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Technician (System Administartion)

(RAY-Electronic)

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Computer Technician Guide (Hardware Maintenance)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction 1
2
7
Essential Parts () 9
Non-essential Parts ( ) 11
Additional Parts () 13

Part 1 :Essential Parts 19


Power Supply Unit 22
Random Access Memory (RAM) 42
Central Processing Unit (CPU) 59
Motherboard (Mainboard) 70

Part 2 :Non-Essential Parts 105


Hard Disk (Hard Drive) 108
Casing 130
Keyboard 136
Pointing Devices 142
Monitor 153

Part 3 :Additional Parts 163


Optical Disc Drive 166
Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) 173
Joystick 179
Microphone 183
Speaker 185
Headphone 186
Webcam 187

i
Printer 188
Scanner 193

Part 4 :Information & Testing 197


Hardwares Information 200
Testing 204
Troubleshooting 208

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(Ray-Electronic) TECHNICIAN (HARDWARE MAINTENANCE)

Introduction

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(Ray-Electronic) TECHNICIAN (HARDWARE MAINTENANCE)

Program Electronic
Arthimetic set Logical Operation
Operation

Processing Unit (CPU)


Memory CPU arithmetic logic operation

Program
Richard
Braithwait The young mans gleaning

20
19


17 17
19 1940
Mechanical Engineer Charles Babbage Programm

19 Mechnical Computer

engine
20

Mechanical electrical
Analog

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Program

Babbage's Difference engine

Analog Computer tide-predicting machine Sir William Thomson 1872


wheel-and-disc mechanism
Differential Equation Integration mechanical analog computer
James Thomson 1876 mechanical analog computing
H.L. Hazen Vannevar Bush MIT
1927 James Thomosn Mechanical Integrator
H.W. Nieman torque amplifier

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Tide-predicting machine design (1979-81)

Alan Turing 1936


Seminar Turing
machines hypothetical device
Digital Computer
electromechanical electric swich Switch
mechanical relay device

Vaccum Tube Electric


Zonrad
Zues Z2 electromechanical relay computer 1939 1941
Zuse Device Z3 electromechanical
programmable automatic digital computer
Z3 relay 2000 22 bit world length
Clock Frequency 5-10 Hz Program code
film

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Zues's Z3 Computer

mechanical electromechanical Electronic Circuit


Analog Digital Post Office
Research Station Tommy Flowers telephone
exchange
5 Vaccum Tubes ()
Telephone exchange Electronic data processing system
Iowa State University John Vincent Atanasoff
Clifford E.Berry Atanasoff-Berry computer (ABC) 1942
Electronic Digital Computer



Enigma Electro-mechanical bomb
Lorenz SZ 40/42
Crack Max Newman Colossus
Colossus 1943 Colossus
Electronic digital programmable computer Valves
() Input paper-tape
Boolean logical operation Configure US
ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) US

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Programmable Computer ENIAC Colossus


Flexible

Colossus ENIAC

Bipolar Transistor 1947 1955 Transistor Vaccum


Tubes
Vacuum Tube Transistor

Silicon Junction Transistor Vacuum Tube
Manchester University Tom Kiburn
Transistor Valve Machine
Transistor 1953

Bipolar Transistor

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Integrated Circuit (IC)


IC
Geofferey W.A. Dummer IC
Jack Kilby Fairchild Semiconductor IC

Transistor Chip
IC

Input Devices
Output Devices
Removable data storage
Computer case
Data Ports

Hardware

Type Basic Computer Componets


Keyboard
Image Scanner
Microphone
Pointing Device (Graphic tablet, Joystick, Light pen,
Input Devices
Mouse, Pointing stick, Touchpad, Touchscreen,
Trackball)
Webcam (Softcam)
Refreshable braille display

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Monitor
Refreshable Braille display
Output devices Printer
Speaker
Plotter
Optical disc drive (CD-RW/ DVD +RW)
Disk pack
Removable data Storage Floppy disk
Memory Card
USB flash Drive
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
HDD/SDD/SSHD
Motherboard
Network Interface Controller
Computer case
Power Supply
Ramdom Access Memory (RAM)
Sound Card
Video Card
Ethernet
FireWire (IEEE 1394)
Parallel Port
Data Ports
Serial Port
Universal Serial Bus (USB)
Audio Jack

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Essential Parts ()
Non-Essential Parts ( )
Additional Parts ()

Essential Parts ()

Computer Hardware Hardware


1. Power Supply Unit (PSU)

2. Random Access Memory (RAM)

3. Central Processing Unit (CPU)

4. Motherborad (Mainboard)

Power Supply Unit DC


Power Supply

Power Supply Unit

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Random Access Memory


RAM Boot RAM

DDR4 SDRAM

Central Processing Unit (CPU)


CPU

Motherboard Circuit Board Motherboard CPU RAM


Power Supply Power Connector Motherboard

Central Processing Unit Motherboard

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Power Supply, RAM, CPU Mainborad


Non-Essential Parts ()

1. Hard Disk (Hard Drive)

2. Casing

3. Keyboard

4. Pointing Device (Mouse & Touch Pad, Trackball etc)

5. Monitor

Casing
Casing

Reset Reset
Casing USB Port Audio Port

Monitor Graphic Text


Monitor Network Server
Monitor
Monitor
Monitor

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(Ray-Electronic) TECHNICIAN (HARDWARE MAINTENANCE)

Casing Monitor

Keyboard Keyboard
Windows On Screen Keyboard (OSK) Keyborad

Keyboard Mouse

Mouse (Pointing Devices)


Mouse Mouse

Hard Disk Network


Internet Flash Drive Media
Hard Disk

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(Ray-Electronic) TECHNICIAN (HARDWARE MAINTENANCE)

Hard Disk
Hardware

Hard Disk

Additional Parts ()



Additional Part

1. Optical Disc Drive

2. Uninterruptable Power Supply

3. Joystick

4. Microphone

5. Speaker

6. Head Phone

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7. Web Cam

8. Printer

9. Scanner

Optical Disc Drive OS Installation


USB Flash Drive Network
Media CD/DVD Drive
OS Install Floppy Disk (Diskette)
CD/DVD Drive Optical Disc
Drive Additional Part

DVD Drive

Uninterruptable Power Supply (UPS)



UPS UPS

Joystick Game Game


joystick joystick Additional Part

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Joystick Uninterrupable Power Supply

Microphone
Microphone
Additional Part

Microphone

Speaker

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Speaker

Headphone Speaker
Microphone Headphone Speaker
Design

Headphone

WebCam Latop
Desktop USB Port Camera
Internet Chatting pfingo, skype

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(Ray-Electronic) TECHNICIAN (HARDWARE MAINTENANCE)

Web Cam

Printer Publish
Printer Printer

Printer Scanner

Scanner
Printer Scanner All in One Printer

Hardware Hardware


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(Ray-Electronic) TECHNICIAN (HARDWARE MAINTENANCE)



Technician

Hardware

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Part I
Essential Parts

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Power Supply Unit (PSU)

Random Access Memory (RAM)

Microprocessor (CPU)

Motherboard

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Power Supply Unit (PSU)

Power Supply DC Current


Plug AC Current DC Current
Power Supply Power Supply DC
Current Computer Personal Computer (PC)
Switched Mode Power Supply Power Supply
Input Voltage Manual Selector
Selector Power Supply
Power Supply AC 110V 220V Selector
110V
220V Selector 220V
110V Power Supply Fuse
Power Supply 1
0 0 Power Supply
1 Power Supply

Power Supply

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Desktop Power Supply ATX Specification


ATX Specification Form Factor (Power Supply) Voltage Tolerance
() ATX Power Supply Main Supply (AC )
5V (Standby)
Computer Power Supply
Computer Motherboard Signal
DC Voltage Motherboard Signal
Computer Power Boot

Power Supply Circuit

Power Supply Plug AC Current Computer


Processor, Motherboard Current
AC Current
Power Supply
Microcomputer Power Supply
Heavy Step Down Transformer ( Transformer) Linear () Power
Supply Computer Switch-mode Power Supply
(SMPS) Power Supply Ferrite Core Frequency

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Transformer Switch Mode Supply


Power Supply Short Overload



Current
Power Supply
Standby Voltage Power Supply
Computer System Standby Voltage
Computer Power Supply Computer LAN (Wake
on LAN ) Wake on Ring Motherboard
Keyboard Power Supply Power
Factor Correction (PFC) Active Passive Passive PFC
Power Factor Coil
Primary Capacitor
Active PFC Power Factor Active
PFC Power Supply

Power Supply +5V +12 V


-5V -12V Microchip
5V Power 63.5Watt Power Supply
+5 V rail +12V Supply Motor
(Hard Disk, ) Supply
Power Supply 12V rail Power Supply
-12V Rail RS-232 Serial Port
-5V Rail ISA Bus

Intel ATX Standard Power Supply Connector (1995) 3.3 V


Microchip Power Supply +3.3V +5V +12V

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Power Suppply AT ATX Power Supply


Motherboard Supply Connector
ATX
Computer Front Panel Power Switch Power Supply Signal AC
Voltage Low Voltage Control Hardware Software
System ATX Power Supply
Motherboard
Power Supply Motherborad

Transistor Volt
Power Supply Processor
2 Volt 100 Ampere
Power Supply A+
(CompuTIA)
Power Supply

Power Supply Connector Power Supply
Connector Connector

Power Supply Connectors:

1. PC Main Power Connector : Connector P1 Connector


Connector Motherboard Power Connector
Pin 20 24 Pin 24 pin Power
Supply Pin
PC Main Power Connector Power Supply Connector
Connector AT Power
Supply Connector P8 P9
Power Supply Main Power Connector 24 Pin
Motherboard 20pin

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Connector Motherboard 24pin


pin
Clip
24 Pin Main Power Connector

Main Power Connector

Main Connector Wire Voltage

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24 pin Main Power Connector 20 pin Main Power Connector


Motherboard

2. ATX12V 4-pin Power Connector : Connector P4 Connector Connector


Motherboard connector Processor Power
Motherboard Processor Power
Connector 8 pin connector

ATX12V 4-pin Power Connector

EPS12V 8 pin connector

3. 4-pin Peripheral Power Connector: connector Connector


Disk Drive Power Connector
Pin 2 Pin Pin Pin Pin
Ground +5V +12 V

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Connector IDE (PATA) HardDisk Power PCI


Card Power Connector Power
HardDisk FAN Power Connector Computer
Casing System FAN Power Connector
4 pin Peripheral Power Connector

4 pin Peripheral Power Connector

4. 4-pin Molex power Connector : Connector Mini Connector Mini Molex


Connector Berg Connector
1
Power Supply Connector 3 Floppy Drive Power
2

Connector AGP Video Card Auxiliary Connector


Molex Power connector

4 pin Molex Connector

5. Serial ATA (SATA) Power Connector : 15 pin Connector SATA HardDisk


Power Connector +3.3V, +5V +12V
SATA Power Connector

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SATA Connector

Connector
Internet Power Supply
Voltage 5V, 3.3V 12V Connector

Connector Peripheral
Connector SATA Connector Convert Connector

Signal Pin
Singal Pin

Connector Convertion

1. Signal For Peripheral Connector

Connector Signal

Pin Signal Colour


1 +12 V Yellow
2 Gnd (Ground) Black
3 Gnd (Ground) Black
4 +5 V Red

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2. Singal for Molex Power Connector

Molex Power Connector Signal Peripheral


Connector Molex Connector Signal Pin

Molex Connector Signal

Pin Signal Colour


1 +5 V Red
2 Gnd (Ground) Black
3 Gnd (Ground) Black
4 +12 V Yellow

Singal Peripheral Connector Molex Connector Pin1 Pin


4

3. SATA Power Connector

Peripheral Power Connector SATA Power Connector Signal


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Pin Signal Colour


1 +3.3V Orange
2 +3.3V Orange
3 +3.3V Orange
4 Gnd (Ground) Black
5 Gnd (Ground) Black
6 Gnd (Ground) Black
7 +5V Red
8 +5V Red
9 +5V Red
10 Gnd (Ground) Black
11 Gnd (Ground) Black
12 Gnd (Ground) Black
13 +12V Yellow
14 +12V Yellow
15 +12V Yellow

+3.3 V
Peripheral Connector +3.3v Peripheral
Connector SATA Connector

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Power Supply

Power Supply

Power Supply


1. Hard Disk (Hard Disk )

Hard Disk Hard Disk Power Supply


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Hard Disk Power Peripheral Connector SATA Connector


Voltage Supply
Peripheral Connector (for IDE HardDisk) SATA Connector (for SATA HardDisk) Volt
Multimeter Connector
Connector Connector
Connector


Power Supply
Power Supply Connector
Power Supply Hard Disk

2. Power Computer

Computer Motherboard
Power Switch Power Switch Power
Supply Power Supply
Motherboard Power Switch Screw Driver

Short Computer Power Switch
Power Supply Power Switch
Short Motherboard Power Switch

