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LEARNING DISABILITY

EVALUATION SCALE - RENORMED
Second Edition
(LDES-R2)
Stephen B. McCarney, Ed.D.
&
Tamara J. Arthaud, Ph.D.
Copyright © 2007

The Learning Disability Evaluation Scale - Renormed Second Edition (LDES-R2) was developed to enable in-
structional personnel to document those performance behaviors most characteristic of learning disabilities in children
and youth. The instrument is designed to provide a profile based on the most commonly accepted definition of learn-
ing disabilities (IDEA, 2004).
The LDES-R2 subscales are
• Listening,
• Thinking,
• Speaking,
• Reading,
• Writing,
• Spelling, and
• Mathematical Calculations.
The LDES-R2 was standardized on a total of 4,473 students, ages 6 through 18 years and grades 1-12. Demo-
graphic characteristics of the standardization sample approximate national percentages for gender, residence, race,
geographic area, and occupation of parents.
Internal consistency of the LDES-R2 fell at or above .41 for each item to its subscale. Test-retest reliability yielded
correlation coefficients ranging from .60 through .70, indicating substantial reliability for each of the 7 subscales.
Coefficients for inter-rater reliability for the subscales ranged from .68 to .83 for all age levels. Content validity was
established through the initial development process. The scale was compared to the Learning Disabilities Diagnostic
Inventory (LDDI) as a measure of concurrent validity. All subscales of the LDES-R2 correlated significantly with the
LDDI subscales to which they were compared. The construct validity of the scale supports strong diagnostic validity.
The LDES-R2 uses frequency-referenced quantifiers. Each item on the LDES-R2 is rated on a four-point scale
(NOT DEVELOPMENTALLY APPROPRIATE FOR AGE, RARELY OR NEVER, INCONSISTENTLY, CONSISTENTLY).
Following administration, four types of scores may be obtained: frequency rating for each item (reflecting the severity
of the learning difficulty), subscale raw score (the sum of the frequency ratings for each subscale), subscale quotient
score, and subscale percentile. Standard errors of measurement (SEM) are provided for each subscale quotient.
The LDES-R2 takes approximately 20 minutes to complete by anyone familiar with the student: the classroom
teacher, clinical personnel, or other school personnel. The LDES-R2 complete kit consists of a technical manual,
rating forms, and the Learning Disability Intervention Manual-Revised.
The Learning Disability Intervention Manual - Revised (LDIM-R) includes goals, objectives, and intervention
strategies for all behaviors on the scale and was designed for the convenient development of the student’s IEP, as
well as classroom intervention. The Learning Disability Intervention Manual - Revised used in conjunction with the
LDES-R2 provides an assessment and intervention program for learning disabled children and youth. The Parent’s
Guide to Learning Disabilities (PGLD) contains interventions for parents to implement in the home to help their
learning disabled child.

