ac
Or GI
le
ac
Or

GI
le
ac
Or

Consolidation

12 Copyright 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

5
7/8/13

Agenda

Oracle RAC 12c Overview

Oracle RAC 12c for:


Better Business Continuity and High Availability
Cost-effective Workload Management
Standardized Deployment and System Management

13 Copyright 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Application Continuity

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7/8/13

Dealing with Unknown Transaction State


Pre-Oracle Database 12c
Database outages can cause
in-flight work to be lost, leaving
M
CR users and applications in doubt

DB A Often leads to
DB A
User pains
DB A

D BA
Duplicate submissions
DB A
Rebooting mid-tiers
Developer pains

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Tackling In-Flight Work for Unplanned Outages


Two New Features

Transaction Guard
A Reliable protocol and API that returns the outcome of the last transaction

Application Continuity
Safely attempts to replay in-flight work following outages and planned
operations.

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7/8/13

Application Continuity
Masks Unplanned & Planned Outages
Replays in-flight (DML)
work on recoverable errors
M
CR

Masks many hardware, software,


network, storage errors and
DB A outages when successful
DB A


DB A

DB A Improves end-user experience and


DB A
productivity without requiring
custom application development

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Application Continuity Example


A reliable replay of in flight work
User selects product from
application and purchases it
from the web checkout
End User

Application Servers User transaction arrives at


application infrastructure. It
makes its way through the
Network Switches
application tiers and results in a
database transaction being
created
Database Servers

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7/8/13

Application Continuity Example


A reliable replay of in flight work

End User

Application Servers

Network Switches The infrastructure hosting the


database fails just before the
transaction is committed to the
Database Servers
database.

19 Copyright 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Application Continuity Example


A reliable replay of in flight work
The jdbc driver detects the
failure and checks with an
available node in the cluster,
using Transaction Guard,
End User
whether the transaction
Application Servers
committed or needs to be
replayed

If the transaction needs to be


Network Switches
replayed, Application
Continuity will submit all of the
inflight work to a surviving node
Database Servers in the cluster and perform a
commit. This all happens
transparently to the application

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9
7/8/13

Application Continuity Example


A reliable replay of in flight work
The user receives confirmation
that his order has been
successfully completed.
End User

Application Servers

Network Switches

Database Servers

21 Copyright 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Oracle Automatic Storage


Management (ASM) 12c

22 Copyright 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

10
7/8/13

The History of ASM


Why Oracle Developed ASM
Pre-Oracle Database 10g storage management was provided by 3rd parties

Customer challenges
Large databases required considerable storage management
Best performance required raw storage
NFS solutions, while simple, did not perform as well as raw
For RAC, cluster file systems were not available

With Oracle 10g, ASM provided


Simplicity of management, even better than NFS solutions
Performance equal to raw disks

23 Copyright 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

The History of ASM


The Simple Idea

Integrated volume manager and file system


Stripe and mirror files across disks in a ASM Disk Group
Automatic Rebalance
Built on the Oracle instance architecture
Manage storage as a global cluster shared Disk Groups

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7/8/13

ASM Overview
Simplify the Stack

Oracle Database Oracle Database


ASM
Operating System File System and Volume Management

File System

Logical Volume Manager


Operating System

Server Server

25 Copyright 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

ASM Overview
Oracle Database 11.2 or earlier
RAC Cluster
Database Instance

One to One
Mapping of ASM DBA DBA DBB DBB DBB DBC
Instances to ASM Instance

Servers
Node1
ASM Node2 ASM Node3
ASM Node4
ASM Node5 ASM

ASM Cluster Pool of Storage


Shared Disk Disk Group A Disk Group B ASM Disk
Groups

Wide File Striping

26 Copyright 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

12
7/8/13

Oracle ASM 12c Overview


Oracle ASM 12c Standard Deployment
RAC Cluster
Database Instance

One to One
Mapping of ASM DBA
ASM Instance
DBA DBB DBB DBB DBC
Instances to ASM Instance

