You are on page 1of 15

Modelo Okumura Hata

PDF generated using the open source mwlib toolkit. See http://code.pediapress.com/ for more information.
PDF generated at: Thu, 26 Sep 2013 04:28:41 UTC
Contents
Articles
Okumura Model 1
Hata Model for Open Areas 3
COST Hata model 4
Radio propagation model 6
Hata Model for Urban Areas 9
Hata Model for Suburban Areas 11

References
Article Sources and Contributors 12

Article Licenses
License 13
Okumura Model 1

Okumura Model
The Okumura model for Urban Areas is a Radio propagation model that was built using the data collected in the
city of Tokyo, Japan. The model is ideal for using in cities with many urban structures but not many tall blocking
structures. The model served as a base for the Hata Model.
Okumura model was built into three modes. The ones for urban, suburban and open areas. The model for urban areas
was built first and used as the base for others.

Coverage
Frequency = 150MHz to 1920MHz
Mobile station antenna height: between 1 m and 10 m
Base station antenna height: between 30 m and 1000 m
Link distance: between 1km and 100km

Mathematical formulation
The Okumura model is formally expressed as:

where,
L = The median path loss. Unit: Decibel (dB)
LFSL = The Free Space Loss. Unit: Decibel (dB)
AMU = Median attenuation. Unit: Decibel (dB)
HMG = Mobile station antenna height gain factor.
HBG = Base station antenna height gain factor.
Kcorrection = Correction factor gain (such as type of environment, water surfaces, isolated obstacle etc.)

Points to note
Okumura's model is one of the most widely used models for signal prediction in urban areas. This model is
applicable for frequencies in the range 150MHz to 1920MHz (although it is typically extrapolated up to 3000MHz)
and distances of 1km to 100km. It can be used for base station antenna heights ranging from 30 m to 1000 m.
Okumura developed a set of curves giving the median attenuation relative to free space (Arnu), in an urban area over
a quasi-smooth terrain with a base station effective antenna height (hte) of 200 m and a mobile antenna height (hre)
of 3 m. These curves were developed from extensive measurements using vertical omni-directional antennas at both
the base and mobile, and are plotted as a function of frequency in the range 100MHz to 1920MHz and as a function
of distance from the base station in the range 1km to 100km. To determine path loss using Okumura's model, the
free space path loss between the points of interest is first determined, and then the value of Amu(f, d) (as read from
the curves) is added to it along with correction factors to account for the type of terrain. The model can be expressed
as

L50(dB) = LF + Amu(f, d)- G(hte) G(hre) Garea

where L50 is the 50th percentile (i.e., median) value of propagation path loss, LF is the free space propagation loss,
Amu is the median attenuation relative to free space, G(hte) is the base station antenna height gain factor, G(hre) is
the mobile antenna height gain factor, and GAREA is the gain due to the type of environment. Note that the antenna
Okumura Model 2

height gains are strictly a function of height and have nothing to do with antenna patterns.
Plots of Amu(f, d) and GAREA for a wide range of frequencies are shown in Figure 3,23 and Figure 3.24.
Furthermore, Okumura found that G(hte) varies at a rate of 20 dB/decade and G(hre) varies at a rate of 10 dB/decade
for heights less than 3 m. G(hte) = 20 log(hte/200) 1000 m > hte > 30 m G(hre) = 10 log(hre/3) hre <= 3 m G(hre) =
20 log (hre/3) 10 m > hre > 3 m Other corrections may also be applied to Okumura's model. Some of the important
terrain related parameters are the terrain undulation height (A/i), isolated ridge height, average slope of the terrain
and the mixed land-sea parameter. Once the terrain related parameters are calculated, the necessary correction factors
can be added or subtracted as required. All these correction factors are also available as Okumura curves [0ku68].
Okumura's model is wholly based on measured data and does not provide any analytical explanation. For many
situations, extrapolations of the derived curves can be made to obtain values outside the measurement range,
although the validity of such extrapolations depends on the circumstances and the smoothness of the curve in
question.
Okumura's model is considered to be among the simplest and best in terms of accuracy in path loss prediction for
mature cellular and land mobile radio systems in cluttered environmehts. It is very practical and has become a
standard for system planning in modern land mobile radio systems in Japan. The major disadvantage with the model
is its slow response to rapid changes in terrain, therefore the model is fairly good in urban and suburban areas, but
not as good in rural areas. Common standard deviations between predicted and measured path loss values are around
10 dB to 14 dB.

