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tm.&rf.yJawGudk pm. vif.&mrS &efukefodkYa&muf&SdvmcJhonf/ avmurSatmifjrifausmfMum.tjrif uGJjym.)? &efukefNrdKUwGif aexdkifonf/ &cdkifjynfe.kH ud.avh &Sdygonf/ 1943 ck E S p f r S 1955 ck E S p f t xd oH w G J t xuf w ef .om.cJh&ygonf/ aemuf OD.qef.bd. 1000d^-? ESpfpOfaMu.tjzpf omref wGif bmomt.wGif yg0if. pHy.om.&Sdw.ü a':vSBuD.fa&.onfh 2013 ckEpS ?f 'DZifbmmvxk 2013 vxkwf wf ]jrefrmhabmvHk.wuúodkvfodkY wufa&mufcJhonf/ pmayAdrmefjynfolYpmMunfhwkduf touf 18 ESpft&G.wdkYrS arG.zGm.pdwfjzifh avhvmvdkufpm. d xyf)? armifaxmfav. wpfzufwGif oufBuD.jzpfNyD. (oabFm&SmazGa&.azcifESifh q&mOD. ES H a&mif .vGif(t&Siftm'dpö&HoD) tajy.mefbmomodkY 0ifa&mufavhvmNyD.tjzpf OD.epf upm.csd e f r sm. 0. .&m tpövmrfbmomrS toif. wpfOD.boef. wpfOD. wJGupm.ygonf/ uAsmudk a&.&nfvk (2) tkyfudk (10) &uf tcrhJiSm.om.toif.D wef.rawmf) ESifh tdrfaxmifusNyD.om.rSm rpöwmt0D&m? ZdkeifwdkY oDwmatmif jzpfMuygonf/ (trsKd .om.f a &.enf.fwifrSJU (Beauty Spot) [laom rtyfEdkifygu &ufxyfwkd.pHk? toif.Asm }} ol\ abmvHk.&ef wpfBudrfcGifhjyKay. rESpfoufí 4 ESpf tMumwGif c&pf.vQif 0ifaMu.rsKd.vQif pmtkyfwpftkyfudk jrefrmpmayudk jrwfEdk.q&mBuD.vGifudk 1938 orD.D q.SOfNydKifcJhNyD. taumufceG rf LS . ckESpf? Zefe0g&Dv 13 &uf a eY w G i f vrf.pif pmpOf pmaya&csr. tawG.jyq&mrsm. aqmif u m tvk y f t m.BuD.om.oefw.vQif 0ifaMu.pdefvIdifonf teD. jrefrmpm (7) &uf tcrhJiSm. .ESifh EkdifiHjcm.Edkifonf/ txl.om. 1000d^. 500d^-? bmomrsdK.om.vGifonf wuúodkvfausmif.fwGif rdb½dk. twlvnf.udk pGefYy. k x f nf uspvf spaf wmifah wmif&h í dS wif. 2000d^-? ESpfpOfaMu.toif.trsKd.EdkifNyD.uyf q&m&if.cifuvdyk if ud.f? pma&. taMumif.l0g'rsm.tzG J U azmfjyonf/» (ukefoG.b0wGif owfrSwfxm.udk avhvmcJhonf/ txl. zdwaf c: c&pf.0ifrsm.tac:rsdK.f pif pmpOf 19 6 NydKifjrif.qef.cJhonf/ .cJhNyD.pmMunfw h u kd )f 1956 ckESpfwGif a':csKdcsLd ( txufwef. } pmtkyfrS aumufEkwf &ef u k e f w G i f a exd k i f p Of aumuf y J o D .fwef.kazcifwEYdk iS t hf wl trSwf 343 ( 'kw. om.wGif ynmoifMum.oGm. ausmif.Xme)tjzpf tbuk e f o nf OD.qef.aMumifh yGJrsm.1) wGif tvkyf0ifa&mufvkyfudkifcJhNyD.um pmayavmuodkU pwif0ifa&mufvmcJhonf/ .pHkESifh rmhufpf0g'rsm. pmaya&csrf.f r[kwfvm.enf.pm. (AdkvfqGefyufvrf.f? oHwGJNrdKUü tBu.cJholrsm.cJNh y. q&mOD.jy? txu 2? vrf.NyD.fí urÇmhtawG.vQif pmtkyf toif.ygonf/ omreftoif. k v f .wGif trIaqmiftjzpf vkyfaqmifcJhonf/ pum.azcif? 0if.ukvm.awG[m 'Djrif.mefbmomudk pGev Yf w T v f ukd of nf/ touf 22ESpf pmayAd r mef jynf o l Y p mMunf h w k d u f 0 if a Mu.wpfOD.wpfOD.&rf.atmifaomtcg zcifEiS hf «eDeDOD.OD.jyq&mrsm. a&.k ñGeUf ESit hf rd &ef u k e f N rd K UwG i f wm0ef x rf .

