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Mangrove forest as compensation of carbon emission in tropical regions

Mangroves ecosystem lays along tropical coastlines that has great ecological
functions, one of them is as a carbon storage. Mangroves absorb carbon in an
impressive rate. It stores almost three times of carbon comparing to three other global
forest domains (boreal, temperate, tropical upland) (Donato, et al. 2011). However, the
amount of mangrove forests has declined by 30–50% over the past half century as a
result of coastal development, aquaculture expansion and over-harvesting (Duke, N. C.
et al. 2007). This decline was triggered by harvesting that is use for firewood,
construction wood, wood chip and pulp production, charcoal production, animal fodder
(Spalding, 2013). Therefore, the uses of harvested mangroves are most likely to be
short terms carbon storage. Regarding to the significance of mangrove ecosystem, we
are able use a model to predict how much CO 2 that is stored if we prevent loss of
certain unit area or if we plant more area of mangrove forest. Consequently, the carbon
emission produced by deforestation in tropical forest can be compensated by the
carbon storage in mangroves.
The background of using mangroves ecosystem as an emission compensation is
because this forest is relatively cheap to be restored and conserved. The costs for
restoring successfully both the vegetative cover and ecological functions of a mangrove
forest have been reported to range from USD$225/ha to USD$216,000/ha (Lewis,
2001).

growth
C atmosphere

growth growth
C roots
C leaves C stem
growth
mortality

C C
aboveground mortality underground

harvesti harvesti
ng ng

C
Harvested

"Mangroves among the most carbon-rich forests in the tropics.  Duke.  Lewis.6088 (2012): 1573-1576. Need info of: How much emission produced by the deforestation in tropics:  Estimates of carbon emissions from deforestation require information on both the quantity of forest loss over time and the changes in carbon stocks on land that is cleared (Harris." Proceedings of the Mangrove Valuation Workshop. C. N.(nature." Nature geoscience 4. Universiti Sains Malaysia. 41–42 (2007). "Science: Mangrove Forests As Incredible Carbon Stores".)  Deforestation contributes 6–17% of global anthropogenic CO2 emissions to the atmosphere (Van der Werf.p. et al." Nature geoscience 4. Cool Green Science.. (Donato..References:  Donato. et al. 41–42 (2007)  Comparison of mangrove C storage (mean ±95% confidence interval) with that of major global forest domains. Mangroves have larger C storage than three others global forest domain.)   Challenges: How is the growth rate? Does it need to be harvested? (I want to show that if it is not harvested then it will be a good carbon sink. 10 Jan. Penang. Mark. you know) hehehe Mangrove forest as compensation of carbon emission in tropical regions  “A typical mangrove has 152 tons of aboveground biomass per hectare. 2013. "Baseline map of carbon emissions from deforestation in tropical regions. et al.11 (2009): 737-738. "Mangrove restoration-Costs and benefits of successful ecological restoration." Nature geoscience 2.. A world without mangroves? Science 317.5 (2011): 293-297.  Spalding. 293-297 (2011).” . et al. N.org) . Nancy L. 2017. aquaculture expansion and over-harvesting (Duke. C. N. A world without mangroves? Science 317..5. Daniel C. 2001. "Mangroves among the most carbon-rich forests in the tropics.)  mangrove forests has declined by 30–50% over the past half century as a result of coastal development.. Web. Daniel C. Roy R." Science 336. Guido R. et al. et al. "CO2 emissions from forest loss.

(Source: hutchison. Global mangrove map showing modeled patterns of above-ground biomass per unit area. 2013)  .