H A W T H O R N E
Phone: (800) 542-1673 FAX: (800) 442-9509

does not remember information 4. similar consonant sounds. Demonstrates difficulty with visual memory (i. days of the week.g. does not remember two. Demonstrates difficulty with auditory memory (i.g. following oral directions.g. staying on source of sound (e.. east-west. Does not demonstrate an understanding R e c heard (e. Does not demonstrate an understanding “I don’t understand. it was illegally reproduced. etc.) 11..e. Attends more successfully when close to the 14. l e m 8. Hawthorne Educational Services. PRE-REFERRAL LEARNING PROBLEM CHECKLIST Date: _________________ Name of student: _______________________________ Birthdate: ________ Age: _________ Gender: _____ School: _______________________________________________________________________ Grade: _____ City: ______________________________ State: ________ Observed by: _____________________________ Observer’s position: __________________________________ Student know to observer: _________ ________ (from) (to) Length of time each day with student: __________ __________ (hours) (minutes) TO OBSERVER: Check each behavior you have observed the student demonstrate during the past month. etc.. rhyming words.)Pre between /ch/ and /sh/ sounds.. It is your responsibility as a professional or parent to immediately inform the publisher if you are asked to complete any reproduction of this form. Does not hear all of what is said (e. The original form is beige with brown print.does the same thing over and 7. Hawthorne Educational Services.) maintain attention to important sounds in the immediate environment (e. forward- reminders..” needs constant of directionality (e. Inc.. including photocopy. You are not permitted to complete or use any reproduced form. LISTENING THINKING 1. teacher e a r p le 9. etc.) ro b skills (e. etc.or three-step directions.g. Needs oral questions and directions frequently repeated (e. Is unsuccessful in activities requiring received visually) listening (e.g.) backward. will pay a reward of $100 for actionable evidence of illegal copying or faxing. h of spatial relationships (e. Does not direct attention or fails to n i n memorize words to a poem or song.. Inc. games..g. successfully (e.) Copyright © 2007 1/10 No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means. has difficulty changing activities..g.” etc. the teacher etc. student says. similar C vowel sounds.) 6.. or any information storage and retrieval system. recording. left-right... events in l directions. over-under.g.g.g.. Requires eye contact in order to listen over (e. Has difficulty concentrating (e.g. does not 2. months of the year.) f e rr klist e 3. following a conversation.g.e. etc. If you have this form in any other color. 13. Perseverates . (800) 542-1673 . does not tell the difference . above-below. public address system.. electronic or mechanical. one-to-one situation) routines. does not remember g P materials needed for a task. etc. Has difficulty differentiating speech sounds 10. etc.g.) 15.. etc.) a L Sam a daily routine. etc.) 12. without permission in writing from the publisher. when seated close to an assigned task. Fails to demonstrate short-term memory misses word endings. near-far.. Fails to remember sequences (e. misses key words such as “do not. does not remember information received auditorily) 5.

recording. Has the student repeated a grade? If so. Concerns and Interventions g i es Learning or Behavior Concern: r a te S t Intervention o r m n n FDate Interventions Implemented: S/U Decision t i o n atio r v e t t e e n In cum Do Learning or Behavior Concern: Interventions Implemented: Intervention S/U Decision Date Copyright © 1989 Hawthorne Educational Services. or by any information storage and retrieval system. Student History A. Intervention Strategies Documentation Form Date: _____________________ Student name: Birthdate: Age: School: Parents: Team members: I. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means. Date and results of any previous individual testing? D. 5/08 electronic or mechanical. when? C. Date and results of last vision screening: II. . without permission in writing from the publisher. Date and results of last hearing screening: E. Inc. including photocopying. Are the parents aware of your concern? B.

the rating should be 0 •• Should an educator rating a student have no knowl- edge of the student’s ability to perform a particular NOT DEVELOPMENTALLY APPROPRIATE FOR AGE. Inc. Using item rectly with the student during instructional situations. The original form is beige with brown print.. learning or performance item indicated on the scale.” “Inconsistently imitates speech sounds. it was illegally reproduced. demonstrates portunity to observe. •• If the behavior or skill is developmentally beyond iors occur naturally in the educational environment. “Is not developmentally appropriate for age to imitate speech sounds. fier with the item.” then “Rarely or never demonstrates imitat- •• The LDES-R2 does not require a performance demon. McCarney COVER SHEET RATING GUIDELINES •• The student should be rated by educational personnel •• It is recommended that the rater read each quanti- with primary observational opportunities who work di. tary programs. You are not permitted to complete or use any reproduced form. Inc. •• If the student consistently demonstrates the learning or performance item on the scale. it is recommended that another educator be consulted to provide information for that •• If the student does not exhibit or rarely exhibits the item. ing speech sounds. but not always. RARELY OR NEVER. No boxes can be left blank. (800) 542-1673 LDES-R2 5/09 Copyright © 2007 H A W T H O R N E Hawthorne Educational Services. before rating the item. educational personnel may rate only those areas (subscales) which they have had the op- •• If the student often. 