Further reading
Introduction to RF propagation, John S. Seybold, 2005, Wiley.

External links
VOLCANO advanced radio propagation model [1] including both direct-path and multi-path (ray-tracing) models

References
[1] http:/ / www. siradel. com
Hata Model for Open Areas 3

Hata Model for Open Areas


The Hata Model for Open Areas, also known as the Okumura-Hata model for being a developed version of the
Okumura Model, is the most widely used model in radio frequency propagation for predicting the behavior of
cellular transmissions in open areas. This model incorporates the graphical information from Okumura model and
develops it further to better suit the need. This model also has two more varieties for transmission in Urban Areas
and Suburban Areas.
Hata Model for open areas predicts the total path loss along a link of terrestrial microwave or other type of cellular
communications. And is a function of transmission frequency and the median path loss in urban areas.

Applicable to/under conditions


This particular version of Hata model is applicable to the transmissions in open areas where no obstructions block
the transmission link
This model is suited for both point-to-point and broadcast transmissions.

Coverage
Frequency: 150 MHz to 1.5 GHz

Mathematical formulation
The Hata model for open areas is formulated as:

where
LO = Path loss in open area. Unit: decibel (dB)
LU = Path loss in urban areas for small sized city. Unit: decibel (dB)
f = Frequency of transmission. Unit: Megahertz (MHz).

Points to note
This model is dependent on the Hata Model for Urban Areas.

References
[1] Okumura, Y. a kol.: Field Strength and its Variability in VHF and UHF Land-Mobile
Radio Service. Rev. Elec. Comm. Lab. No.9-10pp. 825 - 873, 1968.
[2] Hata, M.: Empirical Formula for Propagation Loss in Land Mobile Radio Services.
IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technology, VT-29, pp. 317 - 325, 1980.

Further reading
Introduction to RF propagation, John S. Seybold, 2005, John Wiley and Sons Inc.
COST Hata model 4

COST Hata model


The COST-Hata-Model is a radio propagation model that extends the urban Hata Model (which in turn is based on
the Okumura Model) to cover a more elaborated range of frequencies. It is the most often cited of the COST 231
models (EU funded research project ca. April 1986 - April 1996),[1] also called the Hata Model PCS Extension.[2]
COST (COopration europenne dans le domaine de la recherche Scientifique et Technique) is a European Union
Forum for cooperative scientific research which has developed this model accordingly to various experiments and
researches.

Applicable To / Under Conditions


This model is applicable to urban areas. To further evaluate Path Loss in Suburban or Rural Quasi-open/Open Areas,
this path loss has to be substituted into Urban to Rural/Urban to Suburban Conversions. (Ray GAO, 09 Sep 2007)

Coverage
Frequency: 1500MHz to 2000MHz
Mobile Station Antenna Height: 1 up to 10m
Base station Antenna Height: 30m to 200m
Link Distance: 1 up to 20km

Mathematical Formulation
The COST-Hata-Model is formulated as,

For suburban or rural enviorenmments:

Where,
L = Median path loss. Unit: Decibel (dB)
f = Frequency of Transmission. Unit: Megahertz (MHz)
hB = Base Station Antenna effective height. Unit: Meter (m)
d = Link distance. Unit: Kilometer (km)
hR = Mobile Station Antenna effective height. Unit: Meter (m)
a(hR) = Mobile station Antenna height correction factor as described in the Hata Model for Urban Areas..
COST Hata model 5

Points to Note
The European Co-operative for Scientific and Technical research (EUROCOST) formed the COST-231 working
committee to develop an extended version of the Hata model. COST-231 proposed the following formula to extend
Hata's model to 2GHz. The proposed model for path loss is
L50(urban) = 46.3 + 33.9 log fc - 13.82 log hte - a (hre) + (44.9 - 6.55 log hte) log d + Cm where a(hre) is the
correction factor for effective mobile antenna height which is a function of the size of the coverage area.