Power SW Screw Driver


Tester Short Power

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Power SW Motherboard
Motherboard Manual
Power Power SW
Power SW

Power SW Short Computer Power Power Supply


Power Supply

Power Supply

Power Supply AC Power

Power Supply 20 pin Main Power connector PS On# Pin


( ) Ground Pin () Wire

Connector PS_ON# Pin


COM pin Power Supply

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Power Supply (Power Supply FAN )


Connector Multimeter Volt
Power Supply

3. Computer Boot

Computer Boot
Power Supply Processor
Motherboard RAM Power Supply
Power Supply
ATX12V 4-pin Power Connector (P4 Pin) Volt
ATX12V 4-Pin Connector (P4
Pin ( 8 pin ) Multimeter Volt
P4 Pin Signal

12V P4 Pin to Peripheral Connector

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(Ray-Electronic) TECHNICIAN (HARDWARE MAINTENANCE)

Pin Signal Colour


1 Gnd (Ground) Black
2 Gnd (Ground) Black
3 +12 V Yellow
4 +12 V Yellow

+12 V Connector 8 pin P4 Pin


Gnd (Ground) Pin +12 V Pin

P4 Pin Signal Multimeter


Power Supply Power Supply
Power Supply Fault
Hardware

Power Supply Computer Voltage


Power Supply Electronic


Power Supply Capacitor
Power Supply AC Supply
Capacitor Circuit Contact
Power Supply

Power Supply

4. Power Supply


(Hang) (Shutdown) (Restart)
Hardware Motherboard CPU

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Hard Disk
Power Supply

1. Hardware Monitor

2. Power Supply Tester

Hardware Monitor Boot

Power Supply BIOS


Computer BIOS
Key
Desktop DEL Key F1, F2 Key
Key Computer

BIOS Key BIOS


BIOS
Hardware Monitor (HW Monitor)
CPU FAN 3.3V / 5V /12V Connector

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Power Supply
Power Supply
Hardware

BIOS Hardware Monitor CPUID


HWMonitor Pro HWMonitor Pro

DVD HWMonitor Pro Software


Power Supply Voltage Windows
Version (32bit/ 64bit) Version HWMonitor Software

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Power Supply
Hardware Power Supply
Tester Power Supply Connector Voltage
Power Supply Tester
Feature Power Supply Power Supply Tester

Power Supply Tester

ATX Power Supply Main Power Cable 24 pin Processor


P4/P6/P8 Pin Power Supply Tester
Power Supply Power Supply Tester

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LCD Voltage Beep


Output Connector
Connector
Output Connector LED
LED HDD/ Floppy
Peripheral Connector Molex Connector (+12V/+5V) LED
SATA Connector (+12V/+5V/+3.3V)
Power Supply Tester
Power Supply Tester

5.

Hard Disk CD/ DVD


Drive USB Speaker Scanner
Device Power Power Supply
Unit Power Supply

Overload Power Supply Overload

Power Supply Fuse

Power Supply Fuse Fuse Fuse



Power Supply Capacitor

Shutdown /Restart

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Power Supply Connector
Power Supply Restart Problem
Hardware Power
Power Supply
Power Supply Power Power Supply

Technician Power Supply


40W, 50W, 60W Watt
Power Power Engineering
Term Equation

Power = Voltage x Current

Equation Voltage 220V Current


Hard Disk CD/ DVD Drive Current
Power Supply Power Rating
Hard Disk CD/ DVD Drive
Power Supply Power Rating Power Supply
Rating, Input Voltage, Output Voltage
Power Supply Overall Power Rating
Power Raing Power Supply

50W Power Supply

Power = Voltage x Current Equation

50 W = 220 V x Current Current

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Current =50 /220 Current 0.227 Ampere


Load 0.22 A Power Supply
DVD Drive Hard Disk
Watt Power Supply

Random Access Memory (RAM)

Random Access Memory


Random Access Memory (RAM) Device Data

Hard Disk CD-RW Memory
RAM
Motor
Media

Random Access Memory

RAM Integrated Circuit (IC)



DRAM (Dynamic RAM) Data Random
Access DRAM/ RAM
SRAM (Static RAM) random access

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RAM Volatile
Memory
()
Non-Volatile RAM
Non-
Volatile Memory random access
Non-Volatile
ROM Flash Memory
NOR-Flash

Memory Relay Mechanical Counter


Delay Line Ultrasonic Delay Line Data
RAM Memory Williams Tube
1947

Williams Tube Random Access Memory

Data Electrically Cathode ray tube


CRT electron beam Tube ()
Random Access Williams
Tube bit Vacuum Tube
Latch
(Magnetic-Core Memory) 1947 1970

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Develop Random Access Memory


Spread Ring

Mangnetic Core Memory

Ring
Ring Bit
Ring Address Wire
Sequence Memory Location
Magnetic Core Memory Memory System Solid-state memory
Standard Form 1970 IC
Solid State Memory

1968 Robert.H.Dennard Dynamic Random-Access Memory (DRAM)


Memory Bit Transistor Trasistor
Latch Circuit Memory Desity
Transistor Capacitance
millisecond Refresh
RAM
Static RAM (SRAM) Dynamic RAM (DRAM) SRAM
Flip-Flop RAM
DRAM
Computer CPU Cache Memory

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DRAM Transistor Capactior


Capacitor High Low (0 1)
Charge Transistor Switch
Capacitor
1 0
RAM Static RAM
Dynamic RAM Main Memory

Static Dynamic RAM Volatile ()


RAM
Read
Only Memory Read Only Memory Data Transistor
Enable/Disable
EEPROM Flash Memory Writable ROM
ROM RAM
Data Data
(Semiconductor)
ROM USB Flash Drive Camera Memory Card Portable Device
Main Memory
DRAM
DRAM DDR SDRAM

Double Data Rate Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory DDR SDRAM
IC (Integrated Circuit) Memory Stick
DDR SDRAM DDR1 Memory DDR2 SDRAM
DDR3 SDRAM
DDR1 SDRAM forward backward
compatible DDR2 DDR3 Memory DDR1 Memory Metherboard
DDR1 Memory DDR2 DDR3 Motherboard

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DDR, DDR2, DDR3 Notch

Single Data Rate (SDR) SDRAM DDR SDRAM Transfer Rate


Clock Singal Electrical Data Timing DDR SDRAM
DDR () DDR1, DDR2, DDR3 DDR4 DDR1
DDR3 Memory Space
Binary Logic (0 1)
0 1 1 Bit
1 Bit Memory Hard Disk
Unit

8 Bit 1 Byte
1024 Byte 1 Kilo Byte (1KB)
1024 KB 1 Mega Byte (1MB)
1024 MB 1 Gega Byte (1GB)
1024 GB 1 Tera Byte (1TB)

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Memory Unit
DDR SD RAM

DDR SDRAM
A+ Scope
RAM (Memory) DDR SDRAM

Bus Clock Internal Prefetch Trasfer Rate


DDR SDRAM Voltage Pins
(MHz) Rate (MHz) (min burst) (MT/s)

DDR 100-200 100-200 2n 200-400 2.5/2.6 184

DDR2 200-533 100-266 4n 400-1066 1.8 240

DDR3 400-1066 100-266 8n 800-2133 1.5 240

DDR4 1066-2133 100-266 8n 2133-4266 1.05/1.2 284

DDR
DDR1 DDR2 SDRAM Clock Frequency
DDR2 Factor
DDR2 Bus
Speed Feature DDR3
DDR3 2011 DDR4 SDRAM 2012
RAM
Clock Speed

DDR SDRAM DDR4 SDRAM

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DDR SDRAM

DDR SDRAM Single Data Rate (SDR SDRAM )


Double Pumping Double Pumping Frequency Clock
Clock Frequency
Controller Memory Circuit Board Signal
integrity Double Data Rate
DDR SDRAM Clock Frequency SDR SDRAM Bandwidth
Double Pumping

64 bits Data DDR SDRAM Transfer


Rate (Memory bus clock rate) x2 (for dual rate) x 64 (number of bits transferred) / 8
(number of bits/byte) Formula Bus Frequency 100MHz DDR SDRAM
transfer rate 1600 MB/s

1996 2000 June JEDEC DDR (Double Data Rate) SDRAM Specification
JEDEC DDR SDRAM Data Rate
Memory Chip Memory Modules
JEDEC DDR SDRAM Specification

Peak
Memory I/O bus Timings
Standard Cycle Data rate Module transfer
Clock Clock VDDQ (V) (cL-tRCD
Name time (ns) (MT/s) name rate
(MHz) (MHz) -tRP)
(MB/s)
DDR-200 100 10 100 200 2.50.2 PC-1600 1600
DDR-266 133.33 7.5 133.33 266.66 2.50.2 PC-2100 2133.33 2.5-3-3
DDR-333 166.66 6 166.66 333.33 2.50.2 PC-2700 2666.66
DDR-400 200 5 200 400 2.60.1 PC-3200 3200 2.5-3-3

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Desktop DDR SDRAM DIMMs (Dual Inline


Memory Modules) 184 pin (SDRAM 168 pin DDR2 240 pin
) SDRAM Notch (Memory Chip
)
(DDR SDRAM) SDRAM Notebook
DDR SDRAM SO-DIMM 200 pin
DDR SDRAM 2.5 V
3.3V SDRAM
DDR SDRAM

DDR SDRAM

DDR2 SDRAM

DDR2 SDRAM DDR SDRAM


RAM DDR3 SDRAM
DDR2 DDR3 Forward Compatible DDR Backward Compatible
DDR Motherborad DDR3
Mainborad DDR SDRAM double pumping Clock
Signal DDR2
Bus Speed Data Bus Internal Clock
Internal Clock Cycle
64 bits
DDR2 SDRAM (memory clock rate) x 2(for bus clock multiplier) x 2 (for dual

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rate) x 64 (number of bits transferred) /8 (number of bits/byte) Equation Memory Clock


Frequency 100MHz DDR2 3200MB

DDR2 External Clock Internal Clock DDR2 Memory


DDR SDRAM External data bus clock rate Bandwidth
latency DDR2 External Data Bus Clock Rate
DDR Memory Latency Bandwidth
DDR2 SDRAM DIMM (Dual Inline Memory Module) 240 pin
notch () Laptop
DDR2 SO-DIMM 200 pin DIMM
Peak Transfer Capacity
Identify ( Bandwidth )

DDR2 SDRAM

Standard Memory Cycle I/O bus Data rate Module Peak Timing CAS
name clock time (ns) clock (MT/s) name transfer (CL-tRCD- latency
(MHz) (MHz) rate tRP) (ns)
(MB/s)

DDR2-400 100 10 200 400 PC2-3200 3200 4-4-4 20

DDR2-533 133.33 7.5 266.66 533.33 PC2-4200 4266.66 4-4-4 15

DDR2-667 166.66 6 333.33 666.66 PC2-5300 5333.33 5-5-5 15

DDR2-800 200 5 400 800 PC2-6400 6400 6-6-6 15

DDR2-
266.66 3.75 533.33 1066.66 PC2-8500 8533.33 7-7-7 13.125
1066

DDR2 SDRAM

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DDR2 SDRAM

DDR3 SDRAM

DDR3 RAM DDR SDRAM DDR


RAM Bandwidth DDR3 SDRAM 2007
DDR3 DDR4 RAM
DDR DDR2
Backward Forward Compatible RAM
Signaling Voltage Timing Notch
() DDR3 DDR2
Bandwidth

Peak
Memory I/O bus Timings CAS
Standard Cycle Data rate Module transfer
Clock clock (CL-tRCD- latency
Name time (ns) (MT/s) name rate
(MHz) (MHz) tRP) (ns)
(MB/s)
DDR3-800 100 10 400 800 PC3-6400 6400 5-5-5 12.5

DDR3-1066 133.33 7.5 533.33 1066.66 PC3-8500 8533.33 6-6-6 11.25

DDR3-1333 166.66 6 666.66 1333.33 PC3-10600 10666.66 7-7-7 10.5

DDR3-1600 200 5 800 1600 PC3-12800 12800 8-8-8 10

DDR3-1866 233.33 4.28 933.33 1866.66 PC3-14900 14933.33 10-10-10 10.71

DDR3-2133 266.66 3.75 1066.66 2133.33 PC3-17000 17066.66 11-11-11 10.31

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DDR3
DDR3 Clock Frequency 100MHz
6400 MB DDR3 SDRAM

DDR3 SDRAM

DDR4 SDRAM

DDR4 SDRAM Double Data Rate Fourth Generation Synchronous


Dynamic Random Access Memory Synchronous dynamic random access memory
(SDRAM) RAM Bandwidth
RAM RAM 2014
DDR
RAM RAM
RAM DDR3 Clock
Frequency Data Transfer Rate 2133-4266 MT/s (million transfer
per second) Support DDR3 800-2133 MT/s
DDR4 Voltage 1.05V 1.2V
DDR4 RAM

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DDR4 SDRAM

RAM (Memory)