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} udk.Ekdifawmhaom azciftm.cspf? wuúodkvfatmifrSL.f} ponfwUkd jzpfNy.fajcESihf ajrm§ ufwifxm. \t. r&Sdawmhay/ ]0HykavGESifh vS. a&.f zGiv hf pS u f m o½kyaf qmifopfrsm. \ cJhonf/ vlemwifpifESifh uGif.f&onfrSm armifhcspfOD.fajc'l.í b.pdev f idI ?f armifzek .? qufrupm. owif. aemufwef. axG v m &.D toif.mqef.fr*¾Zif. f e D r *¾ Z if .f zdYk tcsed rf &cJah cs/ xdak e&mwGiyf if xdNy.? "r®m0d[m&D? "ar®oD? cspfMunfa&.cifarmif0if.ESifh tv. tif w mae&S i f e . tm½Hpk u kd Nf y.udk tay:odkY tomxdef.? a&Tatmif ("r® wpf*.rif.f ' D w mcsKyf t jzpf v nf .cJo h nf/ 1989 ajc½kyo f rd .a&TU Everyday English r*¾Zif. ar.HMk unfu.*dk.f v l u vnf . vnf o G m .)? vQr.wGif OD.í rdk.acgif? zdk.wGio f ma&.qDodkY jrefrmb.pif pmpOf pmaya&csr.rl. } ponfwdkUjzpfonf/ odw Yk ap olb Y .pOfwiG f ab.f r *¾ Z if .k yg.udv k nf.}? rDEkdifpGrf.pmapmif ? EG .vlum.f qnf.qef.wnfw h nfu h ckd ek í f ajcpHyk pf0if xd.Ek&JUoHo&m}? ] vuG.udv k nf.om.m. ? azcif \ ajcaxmuf a y:od k Y zd c svd k u f o jzif h 'l .kd poGi.armifwkdYESifhwJGí upm.odkYvTwfNyD.? jr0wDr*¾Zif.u armif0dbZÆ? .od'?d¨ ckESpf tdkvHypf w½kwftoif.onf / azcif u w½k w f wGJzufí ] tajccH.f om? tmumys?H Oygodum? yife.kwådaA'usrf.k csvu kd af wmhonf/ abmvH.uyfvmol aq.ESifh &efukefNrdKU atmifqef.om.mom? .uaemif atmif&Sdef? baumif.r ajr§mufwifxm.rSm w½kwftoif.lcJh&m aemufrS rdcif&Jtoif.u uGif.ukoay.em.xJrS obif r *¾ Z if .k u Oygodumrdcif? tJrGefj'm? atmifol&? tdkif&if.orm. ajymif .? tawG.f jynfch sr.kd uG.onf/ wpfcsdefwnf.rS udk. kd vf .ES i f h a q. olemjyKrsm.jzifh &efukefwuúodkvfrS tem. ukocJhonf/ wpfa.) xdkabmvHk.wdu k f 'g½dkufwmtjzpf aqmif&GufcJhonfh ½kyf&Sifum.tzJGYcsKyfrSvnf.vl t&Sed v f eG xf uG o f mG .f ? q&mOD..fajczrd. rma&.yif w½kwftoif.? xdkyGJwGif yxrydkif.D ½ky&f iS o f ½kyaf qmifoifwef. tajy.fpeG b f .} udk a&.cJo h nf/ 1958 ckEpS t f xd þtoif. ? ok w pG .kH vnf.uyfvmaom w½kwt f oif.omomcefYtxd ckefxGufvsuf&Sdonf/ t.wGJudk .? jrefrmh"er*¾Zif.cJhygonf/ 10-15 &ufcefY aeNyD.a0r*¾Zif. f p H k ? aomif .jrwfNzdK. 