0dB for medium sized city and suburban areas

Cm =

3 dB for metropolitan centers

The COST-231 extension of the Hata model is restricted to the following

range of parameters:

f : 1500MHz to 2000MHz
hte :3Om to 200m
hre :lm to lOm
d :lkm to 20km

Limitations
This model requires that the base station antenna is higher than all adjacent rooftops.

References
[1] http:/ / www. cost. eu/ domains_actions/ ict/ Actions/ 231 COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) website
[2] Final report for COST Action 231, Chapter 4 (http:/ / www. lx. it. pt/ cost231/ final_report. htm)
Radio propagation model 6

Radio propagation model


A radio propagation model, also known as the Radio Wave Propagation Model or the Radio Frequency
Propagation Model, is an empirical mathematical formulation for the characterization of radio wave propagation as a
function of frequency, distance and other conditions. A single model is usually developed to predict the behavior of
propagation for all similar links under similar constraints. Created with the goal of formalizing the way radio waves
are propagated from one place to another, such models typically predict the path loss along a link or the effective
coverage area of a transmitter.

Characteristics
As the path loss encountered along any radio link serves as the dominant factor for characterization of propagation
for the link, radio propagation models typically focus on realization of the path loss with the auxiliary task of
predicting the area of coverage for a transmitter or modeling the distribution of signals over different regions.
Because each individual telecommunication link has to encounter different terrain, path, obstructions, atmospheric
conditions and other phenomena, it is intractable to formulate the exact loss for all telecommunication systems in a
single mathematical equation. As a result, different models exist for different types of radio links under different
conditions. The models rely on computing the median path loss for a link under a certain probability that the
considered conditions will occur.

Development methodology
Radio propagation models are empirical in nature, which means, they are developed based on large collections of
data collected for the specific scenario. For any model, the collection of data has to be sufficiently large to provide
enough likeliness (or enough scope) to all kind of situations that can happen in that specific scenario. Like all
empirical models, radio propagation models do not point out the exact behavior of a link, rather, they predict the
most likely behavior the link may exhibit under the specified conditions.

Variations
Different models have been developed to meet the needs of realizing the propagation behavior in different
conditions. Types of models for radio propagation include:
Models for indoor applications
Models for outdoor applications
Ground wave propagation models
Sky wave propagation models
Environmental Attenuation models
Point-to-Point propagation models
Terrain models
City Models
Radio propagation model 7

Models for outdoor attenuations


Near-earth propagation models
Foliage models
Weissberger's modified exponential decay model
Early ITU Model
Updated ITU model
One Woodland Terminal Model
Single Vegetative Obstruction Model
Terrain models
Egli Model
LongleyRice model
ITU Terrain Model
City models
Young Model
Okumura Model
Hata Model for Urban Areas
Hata Model for Suburban Areas
Hata Model for Open Areas
COST Hata model
Area to Area Lee Model
Point to Point Lee Model
Band-specific models
2.4GHz (ISM Band, of particular interest for WiFi)
Green-Obaidat Model

Models for indoor attenuations


ITU Model for Indoor Attenuation
Log-distance path loss model

Models for environmental effects


Rain attenuation model
ITU rain attenuation model
ITU rain attenuation model for satellites
Crane global model
Crane two-component model
Crane model for satellite paths
DAH model
Radio propagation model 8

Models for antenna/environment effects


Classical (antenna gains are orthogonal to propagation effects)
Directional beam scattering
Greenstein-Erceg
Environmental Directivity Antenna Model (EDAM)