RAM

RAM
Hard Drive Solid State Drive CPU
CPU Cache
Cache CPU RAM
RAM
Cache

RAM
Memory Address RAM



Hang
Hard Disk
RAM

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Restart
Restart Restart
Restart
Restart
Hardware Restart
RAM

Blue Screen
of Death (BSoD) BSoD Memory
Compitable Application
BSoD Error Code Memory
BSoD (Blue Screen of Death) BSoD
Error Code

BSoD

Windows 8 Blue Screen of Death

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Windows 8 BSoD

Save

Save
RAM RAM

RAM Software Application Install


Application Install
Fail Windows Installation Error
Message Error Message
RAM

Boot System Beep RAM


Motherboard RAM Slot RAM RAM slot
RAM Slot
RAM RAM

RAM RAM

RAM RAM

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RAM
RAM Hardware
RAM Fault

RAM

RAM


RAM Clock Speed
Application Application RAMMon
Application Windows 32 Bit Version/ 64bit Version Personal
RAMMon Application DVD
RAM Clock Speed
Casing

DVD rammon_x86.exe Double Click 32 bit


rammon_x86.exe 64 bit rammon_x64.exe
Next Click

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() I accept the agreement Next


Click Next Click
Dialogbox Next Install Install
Finish

RAM Clock Speed RAM
Computer Technician
Software

RAM
Hardware
RAM Tester Software

RAM Tester

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RAM Tester Feature


Computer Technician
RAM
RAM Tester

RAM Software
Address RAM

Software
RAM Application

RAM Application Microsoft Windows Built-In


Windows Memory Diagnostics Tool
Windows Memory Diagnostics Tool
Tool Restart
Tool Software
Windows Memory Diagnostics Tool

1. Start Click Run ( Windows Key R )

2. Run box mdsched Enter

3. Windows Memory Diagnostic Dialogbox

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Restart now and check for problems


Restart Check for problems the next time I start my computer
Restart
RAM
Hiren Boot CD CD/DVD

DVD MemTest Software


Software USB Stick Software
RAM
Operating System Live
Media
Software Windows Memory Diagnostic Tool

Central Processing Unit (CPU)

Central Processing Unit CPU


CPU Central Processor Unit
Hardware

arithmetic, logic input/output

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1960 CPU CPU




CPU Multiprocessing
CPU microprocessor CPU
Chip Integrated Circuit (IC)
CPU Chip
IC Multi-core process IC Peripheral Device Computer
component System on a chip (SoC) CPU
Component Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) Control Unit (CL)
ALU Arithmetic Logical Operation Control Unit
Memory Instruction Extract Decode Execute
ALU CPU
ENIAC Computer

Fixed Program Computer CPU
Software ( Program) Device
CPU Device Stored Program Computer

CPU

Stored-Program Computer J.Presper Eckert John William Mauchly


1945 June 30 John
von Neumann First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC
Stored Program Computer Outline () 1949
EDVAC
EDVAC Program
High-Speed Computer Memory
ENIAC Device
von Neumann Program Software EDVAC
Memory Content
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EDVAC Stored Program Computer Manchester Small-Scale


Experimental Machine Small prototype stored-program computer Program
1948 June 21 Manchester Mark 1
Program 1949 June 16/17

CPU
CPU CPU
Application mass-produced processor
CPU
transistor mainframes minicomputer Transistor
Integrated Circuit (IC) IC
CPU nanometer
Mobile
Processor 1970 Federico
Faggin CPU
Microprocessor Intel 4004 1970
Microprocessor Intel 8080 1974

Old Model CPU

CPU CPU mainframe


minicomputer computer IC development
Program Instruction set Micro-
processor proceessor hardware Software
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backward compatible personal computer


CPU microprocessor
CPU (Core ) Chip

CPU

CPU Program instruction


Instruction Computer Memory
CPU instruction Operation
fetch, decode, execute writeback

fetch instruction Program memory


Memory instruction Address Program Counter (PC)
Program Counter instruction identify
Instruction Program Counter
Memory Unit instruction word 1
instruction Memory CPU
wait state Processor wait state
caches pipeline

CPU Memory Instruction CPU


Decode Instruction

numerical instruction CPU Instruction set architecture
(ISA) Instruction Number Opcode

Instruction
Operation operand Operand (immediate
value) (register memory address)
Addressing mode CPU
instruction decode CPU Hardware
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CPU ISA microprogram


instruction CPU Configuration signal
microprogram
CPU instruction decode

CPU Operation

Instruction (fetch) Decode execute


CPU
Operation
Operation ALU (arithmetic logic unit) input output set
Input number
Output
ALU input
arithmetic logical
Operation CPU flag
register overflow flag

writeback execute Memory



instruction internal CPU register
Memory
Instruction Program Counter

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jump Program
looping Function Jump
instruction flag register
Flag Program
compare instruction Flag
Flag
Flag jump instruction Program flow
Instruction execute Result writeback
instrcution cycle
fetch
Program Counter
instruction jump Program Counter Instruction Address
Jump Program execution
CPU Instruction fetch, decode execute
CPU Memory
Memory CPU
Memory Northbridge CPU
wait state CPU Northbridge Chipset Cache
chip Cache
Northbrige chipset

Cache L1 Cache L2 Cache CPU CPU
Cache Chipset Memory chip

Parallel Instruction with pipelines

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Clock Rate

Clock Rate Microprocessor


Heartz (Hz) Internal Clock External Clock
Internal Clock
CPU Instruction execute
Clock
Instruction CPU
Clock Rate Instruction per clock (IPC)
Instrcution per second (IPS) CPU Processing multi-core
processor Multi-core Processor CPU
(Core ) Core Chip
Integrated Circuit (IC) Core
Dual Core Processor Single Core Processor

50 Software Algorithm
Processor Core ( dual core,
quad core) Processor
Numerous event interrupt

CPU Clock

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Intel CPU

CPU Intel CPU AMD


CPU

Intel Processor AMD

CPU CPU


CPU
CPU

Brand Code Name Core FAB Date Released


Pentium IV Wilamette 1 180 nm November 2000
Northwood 1 130 nm January 2002
Prescott 1 90 nm March 2004
Pentium D Smithfield 2 90 nm May 2005
Presler 2 65 nm January 2006
Core 2 Duo Conroe 2 65 nm August 2006
Allendale 2 65 nm January 2007
Wolfdale 2 45 nm January 2008
Core 2 Quad Kentsfield 4 65 nm January 2007
Yorkfield 4 45 nm March 2008
Core 2 Extreme Conroe XE 2 65 nm July 2006
Kentsfeild XE 4 65 nm November 2006
Yorkfield XE 4 45 nm November 2007
Core i3 Clarkdale 2 32 nm January 2010
Sandy Bridge 2 32 nm February 2011
Ivy Bridge 2 22 nm September 2012
Haswell 2 22 nm September 2013
Core i5 Lynnfield 4 45 nm September 2009
Clarkdale 2 32 nm January 2010
Sandy Bridge 4 32 nm Jaunuary 2011
Sandy Bridge 2 32 nm Feburay 2011
Ivy Bridge 4 22 nm April 2012

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Ivy Bridge 2 22 nm April 2012


Haswell 4 22 nm June 2013
Haswell 2 22 nm June 2013
Core i7 Bloomfield 4 45 nm November 2008
Lynnfield 4 45 nm September 2009
Gulftown 6 32 nm July 2010
Sandy Bridge 4 32 nm January 2011
Sandy Bridge -E 6 32 nm November 2011
Sandy Bridge -E 4 32 nm February 2012
Ivy Bridge 4 22 nm April 2012
Haswell 4 22 nm June 2013
Ivy Bridge-E 4 22 nm September 2013
Ivy Bridge-E 6 22 nm September 2013
Core i7 Extreme Bloomfield 4 45 nm November 2008
Edition
Gulftown 6 32 nm March 2010
Sandy Bridge-E 6 32 nm November 2011
Ivy Bridge-E 6 22 nm September 2013

Intel CPU

Model Number Frequency L2 Cache FSB Socket


Pentium 4 1.30 to 3.80 GHz 512 KB 400 to 1066 MT/s Socket 423
Socket 478
LGA 775
Pentium D 2.66 to 3.73 GHz 2 MB 533 to 1066 MT/s LGA 775
Core 2 Duo 1.8 to 2.6 GHz 2 MB 800 to 1333 MT/s LGA 775
Core i3 2.67 to 3.6 GHz 3 to 4MB (L3) - LGA 1156
LGA 1155
LGA 1150
Core i5 2.67 to 3.6 GHz 3 to 4 MB (L3) - LGA 1155
LGA 1150
Core i7 2.67 to 3.6 GHz 8 to 12 MB - LGA 1156
(L3) LGA 1155
LGA 1366
LGA 2011

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CPU CPU
CPU Motherboard

Pentium 4 Processor

CPU

CPU Hardware CPU


CPU
CPU CPU melt
Sensor CPU
CPU Motherboard
CPU
CPU

Computer Restart

Restart Restart

CPU Temperature CPU temperature


BIOS Software

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CMOS Setup BIOS BIOS


BIOS
Motherboard BIOS Setup HW
Monitor PC Health Status CPU Temperature
CPU

Temperature BIOS
Motherboard CPU Warning Temperature CPU Warning
Temperature

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Core Temp Application Application


DVD Application portable
Win RAR

CPU 60 C
CPU CPU Cooling FAN Thermal
Compound CPU

Water Cooling
CPU

Motherboard (Mainboard)

Motherboard Computer Printed Circuit Board


Motherboard
Hardware Motherboard
Motherboard Mainboard
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System Board Planar Board Logic Board


mobo Motherboard
Hardware Central Processing Unit (CPU), Memory
Peripheral Device Motherboard Electronic
Board Hardware
Motherboard

CPU Digital Computer Printed Circuit Board


Circuit Board Socket
Motherboard Card Connector Pin

CPU, Memory Peripheral Device
Printed Circuit Board Circuit
1980 1990 Motherboard
Peripheral Function

Motherboard

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1980 Personal Computer Motherboard Single ICs (Super I/O)


chips Keyboard, Mouse, Floppy Disk Drive, Serial Port Parallel Port
low speed pheripheral 1990 Personal
Computer Motherboard Audio, Video, Storage Network Function
Expansion Card 3D Game
Computer Graphic Graphic Card
Component Apple II IBM PC
Reverse Engineering Third-Party Motherboard
Schematic Diagram Documentation
Manual
Motherboard Feature

Motherboard Motherboard Component


Electrical Desktop Computer CPU, Memory
Component Motherboard
Component External Storage Device Controller Peripheral Device
Motherboard Plug-in card Cable Slot
Motherboard
CPU Chipset Chipset CPU
Buses External Component
Chipset Motherboard Feature
Motherboard

Sockets

Socket Slot Microprocessor (CPU)


Socket VIA C3
BGA (Ball Gray Array) CPU Motherboard CPU Socket

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SECC (Single Edge Contact Cartridge), PGA (Pin Grid Array) LGA (Land Grid Array)
Socket
Central Processing Unit (Processor)

Single Edge Contact Cartridge (SECC) CPU Slot

Single Edge Contact Cartridge

Pentium Processor SECC


Pentium III SECC CPU Slot
Pin

Year of
Socket Name CPU Families Pin Count Bus Speed
Introduction
Slot 1 1997 Pentium II 242 66-133 MHz
Pentium III
Slot 2 1998 Pentium II Xeon 330 100-133 MHz

Pin Grid Array (PGA) CPU Socket


CPU Pin
PGA Socket

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Pin Grid Array

Pin Grid Array CPU CPU


CPU
Pin CPU Socket

Year of
Socket Name CPU Families Pin Count Bus Speed
Introduction
Socket 1 1989 Intel 80486 169 16-50 MHz
Socket 2 Intel 80486 238 16-50 MHz
Socket 3 1991 Intel 80486 237 16-50 MHz
Socket 4 Intel Pentium 273 60-66 MHz
Socket 5 Intel Pentium 320 50-66 MHz
Socket 6 Intel 80486 235
Socket 7 1994 Intel Pentium 321 50-66 MHz
Pentium MMX
Socket 8 1995 Pentium Pro 387 60-66 MHz
Socket 370 1999 Pentium III 370 66-133 MHz
Intel Celeron
Socket 423 2000 Pentium 4 423 100 MHz
Socket 478 2000 Pentium 4 478 100-200 MHz
Socket N Celeron
Pentium 4 EE
Pentium 4M

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Socket 478 Socket 478

Land Grid Array (LGA) CPU Socket PGA Socket


LGA Socket Pin CPU
Design Motherboard Socket
LGA LGA Socket LGA
Pin Motherboard Socket PGA CPU Pin

LGA Technician
LGA Socket

Land Grid Array

LGA Motherboard LGA CPU


Pin CPU LGA
Socket Pin CPU

Socket Year of CPU Families Pin Bus Speed


Name Introduction Count
LGA 775 2004 Pentium 4 775 1600 MHz
Socket T Pentium D
Celeron

