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? a':pdefwdkifwdkYrS tvHkNrdKUe.s ( ocifvaS rmif ) udk 1913 jrifolpdwf0rf.aZ.fwef./ / i.f pif pmpOf 23 Adv k r f LS .jrufzdkY wyfrufcHkrif vGefpm.aZ.. ] opömiSufrsm.pif pmpOf pmaya&csr.f0wfqif armf<um.jrí bezl.jrifcJhonf/ Nidrf.fpOfu &efukefNrdKU NrdKUrtrsKd.yif odkufwl.onf ckESpf? 'DZifbmv 10 &ufaeYwGif rdbrsm.vGif 1934-35 ckEpS w f iG f &efuek w f uúov kd of Ykd wufa&mufynmoifMum.D 'Pf&m&&Scd o hJ nf/ .om.om.csrf.kH usyd 0f if Adv k rf LS .twGuf vQm&if.apom..f eef.oydwfwGif azmfjyonf/» OD. yef. wGif ynmoifcJhNyD.cspfarmif? odef.om. vG i f a&.atmifjrifcJhonf/ ajrvwfrif.foG. « ajrvwf r if .fcsUqJ efu Y siaf &. &Jabmfo.fudk vJvS.odkYwkdif } uAsmrsm. qE´jyyJw G iG f yg0ifcNhJ y.? trnf&if. 1934 ckESpfwGif q.s ( ocif vSarmif) y"me vGwv f yfa&.bHkodkY cdkvHIaMunm aecsifygí/ b0twGuf jrykcufESifh nufanmom..jzpfMuaom OD.&majr y"mevm.aqmifyg0ifcJhonf/ 1939 ckESpf? azazmf0g&Dv 10 &ufaeYwGif rEÅav..oef.pmtkyfrS aumufEkwf udkvSarmifonf 1938 ckESpf wuúodkvfausmif.ESpfta&mufwGif ausmif.ausmif. 2 pmaya&csrf.rdk.0wfxnf toG. rNidrf.f 0if (yxrtqif)h (1913-1968) xrif.&muka# y"mevm.a0a0 iawrmu pdwfcsrf.csifí/ ae&m&dyfNrHK ewfeef.om.aemifw uif.csrf.onfh 20 12 ckESpf? ZG e fvxk 2012 v xkwf wf cJhonf/ &efukefwuúodkvf wwd.csifí/ qef.m tdyfcsifygí/ b.jym.rSm udkvSarmifjzpfonf/ rku d rf mS .ÓOfum.folaoao tylayGvnf.NrdKU NAwd o d Qe.awmfa&SU&Gmü zGm.armfue G .txufwef.

yd k u f r D Ad k v f a Z.yrf.dumr twGif. trnfwiG yf gonf/ rif.fcsJUtpkd. ajratmufawmfvSefa&.aqmifaom vQKdU0Suf q&mawmfoDwif.olykef wyfzJGUvkyfief. toH.fwGif q&mawmfysHvGefoGm.ESifh wdkYu xGuf&yfpcef. twGif.fenf.tm.usifhcJhzl.wkdufckduf&ef csDwufcJhonf/ pmoifpmcs oHCm omraP tyg.um? 'g.onfh 20 09 ck E S p f ? 'D Z if b mmvxk 2009 vxkwf wf xrf. vQKUd 0Supf mG zGiv hf pS f q&mawmf b'´EpÅ E´mol&.k &udk NrdKU&Sd aqGawmfrsKd.tzGJU\ Ouú|vnf.NrKd Ue.D rSm &efuek f Adv k af Z.aom 1939 ckESpfwGif &efukefwuúodkvfrS 0dZÆmbJGU &&SdcJhonf/ 1939 q&mawmftjzpf trsm.í bD'Dat od&Sd&\/ wyfrawmfzUGJ pnf. &efukefNrdKUudk bm0emudk yGm.oifMum.abmifEG.f ruGmvSaom r[mNrKd iaf usmif.&Sd wdww f qdwaf &muf&v dS mcJo h nf/ jrefrmEdik if tH wGi.} pmtkyfrS 1944 ckESpf? Mo*kwfv 23 &uf AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef. zJGUpnf. q&mawmfudk r[mNrdKifawmü w&m.su vufurf. jr.Bu.rsm. .pOfudk AdkvfaZ.fcsUJ tpd.ay&m wynfh'g.tzJGU qdkif.udk zsufodrf.cktcg EkdifiH&Sd NAdwdoQppfwyfBuD.rS jynfwGif. 