References

External links
IEEE Vehicular Technology Society - Propagation Committee (http://www.vtsociety.org/)
Irregular Terrain Model (Longley-Rice) (http://flattop.its.bldrdoc.gov/itm.html)
CRC-COVWEB - A free online program for calculating radio wave propagation and coverage (http://lrcov.crc.
ca)
Radio Mobile - A free program for radio propagation (http://www.cplus.org/rmw/english1.html)
RadioWORKS -- A freeware program for calculating radio wave propagation, path loss, and frequency
information (http://deserthail.com)
SPLAT! - A GPL program for linux, with windows port (http://www.qsl.net/kd2bd/splat.html)
EDAM web page and source code (http://systems.cs.colorado.edu/mediawiki/index.php/EDAM)
Propagation Models for 3GPP LTE Networks (http://sites.google.com/site/lteencyclopedia/
lte-radio-link-budgeting-and-rf-planning)
The following external references provide practical examples of radio propagation concepts as demonstrated using
software built on the VOACAP model.
Online MOF/LOF HF Propagation Prediction Tool (http://www.hamqsl.com/solar1.html#moflof)
High Frequency radio propagation de-mystified. (http://hfradio.org/ace-hf/ace-hf-demystified.html)
Is High Frequency radio propagation reciprocal? (http://hfradio.org/ace-hf/ace-hf-reciprocal.html)
How does noise affect radio signals? (http://hfradio.org/ace-hf/ace-hf-noise.html)
MSAM propagation simulator (http://ntiacsd.ntia.doc.gov/msam/)
Hata Model for Urban Areas 9

Hata Model for Urban Areas


In wireless communication, the Hata Model for Urban Areas, also known as the Okumura-Hata model for being a
developed version of the Okumura Model, is the most widely used radio frequency propagation model for predicting
the behaviour of cellular transmissions in built up areas. This model incorporates the graphical information from
Okumura model and develops it further to realize the effects of diffraction, reflection and scattering caused by city
structures. This model also has two more varieties for transmission in Suburban Areas and Open Areas.
Hata Model predicts the total path loss along a link of terrestrial microwave or other type of cellular
communications.

Applicable to/under conditions


This particular version of the Hata model is applicable to the radio propagation within urban areas.
This model is suited for both point-to-point and broadcast transmissions and it is based on extensive empirical
measurements taken.
PCS is another extension of the Hata model. The Walfisch and Bertoni Model is further advanced.

Coverage
Frequency: 150 MHz to 1500 MHz
Mobile Station Antenna Height: between 1 m and 10 m
Base station Antenna Height: between 30 m and 200 m
Link distance: between 1km and 20km.

Mathematical formulation
The Hata Model for Urban Areas is formulated as following:

For small or medium sized city,

and for large cities,

where
= Path loss in Urban Areas. Unit: decibel (dB)
= Height of base station Antenna. Unit: meter (m)
= Height of mobile station Antenna. Unit: meter (m)
= Frequency of Transmission. Unit: Megahertz (MHz).
= Antenna height correction factor
= Distance between the base and mobile stations. Unit: kilometer (km).
Hata Model for Urban Areas 10

Points to note Walfisch and Bertoni model


A model developed by Walfisch and Bertoni [Wa]88] considers the impact of rooftops and building height by using
diffraction to predict average signal strength at street level. The model considers the path loss, S, to be a product of
three factors. S = Po Q2 P1 where P0 represents free space path loss between isotropic antennas given by
Po = (lambda / 4 pai R)2 (whole square) The factor Q2 gives the reduction in the rooftop signal due to the row of
buildings which immediately shadow the receiver at street level. The P1 term is based upon diffraction and
determines the signal loss from the rooftop to the street. In dB, the path loss is given by S(dB) =Lo+Lrts+Lms
where L0 represents free space loss, Lrts represents the "rooftop-to-street diffraction and scatter loss", and Lms
denotes multiscreen thffiaction loss due to the rows of buildings [X1a92]. This model is being considered for use by
ITU-R in the IMT-2000 standards activities.
THIS PARAGRAPH IS FROM THE BOOK: Wireless Communications by Theodore S. Rappaport, p120 &121, ch
3.10.6

Limitations
Though based on the Okumura Model, the Hata model does not provide coverage to the whole range of frequencies
covered by Okumura Model. Hata model does not go beyond 1500 MHz while Okumura provides support for up to
1920 MHz.