25 as an example. Hawthorne Educational Services. Each person should independently rate the student using a INCONSISTENTLY. Phone: (800) 542-1673 FAX: (800) 442-9509 Page 1 . IMPORTANT *** PLEASE NOTE: *** IMPORTANT It is your responsibility as a professional or parent to immediately inform the publisher if you are asked to complete any reproduction of this form. the rating should •• It is not necessary to complete the rating of a student be in one day.” and finally “All or most of the time imitates stration for each item on the scale.” rely on his/her observations of the student’s ability to perform the behaviors on the scale as those behav. If you have this form in any other color. CONSISTENTLY.00 for actionable evidence of illegal copying or faxing. will pay a reward of $100. what is expected for the student’s age. or in departmentalized elemen. the rating should be 2 •• Any number of persons may rate the student. the learning or performance item on the scale. the rating should be 1 •• At the secondary level. SCHOOL VERSION RATING FORM Stephen B. separate rating form. The rater should speech sounds. item on the scale. the rater would first read. Several days may elapse before the rater 3 is able to complete the scale.

. identifies the word “house” on (e.g. etc. when seated close to the jects. does not remember information received visually) 21 ______ Raw Score Page 2 Copyright © 2007 Hawthorne Educational Services. persons. does not think teacher) R a of them at all or is slow to respond) 1 7. student says.. over-under. etc... Demonstrates difficulty with visual memory (i. one-to-one situation) visual closure. materials.. above-below. does not remember two. etc. solving problems. Has difficulty concentrating (e.) 1 3.g. over (e. Has difficulty retrieving. Requires slow.g. simi. does not remember materials needed does count by fives.) that 48 ÷ 6 = 8.g. Demonstrates difficulty with auditory memory (i.g. lar consonant sounds.g.. etc. walks into the daily routine. Needs oral questions and directions frequently repeated (e. does not tell the difference between / 1 15. or naming ob- tin source of sound (e. places...) 2 23. making infer- stand..) 1 13. Does not hear all of what is said (e. sequential. directions. NOT DEVELOPMENTALLY RARELY OR ALL OR MOST APPROPRIATE FOR AGE NEVER INCONSISTENTLY OF THE TIME 0 1 2 3 LISTENING 1 12. misses auditorily) word endings. has difficulty changing activities. etc. Remembers information one time but not the 1 10. etc. 1 19. Fails to generalize knowledge from one situation 1 8. etc.does the same thing over and ch/ and /sh/ sounds. etc.g. teacher directions.. Does not demonstrate an understanding of directionality (e. etc.g. . Has difficulty classifying (e. months of the wrong classroom or area) year. Fails to remember sequences (e.e. Demonstrates confusion (e. etc.) organize time.) 2 14.g. etc.g.) E S rm ences. etc. events in a 1 22. but does not count nickels.) 9 ______ Raw Score 1 20. etc.) attention to important sounds in the immediate environment (e. for a task. does not memorize words to a poem knows that 6 × 8 = 48. left-right. games. Every item must be rated.) THINKING 1 21. Fails to demonstrate short-term memory skills to another (e. recalling.. Requires eye contact in order to listen success..e.g. misses key words such as “do not. fully (e.g... “I don’t under- - 2 R 217. visual memory. differences. near-far.” needs constant reminders. assignments. next tial relationships (e.” etc. Attends more successfully when close to the LD g F 1 o18.g.. public ad- dress system.g. substantially broken- down presentation of concepts 1 11. days of the week.g. Fails to demonstrate logical thinking (e.or three-step a flash card.) 1 24. Inc. visual figure- ground discrimination. but does not understand or song. Does not direct attention or fails to maintain east-west. etc.) 1 4....g. Does not demonstrate an understanding of spa. but fails to identify it in a sentence. Demonstrates visual perception problems (e. Perseverates . Do not leave any boxes blank. (i. Has difficulty differentiating speech sounds heard (e.) routines.g..) 2 5. does not recog- nize similarities.e. Fails to demonstrate organization (e. following oral directions. TO RATER: Rate every item using the quantifiers (0-3) provided..g. mak- ing decisions. rhyming words. forward-backward.) 1 9. does not remember information received 1 1. staying on an assigned task.. Is unsuccessful in activities requiring listening 2 16.) 2 6. does not (e. similar vowel sounds. following a conversation. etc. etc. 1 2..g.