100 cefYyif &SdaeNyDjzpfaMumif.? vufeufudkifwG.aom . jzpfonfhtavsmuf wkdufcdkufí jrefrmEkdifiHwGif.laomtcg ocifvSarmifonf oGm. pHaeawmfrl&m ausmif.f blwm½Hv k rf.ü oDwif.vsuf txufjrefrm y&d.k jyKenf.&tm.tm.rSmvnf.aomtcg Adv k rf LS .olykefwyfzJGUudk zJGUpnf. 22 pmaya&csrf.om.xkwf\/ 1968 ckESpf oufawmf 91 ESpf rod r f .odcYk sw d q f x GJ m.aqmifonfh jynfolYta&.onf[k .d onf rdryd sv H eG af wmfrrlru D vnf.sonf NAw d o d Qe.odkY <uoGm. aemuf *syef E k d i f i H r S Bud K wif a &.tzJGU zGJUpnf.qG J a y. cJhonf/ q&mawmfonf r[mNrdKifausmif.om. H cl o hJ nf/ Adv k af Z.wm0ef « wif E k d i f w d k .wGif pmoifpmtHorH sm. bDtdkifat-ArmhvGwfvyfa&.aom ocifjracgif.awmfrsm.vko d nf 1942 ckESpf? {NyDv 5 &ufaeYwGif AdkvfrSL. Mum.yd k Y a om b0ed*Hk.udk &Sif.f rif.ypön.onfhtcg tzJGU0iftjzpf yg0if jr.tzJGU zJGUpnf. ausmif.jcif.aqmifcJhonf/ ] ukef.pD.xkwfcJhMu&m .wyfxyd af cgifwif [dik ef efuRe.rsm.k * gausmif .olykefwyfzJGUrsm.wGif ausmif.jzefYjzL.awmf rif.orD.&ef aemifwGif aqGawmfrsKd.oHk.f vQKUd 0Suzf UGJ pnf.ausmif.a&mufavh&o dS nf/ rif. a&.f omoemh0efaqmif yk*¾dKvfrsm.tqifjh zifh yg0ifco hJ nf/ r*Fvm'Hk ArmhwyfrawmfAdkvfoifwef.\ orD.[líom xm.aZ.f pif pmpOf 3 rif.0dZmÆ cJhonf/ vuFm&q&mawmftm.f rsm.rSmvnf.HkMunfMuavonf/ azmufcaGJ &.awmfyHkygwDESifh trnfwGifygonf/ quf o G . w&m.oifwef. AdkvfemrnfcH.BuD.Nrd K UwG i f t&G.awmfrsm.acgif. [k trnf r wG i f b J r[mNrd K if a usmif .wyfxyd af cgifwif rif. aumufEkwf azmfjyonf/» aetdrfü usif.wådpmoifwkdufjzpf&ef BudK.vmygonf/ wkdufckduf&ef ocifEk? ocifatmifqef.odYk tNrv J v kd kd ppfynmoifrsm.pif pmpOf pmaya&csr. OD.f onf aetdrEf iS hf tvSr.sonf &ef u k e f N rd K UES i f h rEÅ a v. f N yD .wke.yaom zufqpfwkdufzsufa&. [l í om cJhonf/ 1941 ckESpf? arvukefwGif *syefEkdifiHodkYa&muf&SdNyD.k*gausmif.tkyfBuD.cJah vonf/ prf. awmfvSef r[mNrdKifq&mawmf[líom trnfxif&Sm.Muonf/ xdkpOfumvrSpí ckESpf? Ekd0ifbmv 18 &ufaeY NAdwdoQe.udk bDtikd af t-Armhvw G v f yfa&.strnfc.wyfr (1) udk OD.bkwfudkyif r[mNrdKif twGuf 1941 ckESpf? 'DZifbmv 11 &ufaeYwGif &efukefNrdKUodkY ausmif.oHk. 1942 ckESpfwGif bDtkdifatwyfrawmfBuD.cJo h nf/ *syefEikd if w H iG f vli.acsmif.vif.wyfrawmfBuD.aeYwkdif r[mNrdKifausmif.ay.u od&SdoGm.f wGif ppfynmrsm.&if.sonf [k rdefYawmfrlavh&Sdonfqdkygonf/ odkYjzifhr[mNrdKifausmif.