Servers
Node1 ASM Node2 ASM Node3 ASM Node4
ASM Node5 ASM

ASM Cluster Pool of Storage


Shared Disk Disk Group A Disk Group B ASM Disk
Groups

Wide File Striping

28 Copyright 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Introducing Oracle Flex ASM


Removal of One to One Mapping and HA
RAC Cluster
Database Instance

Databases share
ASM instances DBA
ASM Instance
DBA DBB DBB DBB DBC
ASM Instance

Node1 Node2 ASM Node3 ASM Node4


ASM Node5

Node1 Node2 Node5


runs as runs as runs as
ASM Client ASM Client ASM Client
to Node4
Node2 to Node3 to Node4

ASM Cluster Pool of Storage


Shared Disk Disk Group A Disk Group B ASM Disk
Groups

Wide File Striping

29 Copyright 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

13
7/8/13

Flex ASM
Remote Access

In previous versions, ASM clients use OS-authentication to connect to ASM


This works because ASM clients and servers are always on the same server

With Oracle Database 12c,


ASM clients and ASM servers can be on different servers
A default configuration is created when the ASM cluster is configured

Benefits of providing a shared password file in ASM Disk Group

31 Copyright 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Supporting Pre-Oracle 12c Databases


Pre-Oracle 12c Databases require a local ASM instance
RAC Cluster
Database Instance

Databases share 11g 11g


ASM instances DBA
ASM Instance
DBA DBB DBB DBB DBC
DB DB

Node1 ASM Node2 ASM Node3 ASM Node4


ASM Node5 ASM

ASM Cluster Pool of Storage


Shared Disk Disk Group A Disk Group B ASM Disk
Groups

Wide File Striping

32 Copyright 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

14
7/8/13

Flex ASM
Other Flex ASM Features
Increase maximum number of Disk Groups to 511
Previous limit was 63
Command for renaming ASM Disk
ASM instance Patch-level verification
Patch level verification is disabled during rolling patches
Replicated Physical Metadata
Improves reliability
Virtual Metadata has always been replicated with ASM mirroring

33 Copyright 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Small ASM Features Big Difference


Disk and disk group operations
Failure Group repair time Disk Resync
Similar to existing disk repair time Accepts power limit
Default is 24 hours Range 1 (least resources)
to 1024 (most resources)
Disk group attribute: failgroup_repair_time
Checkpoints: failed operations
restart at the last checkpoint

Fast Disk Replacement Data Scrubbing


Efficient, atomic operation Check for logical consistency
(and repair from mirror)
No disk group reorganization required
during rebalance.
areas on demand
Protects seldom-accessed data

34 Copyright 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

15
7/8/13

Small ASM Features Big Difference


Better availability and performance
Priority rebalancing Even Read
Optimized re-organization Distributes read requests evenly across all disks
Control files, log files rebalanced first Data read sent to least loaded disk
Lowers impact of secondary failure Enabled by default. Transparent to apps.
Preferred Read (for stretch clusters)
can still be enabled

Disk group content type I/O offloading to Exadata storage cells


Data, recovery, or system type Rebalance uses fewer I/O resources
Improved placement algorithm Faster rebalance
for primary/secondary extents
Lowers impact of multiple disk failures

35 Copyright 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Agenda

Oracle RAC 12c Overview

Oracle RAC 12c for:


Better Business Continuity and High Availability
Cost-effective Workload Management
Standardized Deployment and System Management

36 Copyright 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

16
7/8/13

Policy-Managed Databases
Highly available workload management
Allocate resources
As demand requires it

As the business requires it:


Over the period of one day

As the system requires it:


For automated management tasks
Policy Min Max Importance
Online Retail 2 4 High
Self Service 1 2 Low
Free Pool Lowest

37 Copyright 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Policy-Managed Databases
Better High Availability for any cluster
Improve HA
By choosing servers from the
least important server pool

Accommodating for double


or multiple subsequent failures
2
1
For planned maintenance:
Allocate backup servers in the cluster

Policy Min Max Importance


Online Retail 2 4 High
Self Service 1 2 Low
Free Pool Lowest

38 Copyright 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

17
7/8/13

Policy-Managed Databases
Customer quote: Policy managed; Its all about the workload
Policy Logic defines:
EA Availability Server pools are dynamically adjusted
EM
Service Levels Uniform services.dont care
Maint. windows where instances are or their
as
e ric name. All about capacity and
Am Performance workload
PCI requirements Instances are controlled by min/
Regional/business max combined with services. No
more add/drop instance.
Version
QoS is critical to our management
Policy Min Max Importance
Americas 1 3 High
EMEA 1 3 High