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Celeron D
Pentium XE
Core 2 Duo
Core 2 Quad
Xeon
LGA 1156 2009 Core i7 1156 2.5 GT/s
Socket H Core i5
Core i3
Xeon
Pentium
Celeron
LGA 1155 2011 Intel Sandy Bridge 1155 5.7GT/s
Socket H2 Intel Ivy Bridge
LGA 2011 2011 Intel Core i7 Sandy Bridge-E 2011 4.8-6.4 GT/s
Socket R Intel Core i7 Ivy Bridge E
Intel Xeon E5
LGA 1150 2013 Intel Haswell 1150
Socket H3 Intel Broadwell

LGA Socket Socket


LGA775 LGA1155
LGA 1155 LGA 1156

Error LGA 1156 Socket Motherboard
Motherboard CPU
Socket LGA 1150 Socket

Slots

Slots Computer RAM (Memory)


RAM Slot DIMM (Dual Inline Memory Module )
DRAM chip Slot
RAM RAM
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DDR2 SDRAM DDR3 SDRAM DDR2 Slot DDR3


DDR3 Slot DDR2
Motherboard DDR2 DDR3 Slot RAM
Slot DDR2 DDR RAM
LGA 775 Socket PGA 478 Socket DDR2 Slot LGA
Socket 775 Socket DDR3 Motherboard
DDR SDRAM Slot

DDR SDRAM & RAM Slot

DDR2 Slot

DDR2 SDRAM Slot

DDR3 Slot

DDR3 SDRAM Slot

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Chipset

Chipset IC Electronic Componet


CPU, Memory Peripheral
Chipset Motherboard Chipset
CPU
CPU
Device Chipset

Intel CPU Personal Computer
Chipset
Northbridge Southbridge Chip Northbridge
Southbridge Northbridge, Southbridge
chipset CPU, Memory

Northbrige host bridge PC Motherboard microchip CPU



Northbridge Southbridge Pair I/O
controller hub Chip CPU
Motherboard Core logic chipset
Intel PC Northbridge External memory controller hub (MCH)
Integrated Memory Controller Hub (IMCH)
Intel Sandy Bridge AMD Acclerated Processing Unit Processor 2011
Northbridge CPU
CPU Northbridge Southbridge

CPU Memory CPU


Northbridge CPU
Northbridge

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External Data Bus


Address Bus

Southbridge Northbridge

Southbridge Chipset Northbridge


Southbridge Northbridge
Southbridge CPU

Southbrige

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Northbrige

PCI Bus PCI-X PCI Express


ISA bus LPC Bridge
SPI bus firmware (- BIOS) flash storage access serial bus

SMBus Motherboard System temperature sensor Fan
Controller
DMA Controller Main Memory ISA LPC devices
CPU
8259A I/O APIC CPU PC mechanism
interrupt controller

Mass Storage PATA SATA () Hard Disk
Southbrige
Real-time clock persistent time account
Power Management, Nonvolatile BIOS
Memory, Intel High Definition Audio, Out of band Manage
Southbridge

Motherboard Chipset

BIOS/ CMOS Chip

Motherboard BIOS Non-Volatile Memory chip



BIOS Basic Input Output System BIOS Sytem BIOS, ROM
BIOS PC BIOS Firmware Interface
BIOS 1975 CP/M OS BIOS
Software PC PC Power
Software
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BIOS Chip

BIOS System Hardware Component


mass memory device Operating System Bootloader
load BIOS Software Motherboard non-volatile ROM chip
Motherboard BIOS update
update Flashing
Program Program Motherboard

CMOS Motherboard Chip BIOS


BIOS CMOS Motherboard


CMOS Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor Integrated
Circuit CMOS PC Motherboard Memory
BIOS Settings CMOS RAM Volatile
Low Power SRAM
Computer
CMOS NVRAM
512 Byte BIOS Setting
Motherboard CMOS RAM Southbrige
Motherboard CMOS RAM Real time Clock
CR2032 lithium cell
Cell 2 10 Motherboard ambient
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temperature
Cell
Cell system time CMOS settings Default Value
CMOS

CMOS Battery

BIOS Factory Default Settings CMOS User


Settings BIOS BIOS Setting
BIOS reflash Reflash
BIOS Chip

CMOS Error

CMOS Record Device


CMOS Record Device
CMOS Record Settings
CMOS cheksum error Screen

CMOS Error CMOS Reset CMOS


Reset CMOS Jumper Reset CMOS Battery
BIOS Password Password
CMOS Reset BIOS Settings
CMOS Reset Reset

Computer Casing

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BIOS chip CMOS Clear Jumper Jumper CMOS Clear


Normal

CMOS Jumper

CMOS Reset

CMOS Reset Casing CMOS Battery


15 Power Supply AC
15 CMOS Battery CMOS Clear

Clock Generator

Clock Generator Timing Signal Circuit Clock


Generator Circuit Operation Synchronize
Singnal
Square Wave
Resonant Circuit Amplifier

Crystal Oscillator

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Clock Generator memory, peripheral devices, CPUs, Port


Clock Generator Wave Form Wave
Clock Generator Crystal Oscillator

Slots for Expansion Card

Motherboard Video Card Sound Card


Expansion Card Slots Expansion Slot Video
Slot Accelerated Graphic Port (AGP) Network Card Sound Card
Slot PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) Slot
Motherboard PCI-E (Peripheral Component Interconnect Express) Slot
Video Controller Built-In Motherboard Graphic Card
Motherboard Split Board
AGP Slot Graphic Card
Expansion Card Slot Expansion Card
Graphic Card PCI-E
Expansion Card Slot

Expansion Card Slot

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1. Video Card (Graphic Card)

Video Card Video Adapter display card graphics card graphics board
display adapter graphics adapter frame buffer Video Card
Monitor Screen
Video Card
GPU (Graphics Processing Unit) CPU
Video Signal
Video Card Monitor Screen

Video Card
Video Card Capacitor
PCI-E Slot
Video Card

Video Card

Video Card
Motherboard CPU

Video Card Output
Interface

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Video Card Output Interfaces

Video Graphic Array (VGA)

D Shade Connector Monitor


VGA Analog 1980
CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) Monitor
VGA
Electrical Noise ( Pixel)
VGA interface High Definition Video
1080p VGA Analog Interface 15 pin
Female ( Interface) Connector VGA Interface Connector

VGA Analog Interface

Digital Visual Interface (DVI)

Digital Interface LCD, Plasma Screen Wide HD TV


CRT DVI DVI
Noise Pixel
DVI-I Connector RGB singal
output CRT LCD Monitor VGA input

DVI-I Interface

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DVI-I Connector

Video In Video Out (VIVO)

Interface TV DVD player Video Recorder Video Game Console


Interface 10 pin mini-DIN
Connector VIVO Splitter Cable 4 connector 6
connector VIVO Interface

VIVO (S-Video) Interface

High Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI)

HDMI Compress Video Data compress


digital audio data Video/Audio
Interface HDMI Interface Video Card
Computer Monitor Video Projecter
Digital Television HDMI Analog Video Standard
HDMI Copy Protection () HDCP
HDMI Pin 19

HDMI Interface

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2. Sound Card

Sound Card Card Motherboard Integrated


Sound Built-In
Sound Card Sound Card
Interface Sound Card

Computer Digital Singal
Analog Signal
Speaker Head phone
Computer Analog Signal Computer
Digital Signal
Microphone Sound Card Hardware
Sound Card
Audio Port Mother-
board Built-In Audio Jack
Sound Card
Sound card 15 pin MIDI port

Color Function Connector Symbol


Pink Analog microphone audio input 3.5 mm minijack A microphone
Light Blue Analog line level audio input 3.5 mm minijack An arrow going into a
circle
Lime green Analog line level audio out for the main 3.5 mm minijack Arrow going out one
stereo signal (front speaker or headphones) side of a circle into a
wave
Brown/Dark Analog line level auido output for a special 3.5 mm minijack
panning, 'Right to left speaker'
Black Analog line level audio output for surround 3.5 mm minijack
speakers, typically rear stereo
Orange Analog line level audio output for center 3.5mm minijack

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channel speaker and subwoofer


Silver/Grey Analog line level audio output for surround 3.5 mm minijack
side channels
Gold/Grey Game port/ MIDI 15 pin DB Connector Arrow going out both
sides into waves

Sound Card

Sound Card

3. Network Card

Network Card Network Interface Controller (NIC) Card Network


Card RJ-45 Port RJ-
45 Port Motherboard Built-In Internet Cafe
Server Server ISA Server Network Interface
Network Card B
uilt-In Expansion Slot
Network Interface Controller Card RJ45 (Ethernet) Port
Coax Cable Coax Connector NIC
Card Ethernet Connector NIC Card
Hardware
Ethernet Network
"

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"
" (System Administration)"

Network Interface Controller (NIC) Card

4. Wifi Network Card

Wifi Network Card Wireless Network Interface Controller (WNIC) Card


Network Interface Controller
Radio wifi
NIC OSI model layer 1,2 Wifi Card
Desktop Wireless Network
Card Antenna Antenna Microwave
Wifi Card PCI Slot USB Wifi
Adapter

Wifi Card
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Laptop Integrated WNIC Wifi


Network IEEE 802.11 Wifi Card Hardware

5. Modem Card

Modem Internet Dial up


Connection () Modem
Modem modulator- demodulator Sound
Card
Analog-Digital
Phone SIM Card USB Modem
Modem
PCI Modem

Modem Card

Expansion Card Slot PCI Card Motherboard


Power Connector

Power Connector

Power Connector Power Supply Unit


Motherboard Power Connector

Main Power Connector

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Additional Main Power Connector (4 pin)


P4 CPU Connector

Main Power Connector Additional Main Power Connector Motherboard Connector


Power Supply
4 pin Connector Motherboard Connector

ATX 24 Pin Connector

P4 Connector

Motherboard I/O port

Motherboard I/O Ports

Motherboard I/O Port Port


Female Pin Male

Mini-DIN Connector multi-pin electrical connector


DIN Connector DIN Mini-DIN
Connector Institue Deutshes Institut fur Normung Standard

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Mini DIN connector 9.5 mm Pattern


pin 3 pin 9 pin

Mini DIN

Mini DIN Keyboard Mouse Video


Card Min DIN Connector Keyboard Controller
Keyborad Mouse Mini DIN
USB Keyboard Mouse mini-DIN Connector

Mini DIM Pin Number

Parallel Port Peripheral Interface



Parallel Port Parallel Communication Pysical Interface
Port Printer Port Centronics Port Parallel Port de facto
Standard
IEEE 1284 1990
Printer Port Printer
Parallel Port Printer USB
Connector FireWare Connector Network Connector

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Parallel Port

Parallel Port 25 pin Pin

Parallel Port Pin out

Parallel Port

Serial Port Motherboard


Serial Port Serial Communication pysical interface
one bit Serial Port Personal
Computer Modem Terminal peripheral device
Serial Port 25 pin Serial Port 9 pin
Serial Port Motherboard
( PLC,
PIC Engineering Machine Serial Port, Parallel Port
Serial Port USB Serial Port Adapter
)

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9 pin Serial Port 25 pin Serial Port

LAN Port Ethernet Port LAN Port


Network Lan Port 8 pin RJ-45
Connector
Switch,
Router

LAN Port

LAN Ethernet 1980 1983 IEEE 802.3 Standard


IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Ethernet OSI
Layer

RJ 45 Connector

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USB Port Universal Serial Bus (USB) Industry standard 1990


Develop Cable Connector Communications Protocol
Connection Communication Power Supply Bus Computer Peripheral
Device
1996 Compaq, Digital Equipment Corporation, IBM, Intel, Microsoft,
NEC, Nortel
2-5 m

USB Logo USB Trend Logo

USB Hot pluggable USB


Device USB
Version Version 3.0
Power 5 V DC
Current 0.5-0.9 A Speaker Mouse Power
Data Packet
USB Version

Version Data Rate


USB 1.0 1.5 Mbit/s (low bandwidth)
12 Mbit/s (full bandwidth)
USB 2.0 480 Mbit/s
USB 3.0 5 Gbit/s (500 MB/s)
USB 3.1 10 Gbit/s (1 GB/s)

USB Keyboard Mouse Printer Scanner


External HDD Memory Stick Mobile

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Class


Internet USB Device Connector
USB Connector Type A, Type B, Mini A,
Mini B, Micro A Micro B

Standard USB (Type A Type B) 4 pin Power 2 pin Data 2 Pin


Mini A, Mini B, Micro A Micro B 5 pin

USB Connector

Type A Type B Pin Out

Pin Name Cable color Description


1 VBUS Red or Orange +5 V
2 D- White or Gold Data -
3 D+ Green Data+
4 GND Black or Blue Ground

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Type A and Type B USB

Mini A, Mini B, Micro A Micro B Pin

Pin Name Cable color Description


1 VBUS Red +5 V
2 D- White Data -
3 D+ Green Data+
4 ID N/A Permits distination of a host connection from
device connection:
host: connected to the signal ground
device: not connected
5 GND Black Signal Ground