runs words and sen- tences together. words.. Fails to form letters correctly when printing or 1 41.e. or sounds when reading 1 59.g. Does not use appropriate subject-verb agree.. present. does o etc.R 2 S rm speaking (e. or substitutes words when writing words. Fails to correctly organize writing activities (e.g.) 2 28. substitutes. substitutes. Omits. or reverses letters. speaks in incomplete sentences. does read a word from a flash card but not in a sentence) 1 25. Has difficulty with phonics skills when reading 1 57.) 2 36. writes off of the page.” accent) etc. Does not read independently (i. future) WRITING 1 32. sounds into words) use correct word order. does not 1 26. etc. etc. “m” and “n.g. writing (e. b’s do not does not know the meaning of words read) look like b’s.g. reads too slowly to finish on 1 30.g. Fails to copy letters.. Fails to write within a given space (e. sentences. Fails to correctly answer comprehension ques- tions from reading activities 2 54. Distorts or mispronounces words or sounds 1 44. 1 49. etc. Does not use appropriate subject-verb agree- words. etc.g. does not know that the letter “d” makes 2 56. Speaks dysfluently (e.” instead of “It doesn’t matter to me. develop a paragraph.. Loses place when reading (e. Has a limited speaking vocabulary time) 1 31. 1 45.. speaks too fast or slow. Has difficulty imitating speech sounds 3 43.e. Page 3 ..g. LD g F numbers from a model at a distance (e. Fails to recognize words on grade level 1 53.. Inc.g. 1 58. a’s do not look like a’s. does not connect letters.. or rearranges sounds choose reading as an independent activity... Omits.) Copyright © 2007 Hawthorne Educational Services. Fails to finish assignments because of reading difficulties (i. phonics. Fails to use capitalization correctly when writing READING R 1 51.) not copy from the chalkboard) tin 10 ______ Raw Score 1 a 50. Has difficulty with sound-symbol relationships (e. picture clues. Fails to copy letters. Reads words correctly in one context but not in another (e.g. 22 ______ Raw Score ing (e..g.g. Uses inappropriate spacing between words or sentences when writing 1 34. and numbers from a model at a close proximity (e.” “cat” and “cap. adds. etc. Fails to demonstrate word attack skills (e. does not write on a line.) 1 40. Does not complete statements or thoughts when . Does not compose complete sentences or ex- the /d/ sound) press complete thoughts when writing 1 39. lines..) 1 27.g. says. Understands what is read to him/her but not what he/she reads silently 1 29. does not copy from a textbook) 1 33. adds. Does not carry on conversations with peers and adults 2 47..”) 3 46. SPEAKING 1 42. fails to sound out words correctly or blend does not sequence events.. Does not discriminate between similar letters when speaking (not attributed to dialect or and words (e.e..g. Fails to use verb tenses correctly when speak. adds.) 1 48. (i.. Fails to punctuate correctly when writing 2 37. Fails to demonstrate word comprehension (i.g. or sentences when reading) ment when writing 1 38. past.e. “It don’t matter to me. context clues.) 1 52. Omits. words. leaves out 2 55... Reverses letters and numbers when writing 2 35. pauses at incorrect places. or words when speaking avoids reading. Does not know all the letters of the alphabet ment when speaking (e. sentences. etc. and E fails to think of correct words to express ideas.

