Modelo de Radio Propagación

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Modelo de Radio Propagación

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Contents

Articles

Okumura Model 1

Hata Model for Open Areas 3

COST Hata model 4

Radio propagation model 6

Hata Model for Urban Areas 9

Hata Model for Suburban Areas 11

References

Article Sources and Contributors 12

Article Licenses

License 13

Okumura Model 1

Okumura Model

The Okumura model for Urban Areas is a Radio propagation model that was built using the data collected in the

city of Tokyo, Japan. The model is ideal for using in cities with many urban structures but not many tall blocking

structures. The model served as a base for the Hata Model.

Okumura model was built into three modes. The ones for urban, suburban and open areas. The model for urban areas

was built first and used as the base for others.

Coverage

Frequency = 150MHz to 1920MHz

Mobile station antenna height: between 1 m and 10 m

Base station antenna height: between 30 m and 1000 m

Link distance: between 1km and 100km

Mathematical formulation

The Okumura model is formally expressed as:

where,

L = The median path loss. Unit: Decibel (dB)

LFSL = The Free Space Loss. Unit: Decibel (dB)

AMU = Median attenuation. Unit: Decibel (dB)

HMG = Mobile station antenna height gain factor.

HBG = Base station antenna height gain factor.

Kcorrection = Correction factor gain (such as type of environment, water surfaces, isolated obstacle etc.)

Points to note

Okumura's model is one of the most widely used models for signal prediction in urban areas. This model is

applicable for frequencies in the range 150MHz to 1920MHz (although it is typically extrapolated up to 3000MHz)

and distances of 1km to 100km. It can be used for base station antenna heights ranging from 30 m to 1000 m.

Okumura developed a set of curves giving the median attenuation relative to free space (Arnu), in an urban area over

a quasi-smooth terrain with a base station effective antenna height (hte) of 200 m and a mobile antenna height (hre)

of 3 m. These curves were developed from extensive measurements using vertical omni-directional antennas at both

the base and mobile, and are plotted as a function of frequency in the range 100MHz to 1920MHz and as a function

of distance from the base station in the range 1km to 100km. To determine path loss using Okumura's model, the

free space path loss between the points of interest is first determined, and then the value of Amu(f, d) (as read from

the curves) is added to it along with correction factors to account for the type of terrain. The model can be expressed

as

where L50 is the 50th percentile (i.e., median) value of propagation path loss, LF is the free space propagation loss,

Amu is the median attenuation relative to free space, G(hte) is the base station antenna height gain factor, G(hre) is

the mobile antenna height gain factor, and GAREA is the gain due to the type of environment. Note that the antenna

Okumura Model 2

height gains are strictly a function of height and have nothing to do with antenna patterns.

Plots of Amu(f, d) and GAREA for a wide range of frequencies are shown in Figure 3,23 and Figure 3.24.

Furthermore, Okumura found that G(hte) varies at a rate of 20 dB/decade and G(hre) varies at a rate of 10 dB/decade

for heights less than 3 m. G(hte) = 20 log(hte/200) 1000 m > hte > 30 m G(hre) = 10 log(hre/3) hre <= 3 m G(hre) =

20 log (hre/3) 10 m > hre > 3 m Other corrections may also be applied to Okumura's model. Some of the important

terrain related parameters are the terrain undulation height (A/i), isolated ridge height, average slope of the terrain

and the mixed land-sea parameter. Once the terrain related parameters are calculated, the necessary correction factors

can be added or subtracted as required. All these correction factors are also available as Okumura curves [0ku68].

Okumura's model is wholly based on measured data and does not provide any analytical explanation. For many

situations, extrapolations of the derived curves can be made to obtain values outside the measurement range,

although the validity of such extrapolations depends on the circumstances and the smoothness of the curve in

question.

Okumura's model is considered to be among the simplest and best in terms of accuracy in path loss prediction for

mature cellular and land mobile radio systems in cluttered environmehts. It is very practical and has become a

standard for system planning in modern land mobile radio systems in Japan. The major disadvantage with the model

is its slow response to rapid changes in terrain, therefore the model is fairly good in urban and suburban areas, but

not as good in rural areas. Common standard deviations between predicted and measured path loss values are around

10 dB to 14 dB.