Micro A Micro B Mini A & Mini B

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USB 3.0 10 pin Pin

Pin No Description
1 Power (VBUS)
2 USB 2.0 Differential Pair (D-)
3 USB 2.0 Differential Pair (D+)
4 USB O TG ID for identifying lines
5 GND
6 USB 3.0 signal transmission line (-)
7 USB 3.0 signal transmission line (+)
8 GND
9 USB 3.0 signal receiving line (-)
10 USB 3.0 singal receiving line (+)

VGA Port Serial/ Parallel Port


(2 row) VGA Port
VGA Port 15 pin Female Connector DB Shape VGA
Connector Cable Analog Component RGBHV (red, green, blue, horizontal sync, vertical
sync) video signal VESA Display Data Channel (VESA DDC) data
Signal Data Monitor Signal
VGA Port Monitor

VGA Port

VGA Pin

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Pin No Name Description


1 RED Red Video
2 GREEN Green Video
3 BLUE Blue Video
4 ID2/RES Formely Monitor ID bit 2
5 GND Ground
6 RED_RTN Red Return
7 GREEN_RTN Green Return
8 BLUE_RTN Blue Return
9 KEY/PWR Formerly key, now +5v DC
10 GND Ground
11 ID0/RES Formerly Monitor ID bit 0
12 ID1/SDA Formerly Monitor ID bit 1
13 HSync Horizontal sync
14 VSync Vertical sync
15 ID3/SCI Formerly Monitor ID bit 3

VGA Pin

VGA Pin Out

Motherboard Northbridge CPU chip Heat Sink



Cooling Computer Crash Passive
Cooling Power Supply Fan 1990
Desktop Computer CPU Heat Sink
CPU Fan Clock Speed

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Motherboard Casing Fan


Fan Connector Motherboard
Integrated Temperature sesor Motherboard CPU Detect
FAN Connector BIOS Operating System Fan
R
egulate (high-performance microprocessors,
large amount of RAM and high performance video cards) Fan
Water Cooling 2003
Computer Crash Software
Hardware Motherboard Capacitor
Capacitor
Formulae

CPU Fan

Motherboard Electrolytic Capacitor Board DC Power


Capacitor
Capacitor
Capacitance Voltage
Motherboard Capacitor
105 C 2000 45 C
15 Computer Motherboard
Capacitor

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Electrolytic Capacitor

Motherboard Sulfurous
Sulfurous
Motherboard Circuit Intel

Motherboard
Motherboard

Motherboard

Motherboard 70% Capacitor Resistor


Diode Regulator IC
Motherboard Boot
Chipset CPU
Motherboard



Motherboard

Capacitor Regulator Electronic


Capacitor
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Motherboard Capacitor Capacitor


Capacitance Farad
Capacitor 100F Capacitor
Capacitance Rated
Voltage Capacitor 25V
Capacitor Capacitor Multimeter

Capacitor

Board

Motherboard
Hardware Motherboard
Motherboard Motherboard Thinner

Motherboard
Mother-
board

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Part II
Non-Essential Parts

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Hard Drive (Hard Disk)

Casing

Keyboard

Pointing Devices

Monitor

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Hard Drive (Hard Disk)

Hard Drive (Hard Disk) RAM


RAM RAM
Volatile
Hard Disk Non-Volatile Data
RAM Hard Disk

RAM
Hard Disk Operating System
User Application Software Settings

Hard Disk Disk


Disk Platter
(Disk) RAM
Hard Disk Data Random Access
Data Block
Block

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Hard Disk rigid (Disk)



Actuator Arm Hard Disk

Hard Disk Hard Drive 1956 IBM (International Business Management)


Secondary Storage Device 1960
Hard Disk Server Personal Computer
Hard Disk
(HDD) 200 Hard Disk
Seagate, Toshiba Western Digital Hard Disk

1TB (1000GB), 500GB

data rate Hard Disk
Desktop Computer 3.5 Hard Disk Laptop
Computer 2.5 Hard Disk
PATA (Parallel ATA) (IDE ) SATA (Serial ATA) USB
SAS (Serial attached SCSI) Cable 2014 Solid State Drive (SSD)
Flash Memory Secondary Storage
Hard Drive SSD Hard Disk
SSD

Hard Disk Hard Disk


HDD IBM real-time transaction processing computer 1956
Hard Disk mainframe microcomputer
350 RAMAC IBM Drive
5 million 6 bit (3.7MB)

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350 RAMAC

1961 IBM model 1311 disk drive


Drive Removal disk pack 2
million Drive

IBM 300MB Disk Drive 1980
Hard Disk Fixed Disk Drive

IBM A1311

HDD Track Head


IBM 2305 Head
Track Head Fixed Head

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Head-Per-Track disk drive Hard Disk


1973 IBM Hard Disk Winchester


Disk Stack
Land Special area Land
Head Parking Data
Hard Disk
Removal pack drive Winchester
Drive Platter 14 (360mm)
Platter
Non Removal Drive Platter
Personal Computer
1980 Hard Disk

1980
PC

2011
Hard Disk
3.75 4 Tera
Byte
Physical Volume 68 cubic

Winchester

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2000 48 grams
Hard Disk SSD Drive

Hard Disk
Hard Disk

Hard
Disk Spindle Platter Flat circular disk
Platter
Aluminium Alloy, Glass Ceramic
Platter
20nm
Carbon Hard Disk Platter

Hard Disk Platter
HDD 4200 rpm Server
15000 rpm Hard Disk 1200 rpm
3600 rpm Hard Disk 2013
Hard Disk 5400 rpm 7200 rpm
rpm rotate per minute

Platter Read-and-write head
Platter ten
nanometer
Hard Disk
Platter
Platter
Hard Disk Stepper Motor

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Voice Coil Actuator Hard Disk


Bit Hard Disk
Zone bit recording

Hard Disk

Superparamagnetic limit Platter
ruthenium
3 atom

Actuator

Hard Disk Electric Motor


Spindle Motor (Platter Motor) actuator (
Motor) Spindle Motor (disk motor) Rotor
disk Stator windling
actuator Head
Read/Write Head Head Circuit Board
Signal Actuator Coil Motor
Actuator Platter
Voice Coil

Voice Coil Copper magnet wire layer
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layer thermosplastic Voice coil Read/ Write Head


Hard Disk Circuit
Actuator
Disk (Patter ) Disk Controller

Hard Disk Ball
Fluid Fluid

Hard Disk
Digital 0 1
Hard Disk 0 1
Hard Disk
0 1 0 1
1 Bit 1 Bit 0 1

1 Byte 1 Byte 8 Bit
Byte
1000 Byte 1KB Bit, Byte

8 Bits 1 Byte
1000 Bytes 1 KiloByte (1KB)
1000 KB 1 MegaByte (1MB)
1000 MB 1 GegaByte (1GB)
1000 GB 1 TeraByte (1TB)


1TB Hard Disk
Hard Disk
1000GB

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931GB

1KB
1024 Byte


1 MB 0.954 MB
1 GB 95367 MB (0.931GB)
1 TB 953674 MB (931 GB)

1TB (1000 GB) 931 GB


Hard Disk Motherboard Cable
Cable
Parallel ATA (IDE) IDE Hard Disk

Parallel ATA AT Attachment Storage Device


Hard Disk, Floppy Drive Optical Disc Drive Motherboad
Standard Interface Standard
X3/INCITS comittee AT Attachment AT Attachment Packet Interface (ATAPI) Standard
Technician PATA IDE
IDE 16MB 133MB IDE Cable
18 32 IDE (PATA)

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Hard Disk IDE Cable Motherboard


IDE Connector

Motherboard IDE Connector

Motherboard IDE Connector IDE Drive (HDD, CD/DVD )


Master/ Slave Hard Disk
Jumper Master IDE Connector
Master Slave IDE Connector
Slave Master Slave
Drive Drive
Drive Cable Select (CS) Mode Jumper
CS Master/ Slave Drive
IDE Cable

IDE (PATA Cable)

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IDE Cable Motherboard PATA Connector


Connector Drive Connector
Slave Drive Master Drive
Parallel ATA Pin 40 Parallel ATA Cable
3.3MB/s 167MB/s Parallel ATA (IDE)
Hard Disk

IDE Hard Disk

Hard Disk Motherboard Serial ATA (SATA)


SATA
Serial ATA PATA
SATA Cable Cable
(pin 40 80 6 pin ) hot swapping Data
transfer SATA
SATA Version 1.0 150MB/s
PATA SATA revision 2.0 300 MB/s SATA
Revision 3 600MB/s SATA IDE Master/ Slave
SATA Connector SATA Drive
Data Cable SATA
Hard Disk

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SATA Hard Disk

Hard Disk Motherboard SATA Cable

SATA Cable

Hard Disk Cable Motherboard SATA Connector

SATA Connector

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SATA Hot Swapping


Hot Swapping SATA Drive Motherboard
Shutdown
SATA Device Motherboard Drive
Power Windows (OS) Drive (HDD or CD/DVD)

Start >Run Run Box devmgmt.msc OK Click


Scan for hardware change
SATA Drive
Hot swapping

Interface SCSI SCSI Small Computer


System Interface Peripheral Device
Standard Interface SCSI Standard Command
Protocol Interface SCSI Interface Hard Disk

Personal Computer
Technician
SCSI SCSI Hard Disk

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SCSI Hard Disk

Hard Disk SCSI Cable

SCSI Cable

SCSI Cable Motherboard Connector

SCSI Connector

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Hard Disk Interface SSD (Solid


State Drive) Solid State Drive Integrated
Circuit (IC) Electronic Disk Hard Disk
Memory Chip
SSD Hard
Disk

Hard Disk
SSD Personal Computer
SSD Drive SATA SSD
Drive

Solid State Device

Hard Disk
Hard Disk Hard Disk

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Hard Disk

Hard Disk
Electronic Hard Disk Hard Disk
Hard Disk
Hard Disk


Hard Disk Hard
Disk

Windows

OS Application
Hard Disk
Hard Disk
Windows (OS)
Windows
Screen


Hard Disk Hard Disk Hard
Disk Motherboard Cable
Casing Hard Disk Motherboard
Cable Cable
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Motherboard Connector Connector


Hard Disk Connector Power Supply Connector
Hard Disk
Error
Hard Disk
(Windows
Hard Disk
Windows Motherboard chipset
Hard Disk Windows
)

1. Hard Disk

2. Hard Disk Power Connector

3. Power Supply Connector

4. Hard Disk Motherboard Cable

5. Motherboard Hard Disk Connector

BIOS Screen

Screen

Hard Disk Error
Post Hardware
Hard Disk Hard Disk Detect

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Hard Disk

1. Hard Disk

2. BIOS Firmware/ Software

3. Motherboard Hard Disk


Casing

Hard Disk BIOS Screen


Hard Disk
Hard Disk Hard Disk

1. Restart DEL Key CMOS Setup


BIOS Advanced BIOS Feature

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2. Advanced BIOS Feature

HDD S.M.A.R.T Capability Enabled


Disable F10 Save
Hard Disk Hard Disk

3.
BSoD (Blue Screen of Death)
Windows Windows Soft-
ware Drive C: Drive D:

Hard Disk
RAM RAM
Hard Disk Hard Disk Read

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/Write Head Platter


Hard Disk
Bad Sector (
Bad Sector )

Short
Hard Disk
Hard Disk Application

Application Cystal Disk Information DVD


Application Portable Install
Application Hard Disk SSD Drive

DVD CrystalDiskInfo6_1_14ShizukuFull.zip 32bit Windows


DiskInfoS.exe 64bit Windows

DiskInfoSx64.exe

Hard Disk Good


Caution
Backup ( )

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Hard Disk

Hard Disk
Hard Disk

My Computer (Windows 7 Computer )

Hard Disk (Partation) Right Click Properties

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Tools Tab Check now


Option Automatically fix file system


errors OS Hard Disk Error Fix
Scan for and attempt recovery of bad sectors Bad Sector
Bad Sector Cluster
Option ( Option ) Start
click Hard Disk (Partation)

Windows Partation Error Checking Restart

Hard Disk Defragment

Hard Disk
Hard Disk fragment segment
fragment Hard Disk Cluster Data File
Save Cluster Cluster

Cluster
Data
Cluster
Cluster Cluster

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Cluster

Segment Defragment
Defragment Hard Disk
Bad Sector Hard Disk Defragment
Hard Disk

Defragment Computer (My Computer) Defrag


Hard Disk (Partation) Right Click Context Menu Properties
Dialogbox Tools Tab

Defragment now Click

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Defrag Hard Disk (Partation) Fragment


Analyze Disk Fragment
Defrag Windows Recommend
Defragment Defragment

Casing

Casing
Computer Casing Casing
Power Supply Motherboard
Screw CD/DVD
Hard Disk Casing Power
Switch Reset Switch USB Port Audio Input/ Output Jack
LED
Power LED HDD LED Cable Mother
board
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Casing Hardware
Casing Hardware