) spelling or omits them (e.g.g.g.g. a calendar. Page 4 ..e. shape.. weight. -ing. or rearranges letters or sound units when spelling words 1 79. dimensionality.) time. but does 1 70.) 1 64.) 81. not in a sentence. ÷. -er. Fails to correctly solve math problems requiring 7 ______ Raw Score subtraction MATHEMATICAL CALCULATIONS 1 85. performing operations. ×) spelling (i..g.. -. Requires continued drill and practice in order to 1 83. Does not understand the concept of time (e. present. substitutes.e. Does not understand the concept of skip count- ing (e.2 60. does not use tin dictation but does spell it correctly in a sen.. space.) 18 ______ Raw Score 1 75.. future) of right to left 1 61.e. Has difficulty solving math word problems 1 86. Has difficulty understanding abstract concepts (e. 1 74.) 1 77. Fails to correctly solve problems using mea- 1 66..g. Confuses operational signs when working math 1 63.) 1 R 68. omits a step. takes much longer to addition learn words than other students) 1 84.e. length.. etc. recognizing fractional values.) 1 72. count- 1 65. Omits. Has difficulty spelling words that do not follow ing money.g. etc. adds.. etc. “i before e ex- cept after c. etc.) the spelling rules 1 80... does not spell words the way they sound) 1 78.. Does not make use of columns when working math problems (e. understanding SPELLING parts of the whole. adds across columns. coin recognition and value. Fails to correctly solve problems involving money (e. does not work problems involving a tence. size.e.. Fails to correctly solve math problems requiring learn spelling words (i. puts numbers in wrong columns. making change. Fails to follow necessary steps in math prob- too large or too small) lems (e. 2 etc..g. Uses inappropriate letter size when writing (i. Fails to correctly solve math problems requiring multiplication 1 69. does spell the word on a quiz but 82. must have ma- nipulatives in order to work math problems) 1 88. past. volume.” rules for changing words to plural 1 76. Has difficulty with phonetic approaches to problems (e.. Inc.g. Fails to use verb tenses correctly when writing 1 73. Fails to correctly solve math problems involv- ing fractions or decimals (e. Does not understand abstract math concepts without concrete examples (i.g. Fails to correctly solve math problems requiring regrouping (i. Does not use word endings correctly when surement (e.g.. etc. Fails to demonstrate knowledge of place value form. does steps in the wrong order. does not spell the word from does not know how to tell time.. Fails to use spelling rules (e.g. Fails to change from one math operation to not know that five is being added to each con- another (e.. +. etc. Spells words correctly in one context but not in E LD g Fo another (e. starts with addition and does not secutive number) change to subtraction) 1 87. -ed. Fails to correctly solve math problems requiring R 1 - S 1 rm division 1 67.g.) 1 62. -ly. etc. Does not remember math facts 1 71. may be able to count by fives. etc.g. borrowing and carrying) 20 Raw Score ______ Copyright © 2007 Hawthorne Educational Services.. etc. Works math problems from left to right instead (e.