References

External links
"On the use of the universal Okumura-Hata propagation predictionmodel in rural areas" IEEE Explore (http://
ieeexplore.ieee.org/Xplore/login.jsp?url=http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/6849/18409/00851585.pdf&
authDecision=-203) Retrieved on April 12, 2009
VOLCANO advanced radio propagation model (http://www.siradel.com) including both direct-path and
multi-path ray-tracing models
Hata Model for Suburban Areas 11

Hata Model for Suburban Areas


The Hata Model for Suburban Areas, also known as the Okumura-Hata model for being a developed version of
the Okumura Model, is the most widely used model in radio frequency propagation for predicting the behavior of
cellular transmissions in city outskirts and other rural areas. This model incorporates the graphical information from
Okumura model and develops it further to better suite the need. This model also has two more varieties for
transmission in Urban Areas and Open Areas.
Hata Model predicts the total path loss along a link of terrestrial microwave or other type of cellular
communications. And is a function of transmission frequency and the average path loss in urban areas.

Applicable to/under conditions


This particular version of Hata model is applicable to the transmissions just out of the cities and on rural areas where
man-made structures are there but not so high and dense as in the cities. To be more precise, this model is suitable
where buildings exist, but the mobile station does not have a significant variation of its height.
This model is suited for both point-to-point and broadcast transmissions.

Coverage
Frequency: 150 MHz to 1.50 GHz

Mathematical Formulation
Hata Model for Suburban Areas is formulated as,

Where,
LSU = Path loss in suburban areas. Unit: decibel (dB)
LU = Average Path loss in urban areas for small sized city. Unit: decibel (dB)
f = Frequency of Transmission. Unit: megahertz (MHz).

Points to note
This model is based on Hata Model for Urban Areas and uses the median path loss from urban areas.

Further reading
Introduction to RF propagation, John S. Seybold, 2005, John Wiley and Sons Inc.

References
[1] Okamura, Y. a kol.: Field Strength and its Variability in VHF and UHF Land-Mobile Radio Service. Rev. Elec.
Comm. Lab. No.9-10pp. 825 - 873, 1968.
[2] Hata, M.: Empirical Formula for Propagation Loss in Land Mobile Radio Services. IEEE Trans. Vehicular
Technology, VT-29, pp. 317 - 325, 1980.
Article Sources and Contributors 12

Article Sources and Contributors


Okumura Model Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=498377246 Contributors: Bakkster Man, Hytar, Jasonuher, Mapabhi1234, Pixel ;-), Sayutee, Sun Creator, 23 anonymous
edits

Hata Model for Open Areas Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=565305220 Contributors: Bakkster Man, Dimaf, Eeveetza, Extraordinary, Foobarian, Gene Nygaard, MaxDel,
Nihonjoe, Pot, Sayutee, Vikpanghal, 9 anonymous edits

COST Hata model Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=535915729 Contributors: Addshore, Balloonguy, Bart133, Bejnar, Brandon, Cavarrone, Edgar181,
GreatWhiteNortherner, Guillaume2303, JohnBlackburne, Mapabhi1234, Mywikie, Pixel ;-), Pot, Sayutee, Sun Creator, The imp, TheAllSeeingEye, Xavier.Pourtauborde, 21 anonymous edits

Radio propagation model Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=572155894 Contributors: AvicAWB, Bill william compton, Chizs macx, Chzz, Cjpuffin, Dicklyon, Doris Camire,
Frap, Ga obaidat, Grubber, Harryzilber, Harumphy, Hertz1888, J3gum, JohnTechnologist, KLuwak, Lesser Cartographies, Mange01, Matyos1, Mellery, Michael Hardy, N0nbh, NW7US, Pot,
Sayutee, Sean2074, Siradelsas, Splash, Tentinator, TexasAndroid, Veganacity, 28 anonymous edits

Hata Model for Urban Areas Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=534649870 Contributors: BD2412, DW1492, Evil saltine, Extraordinary, Fg2, Gene Nygaard, Ipatrol,
JHunterJ, Jasonuher, King of Hearts, Leandropls, Lmendo, Mange01, Mapabhi1234, Nihonjoe, PhilKnight, Pixel ;-), Reflex Reaction, Sarthak jain, Sayutee, Selimoloji, Tabletop, Uncle G,
Wikieditor06, 26 anonymous edits

Hata Model for Suburban Areas Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=565304920 Contributors: 2601:0:9300:75:15B0:6A66:E36:250E, Abu-Fool Danyal ibn Amir al-Makhiri,
Eeveetza, Extraordinary, Gene Nygaard, Nihonjoe, Sayutee, Vikpanghal, 11 anonymous edits
Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 13

License
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0
//creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/