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Casing Power Supply Power Supply Power


Supply Screw

Motherboard CPU Motherboard CPU CPU


Cooling FAN CPU CPU (Thermal Compound)
CPU CPU Cooling FAN
CPU Cooling FAN CPU FAN Motherboard
CPU FAN CPU

Casing Motherboard Motherboard


Motherboard Connector

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Motherboard Motherboard Screw


Motherboard Casing
Short Short
Motherboard
Motherboard Casing Motherboard
Screw Screw
Screw Motherboard Casing Short

Motherboard RAM Slot RAM RAM Notch



Video Card Expansion Card Screw


Casing Screw Sound
Card Network Card Wifi Card

CD/DVD Drive CD/DVD


Casing Screw
Casing Alignment

Hard Disk Casing Sata Hard Disk


IDE (PATA) Hard Disk Master Slave Jumper
IDE CD/DVD Drive Jumper BIOS
Device

Main Power Connector Motherboard 24 pin Connector Power


Supply 24 pin Power Supply 20 pin 4 pin

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Power Supply P4 pin Motherboard P4 connector


Boot

Power Supply Hard Disk Power SATA Hard Disk Sata Power Connector
IDE Hard Disk Molex Connector
CD/DVD Drive

Hard Disk Data Cable Hard Disk Motherboard


SATA Cable IDE Cable Master Slave
Jumper

Video Card Expansion Card Power


Power Supply Connector Expansion Card

Casing Front USB Motherboard Front USB Port


Motherboard USB Port Pin Cable Pin Block

Casing Audio Port
Audio Motherboard

Casing Power Switch Power SW


Motherboard Pin
Manual Motherboard power swich
PW (Power SW) Power SW
Power SW Reset SW

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Reset
Reset SW Pin

Power SW Power LED LED


Pin pin
+ - Motherboard Motherboard
Manual Swich Pin

Power LED HDD LED HDD LED + -


Motherboard System System Speaker


Motherboard SPK, Speak

Motherboard VGA Connector Monitor Cable

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Keyboard Mouse

Power Supply AC
Casing Screw Casing

Keyboard

Keyboard Device
mechanical Electronic
Computer Keyboard Input Device
Keyboard Character
Command
Software Joystick Mouse

Computer Keyboard Teleprinter (teletypes) Keypunch


1870 teleprinter device

Herman Hollerith Keypunch device
1930
Keyboard
BINAC Electronmechnical
Keyboard 1940 1960 Data
Computer Output Computer terminal

Keyboard
Computer
Input Device
Mouse Keyboard
Keyboard
Microsoft Windows OS
Software Software On Screen Keyboard

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On Screen Keyboard Account Password


Keyboard
On Screen Keyboard

On Screen Keyboard

Start > Run Run Box osk Enter On Screen


Keyboard

On Screen Keyboard Windows 7


Start> All Programs> Accessories> Ease of Access> On Screen Keyboard
On Screen keyboard

Windows 8 All Programs

On Screen Keyboard

On Screen Keyboard Log In Screen Keyboard Password



Screen Ease of Access
Ease of Access Dialogbox On Screen Keyboard Apply> OK
Click On Screen Keyboard Password
Keyboard Log In Screen

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Keyboard Connector PS/2 (Mini DIN )


USB (Wireless Keyboard) PS/2 (Mini DIN)
USB Keyboard
Wireless Keyboard PS/2 (Mini DIN)
Connector Motherboard I/O Port PS/2
Keyboard Hot Swappable
USB Keyboard
Hot Swappable

PS/2 Keyboard USB Keyboard

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Wireless Keyboard USB Interface Keyboard


Computer

Wireless Keyboard

Wireless Keyboard Computer Tablet Laptop Radio


Frequency (RF), Infrared (IR) Bluetooth Keyboard
Wireless Keyboard Mouse
Infrared Wireless Keyboard Infrared
Light Wave Radio Frequency Wireless
Keyboard 27 MHz 2.4 GHz Signal
Wireless Keyboard 2.4 GHz Radio Frequency
Bluetooth Wireless Keyboard
Keyboard Computer Parent
Device Bluetooth protocol RF
Keyboard Transmitter Receiver Radio
Transmitter Wireless Keyboard Radio Receiver
Computer Keyboard Port USB Port Receiver Transmitter
Computer Keyboard Recognize

Wireless Keyboard Mouse Touch Pad

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Keyboard Key logging Key logging


Keyboard
Key logging Software Key logging
Device Hardware Key logging device
Key stoke
Hardware
Key logging
Hardware Software Key logging

Keystoke Logger

Key logger Keyboard Port (PS/2) USB Port


Device
Memory Space Keyboard
Key logger
Key logger
Key logger Software Hardware
( Technician -
System Administration)

Keyboard Mechanical
Key
Key Key key

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Keyboard Connector
Keyboard Quartz Crystal (IC )
Keyboard


Keyboard

Keyboard Inside Part

Keyboard Key Key


Key Key
Keyboard Connector
IC (Quartz Crystal)
Circuit

IBM Keyboard layout

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Keyboard Keyboard





Keyboard

Keyboard

Keyboard
Keyboard Keyboard
Keyboard

Keyboard
Keyboard

Pointing Devices

Mouse Pointer GUI (Graphical User Interface)


Pointing Device Point Device
Input Device ( Human Interface Device (HID)
Computer CAD System Graphical User
Interfaces (GUI) Computer Physical Gestures Point Click
Drag
Mouse Physical Desktop
Mouse Pointing Device
Screen Visual

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Pointing Device Mouse Device


"" Term Mouse
Input Mouse
Cursor Pointing Device
Fatts Target Point Speed

Pointing Device

Mouse

Mouse Horizonal
Mouse
Graphical Pointer Mouse Pointing Device
Mouse
Mouse Touch Surface Wheel

Taylor Trackball

Computer Pointing Device Mouse 1965 Bill


English Computer Aided Display Control Oxfod Dictionary
Mouse Small Computer Pointing Device
Trackball (Pointing Device) 1946 Ralph Benjamin
Comprehensive Display System (CDS) Radar

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Benjamin
Project Analog Computer Joystick Input Device
Benjamin
Input Roller ball Ball Tracker
1947 Rubber
Coated Wheel
Trackball
Electrical Engineer Kenyon Taylor Tom Cranston Fred Longstaff
DATAR Pointing Device 1952
DATAR Benjamin Device Trackball
Motion Disk X Y
direction Roller mechanical
Ball Disc
Outer rim

Telefunken Rollkugel Tackball

Douglas Engelbart Standford Research


Institute Mouse prototype 1960 Bill English
Cord Mouse
1968 2 Engelbart Rollkugel Mouse
Xerox Alto Computer
Design 1973 Xerox 8010 Start Information
System Mouse 1981 1982 Microsoft

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MS-DOS OS Mouse Compatible


Mouse OS Microsoft Mosue 1983
Microsoft Hardware Mouse 1984
Apple Macintosh 128K Macintosh 128K
Mouse Lisa Mouse
updated

Mouse
Mechanical Mouse Wireless Mouse

Ball Mouse

Telefunken Ball Mouse 1968 2


Mosue Computer
Option Equipment Bill English Ball Mouse 1972
Xerox PARC

Ball Mouse

Ball Mouse Roller 90


degree Roller
Ball
Roller Circuit Computer
Pointing Device Ball Mouse

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Ball Mosue Ball Mouse
Ball

Optical and Laser Mouse

Optical Mouse Light-emitting diode (LED)


Photodiode
Laser Mouse Optical Mosue Laser
Optical Mosue Mousepad Surface Detect
Optical Mouse
Laser Diode Resolution
Mouse Wireless Optical Mouse
Power LED LED

Wireless Optical Mouse

Inertial and gyroscopic Mouse

Mouse Air Mouse Mouse Surface


Inertial Mouse Tuning Fork Acclerometer
Axis Air Mouse Logitech Gyration

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2 degree Cursor
Pointer

3D Mouse

3D Mouse Bat Flying Mouse, Wand


Device Ultrasound 3
3DConnexion Logitch 1990
Kantek 3D RingMouse 3D
Mouse Wireless

3D Mouse Wii Remote Infrad


Tactile Mouse

2000 Logitech Tactile Mouse Mouse


actuator Mouse Mouse
haptic Feedback User Interface Argument
Vibrate

Ergonomic Mouse

Mouse

Mouse

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Gaming Mouse

Mouse Computer Game


Mouse
Mouse Real-Time Strategy
StarCraft, Dota 2 League of Legends
Mouse Grip Style

Palm Grip : Mouse

Claw Grip : Mouse

Finger Fip Grap: Mouse

Communication Protocols

Mouse
Mouse Input Computer Transfer Cable
Connector Serial, PS/2, USB Connector

Microsoft Wireless Arc Mouse


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Mouse Infrared radiation (IrDA)


Radio (Bluetooth)

Serial Interface

Mouse RS-232C Serial Port D-subminiature connector


Mouse Circuit Power Mouse
Data Mouse System Coporation version 5
byte Protocol Microsoft Version
3 byte protocol Protocol
compatibility Protocol
PC for MSC Mode

PS/2 Interface

IBM PS/2 personal computer series 1987 IBM eponymous


PS/2 interface Mouse Keyboard
Personal Computer Interface

6 pin mini-DIN () PC 5 pin
Connector Default Mode PS/2 mouse motion
3 byte packet
motion PS/2 mouse
Data 3 byte

Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0


Byte 1 YV XV YS XS 1 MB RB LB
Byte 2 X Movement
Byte 3 Y Movement

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XS YS Movement Vector Sign bit XV YV


Vector Component Overflow LB, MB RB Mouse Left,
Middle, Right Mouse Button PS/2 mouse Reset Self-test
Serveral Command
Operating Mode Motion Vector Report
Resoultion

Apple Desktop Bus

1986 Apple Apple Desktop Bus 16 device Devices


Implement Bus Configuration
Data pin Apple Bus 1998 Industry
Wide Swich USB

Apple Macintosh Mouse

USB Interface

Industry Standard USB (Universal Serial Bus) Protocol Protocol


Connector Mouse
Protocol

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Cordless Wireless

Cordless Wireless Mouse Infrared Radiation (IrDA) Radio (Bluetooth,


Wifi) Data Receiver Computer Serial
USB Port Bluetooth Wifi
Wireless Mouse USB Receiver Mouse

Mouse

Wireless Mouse

Pointing Device

Mini Mouse - Mini Mouse


Laptop
Laptop Mouse
Optical Battery USB
Port

Trackball - Trackball Pointing Device Ball Mouse


Trackball Ball
CAD Workstation
Trackball Keyboard Wireless
Trackball

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Pointing Stick - Pointing Stick Nub Joystick


Pointing stick Laptop Keyboard G, H B Key
keyboard Spacebar
Click Right Click

Pointing Stick

Touchpad - Touchpad trackpad


Laptop Computer Pointing Device
Touchpad Click Touchpad
Tap Touchpad
Pressure Gesture

Touchpad

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Monitor

Monitor Display Electronic Visual Display


Device Circuit Board Enclosure

Monitor
Thin Film Transistor Liquid Crystal Dispaly (TFT-LCD)
Monitor Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) Television
Computer Monitor Data Processing
1980 Computer Monitor Data Processing
Television Monitor
Television Monitor Common Aspect
Ratio 4:3 16:9 (16:10)

Monitor CRT, LCD LED Monitor CRT



CRT Monitor

CRT Monitor (Cathode Ray Tube Monitor)

CRT Monitor Analog Computer Display Television Set


Monitor Electron
Activate dots (Pixel) Full Image

Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)
Plasma Television Set Flat Panel Display Digital
Flat- Screen
CRT Monitor

Cathode Ray Tube

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CRT Monitor Picture Tube ()


Tube (Vacuum Tube)
CRT Monitor Filament electron
Electron
anode Beam Particle
Phosphor () Display Screen
Phosphor ultraviolet
Color
Monitor

Screen

CRT Monitor

Electron Beam copper Tube


Electron Beam Horizontal
Vertical Screen
Screen Electron Scan

Phosphor
CRT Color Dot Pixel
Pixel Pixel Screen Pixel

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Resolution
1024 x 768 Resolution 800 x 600 Resolution

Monitor CRT Monitor


Color Range LCD Flat Screen Monitor
CRT Monitor
Color Range CRT Monitor
Contrast
CRT Monitor Viewing Angle LCD Monitor

CRT Monitor LCD CRT


LCD Monitor
Refresh
Rate LCD CRT
Monitor

LCD Monitor

LCD Monitor Computer Monitor Liquid Crystal


Display LCD Screen Laptop
Flat Panel Monitor CRT Monitor

Graphic
CRT

LCD Monitor Backlight


sheet of polarized glass, a mask of colored pixels, a grid layer of responsive liquid crystal solution
Second polarized sheet of glass Degree Voltage
Electrical Charges Crystal