SCHOOL VERSION RATING FORM Stephen B. McCarney PROFILE Name•of SHEET Andrew Thomas student: _____________________________ M Gender: •____ Midvale Elementary School: •_________________________________________ SUMMARY OF SCORES Class:• 4 ______________________________••Grade:••____ all AGE GRADE City:• Midvale PA ______________________________•••State:••____ Raw Quotient Percentile SEM Quotient Percentile SEM Subscales Score (Appendix•A) (Appendix•C) (Appendix•D) (Appendix•B) (Appendix•C) (Appendix•E) 2004 Date•of•rating:• •__________ 11 __________• •__________• 8 • • (year)• • (month)• • (day) Listening 9 100 50 9.10 87 20 6.22 98 46 6. and•retrieval•system.70 Amount•of•time•spent•with•student: 6 30 Per•day•___________________•••Per•week•______________ Confi•dence•Interval•_________% 95 Confi•dence•Interval•_________% 95 QUOTIENTS PERCENTILES Mathematical Mathematical Quotients Listening Thinking Speaking Reading Writing Spelling Calculations Percentiles Listening Thinking Speaking Reading Writing Spelling Calculations >145 >99 140 • • • • • • • 95 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 90 • • • • • • • 135 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 85 130 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 80 125 • • • • • • • 75 • • • • • • • 120 • • • • • • • 70 • • • • • X • X• 115 • • • • • • • 65 • • • • • X• X• 110 60 • • • • • • • 105 • • • • • X• X • X 55 • • • • • • • 100 • • • • • X • • 50 • • • • X • • • X • • • • X • • • X • • • • • • 95 X X X 45 • • X•• • • 90 • • • • • • • 40 • X • X X • • • • • • • 35 • • • • • • • 85 • • • X • • • • • • • • • • • 80 30 • • • • • • • 75 • • • • • • • 25 • • • • • • • 70 • • • • • • • 20 • • • X • • • • 65 • • • • • • • 15 X • • • • • • • • • 10 • • • • • 60 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 55 5 • • • • • • • <50 • • • • • • • <1 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Important:•Before•using•this•scale.00 for actionable evidence of illegal copying or faxing.44 Age•at•rating:• •__________ 9 __________• 5 •__________• 21 Speaking 8.90 96 41 6. it was illegally reproduced. Inc. You are not permitted to complete or use any reproduced form.64 M. LDES-R2 No•part•of•this•publication•may•be•reproduced•or•transmitted•in•any•form•or•by•any•means.•recording.• Copyright © 2007 electronic•or•mechanical. If you have this form in any other color.04 9/04 11/04 From•_____________________•To•_____________________ Mathematical•Calculations 20 106 67 7. The original form is beige with brown print. It is your responsibility as a professional or parent to immediately inform the publisher if you are asked to complete any reproduction of this form. Hawthorne Educational Services.•or•by•any•information•storage• Hawthorne Educational Services. Jackson Rated•by•(observer’s•name):••••________________________ Writing 18 100 50 7.34 107 69 7.14 96 41 9.60 • • (years)• • (months)• • (days) 10 96 41 9. Inc..10 1995 Date•of•birth:• __________• 5 •__________• 17 •__________ • • (year)• • (month)• • (day) Thinking 21 96 41 6.•read•the•section•titled•Rating Guidelines•on•page•one.00 96 41 Reading 22 86 18 7.•including•photocopying.98 Dates•during•which•observation•of•student•occurred: Spelling 7 108 71 7.04 108 71 6.•without•permission•in•writing•from•the•publisher. will pay a reward of $100. (800) 542-1673 Page•5 .

