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RUS': a Comprehensive Course in Russian

This comprehensive foundation textbook is expressly designed for students embarking
on a Russian language programme. Accompanied by cassettes, it develops the four key
language skills ± reading, writing, speaking and listening ± and provides all the material
required to reach intermediate level either at high school or during the ®rst year of
university. Highly interactive and activity-based, the course puts students ®rmly at the
centre of the learning process, developing their autonomy as learners.
. Thorough grounding in the grammar and structures of contemporary Russian
. Wide-ranging tasks and exercises for both classroom use and self study
. Informative texts selected to foster cultural awareness
. Topics including family life, education, history, geography, work and leisure
. Clear, attractive layout with lively illustrations to reinforce learning
. Extensive reference features including section on basic concepts of grammar
. Teachers' guidelines to enhance practical application in the classroom
. On-line answerkey at http://uk.cambridge.org/resources/0521645557
s a r a h s m yt h is a lecturer in Russian at Trinity College, Dublin. She is co-author of
two Russian language textbooks, Basic Russian, A Grammar and Workbook (1999) and
Intermediate Russian, A Grammar and Workbook (2001).
e l e n a c r os b i e is lecturer in Russian at Heriot-Watt University. She is an experienced
interpreter and is on the editorial board of the Russian journal Rusistica. Her
publications include papers on language teaching.

RUS'
a Comprehensive Course
in Russian

S A R A H SM Y T H
Trinity College, Dublin

ELENA V. CROSBIE
Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh

published by the press syndicate of the university of cambridge
The Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge, United Kingdom
cambridge university press
The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 2RU,UK
40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011±4211,USA
477 Williamstown Road, Port Melbourne, VIC 3207, Australia
Ruiz de AlarcoÂn 13, 28014 Madrid, Spain
Dock House, The Waterfront, Cape Town 8001, South Africa

http://www.cambridge.org

# Sarah Smyth and Elena Crosbie, 2002

This book is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and
to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements,
no reproduction of any part may take place without
the written permission of Cambridge University Press.

First published 2002

Printed in the United Kingdom at the University Press, Cambridge

Typeface Times 10/13pt System 3b2 [c e ]

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

Library of Congress cataloguing in publication data
Smyth, Sarah.
RUS': a comprehensive course in Russian / Sarah Smyth, Elena V. Crosbie.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0 521 64206 X (hardback) ISBN 0 521 64555 7 (paperback)
ISBN 0 521 01074 8 (cassette set)
1. Russian language ± Textbooks for foreign speakers ± English.
I. Crosbie, Elena V. II. Title.

PG2129.E5 S65 2001
491.782'421 ± dc21
ISBN 0 521 64206 X hardback
ISBN 0 521 64555 7 paperback
ISBN 0 521 01074 8 cassette set
ISBN 0 521 52955 7 audio CD set

Illustrations: Vitaly Palkus

Contents

Preface: to the students vii
Acknowledgements x
Outline of the course xii
Key to symbols used in the course xvii

Part I Course materials
Introductory unit 1
Unit 1 28
Unit 2 48
Unit 3 72
Unit 4 103
Unit 5 127
Unit 6 153
Unit 7 176
Unit 8 205
Unit 9 227
Unit 10 251
Unit 11 275
Unit 12 301
Unit 13 332
Unit 14 360
Unit 15 389
Unit 16 413
Unit 17 437
Unit 18 458

v

Contents

Unit 19 487
Unit 20 510

Part II Teachers' guidelines
General introduction 534
1.0 The course-type 535
2.0 The syllabus-type 537
3.0 The intended learners 539
4.0 The teacher 539
5.0 The structure of the course 540
6.0 The units 540
7.0 Reference tools 543
8.0 Study aids 544
Methodological pointers 545
9.0 What to do with the classroom materials 545
10.0 Developing knowledge 546
11.0 How to develop speaking skills 552
12.0 How to develop reading skills 553
13.0 How to develop productive skills on the basis of texts 556
14.0 Use of the key 558
15.0 Concluding remarks 558
Glossary of linguistic terms 559
Bibliography 560

Part III Reference tools and study aids
Language awareness 563
Grammar summary 613
Summary of functions 674
Vocabulary checklist 684