10 rdepfcefYüyif jrefrmtoif.f p &m? ayGUcsDí xkwfcJhMu&onf/ aoG. (jrefrmhtvif.udk azcifoGif.aumif.uko&ef t.) wGif abmvH.uGif.cJhonf/ 1956 armifqef. ? yef ½ k y f p H k r *¾ Z if . ½kypf rkH *¾Zif.aomufr*¾Zif. avxJwiG f &Sad ecsed rf Ykd a&Smifwrd .? qka0? Z.zsm.f'DwmcsKyftjzpfvnf.muf taMumif.yJGü jrefrm\tEkdif*dk.pmwGifoma&.tjrif? tifwmae&Sife.pOf tdEd´.xkwaf y.? a&TZHOD.vdkufonf/ xdUk aemuf ZmwfñeT .cJah om ½ky&f iS rf sm. ( jrefrmtoif. þabmvHk.mqef.qpf ]raemf[&DtvS}? ]rsufESmi.f a&.b.cJo h nf/ upm.? £jE´m? ajraxmufNyD.opf? ausmx f eG .ESifh 1951 ckEpS w f iG f ykvyd Bf u.oGm.pk? bkef. ck E S p f r S 1991 ck E S p f t xd Everyday English r*¾ Z if .om.f'DwmESifh ajrBuD.wGif ZrÁL&pf? w&m. ponfwUkd wGiv f nf.omvGef? armifMumaumif.lcJhonf/ xdkabmvHk.fwD pnf.vGif\uavmiftrnfcGJrsm.fem.yJG upm.f Edik cf o hJ nf/ aemuf 10 rdepftMumwGif w½kwt f oif. wm0efr.D yHv k suv f uJ somG .? at.D vlwpfu.rSm twif.cJhonf/ eE´rif. 4 pmaya&csrf.fa&.om.udk .q&mtjzpfjzifh a&.}? ]avmuudk ab.u usef . 1971 ckESpfwGif ygarmu© a'gufwmOD.? 1993 ckESpfrS 1994 ckESpftxd twGuf tcuftcJawGU&í xdkpOfu abmvHk.aESmif.frdk. (jynfoUl &J) odYk ajymif.vfuwåm. arG.k ESihf ckESpfwGif uxdu&mxl.rsm.udk rnfodkYrQr&Ekdif? ] ighnD ighajr ightar}? ] ronf.om.? rif.f acgif? apmjrwfuvsmqef.aemufwef.tw¬KyÜwådpmtkyf av. aumif .&onf/ aq.xJrS xGufoGm. aemufcv H u l olb Y .f pif pmpOf 21 'kwd. aqmif&u G cf o hJ nf/]&wemoH.jyKpkcJhonf/ 1972 aemufwef.rSm .? ½kyf&Sifr*¾Zif.atmif ckev f mT .ftpGefvl eHygwf (11) azcifu t&if wdkUjzpfMuonf/ ajy.k udk tvSqifr.uyf o G m .

teuf *d.toif.qHk.? awmifilNrdKUe.cJMh uaom wdu k pf pfrLS .aqmifczhJ .jrwf&atmif BudK.ESifh av.vGif tvsm.udk uavmiftrnf ] qef.BuD. odcJh&jyefygonf/ 1998 ckESpfwGif Ak'¨bmom0ifrsm. &dyof m ur®|memp&d.csif.csdefwGif abmvHk.om.pif 0dyóemoifwef.wGifvnf.pifa[mif.wdu Yk 1929 ckEpS ?f arv 5 &ufaeYwiG f &efuek Nf rKd Uü arG.f ausmif.udk ydkYcsay.uwnf.ü tm.onf &efukefNrdKUodkY vma&mufNyD.l í armfueG .cJo h nf/ 1950 jynfEh pS w f iG f nDtpfuw kd pf0rf.csdef 126 aygif &Sdonf/ cJhonf/ &efuek Nf rKd U pde*f Re.\tvif.0raomufcJhol w&m.cJhonf/ t&Siftm'dpö&HoDonf abmvHk.udk aqmif&Gufonf/ 2003 &xm.jynfy abmvHk.om.yg.rSm (49) ynmoifMum.f&maumif. csif . avhvm axmufabmvHk. &S d N yD . toif.ft&yf&yfwGif jyefvnfusif.lzG. pmrludk a&. ) wpfyk'fwnf.&mwGif tm.oljzpfygonf ) tjzpf &ifrSm pJGrSwf. aqmif.fa&. 2 0gt& oufawmf 60? jzpfaMumif.om.k t&&Sqd .avsmhcJhygonf/ cH.pGmudk a&.qHk.cJ h o nf u d k awG U &onf / Ak ' ¨ b momES i f h o uf q d k i f a om 1947 ckESpf xD½Hk.pcef. "lwifaqmif&[ef. udpö) udk 2 ESpf t"d|mefjzifh aqmif&GufawmfrlcJhonf/ 2002 ckESpf? wyfrawmfwiG f wm0efxrf.ausmfajy.u aq.om.om.oGif.