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Shutter
Reponse
Color pixel Screen
LCD BackLight
CCFL (Cold Cathode Fluorecent Lamps)

LCD Monitor

LCD
Passive Matrix Screen Transistor
Row Column Pixel Active-
Matix Screen Thim Film Transistor (TFT) Grid
Point Transistor Pixel Activate
Passive Matix Screen Active Matix Screen
Image

LCD Active Matix Monitor


Active Matix LCD
Aspect Ratio Resolution Contrast Ratio, Brightneess, Viewing Angle
Response Time LCD
10
CRT Monitor 30 50
LCD 90%

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CRT monitor LCD Monitor Color Range




LCD Monitor CRT Monitor

LCD Inside Parts

15 30
CRT
LCD
LCD Screen Piexel Monitor
LCD Monitor


Electromangnetic Radiation LCD Monitor

LED Monitor

LED Monitor LCD Monitor LCD


CCFL Light Emitting Diode (LED)
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LED Screen Screen



LED Diode Quality LED
module LED

LED Screen
LCD LED Monitor Pixel LED Diode
Quality LCD Monitor
LCD LED Monitor LCD Panel
Backlight LCD CCFL LED LED
Diode LED Monitor
LCD Monitor

Light-emitting Diode

3D Monitor

3D (Three Dimensional ) Monitor 3D Monitor


3D TV
3D Device 3D Monitor
Passive Active Visual Signal

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3D Monitor Image 3D 3D

3D

3D Monitor TV

3D Monitor Computer
3D TV 2D
3D Mode

3D Monitor Ative Passive


Passive Monitor Screen Screen
Monitor Image 3D
Signal Active Monitor Signal
Signal
3D
Active Passive Passive

3D Text 3D
Monitor Multimedia
Game 3D 3D
Streo Display

3D Monitor
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Montior

Monitor LCD Montior


LED Monitor CRT Monitor Monitor

Luminance Candelas per square meter (cd/m2)


Monitor Manual
Aspect Ratio Horizontal Length Vertical Length Monitor
4:3, 5:4, 16:10 16:10 Horizontal Wide
Screen
Viewable Image Size

Display Resolution Dimension Pixel
display
Resolution
dot pitch Resoultion
Monitor Resolution
Dot pitch Sub Pixel
Resolution Dot
pitch
Refresh Rate

Refresh Rate Response Time
Repsonse Time Pixel active (white) inactive (black)
milisecond
Transition
Contract Ratio Monitor Color (White)

Power Cosumpiton Watt Power Consumption

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Delta-E: Delta-E Delta-E


Delta-E
Delta-E 2 4
Viewing angle Monitor

Degree Horizontal Vertical

Monitor

Monitor TV Monitor TV
Video Tunning Monitor Electronic
Monitor Resistor Capacitor Diodes
IC CRT Monitor Monitor Cathode Ray Tube
High Voltage
LCD Monitor
CRT Power Supply
TV Hardware
Computer Monitor

Monitor
At your own risk

Monitor
Monitor
Keyboard Num Lock Key Monitor
Monitor
Monitor
Service Additional Parts

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Monitor Pixel
Monitor
Eizo Monitor
Test Software Software DVD
Eizo_Monitortest.zip Zip
Eizo_test9.exe Double Click

24

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Part III
Additional Parts

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Optical Disc Drive

Uninterruptable Power Supply

Joystick

Microphone

Speaker

Head Phone

Web Cam

Printer

Scanner

165
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Optical Disc Drive

Optical Disc Drive (ODD) Disk Drive Laser


Visible Light Spectrum Optical Disc
Optical Disc
Drive
Optical Drive Burner
Writer CD, DVD Blu-ray disc optical media
Media Optical Drive Media
Media CD, DVD Blu-ray
Drive Media Optical Drive

Blu-Ray Optical Drive

Optical Disk Drive CD Player DVD Player DVD Recorder Consumer


appliance Optical Drive Computer
Software Install
Floppy Disk Drive
Optical Drive
Optical Media Computer
Computer
Backup Media

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Disk 1972 Laservision 12 inches video disk


Video Signal analog format Video Cassette
Digital Record Optical Disc Audio Compact Disc
(CD) Read Only Format CD Philips Sony
1975 Computer Digital
Storage Device Disc Disc CD-ROM
1987 Sony 5.25
Optical Drive

CD ROM without case

Optical Disc Drive Optical Path Pickup Head


pickup head (PUH) Semiconductor Laser Lens
Laser Beam Photodiode
Disc Surface CD Laser wave
length 780 nm Infrared Range DVD Wavelength
650 nm () Blu-ray 405 nm
Wavelength Optical Drive
Servomechanism Lens Disc

Distance Laser Beam Disc
laser spot Focus Servo Disc radius

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Goove Data

Read Only Media (ROM) pit Land


Flat Surface Pit Laser Wavelength
Beam phase Reading beam
Photodiode Electrical Signal
Recorder Record CD-R, DVD-R, DVD+R BD-R
Laser Organic dye Layer Heating Part
Dye layer pits land
Recordable Disc Permanent
Media Data
Laser 5mW Laser
Writing Speed Media
Laser DVD Burner Laser
200 mW Wave pulse Drive
Diode 400 mW

Rewritable CD-RW, DVD-RW, DVD+RW, DVD-RAM BD-RE Media


Laser Disc Recording Layer Crystalline metal alloy
Substance
Crystalline Disc

Double Sided Media Media Standard Drive


Media Data
Media Double Layer (DL) Media
Data Layer Semi-reflective layer
Layer Laser

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Focus Drive Disc Lable Light


Scribe

Optical Drive Motor Disk


Lens Tray
Computer Optical Drive Interface
PATA (Parallel ATA), SATA (Serial ATA)
SCSI Interface Optical Drive SATA
Interface Hard Drive
Optical Drive
Media

CD (Compact Disc)

CD Pre-press Optical Compact Disc Data


CD-ROM Compact Disc Read Only Memory
Computer CD-ROM
Read Only Memory 2000 Computer
Software Video Game Consoles CD-ROM
CD enhanced CD Computer Data Audio File
CD-ROM audio CD
Data
CD 1.2 mm polycarbonate plastic
aluminium Surface CD-ROM
120 mm mini CD 80 mm

Laser
Pit Land Pattern
CD

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CD-ROM CD-ROM Disc


Type Sectors Approx Data Size Audio Max Size Time


8 cm 94500 184.570 MB 222.264 MB 21 Min
283500 553.711 MB 666.792 MB 63 Min
650 MB 333000 650.391 MB 783.216 MB 74 Min
700 MB 360000 703.125 MB 846.720 MB 80 Min
800 MB 405000 791.016 MB 952.560 MB 90 Min
900 MB 445500 870.117 MB 1047.816 MB 99 Min

DVD (Digital Versatile Disc)

DVD Digital Video Disc Digital Versatile Disc Digital


Disc Storage Philips, Sony, Toshiba Panasonic 1995 Develop
DVD Player
CD Capacity Disc DVD DVD
DVD-ROM, DVD (DVD-RW, DVD+RW DVD-RAM)
DVD Movie
Data Backup Backup Disc
Storage Disc Disc
DVD Capacity
DVD Layer Capacity
DVD-18 15.90 GB

DVD

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Designation Sides Layers (total) Diameter (cm) Capacity (GB)


DVD-1 SS SL 1 1 8 1.36
DVD-2 SS DL 1 2 8 2.47
DVD-3 DS SL 2 2 8 2.72
DVD-4 DS DL 2 4 8 4.95
DVD-5 SS SL 1 1 12 4.37
DVD-9 SS DL 1 2 12 7.95
DVD-10 DS SL 2 2 12 8.75
DVD-14 DS SL+DL 2 3 12 12.33
DVD-18 DS DL 2 4 12 15.90

DVD Disc DVD Burner Data


Burner Rate Burner
1x 1.39 MB
24x 33.24MB DVD
Capacity Optical Drive
Disc

Blu-Ray Disc (BD)

Blu-Ray Disc Digital optical disc data Storage format


Disc DVD Blu-Ray Disc
1080p High Defination Video
Disc Disc 120 mm 1.2 mm
CD DVD Conventional Blu-ray
Disc Layer 25 GB Layer Disc 50
GB Layer 100GB Layer
128 GB Blu-ray Blue laser
disc

DVD Information Density Lase Diode Wavelength


Capacity Blue Laser Diode Operate
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405 nm Wavelength Blu-ray Samsung Project


Philip UDO (Ultra Denstiy Optical) Diode Pioneer
DVR Blue Diode Project Blu-
ray Disc DVR Blue Prototype 2000
Sony Blu-ray Drive 2003 April 10
Blu-ray disc 2004 October
4 Blu-ray Disc Founder Blu-ray Disc Association (BDA)
20th Century Fox BDA Director 2004 Blu-ray Disc

2005 January TDK


Polymer Blu-ray Disc 2006 BD-ROM

Blu-ray 200 GB Disc

25 GB 2005 128
GB Disc Sony
200 GB Blu-ray disc Blu-ray Drive
2010 July 20 Sony Tohoku University
Blue-Voilet Laser Laser
1TB Blu-ray Disc
Sony PlayStation 3 Blu-ray

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(Ray-Electronic) TECHNICIAN (HARDWARE MAINTENANCE)

Blu-ray
DVD Blu-ray Blu-ray Layer
Capacity

Type Diameter (cm) Layer Capacity (GB)


Staandard Disc size, Single layer 12 1 25
Standard Disc Size, Dual Layer 12 2 50.1
Standard Disc Size, XL 3 Layer 12 3 100.1
Standard Disc Size, XL 4 Layer 12 4 128.0
Mini Disc Size, Single Layer 8 1 7.8
Mini Disc Size, Dual Layer 8 2 15.6

Optical Drive
Lens

Optical Drive Backward Compitable


Blu-ray Drive CD, DVD
Brand DVD DVD Drive CD
CD DVD Drive DVD

Optical Drive
Optical Drive Product
Optical Drive At your own risk

Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS)

Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) Electrical


UPS

UPS Supercapacitor

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flywheel UPS

UPS Computer Data Center Telecommunication Equipment


Electrical Equipment Power
UPS Input Power
Source
UPS
Power

Voltage Spike Overvoltage



Noise Frequency (
)
Main Frequency
Harmonic Distortion Sinusoidal Waveform

UPS

UPS

Typical UPS

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(Ray-Electronic) TECHNICIAN (HARDWARE MAINTENANCE)

UPS PC Connector PC
Software UPS Voltage

Phone Connector (RJ 11) Input/ Output Port Surge Protection

UPS

UPS On-line, Line-interactive Standby


On-line UPS AC Input Double Conversion Rechargeable
Battery DC Voltage Rectifying DC
120V/ 230V Equipement Voltage Inverting
Line-interactive UPS Inverter In Line Maintain Power
Battery DC Current Path Standby (Offline)
Load Source Power Power Power Circuit
Current Load UPS 1kVA
Standby Power
Unit Dynamic Uninterruptible Power Supply
Synchronous motor/ alternator Main Choke
Engergy Flywheel Main Power
Eddy Current Regulation Load Power Flywheel
Disel Rotary Uninterruptible Power Supply (DRUPS)
Disel Generator UPS
Disel Generator
UPS

Offline/ Standby

Offline/ Standby UPS Surge


Protection Battery Backup UPS
Equipment Main Power

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Voltage
SPS Internal Storage Battery Power DC-AC Inverter Circuit
UPS Mechanical DC-AC inverter
output 25
UPS Personal Computer
Equipment

Offline UPS Operation

Line-Interactive

Line-Interactive UPS Standby UPS


Autotransformer
Transformer Wire Coil Power

Transformer Buck-boost transformer

UPS Power

UPS UPS
Main Transformer Line Voltage Battery
Voltage Ratio
Battery Voltage Line Voltage

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(Ray-Electronic) TECHNICIAN (HARDWARE MAINTENANCE)

Line Voltage Battery Voltage Battery Charging Voltage


Voltage Charging Voltage
13-14 Volt

UPS Anutotransformer Input Voltage


90 V 240V
UPS Voltage
Current 1000 W UPS
120 V UPS 8.33 A UPS 220
V
4.515 A Volt
Load Current

Line Interactive UPS Operation

Online/ double-conversion

Online UPS Battery Inverter Power


Power
Rectifier Battery
Rectifier Load
UPS Electrical Firewall Incoming Utility Power
Sensitive Electronic Equipment

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Input Power Rectifier DC Current


Rectifier Input Power
Voltage
DC Current Charging DC Current AC
Current Invert DC Current
Voltage
UPS
Auto Voltage TV Digital
Voltage
Safe guard

UPS

UPS Inverter


Short Circuit UPS Fuse Fuse
Fuse
Ampere Fuse
Load Resistance Equipment
Fuse
Ampere Fuse

UPS Inside Parts

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(Ray-Electronic) TECHNICIAN (HARDWARE MAINTENANCE)

Battery UPS
Positive Negative
UPS
Casing UPS Circuit
Rectifier Filter
Capacitor Capacitor
Circuit