Index of texts 689
Index of grammatical concepts 694

vi

Preface: to the students

The course
The authors hope that you will enjoy studying Russian and using this textbook. It is the
result of many years' work and has been piloted in three educational centres over the last
ten years. It has thus passed through many students' hands, many of whom have gone
on to become professional Russianists.
The course is primarily intended for use in a classroom situation. Indeed, one of its
main aspirations is to provide learners with the motive and opportunity to explore and
use Russian as a tool for communication. This is not to suggest that classroom work
alone will make you pro®cient; experience has shown that the students who make the
best progress normally spend an hour in private study for every contact hour with a
teacher. Classroom tasks and activities provide you with the opportunity to interact with
other learners and your teacher in and about the language; private study, be it reading,
organising your notes, organising your vocabulary, doing exercises to reinforce
grammatical concepts or working with the tapes, allows you to consolidate what you
have learnt in class, to take stock of your progress and to monitor your learning.
Remember that learning a language is not easy. Textbooks that suggest you can do so
in three months are only misleading the gullible public. A language re¯ects a culture, its
history and its way of viewing the world. Avail of any opportunity that arises to practise
your Russian and to acquaint yourself with Russian life, past and present. You will ®nd
the experience broadens your horizons, develops your curiosity and makes you look at
the world and how we talk about it with a more open mind.

Language awareness
The `Language awareness' section is intended to help you situate your growing
knowledge and understanding of Russian in the context of knowledge you already have
about the functioning of other languages (and English in particular).
The language awareness component of the course is intended as an optional extra for
those who feel they need it and ®nd it helpful. If you are used to learning languages in a
formal classroom context, you may not need it at all. If, on the other hand, you ®nd
increasingly that the jargon used to refer to language is a useful short-hand and that you
would like to become more familiar with it, then you will probably ®nd it useful. The
main thing is not to be daunted byit.
The sequencing of concepts in this section closely parallels the sequencing of language
exponents in the units. In this way discussion of the key concepts may be integrated into
classroom interaction if you so wish.
In this section reference is made to other languages (Latin, French, German and

vii

Preface: to the students

Spanish) with which you may be familiar. The aim of including these languages is to
enable you to draw on knowledge you already have, not to teach you about other
languages and how they function. The exercises focus principally on English (and in later
units, Russian). Where exercises address other languages, you should restrict yourselves
to those you know.

Grammar summary
The `Grammar summary' is intended as a reference tool. Beware of becoming dependent
on it. It provides tables and texts outlining the grammatical patterns of Russian. It is not
intended as a descriptive grammar and is not a substitute for classroom discussion and
hypothesising about how Russian functions. If you have questions or come across
problem areas, the best person to ask is your teacher. The main use of the grammar
section is to check something. Its purpose is not to teach, but to remind.

Summary of functions
This is a table which lists the language functions introduced in the course. A function, in
the linguistic sense of the word, refers to the use to which we put language in social
interaction. The functions are listed in the order in which they are introduced in the
course. We recommend that you keep a record of what you can do in Russian by ticking
the relevant box as and when you feel you are comfortable with a given function.

Vocabulary checklist
The book also includes pages which list the main topics covered in the course. It is an
important part of learning to keep monitoring what you do and do not know. These
pages are intended as a tool to help you monitor your learning of vocabulary.
Though everyone has his or her own system for recording and learning vocabulary,
one suggestion is to keep a vocabulary ®le with a page dedicated to each of the topics
and sub-topics listed. The chart will help you assess how many words you have recorded
and feel you have learnt.
In your vocabulary notes it is advisable to differentiate between key and peripheral
words on a given topic. Possibly key words could be stored on one side of the page and
peripheral words on the other. How you decide which words are key, and which
peripheral, will in part depend on your interests, in part on your reasons for learning
Russian and in part on common sense.
It is also important to take note of common constructions used with particular words.
One way of doing this is to illustrate each entry with examples of a word's use: a phrase
or sentence from a dictionary or from the text where you came across a word. With
regard to verbs, make sure you note what case they govern. Furthermore, Russian tends
to use adjectives more than we do in English, so make note of common adjective and
noun combinations.
Since Russian is a word-building language, it is also helpful to group together words
which are derived from the same root. Many of these words will refer to the same topic:
for instance the word set exbnm, exbnmcz, extybr, exbntkm, extdysq, which are all