&Sdef(rD.0w¬Krsm.pm.yg. ausmif.odef.cJh onf/ . (.yJGwdkYwGif yg0ifupm.zGm. aqmif.OD .D rdr\ d Ak'w ¨ p¬ &d. yg0ifupm.qef.jyKz.cJh\/ xl.? aqmif.pmrlrsm.ü a&SUwef.vdyf? t&uf vHk.tpGefvl «2005 ckESpf? 'DZifbmvxkwf ra[oDr*¾Zif.ajy.y&ef pDpOfaeqJ a':oef.orm.jyKpkcJhao.üvnf.ckefESifh wef. q&mawmftjzpfEiS hf b0ewfxyH sv H eG af wmfrl upm.rSm (674) yk'f&Sdonf/ q&mOD.qef.upm. G f awmfvSefa&. vG i f \ b0ES i f h p may}} azcifyif jzpfonf/ 1958 ckESpf? Mo*kwfvtwGif.rawmf)ü q&mOD.pm.ftav. d tqifh atmufwdkbmvrSpí avmuw¬p&d. qef .yGrJ sm.tjzpf qktBudrfBudrf&cJhonf/ ausmif.ESpfyJGwGif azciftaejzifh tEkdif*dk.jyKpkcJhaompmtkyfaygif.ck txu 1? vrf.tjzpfESifh w&m.pGmudkom trsm.cJh\/ jynfwGif.tusdK.toif.yg.a&mifbGJU)jzifh &[ef.NrKd UBu. 22 pmaya&csrf. (1947-48 ckESpfxd) ESpfESpf od&Sd&onf/ xdkYtjyif ]armifMumaumif.iSm tvGwfoiftajcjyK xdkYaMumifh pHjyKzG.} uavmiftrnfcGJjzifh upm.wGif oDwmatmif ae&mwGif upm.xl.rsm.vGifa&.upm.wGif upm.f? a&Trif.vnf.ESihf w&m.f pif pmpOf 3 a&.jynfe.&xm.abmvHk.m (&[ef.om.a&.cJhonf/ a&.f 0if 'kw.wif ( &J0efaxmuf? pDtkdif'D ) ESifh rdcif rsm.*kPf.vGif touf 58 ESpfwGif cJhNyD.cJhNyD.cRefaom onf vHk.uJG awmfpyfaom (csif.aom xGef. oufawmf 65 ESpf? 0gawmf 6 0g? 2002 ckESpf? Edk0ifbmv 26 cJ h o nf / &ef u k e f Z mwd j zpf \ / arG .fe.BuD.pif pmpOf pmaya&csr.vGif} trnfjzifh trsm.rsm.lum awmxGufNyD.piftoif.0H wwd.om.ESifh te.rsm. ) ESifhtwl rD.cJhonfudkvnf.wdkif.qHk.pOfaqmif. ]t&Siftm'dpö&HoD} (aerif.&Gm? a&Trif. ol u &ufaeYwGif yJcl.D olYudk zcifOD.aom wu.ü yg0ifupm.fhvufa&G. av. xdk'Pf&maMumifhyif olYtaumif.tjzpf upm.rsm.? jrefrmhvufa&G.? arG.onf/ q&mOD.aom Armh 2001 ckEpS rf pS í y&dowfupkd eG NYf y.onf h ]]pma&. awGU&Sd&onf/ toif.onf/ &[ef. a&.orm.rS aumufEkwfazmfjyonf/» vufa&G.ayig.u tdEd´.&xm.jcif.f omoemjyK c&D. OD .udk &efuek -f rEÅav. trnf&if.cJhonf/ .lcJh&ygonf/ ckEpS rf pS í w&m.q&mBuD . ESpfyGJupm.ckefypfNydKifyGJwdkYü rDwm 100? 200? tkyfESifh pmrlyk'fa&pkpkaygif.f&maumif. &Jabmfa[mif.vufrcJGESifh abmvHk.ajrmuf jzpfonf/ t&yfrSm ig.jyKpkcJhaMumif.if.pOfu udk.0Haus.cJhonf/ owif.kH olum.yg.rsm. ( bD'Dat ArmhumuG.NydKifyGJrsm.qef.

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