Further reading

Introduction to RF propagation, John S. Seybold, 2005, Wiley.

External links

VOLCANO advanced radio propagation model [1] including both direct-path and multi-path (ray-tracing) models

References

[1] http:/ / www. siradel. com

Hata Model for Open Areas 3

The Hata Model for Open Areas, also known as the Okumura-Hata model for being a developed version of the

Okumura Model, is the most widely used model in radio frequency propagation for predicting the behavior of

cellular transmissions in open areas. This model incorporates the graphical information from Okumura model and

develops it further to better suit the need. This model also has two more varieties for transmission in Urban Areas

and Suburban Areas.

Hata Model for open areas predicts the total path loss along a link of terrestrial microwave or other type of cellular

communications. And is a function of transmission frequency and the median path loss in urban areas.

This particular version of Hata model is applicable to the transmissions in open areas where no obstructions block

the transmission link

This model is suited for both point-to-point and broadcast transmissions.

Coverage

Frequency: 150 MHz to 1.5 GHz

Mathematical formulation

The Hata model for open areas is formulated as:

where

LO = Path loss in open area. Unit: decibel (dB)

LU = Path loss in urban areas for small sized city. Unit: decibel (dB)

f = Frequency of transmission. Unit: Megahertz (MHz).

Points to note

This model is dependent on the Hata Model for Urban Areas.

References

[1] Okumura, Y. a kol.: Field Strength and its Variability in VHF and UHF Land-Mobile

Radio Service. Rev. Elec. Comm. Lab. No.9-10pp. 825 - 873, 1968.

[2] Hata, M.: Empirical Formula for Propagation Loss in Land Mobile Radio Services.

IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technology, VT-29, pp. 317 - 325, 1980.

Further reading

Introduction to RF propagation, John S. Seybold, 2005, John Wiley and Sons Inc.

COST Hata model 4

The COST-Hata-Model is a radio propagation model that extends the urban Hata Model (which in turn is based on

the Okumura Model) to cover a more elaborated range of frequencies. It is the most often cited of the COST 231

models (EU funded research project ca. April 1986 - April 1996),[1] also called the Hata Model PCS Extension.[2]

COST (COopration europenne dans le domaine de la recherche Scientifique et Technique) is a European Union

Forum for cooperative scientific research which has developed this model accordingly to various experiments and

researches.

This model is applicable to urban areas. To further evaluate Path Loss in Suburban or Rural Quasi-open/Open Areas,

this path loss has to be substituted into Urban to Rural/Urban to Suburban Conversions. (Ray GAO, 09 Sep 2007)

Coverage

Frequency: 1500MHz to 2000MHz

Mobile Station Antenna Height: 1 up to 10m

Base station Antenna Height: 30m to 200m

Link Distance: 1 up to 20km

Mathematical Formulation

The COST-Hata-Model is formulated as,

Where,

L = Median path loss. Unit: Decibel (dB)

f = Frequency of Transmission. Unit: Megahertz (MHz)

hB = Base Station Antenna effective height. Unit: Meter (m)

d = Link distance. Unit: Kilometer (km)

hR = Mobile Station Antenna effective height. Unit: Meter (m)

a(hR) = Mobile station Antenna height correction factor as described in the Hata Model for Urban Areas..

COST Hata model 5

Points to Note

The European Co-operative for Scientific and Technical research (EUROCOST) formed the COST-231 working

committee to develop an extended version of the Hata model. COST-231 proposed the following formula to extend

Hata's model to 2GHz. The proposed model for path loss is

L50(urban) = 46.3 + 33.9 log fc - 13.82 log hte - a (hre) + (44.9 - 6.55 log hte) log d + Cm where a(hre) is the

correction factor for effective mobile antenna height which is a function of the size of the coverage area.