etc. 11. 22. understand..). receiving information. Play games to teach listening skills (e. Stop at key points when delivering direc. Make certain the student’s hearing has 13. 3.g. ering directions. 4. to the source of information (e. and instructions in order to ed to the student to determine if the information is presented at a level the student can understand.) when presenting directions. Evaluate the level of information present- tions. Competition may cause the be successful. and Interventions 1 Does not hear all of what is said 1. As the visual.g. D i n stop working. ing for when someone is speaking. Le e n 7. Teach the student listening skills (e. Deter- the length of the directions. explanations. gradually increase the length of time he/she what is said. I endings. Reduce distracting stimuli (e. 15. etc. etc. Maintain a consistent verbal delivery of 16. and instructional content. 10. important facts.g. explanations. Mother May I?. Tell the student what to listen for when directions and instructions. Deliver directions. and instructions.. have necessary note-taking material. and instructions to follow. s contact.). As the student demonstrates suc- student to begin an activity before hearing all of cess. instructions at an appropriate pace. Place the student near the source of the tion just heard to help him/her remember the information. ex. look at the person delivering n g a ni ion M directions. Give the student short directions.. Have the student repeat or paraphrase 14. Objectives. explanations. is required to listen. 19. gradually increase explanations. Speak clearly and concisely when deliv- Light). . Use multiple modalities (e. looking at assignment. 2. Goals. Emphasize or repeat wordn t ervkey being given directions. making eye i l i ab ual 17. 20. results. etc. determine student comprehension. 23. tions. Have the student question any direc- and motion in the classroom) in order to facili. Have the student silently repeat informa- 9. that the student will practice listen- what was heard. auditory. Reduce the emphasis on competition fully based on the length of time the student can in the classroom. noise 21. instructions he/she does not tate the student’s ability to listen successfully. Make certain the student is attending ty comprehension. and been checked recently. Reinforce the student for listening care- 12. Stop at various points during the pre- information. explanations.g. sentation of information to check the student’s 5. words. explanations... tactile.g. 6. etc. planations. key what is said to him/her in order to determine words.. student demonstrates success. hands free of writing materials. Provide the student with written direc- r tions and instructions to supplementaverbal etc. Simon Says. Red Light-Green 8. t 18. Identify a list of word endings. and mine which modality is stronger and utilize the instructions.

broken toy).” rather than “You had better take out direction to check for understanding. Reward your child for not requiring days in a row.).g. Make sure your child is paying attention to you when you tell him/her to do something.”). “Thank watch 30 extra minutes of TV.g. 14.g. often. William. Do not give directions to your child from tions (e.. a hug. Pos- sible rewards include verbal praise (e. 8. example of a Behavior Contract. provide an incen- to do something. forgetting to put a bike in the garage are told to do without requiring reminders. Go to your tions that involve several steps can be confusing child. manner (e.. or playing a game with a par. When your child requires a reminder(s) 12.g. reward them for doing what they u G bili told (e. When I accomplish this. rather Have your child look directly at you to know he/ than threatening. Allow natural consequences to occur as a e id ties 3. “Please take out she is listening and have your child repeat the the trash. Direc- dinner time and the table is not set. II. Establish rules for following direc.. “You may have a bowl of what should have been done. watching a one behavior at a time. leaving a toy in the r e n D i Paa job to doinorg street may result in it being run over by a car. It is now five minutes until three steps to follow in one direction.” 7.”).).g. Demonstrate for your child what he/she relationship between his/her behavior and the should do when given a chore (e. and why. tell him/her that this is a reminder to set and cause your child to have difficulty following the table and that it needs to be done immedi- them.) ent. (See Appendix for Reward Menu. An example of a two-step direction is: ately because dinner is ready.. will make my bed without having to be reminded to do so for 5 2. For example: You told your child to set the 13. ask another room. . “Please brush your teeth and go to bed. (See Appendix for an favorite TV show. experience when giving your child a r n e telling him/her to do something. I can reminders to do what he/she is told to do. ice cream after you get ready for bed. Along with a directive. and tell him/her what should directions without having to be reminded. Behaviors & Solutions 1 Has to have several reminders 1.g. 6.. Write a contract with your child. 11.g. t ’s sa may result in it being stolen. Deliver directions in a supportive. follow the divided attention. If there are other children or adolescents result of your child’s failure to do what he/she is in the home. Do not give your child more than two or table before dinner.) to 10.. These rules should be consistent and followed by everyone in the home. For example: I. tive statement (e. explain what he/she did wrong. you for making your bed without having to be The contract should be written within the ability reminded.. a kiss on the cheek. Talk about the rules 9. 4. etc. staying up late. get his/her un- questions if you do not understand. the trash or else!”). Carefully consider your child’s age and etc. Go to your child. failing to child how to take out the trash when told to do retrieve a toy from the street results in having a so). be done. show your consequences which follow (e. Make certain that your child sees the L 5. listen carefully to the directions. having level of your child and should focus on only a friend over to play.