39 Copyright 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Policy-based Cluster Management


Server Pools that understand and make a difference
Oracle RAC 12.1
Scales out easier than ever (addNode)
Actively utilizes differently sized servers

Server Pool management has been improved


to understand server differences in the cluster:
Server attributes are stored per server
Server Pools are set up using Server Categories
Servers are allocated to pools based on categories
Server Attributes
NAME
MEMORY_SIZE Combine only test servers in one pool
CPU_COUNT Server Categories
CPU_CLOCK_RATE NAME Remove servers from test-pool preferably
CPU_HYPERTHREADING ACL
CPU_EQUIVALENCY EXPRESSION
Ensure a minimum size of servers per pool

40 Copyright 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

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7/8/13

What-If Command Evaluation


Complex cluster management made predictable
Oracle RAC 12.1
M AIL What-If Command Evaluation
Helps to set up and validate policies
D
P RO Helps to plan for downtime scenarios
Analyze the impact beforehand
Ensure smooth cluster operations
e r
erv
v es s
Mo pool What-If Command Evolution supports:
n: n
c tio ee
A tw Set Active Policy
be
Server Pool, server or resource modification
E.g. addition, relocation or removal
Special commands for failure evaluation

41 Copyright 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

What-If Command Evaluation


How it works
IL
MA
The DBA view:

OD >> srvctl relocate server -servers lnxrac12srv1 -serverpool mail -eval


PR Database rac will be stopped on node lnxrac12srv1
Server lnxrac12srv1 will be moved from pool ora.prod to pool ora.mail

er
s erv
ve The cluster administrator view:
Mo pools
n:
t io en >> crsctl eval relocate server lnxrac12srv1 -to ora.mail -f
Ac etwe
b Stage Group 1:
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Stage Number Required Action
[grid@LnxRAC12Srv1 bin]$ ./srvctl config srvpool ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
...
Server pool name: mail 1 Y Server 'lnxrac12srv1' will be moved from pools
[ora.prod] to pools [ora.mail]
Importance: 0, Min: 1, Max: 3
... 2 Y Resource 'ora.rac.db' (1/1) will be in state
[OFFLINE]
Candidate server names:
Server pool name: prod ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Importance: 0, Min: 1, Max: 2
...

42 Copyright 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

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7/8/13

Small Oracle RAC 12c Feature Big Difference


Optimized Flexibility and Agility
Support for IPv6 Based IP Addresses Restricted Service Registration
for Oracle RAC Client Connectivity
Restrict clients from accessing a database
Cluster nodes can be configured to use either registered with a Oracle Grid Infrastructure
IPv4 or IPv6 based IP addresses or both managed listener using various conditions
for the Virtual IPs (VIP) on the public network For example: on a per-subnet basis

more than one public network can be defined

Per-subnet (multiple) SCAN support Named User Support for


Oracle RAC Services on Windows
Multiple SCANs can be configured per cluster
Oracle RAC supports running various
On a per-subnet basis
Oracle RAC services as different users.
Subnets need to be distinguishable
This is a Windows-specific feature

43 Copyright 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Agenda

Oracle RAC 12c Overview

Oracle RAC 12c for:


Better Business Continuity and High Availability
Cost-effective Workload Management
Standardized Deployment and System Management

44 Copyright 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Insert Information Protection Policy Classification from Slide 12

20
7/8/13

Standardize on Oracle RAC and Oracle Multitenant


The new standard for Oracle Database Consolidation C
RA
le
Agility

e rac
od O
neN
CO
e RA
l
ac
Or GI
le
ac
Or

GI
le
ac
Or

Consolidation

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Oracle RAC Support


for Oracle Multitenant

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Oracle RAC support for Oracle Multitenant


Start off with a Single Instance, non-CDB

Services

Database Instance

Services CRM CRM CRM


North South Reporting

Database Instance
Server

Server

47 Copyright 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Insert Information Protection Policy Classification from Slide 12