Cm =

range of parameters:

f : 1500MHz to 2000MHz

hte :3Om to 200m

hre :lm to lOm

d :lkm to 20km

Limitations

This model requires that the base station antenna is higher than all adjacent rooftops.

References

[1] http:/ / www. cost. eu/ domains_actions/ ict/ Actions/ 231 COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) website

[2] Final report for COST Action 231, Chapter 4 (http:/ / www. lx. it. pt/ cost231/ final_report. htm)

Radio propagation model 6

A radio propagation model, also known as the Radio Wave Propagation Model or the Radio Frequency

Propagation Model, is an empirical mathematical formulation for the characterization of radio wave propagation as a

function of frequency, distance and other conditions. A single model is usually developed to predict the behavior of

propagation for all similar links under similar constraints. Created with the goal of formalizing the way radio waves

are propagated from one place to another, such models typically predict the path loss along a link or the effective

coverage area of a transmitter.

Characteristics

As the path loss encountered along any radio link serves as the dominant factor for characterization of propagation

for the link, radio propagation models typically focus on realization of the path loss with the auxiliary task of

predicting the area of coverage for a transmitter or modeling the distribution of signals over different regions.

Because each individual telecommunication link has to encounter different terrain, path, obstructions, atmospheric

conditions and other phenomena, it is intractable to formulate the exact loss for all telecommunication systems in a

single mathematical equation. As a result, different models exist for different types of radio links under different

conditions. The models rely on computing the median path loss for a link under a certain probability that the

considered conditions will occur.

Development methodology

Radio propagation models are empirical in nature, which means, they are developed based on large collections of

data collected for the specific scenario. For any model, the collection of data has to be sufficiently large to provide

enough likeliness (or enough scope) to all kind of situations that can happen in that specific scenario. Like all

empirical models, radio propagation models do not point out the exact behavior of a link, rather, they predict the

most likely behavior the link may exhibit under the specified conditions.

Variations

Different models have been developed to meet the needs of realizing the propagation behavior in different

conditions. Types of models for radio propagation include:

Models for indoor applications

Models for outdoor applications

Ground wave propagation models

Sky wave propagation models

Environmental Attenuation models

Point-to-Point propagation models

Terrain models

City Models

Radio propagation model 7

Near-earth propagation models

Foliage models

Weissberger's modified exponential decay model

Early ITU Model

Updated ITU model

One Woodland Terminal Model

Single Vegetative Obstruction Model

Terrain models

Egli Model

LongleyRice model

ITU Terrain Model

City models

Young Model

Okumura Model

Hata Model for Urban Areas

Hata Model for Suburban Areas

Hata Model for Open Areas

COST Hata model

Area to Area Lee Model

Point to Point Lee Model

Band-specific models

2.4GHz (ISM Band, of particular interest for WiFi)

Green-Obaidat Model

ITU Model for Indoor Attenuation

Log-distance path loss model

Rain attenuation model

ITU rain attenuation model

ITU rain attenuation model for satellites

Crane global model

Crane two-component model

Crane model for satellite paths

DAH model

Radio propagation model 8

Classical (antenna gains are orthogonal to propagation effects)

Directional beam scattering

Greenstein-Erceg

Environmental Directivity Antenna Model (EDAM)

References

External links

IEEE Vehicular Technology Society - Propagation Committee (http://www.vtsociety.org/)

Irregular Terrain Model (Longley-Rice) (http://flattop.its.bldrdoc.gov/itm.html)

CRC-COVWEB - A free online program for calculating radio wave propagation and coverage (http://lrcov.crc.

ca)

Radio Mobile - A free program for radio propagation (http://www.cplus.org/rmw/english1.html)

RadioWORKS -- A freeware program for calculating radio wave propagation, path loss, and frequency

information (http://deserthail.com)

SPLAT! - A GPL program for linux, with windows port (http://www.qsl.net/kd2bd/splat.html)

EDAM web page and source code (http://systems.cs.colorado.edu/mediawiki/index.php/EDAM)

Propagation Models for 3GPP LTE Networks (http://sites.google.com/site/lteencyclopedia/

lte-radio-link-budgeting-and-rf-planning)

The following external references provide practical examples of radio propagation concepts as demonstrated using

software built on the VOACAP model.