Transistor Rectifier Transformer


Service

Joystick

Joystick Input Device


Joystick Video Game
Joystick

Joystick Vibration

Joy Stick

179
(Ray-Electronic) TECHNICIAN (HARDWARE MAINTENANCE)

Joystick Design
Joystick Steering, Gear Stick,
Lever, Brake Control

Electrical Joystick C.B. Mirick United State Naval


Research Laboratory 1926 Naval Research Laboratory
Remote Control Aircraft Joystick
Aircraft
Joystick 1944 Develop Joystick German
FunkgeratFUG 203 kehl Radio Control Transmitter
1960 Joystick
Radio Radio Controll Aircraft
Joystick Wheelchair Permobil
(1963) NASA Apollo mission Joystick
Device NASA lunar lander
Model Joystick

Video Game Ralph H. Baer Magnavox Odyssey


1972 Video Game Joystick
1967 Screen Spot Horizontal vertical position
Controller
Electronic Game Joystick Fire
Button Joystick Sega 1969 Arcade Game Missile
Shooter Simulation Game

Taito Four way joystick Racing Video Game Astro Race 1973
1975 Western Gun Dual-stick
Joystick Support
Arcade
Connector Controller

180
(Ray-Electronic) TECHNICIAN (HARDWARE MAINTENANCE)

Joystick Connector Joystick


Port Sound Card 9 pin
DB Connector Female Port Analog
Joystick Digital joystick USB Connector

Joystick Microsoft Windows OS


Calibration Start >Run Run
box joy.cpl Enter Dialogbox

Joystick Driver CD Install


Controller Joystick Joystick
Support Joystick Properties
Dialogbox
Test Tab joystick
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(Ray-Electronic) TECHNICIAN (HARDWARE MAINTENANCE)

Settings
Tab Click

() Calibrate
Calibration Wizard Next click

() Joystick
Joystick X-Y Axis

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(Ray-Electronic) TECHNICIAN (HARDWARE MAINTENANCE)

() Z Rotation

Joystick Z Axis Finish
Calibration Wizard

Joystick

Joystick PC

Joystick physical Circuit Electronic
Joystick
Multimeter
electronic

Microphone

Microphone Chatting
Headphone Microphone
Microphone
Music Recording Studio
Microphone
Microphone

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(Ray-Electronic) TECHNICIAN (HARDWARE MAINTENANCE)

Microphone Analog Digital



Microphone
Dynamic Microphone, Condenser Microphone Piezoelectric Microphone
Microphone

Condenser Microphone, Dynamic Microphone & Fiber Optic Microphone

Microphone Carbon Microphone


England David Edwared Hughes Emile Berliner Thomas Edison
Develop Microphone Carbon
Electrical Coil
Electrical Signal Microphone

Condenser Microphone
Dynamic Microphone
Ribbon Microphone
Piezoelectric Microphone
Fiber Optic Microphone
Laser Microphone
MEMS (MicroElectrical-Mechanical System) Microphone
Speaker Microphone

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(Ray-Electronic) TECHNICIAN (HARDWARE MAINTENANCE)

Microphone
Microphone
Internet

Speaker

Speaker
Integrated Sound Sound Card
Multimedia (Songs & Movie) Computer OS Alert Tone
Speaker Wire
Coil
Audio Signal AC Current Coil

Computer Speaker

Speak
Frequency Surround
Speaker
Circuit
Laptop Speaker Integrated built-in

185
(Ray-Electronic) TECHNICIAN (HARDWARE MAINTENANCE)

Speaker Speaker
Amplifier Amp Amp
Speaker Internet

Headphone

Headphone Head
phone Earphone bluetooth earphone

Brandes Radio Headphones, 1920

Earphone (Headphone) 1910 Nathaniel Baldwin


United States Navy 1943 John C. Koss
Stereo Headphone Telephone Operator
Headphone Standard Device Personal Computer
CD, DVD Player Mobile
Headphone Speaker Headphone


186
(Ray-Electronic) TECHNICIAN (HARDWARE MAINTENANCE)

Earbuds & Ear Monitor

Voice Chat Handset & Bluetooth Handset

Webcam

Webcam Video Camera Computer


Quality Webcam
VZO, pfingo, skype
Webcam

Internet
Webcam USB Interface

187
(Ray-Electronic) TECHNICIAN (HARDWARE MAINTENANCE)

Webcam Lens Image Sensor


Electronic Microphone
Lens Plastic Lens
Lens Screw Focus Fixed
Focus Lens Lens

Webcam Inside Parts

Image Sensor CMOS CCD Webcam VGA


Resolution Frame 30
Device Video Multi-Megapixel Resoultion
Webcam RGB
Webcam Device

Printer

Printer Peripheral Device ( )

Printer 19
Charles Babbage Printer
Printer

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(Ray-Electronic) TECHNICIAN (HARDWARE MAINTENANCE)

Printer
Printer

Printer

Personal Printer Computer


Printer
Print 6
25 Print
Printer Memory Card Mobile Phone Digital
Camera Print

HP Laser Printer

Network Shared Printer High-Volume, High Speed Printer


Printer Network
Printer 45 100 Print

Virtual Printer Computer Software Printer


Printer PDF File Print

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(Ray-Electronic) TECHNICIAN (HARDWARE MAINTENANCE)

3D Printer 3D model Electronic Data Source Three


Dimensional Object Printer Two
Dimensional Document Injeck Printer

Gameboy Pocket Printer

Printer

Printer
Print Printer Print

Printer Carbon Paper Transparencies


Physical Media

Printer Printer
Injet Head Fabric Ribbon
Printing Laser Printer
Print Printer
Print
Printer

Printer USB Connector


Parallel Port Wireless Printer

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(Ray-Electronic) TECHNICIAN (HARDWARE MAINTENANCE)

Printer

Printer Printer

Laser Printer

Laser Printer Toner-Based Printer Laser Printer



Digital Photocopier
Multifuction Printer Laser Printer xerographic printing
Analog Photocopier Laser Printer
Printer Photoreceptor

Toner Printer LED Printer LED array Laser


Toner

Liquid Injet Printers

Injet Printer Print Printer


Epison Printer
Injet Printer

Solid Ink Printers

Solid Ink Printer Phase Change Printer Thermal Transfer Printer


Printer Solid Stick CMYK
Printer
Piezo Crystal Print-head
Printhead Drum
Image Solid Ink Printer

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(Ray-Electronic) TECHNICIAN (HARDWARE MAINTENANCE)

Laser Printer

Dye-sublimation printers

Dye-sublimation Printer Plastic Card Canvas


Printer Printer Ribbon
Printer

Inkless printers

Printer Heat-sensitive paper region


Monochrome thermal printer Cash register ATM
Fax Machine
Paper

Coloured sheet Printer
ZINK (Zero INK Technology) Printer

Printer

Printer Controls - Printer Control Character Character Sequence


Printer Function Printer Control Standard
Control IBM Personal
Printer Data Stream (PPDS) Command Set Dot-Matix Printer
Laser Printer Hewlett-Packard Printer Command Language (PCL)
Compatible PostScript Page Description Language

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(Ray-Electronic) TECHNICIAN (HARDWARE MAINTENANCE)

Printing Speed - Printer Character per minute (cpm)


lines per minute (lpm) Printer pages per
minute (ppm)
A4 Paper Letter Paper
5-10%

Printer

Printer
Laser Printer Solid Ink Printer Ink
Jet Printer Printer
Hardware Software Hardware
Printer
Printer
Printer

Software Inkjet Printer


Ink Pad Counter, Paper Counter, Timer Counter Counter
Printer Software
Printer Resetter Software
Reset Software Printer Model
Printer

Scanner

Image Scanner Computer


Digital Image
Scanner Flatbed Scanner
Scanner Hand-held Scanner Scanner

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(Ray-Electronic) TECHNICIAN (HARDWARE MAINTENANCE)

Scanner 3D Scanner
Reverse Engineering Professional
Scanner Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) Contact Image
Sensor (CIS) Image Sensor Digital Camera Scanner

Desktop Scanner

Scanner Telephotography Fax Input Device


Pantelegraph Telegraph Ciovanni Caselli
1860 Device Electromagnet Pendulum
Source Distant Location Image
Scan

Device Handwriting, Signature 100 mm 150 Area


Scan 1913
Edouard Belin Belinograph Device
Photocell

Scanner Scanner

Pantelegraph

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(Ray-Electronic) TECHNICIAN (HARDWARE MAINTENANCE)

Scanner

Drum Scanner- photomultiplier tube PMT


Reflective Transmissive Acrylic Cylinder Mount Scanner Drum
Scan Object
Precision Optic PMT
Drum Scanner PMT
Image
Digital Signal Drum Scanner
2014 Drum Scanner

Flatbed CCD Scanner - Scanner Glass Pane (Platen)


Xenon, LED Cold Cathode Fluore-
scent Pane CCD Scanning
Optical Array CCD Type Scanner
Row (Array) CCD Scanner
Scanner

CCD Scanner Operation

CIS Scanner - CIS Scanner LED


monochromatic photodiode
Lens Array Scan
Scanner

195
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Scanner Roller Scanner, 3D Scanner, Planetary Scanner, Hand Document


Scanner, Hand 3D Scanner Portable Scanner Scanner
Scanner Scanner

Scanner Computer USB Connector


Scanner Peripheral Device
Scanner

196
(Ray-Electronic) TECHNICIAN (HARDWARE MAINTENANCE)

Part IV
Information & Testings

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198
(Ray-Electronic) TECHNICIAN (HARDWARE MAINTENANCE)

Hardwares' Information

Testing

Troubleshooting

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(Ray-Electronic) TECHNICIAN (HARDWARE MAINTENANCE)

Hardwares Information

Hardware Information Hardware


Software
Hardware
Manual Documentary
Casing Hardware

Hardware
Software

Information Software Windows


OS CPUz Software
Windows OS
CPUz

Windows OS

System Properties
My Computer Right Click Pop-up Menu Properties
Windows Pause/Break

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(Ray-Electronic) TECHNICIAN (HARDWARE MAINTENANCE)

Manufacture
Motherboard msi MSI Motherboard
Processor CPU Clock Speed
Intel Core2 Quad CPU Clock Speed 2.67
Install Memory 4.00 GB
Install Memory RAM


CPU Socket
CPU Code Name RAM 4GB
RAM Clock Speed

DirectX Diagnostic Tool


Tool Run Box dxdiag Enter

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(Ray-Electronic) TECHNICIAN (HARDWARE MAINTENANCE)

DirectX Diagnostic Tool Hardware


DirectX Diagnostic Tool Graphic Card
Graphic Card
Display Tab Click

Graphic Card NVIDIA


Graphic Card Graphic Card 3791 MB
3.7 GB Graphic Card
Memory Share

CPUZ Software Hardware Information

CPUZ

CPUZ Software CPUID Program Franck Delattre


DVD
Software
Portable version Portable Version
Software Install
DVD CPU-Z Portable.rar WIN RAR
Software Rar cpuz.exe

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(Ray-Electronic) TECHNICIAN (HARDWARE MAINTENANCE)



CPU CPU
Code Name Socket

() CPU Cache Descriptor


Mainboard Tab Click

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(Ray-Electronic) TECHNICIAN (HARDWARE MAINTENANCE)

() Model Chipset
Southbridge ()
RAM

Tab CPUZ Software
Hardware Casing Manual
Computer Technician Software

Testing

Computer Hardware Software Computer


System Software Professional Level
Software BurnInTest
DVD Version Version 8
Lincense Key 30 Version 7
Lincense Key Full Version
BurnInTest Software Feature

BurnInTest Manual Guide
DVD PDF Version

DVD PassMark BurnInTest Pro 7.0.rar Extract


Zip PassMark BurnIn Test Pro 7.0 Folder folder
Windows 32bit 64bit Click
Next I accept the agreement Option
Next Click

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(Ray-Electronic) TECHNICIAN (HARDWARE MAINTENANCE)

Installation Next Install


Finish

Username and key Serial Key Key.txt


Continue Register

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Option
Start

CD/DVD Drive
OK

OK Speaker

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(Ray-Electronic) TECHNICIAN (HARDWARE MAINTENANCE)

Error
Pass Computer Fail
OK Click

Error Device Error


Optical Drive

Manual

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(Ray-Electronic) TECHNICIAN (HARDWARE MAINTENANCE)

Troubleshooting

Troubleshooting PC Analyzer Hardware


PC Analyzer
Motherboard Error
PC Analyzer

PC Analyzer

PC Analyzer Hardware
Motherboard Expansion Slot
Motherboard, CPU, RAM, Power Supply
Hardware
PC Analyzer
Code Code Analyzer

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(Ray-Electronic) TECHNICIAN (HARDWARE MAINTENANCE)

Error Code PC Analyzer


Code DVD
PC Analyzer User Guide.pdf Analyzer
Manual PC Analyzer
Error Technician
Hardware Troubleshooting Device

209