viii

Preface: to the students

derived from the root ex-, all relate to studying/teaching. Using a highlighter, common
roots can easily be identi®ed. Recognising word-building patterns considerably reduces
the load on your memory.
This might seem like an awful lot of work. It is. But it pays off in the long run. If you
are systematic about recording and learning vocabulary right from the start, you will
®nd it becomes part of your routine. Determine to work on a small number of words
every day. You will be pleasantly surprised at how much easier it gets with time.
This section also lists tasks relating to each of the vocabulary topics which you should
be able to do. Indeed, it is not simply enough to know a word: it is important to be able
to use it in speech and writing. Again there are boxes for you to tick off as a way of
monitoring your progress.
Most importantly enjoy your work and do not get downhearted. Work steadily and
regularly, do not be afraid to play with the language. When you crack your ®rst joke in
Russian, it will all have been worthwhile.

ix

Acknowledgements

We would like to express our gratitude to all the people who have encouraged us,
advised us and supported us in the production of this course. First and foremost we
would like to thank our families: a special debt of recognition is due to David and
Stanford without whose forbearance and practical help this course could never have seen
the light of day. Thanks in particular to David for his technical advice and assistance.
We acknowledge our gratitude to the University departments which fostered the
production of the course and allowed us to pilot it extensively during the last ten years:
Edinburgh University, where the course was originally conceived, Trinity College and
Heriot-Watt Universities to where the authors subsequently moved. We would like to
thank all the students and colleagues whose feedback has been essential in the shaping
and reshaping of the course. In particular we would like to thank members of staff in all
the Russian departments which have been directly involved in the production of the
course: Mary Kate Halpin, John Murray, Una Nã Dhubhghaill and Connie Dowling in
TCD, Jim Halliday in Heriot-Watt and Elena Cook, formerly of Edinburgh University,
who contributed many ideas for activities and exercises at various stages of the
development of the course. We are grateful to all the specialists in teaching Russian as a
foreign language who have given us the bene®t of their experience, especially Elena
Mikhailovna Maksimenko, Liudmila Borisovna Seregina, Irina Abdalyan, Dmitri
Tsiskarashvili, Nikolai and Anna Kochurov. We would like to thank Olga Manakova
for contributing to the key to the exercises. Thanks are due to colleagues from the
German, French and Spanish departments for providing invaluable assistance with the
`Language awareness' section, in particular Sheila Watts, Claire Laudet and Susana
BayoÂ. We owe a debt of gratitude to Sean Devitt, Eimear Farren and Dee McGarry for
their comments on the `Teachers' guidelines'. Many thanks are also due to all those who
supplied the photographs for this textbook: Vladimir Kallistov, Connie Dowling, John
Murray, Vladimir Shugurov, Emily Finer, Anatoliy Tchikine, Aleksandr Olegovich
Sholokhovskiy and Aleksandr Asta®ev. A particular thanks to Vitaly Palkus for his
lively and imaginative line-drawings. Thanks to Elena Baburina, Manushak Hovsepyan,
Dmitri Tsiskarashvili and Vladimir Shugurov for their reading of the recorded material
and to John Murray for producing the recording sessions. Thanks also to John Grimes,
the sound engineer in the CEL Studios, Radio Centre, RTE for his contribution to the
production of the tapes. Thank you to Natalya Uvarova for her careful copyediting.
Thanks are also due to all the Russian publishers whose texts are included in this course:
every possible attempt was made to contact them and seek permission to reproduce
extracts. Many have ceased to exist, others failed to respond. We have assumed that
silence is consent. And last but not least many thanks to Rate Brett, Pauline Graham,
Camilla Erskine, Jacqueline French, Jenny Landor and Caroline Murray of Cambridge
University Press, for their support, perseverance and commitment to the project.

x

Acknowledgements

We accept sole responsibility for the mistakes, infelicities of style and imperfections that
no doubt remain in spite of the best efforts of all colleagues and advisors involved in this
project.

Sarah Smyth Elena Crosbie
Lecturer in Russian Lecturer in Russian
Trinity College Heriot-Watt University
Dublin Edinburgh

xi

Part I: Course materials

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