Online MOF/LOF HF Propagation Prediction Tool (http://www.hamqsl.com/solar1.html#moflof)

High Frequency radio propagation de-mystified. (http://hfradio.org/ace-hf/ace-hf-demystified.html)

Is High Frequency radio propagation reciprocal? (http://hfradio.org/ace-hf/ace-hf-reciprocal.html)

How does noise affect radio signals? (http://hfradio.org/ace-hf/ace-hf-noise.html)

MSAM propagation simulator (http://ntiacsd.ntia.doc.gov/msam/)

Hata Model for Urban Areas 9

In wireless communication, the Hata Model for Urban Areas, also known as the Okumura-Hata model for being a

developed version of the Okumura Model, is the most widely used radio frequency propagation model for predicting

the behaviour of cellular transmissions in built up areas. This model incorporates the graphical information from

Okumura model and develops it further to realize the effects of diffraction, reflection and scattering caused by city

structures. This model also has two more varieties for transmission in Suburban Areas and Open Areas.

Hata Model predicts the total path loss along a link of terrestrial microwave or other type of cellular

communications.

This particular version of the Hata model is applicable to the radio propagation within urban areas.

This model is suited for both point-to-point and broadcast transmissions and it is based on extensive empirical

measurements taken.

PCS is another extension of the Hata model. The Walfisch and Bertoni Model is further advanced.

Coverage

Frequency: 150 MHz to 1500 MHz

Mobile Station Antenna Height: between 1 m and 10 m

Base station Antenna Height: between 30 m and 200 m

Link distance: between 1km and 20km.

Mathematical formulation

The Hata Model for Urban Areas is formulated as following:

where

= Path loss in Urban Areas. Unit: decibel (dB)

= Height of base station Antenna. Unit: meter (m)

= Height of mobile station Antenna. Unit: meter (m)

= Frequency of Transmission. Unit: Megahertz (MHz).

= Antenna height correction factor

= Distance between the base and mobile stations. Unit: kilometer (km).

Hata Model for Urban Areas 10

A model developed by Walfisch and Bertoni [Wa]88] considers the impact of rooftops and building height by using

diffraction to predict average signal strength at street level. The model considers the path loss, S, to be a product of

three factors. S = Po Q2 P1 where P0 represents free space path loss between isotropic antennas given by

Po = (lambda / 4 pai R)2 (whole square) The factor Q2 gives the reduction in the rooftop signal due to the row of

buildings which immediately shadow the receiver at street level. The P1 term is based upon diffraction and

determines the signal loss from the rooftop to the street. In dB, the path loss is given by S(dB) =Lo+Lrts+Lms

where L0 represents free space loss, Lrts represents the "rooftop-to-street diffraction and scatter loss", and Lms

denotes multiscreen thffiaction loss due to the rows of buildings [X1a92]. This model is being considered for use by

ITU-R in the IMT-2000 standards activities.

THIS PARAGRAPH IS FROM THE BOOK: Wireless Communications by Theodore S. Rappaport, p120 &121, ch

3.10.6

Limitations

Though based on the Okumura Model, the Hata model does not provide coverage to the whole range of frequencies

covered by Okumura Model. Hata model does not go beyond 1500 MHz while Okumura provides support for up to

1920 MHz.

References

External links

"On the use of the universal Okumura-Hata propagation predictionmodel in rural areas" IEEE Explore (http://

ieeexplore.ieee.org/Xplore/login.jsp?url=http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/6849/18409/00851585.pdf&

authDecision=-203) Retrieved on April 12, 2009

VOLCANO advanced radio propagation model (http://www.siradel.com) including both direct-path and

multi-path ray-tracing models

Hata Model for Suburban Areas 11

The Hata Model for Suburban Areas, also known as the Okumura-Hata model for being a developed version of

the Okumura Model, is the most widely used model in radio frequency propagation for predicting the behavior of

cellular transmissions in city outskirts and other rural areas. This model incorporates the graphical information from

Okumura model and develops it further to better suite the need. This model also has two more varieties for

transmission in Urban Areas and Open Areas.