Oracle RAC support for Oracle Multitenant


Convert to a RAC Database, non-CDB CRM
Reporting

Services

RAC Instance 1 RAC Instance 2

Services CRM CRM


North South

RAC Instance 1
Node 1 Node 2

Node 1

48 Copyright 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Insert Information Protection Policy Classification from Slide 12

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Oracle RAC support for Oracle Multitenant


Convert to a CDB RAC Database
Services

CDB Instance 1 CDB Instance 2

Node1 Node2

CDB

49 Copyright 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Improved Agility With Changing Workloads


Expand Cluster to Support Flexible Consolidation Model
Services

CDB Instance 1 CDB Instance 2

Single SGA per


CDB Instance

Node1 Node2

Multitenant Container Database (CDB)

50 Copyright 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

23
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Improved Agility With Changing Workloads


Expand Cluster to Support Flexible Consolidation Model
Services

CDB Instance 1 CDB Instance 3 CDB Instance 2

Single SGA per


CDB Instance

Node1 Node3 Node2

Multitenant Container Database (CDB)

51 Copyright 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Oracle RAC
and
Virtualization

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Private Database Cloud Architectures


Oracle Database 12c
Virtual Machines Dedicated Databases Pluggable Databases

share servers share servers and OS share servers, OS and database

Increasing Consolidation

54 Copyright 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Confidential Oracle Restricted

Virtualization a Black Box Approach


A simple solution without insight

Dom-0 Dom-0
Guest Guest Guest Guest
DOM-0 Hypervisor Hypervisor DOM-0
Bare-Metal Server Bare-Metal Server

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Live Migration = Moving a Black Box


Live Migration moves a black box from one server to another

Live Migration

Dom-0 Dom-0
Guest Guest Guest Guest
DOM-0 Hypervisor Hypervisor DOM-0
Bare-Metal Server Bare-Metal Server

56 Copyright 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Virtual Machine HA = Restarting a Black Box


Virtual Machine HA restarts / fails over a virtual machine on failure

Dom-0 Dom-0
Guest Guest Guest Guest
DOM-0 Hypervisor Hypervisor DOM-0
Bare-Metal Server Bare-Metal Server

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Virtual Machine HA = Restarting a Black Box


But what if the application needs attention?

Dom-0

DOM-0
Guest Guest
Hypervisor
DBA
? Hypervisor
Guest
Dom-0

DOM-0
Bare-Metal Server Bare-Metal Server

58 Copyright 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

High Availability Requires Insight


The Oracle RAC Stack provides the insight

DBA1 DBC1 DBC2 DBA2


+1 +1

Dom-0 Dom-0
Guest Guest Guest Guest
DOM-0 Hypervisor Hypervisor DOM-0
Bare-Metal Server Bare-Metal Server

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Oracle Flex Cluster

61 Copyright 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Oracle Flex Cluster


Flexibility and High Availability as demand requires it
Oracle Flex Cluster
A new Oracle Clusterware based
High Availability clustering topology
Leaf Nodes
Utilizing two types of cluster nodes:
Hub nodes
Traditional nodes, tightly coupled via network and
storage, used for running IO intensive workload
Leaf nodes
A new type of node that runs a lighter weight stack

Maintain their own failure and heartbeat settings

Hub Nodes Do not require direct shared storage connectivity

Used for processing oriented (application) workload

Leaf nodes can be virtualized.

62 Copyright 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

28
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Oracle Flex Cluster


The new standard for resource management in the cluster
Oracle Flex Cluster:
The new standard for flexible
Leaf Nodes resource management in the cluster
Use it as demand requires it

Inherits all Flex ASM HA capabilities


Enables policy-managed clusters.
DB
B

DB
B

Efficient High Availability and


DB
A

resource management across tiers


DB
A

DB
A Lightweight cluster stack on leaf nodes
Hub Nodes

Benefit from virtualization and


physical deployments in one cluster

63 Copyright 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Oracle Flex Cluster


Better HA clustering for all applications

Standardized management across applications


Global resource allocation and dependencies
Sto

Oracle Bundled Agents (XAG) for application HA


rt

DB
B
Sta

DB
B www.oracle.com/goto/clusterware

DB
A

DB
A

DB
A

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65 Copyright 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

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