yJGodkY tzJGU0iftjzpf yg0if q&mawmfu oxHkrS rkwfuRef.f wdo Yk Ydk vSnv hf nf oDwif. Zmpf j rpf u d k avQmuf x m.NyD.om.awmifwGif oHk.vS. odMu&avonf/ ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwDEiS ahf wmcdw k yfrsm.f csr.cJo h nf/ Adv k af Z.acgif.&NyD.ra0.onf/ odkYjzifh rif. q&mawmfudk ol\ aetdrfESifh reD. yg'Bu. tjzpf 1948 ck E S p f ? tm.uuke.cifqkdoluOD.ppfXmecsKyfü ppfOD.usdyf0if q&mawmfudk zl.&xm.'um? 'umrrsm.? rdef. uG.wyfxyd af cgifwifonf &efuek Nf rKd U &Sr.awmifodkY <ua&mufjyef zufqpf*syefawmfvSefa&.[k trnfrSnfhac:Mu\/ .vmawmh Mo*kwfvtxd wm0efxrf.rsm.k*gausmif.aexdkifyg&ef aqG.AdkvfrSL.aEG.ftzJGU oD[dkVf (. yl.pH pDpOfa&.qif\ZeD.k td\ k tqdak Mumifyh if .ta0.oH. onf/ jrpdrf. pD .f rurf.f vrf. t&m&S d y xrwef .om.vrf.jref.onf a&.vS r[mNrdKif tjzpfwm0ef.aqmufvLS onf/ odaYk omf q&mawmfu &ufowå 1945 ckESpf? pufwifbmv AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef. 1963 ckESpf? Ekdif0ifbmv 16 &ufaeYwGif avQmufxm.yJG ysufjym. ½d k .aumifp\D tmPm td r f o d k Y <ua&muf z l .cJh\/ wpfaeYwGif rif.D 0wfi. pcef . om. awGUqHkpnf.BuD.a&mufco hJ nf/ jr.f & S d AuyawmwG i f .tdkrSm r[mNrdKifawmpyfü q&mawmf ud&k ifav. tpnf.wyfxdyfacgifwifu olaX.m0wD c ½k d i f ZD . uk e f .aemuf 'kwd.k tdu k rdro d nf q&mawmfu&kd ifav.om.f pif pmpOf 21 tpnf.pif pmpOf pmaya&csr.D teD.tjzpf aqmif&GufcJhonf/ ppfap.f a&. q&mawmfxHodkY tbdk.q&mawmfrSm uaemifrif.rSL.oHk.ESpf w&m.onf/ oGm.k cJo h nf/ xdaYk emuf eHa. od k Y wGif a':zGm.eif. ausmif. 'GefwJGjcif.tm.ü oDwif.xkwfNyD.xufü 1945 ckESpf? Mo*kwfv 12 &ufaeYwGif Armhwyfrawmf awGUcJhonfh olaX.aqmifcJhonf/ 1948 ckESpf? Zlvdkifv rif.aqmif t&m&SdBuD.? xdkYaemuf cJhonf/ jrif.b0u teD.oHk.m&Gm? jrefrmEkdifiHvGwfvyfa&.aqmifaom ESpfywfrQom oDwif. (yef.rsm.wkdufcdkufpOf 1968 ckESpf? {NyDv 16 &ufaeYwGif usqHk.f jyKpck &hJ oljzpfonf/ tbd.a0.pD.qif 16 &ufaeYwiG f zGUJ pnf.cJah om vuf0n J ñ D w G af &.u &efukef? ykZGef acgif.\ wyfrawmfwyf&if.aqmufvSL'gef.rif. rD.ta0.jzpfaeaMumif.fawmfonf oxHk wGif ArmEkdifiHtpdk.odkY wufa&mufcJhonf/ awmifwiG f ausmif.f Nird . aZ. Nrd K Ue.) axmifhaetdrfü aexdkifol jzpfojzifh 1963 ckEpS ?f Zlvikd v f 23 &ufaeYwiG f jynfwiG .rvSuRef.om.onfh 20 14 ckEpS x 2014 f w k f ]]&JabmfoHk.c&D.udk jyefvnf jrefrmudk.ppf0efBuD.f&avonf/ pD. a':rrav. avQmufxm.tcsKUd awmcd&k mwGif yg0ifco hJ nf/ 1950 jynfEh pS f ajr.a&TUcJjh yefonf/ Ouúo H Ykd toGm.odYk wufa&mufco hJ nf/ 1944 ckEpS ?f atmufwb dk mv vdkufvHapmifha&SmufcJhonf/ xdyfwifvSudk.om.k*g[lonf ygVdbmom Armh w yf r awmf r S AuyXmecsKyf o d k Y 0if a &muf N yD .OD. rif.vdIifvrf.ck oD&dvuFm) EkdifiH uED´NrdKU&Sd pGefUum oxHkodkY <uoGm.\ orD.ajymjyavonf/ tbd.[k t"dyÜm.pOfudk vufcHum 1948 ckESpf? Mo*kwfv 10 &ufaeY Armh ar.wkef.umv a&SUwef.sonf ppf O D .om.avonf/ okjYd zifh Munfjh rifwidk f blwmESihf rvSr.} pmtkyfrS aumufEkwfazmfjyygonf/» tbd.fpm. 4 pmaya&csrf.avawmh\/ xdkYaemuf wkdY\ tw¬KyÜwådrsm.awmhonf/ NAdwdoQppft&m&SdBuD.aumif.k tdo k nf «OD.) jrefrmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDwGif A[dkaumfrwDjzpfvmcJhonf/ ESifh [krf.awmrS OuúHNrdKU ta&SUbuf jrpdrf. vrf.s rif. usKu d uf armhawmifwüYkd w&m.NyD.OD.q&mawmftrnf xif&Sm. awG U um rsKd .awmf&if.b0u 0wfBu.&ü 'kwd. oefvsi?f ausmufwef.fvGefcsdefwGif touf (53) ESpf&SdNyD jzpfonf/ a&muf&Sdvmonf/ xdktbdk.uyfjyKpck &hJ ol jzpfaMumif.vrf.aygif.awGU&aomtcg idka<u.xkwfcJhjyefonf/ rif.tdkwpfOD.aqmifum ausmif.lum zufqpf*syefudk wdkufzsufcJhonf/ awmodYk ajymif. (A[dv k rf.awmf rif.

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