Hata Model predicts the total path loss along a link of terrestrial microwave or other type of cellular

communications. And is a function of transmission frequency and the average path loss in urban areas.

This particular version of Hata model is applicable to the transmissions just out of the cities and on rural areas where

man-made structures are there but not so high and dense as in the cities. To be more precise, this model is suitable

where buildings exist, but the mobile station does not have a significant variation of its height.

This model is suited for both point-to-point and broadcast transmissions.

Coverage

Frequency: 150 MHz to 1.50 GHz

Mathematical Formulation

Hata Model for Suburban Areas is formulated as,

Where,

LSU = Path loss in suburban areas. Unit: decibel (dB)

LU = Average Path loss in urban areas for small sized city. Unit: decibel (dB)

f = Frequency of Transmission. Unit: megahertz (MHz).

Points to note

This model is based on Hata Model for Urban Areas and uses the median path loss from urban areas.

Further reading

Introduction to RF propagation, John S. Seybold, 2005, John Wiley and Sons Inc.

References

[1] Okamura, Y. a kol.: Field Strength and its Variability in VHF and UHF Land-Mobile Radio Service. Rev. Elec.

Comm. Lab. No.9-10pp. 825 - 873, 1968.

[2] Hata, M.: Empirical Formula for Propagation Loss in Land Mobile Radio Services. IEEE Trans. Vehicular

Technology, VT-29, pp. 317 - 325, 1980.

Article Sources and Contributors 12

Okumura Model Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=498377246 Contributors: Bakkster Man, Hytar, Jasonuher, Mapabhi1234, Pixel ;-), Sayutee, Sun Creator, 23 anonymous

edits

Hata Model for Open Areas Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=565305220 Contributors: Bakkster Man, Dimaf, Eeveetza, Extraordinary, Foobarian, Gene Nygaard, MaxDel,

Nihonjoe, Pot, Sayutee, Vikpanghal, 9 anonymous edits

COST Hata model Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=535915729 Contributors: Addshore, Balloonguy, Bart133, Bejnar, Brandon, Cavarrone, Edgar181,

GreatWhiteNortherner, Guillaume2303, JohnBlackburne, Mapabhi1234, Mywikie, Pixel ;-), Pot, Sayutee, Sun Creator, The imp, TheAllSeeingEye, Xavier.Pourtauborde, 21 anonymous edits

Radio propagation model Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=572155894 Contributors: AvicAWB, Bill william compton, Chizs macx, Chzz, Cjpuffin, Dicklyon, Doris Camire,

Frap, Ga obaidat, Grubber, Harryzilber, Harumphy, Hertz1888, J3gum, JohnTechnologist, KLuwak, Lesser Cartographies, Mange01, Matyos1, Mellery, Michael Hardy, N0nbh, NW7US, Pot,

Sayutee, Sean2074, Siradelsas, Splash, Tentinator, TexasAndroid, Veganacity, 28 anonymous edits

Hata Model for Urban Areas Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=534649870 Contributors: BD2412, DW1492, Evil saltine, Extraordinary, Fg2, Gene Nygaard, Ipatrol,

JHunterJ, Jasonuher, King of Hearts, Leandropls, Lmendo, Mange01, Mapabhi1234, Nihonjoe, PhilKnight, Pixel ;-), Reflex Reaction, Sarthak jain, Sayutee, Selimoloji, Tabletop, Uncle G,

Wikieditor06, 26 anonymous edits

Hata Model for Suburban Areas Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=565304920 Contributors: 2601:0:9300:75:15B0:6A66:E36:250E, Abu-Fool Danyal ibn Amir al-Makhiri,

Eeveetza, Extraordinary, Gene Nygaard, Nihonjoe, Sayutee, Vikpanghal, 11 anonymous edits

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 13

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