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# Experiment 2

## Resultant and Equilibrant Forces

Group 8 2KPh
Tunod, Edmin Christian R.
Ulep, Jant Nicole Joyce U.
Valendez, Charles Louie E.
Villaroza, Hannah Marie S.
Vizcarra, Christian C.

## Abstract The group was tasked to understand and learn about

resultant and equilibrant forces by using a force table. The group | |
binded three strings around a pulley that was designed to act as the | |
object forces act on. The force table served as a conduit to measure *| | is the magnitude and is the direction
the exact magnitude and specific direction. Three sets of washers
with different weights gave the group the magnitude of the forces.
The strings holding the washers in place acted as the guide to show Magnitude
the direction of its corresponding magnitude. The primary goal was
to set the washers and strings at specific locations around the table to ( ) ( )
find the center. By the use of trial and error and as well as a basic
understanding of how pulleys act upon an object, the group can find Direction
the equilibrium where the ring is on the center of the board. Another
obstacle the group had to solve is to convert the weight of the | | at Q1 to Q4
washers with its respective hangers from grams to Newtons. After
obtaining all three forces the group derived the experimental resultant Conversion of grams to Newtons
forces by computing for the negative vector of any of the three
forces. With this data the group can solve for the computed resultant N= ( )
forces by using the component method.
Reference Angle
I. INTRODUCTION
In the study of displacement one must first have the
knowledge of what comprises it. The main quantities that can
be measured are the magnitude and direction. These quantities
make up the vector quantity. The main difference between
scalar quantities and vector quantities is the inclusion of III. METHODOLOGY
direction. The direction in the graph shows the angle of where In this experiment, we made use of a force table, a
the object moves from one point to the other. washer, wires, and hangers for the weights to be put on. To
The resultant force is described as the force that would begin the experiment, we tied the strings to the pulley and then
cause the object to start moving with velocity whether it be to the hangers and set it on top of the force table. We then
speeding up or slowing down. To understand this concept, the added weights and kept on recalibrating until the weights were
component method is used given two or more forces. If an pulling each other equally, and to determine if we have done
object moves as a result of the resultant forces, then a force so, the washer had to be exactly in the center of the force
moving in the opposite direction with the same magnitude will table. After doing so, we weighed the metal weights and the
bring it to equilibrium. This force is known as the equilibrant corresponding hangers to be able to compute for the force they
force. exerted when we put them on the force table.
II. THEORY
Displacement is a vector quantity that refers to "how far out IV. RESULTS
of place an object is". It is the object's overall change in position. Table IV.1 Individual Forces
Individual Forces
The set of forces which causes the displacement of a body Fi Magnitude Direction
are called resultant or resultant forces. While the set of forces which F1 0.87 N 332
keeps the body at restate or equilibrium are called equilibrant forces.
F2 1.44 N 287
Equilibrium is any situation where the net force acting on F2 1.44 N 287
an object is zero. We call it equilibrium because all the forces acting F3 2.20 N 150
on the object equal out and cancel each other. F1 0.87 N 332
F3 2.20 N 150
Fig 4.1 The magnitude and direction gathered from the force table
F1
= 1.44
= 0.87 = -1.38 N
= 0.77 N F3

= 0.87 = 2.20
= -0.41 N = -1.91 N
F2
= 2.20
= 1.44 = 1.1 N
= 0.42 N

## Table IV.2 Computations for Fa

Horizontal Vertical
Magnitude Direction Resultant Force
component x component y
F1 0.87 N 332 0.77 N -0.41 N Magnitude Direction
F2 1.44 N 287 0.42 N -1.38 N 2.15 N 303.62
=1.19 N = -1.79N

Resultant Force

=
= 2.15 N

| |
= 56.38 (Q4), 360-56.38= 303.62

## Table IV.3 Computations for Fb

Horizontal Vertical
Magnitude Direction Resultant Force
component x component y
F1 0.87 N 332 0.79 N -0.41 N Magnitude Direction
F3 2.20 N 150 -1.91 N 1.1 N 1.33 N 148.82
=-1.14 N = 0.69N

Resultant Force

=
= 1.52 N

| |

## = 10.64 (Q3), 180+10.64= 190.64

Table IV.3 Computations for Fc

Horizontal Vertical
Magnitude Direction Resultant Force
component x component y
F2 1.44 N 287 0.42 N -1.38 N Magnitude Direction
F3 2.20 N 150 -1.91 N 1.1 N 1.52 N 190.64
=-1.49 N = -0.28N

Resultant Force

=
=1.33 N

| |
= 31.18 (Q2), 180-31.18= 148.82

## Resultant Forces (Experimental) Equilibrant Forces (Experimental) Resultant Forces (Computed)

Ri Magnitude Direction Ei Magnitude Direction Fi Magnitude Direction
Fa 2.20 N 330 Fa 2.20 N 150 Fa 2.15 N 303.62
Fb 0.87 N 152 Fb 0.87 N 332 Fb 1.52 N 190.64
Fc 1.44 N 107 Fc 1.44 N 287 Fc 1.33 N 148.82
Fig 4.4 This table shows the comparison between the equilibrant and the resultant forces (computed and experimental)

V. DISCUSSION
In the experiment, we used the Component Method to
compare the experimental data we gathered from the factors that affected the accuracy of the measurement during
computed one. Having the metals weights weighed, we the experiment, namely the tension of the wires, rust in the
converted its mass to Newtons to obtain the force exerted by it pulley, and the calibrations in the force table.
then we calculated the individual forces of F1, F2, and F3.
These forces are needed for the computations for Fa, Fb, and Fc VI. CONCLUSION
which is the vector addition. To compute for the resultant We therefore conclude that using the component
forces, we have to compute first the horizontal and vertical method we are able to obtain more accurate results compared
components through the concept of trigonometric functions. to the experimental method. Concepts in vector addition
After obtaining the x and y components, we need to get the helped us arrive with the correct computation and
summation of the forces and substitute it to the given formula interpretation of the data we gathered.
which will yield the magnitude of the forces. To compute for
its direction, we made use of the inverse tangent of the vertical
component divided by the horizontal component; at quadrants References
one to four. We obtained the equilibrant forces by tracing
exactly the opposite of the resultant forces, same magnitude  Barwad, R. (2014, August 4). Difference between
but opposite in direction, we added and subtracted 180 and resultant and equilibrants. Retrieved from
360 degrees from the experimental resultant forces. http://www.polytechnichub.com/difference-between-resultant-
Completing the table, we compared the data we obtained. and-equilibrants/
There is an obvious discrepancy with the computed and
experimental resultant forces. This is due to the external