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Tengiz grigolia

msoflio politikuri da
ekonomikuri rukis
regionaluri aspeqtebi

`teqnikuri universiteti@
saqarTvelos teqnikuri universiteti

T. grigolia

msoflio politikuri da
ekonomikuri rukis
regionaluri aspeqtebi

registrirebulia stu-s
saredaqcio-sagamomcemlo
sabWos mier

Tbilisi
2009
wigni informacias awvdis mkiTxvelebs msoflio poli-
tikuri rukis regionalizaciis sakiTxebze. naSromSi gan-
xilulia msoflio politikur rukaze arsebul regionebis,
saxelmwfoebis geografiuli mdebareoba, buneba, regionebis
roli kacobriobis istoriaSi, Tanamedrove politikuri,
ekonomikuri geografiis sakiTxebi. evropis, amerikis da sxva
wamyvani industriul saxelmwifoTa gavlena msoflio
politikasa da ekonomikaze.
wigni gankuTvnilia saerTaSoriso urTierTobebis magis-
trebisa da bakalavrebisaTvis, aseve socialur-ekonomikuri
da istoriuli geografi-isa da regionebis politikur-geog-
rafiuli problemebiT dainteresebuli mkiTxvelTa farTo
wrisaTvis.

redaqtori istoriis mecnierebaTa doqtori


maia amirgulaSvili.

recenzenti istoriis mecnierebaTa doqtori


zurab kvetenaZe.

sagamomcemlo saxli ,,teqnikuri universiteti, 2009


ISBN 978-9941-14-521-6
http://www.gtu.ge/publishinghouse/

yvela ufleba daculia. am wignis arc erTi nawili (iqneba es teqsti, foto,
ilustracia Tu sxva) aranairi formiT da saSualebiT (iqneba es eleqtronuli Tu
meqanikuri), ar SeiZleba gamoyenebul iqnas gamomcemlis werilobiTi nebarTvis
gareSe.
saavtoro uflebebis darRveva isjeba kanoniT.
Sesavali

wignSi ganxilulia msoflio regionebis da


wamyvani saxelmwifoebis istoriul-politikuri,
ekonomikuri da geografiuli aspeqtebi. is Ziri-
Tadi istoriul-geipolitikri procesebi, roml-
ebsac adgili hqonda da aqvs msoflios wamyvan
qveynebSi.

XX saukunis 90-iani wlebidan, mas Semdeg rac


saqarTvelo gaxda saerTaSoriso sazogadoebis
sruluflebiani wevri, istoriuli, politikuri
da geografiuli mecnierebis winaSe dRis wes-
rigSi dadga msoflios regionalizaciis proc-
esebis mravalmxrivi Seswavlis aucilebloba.

naSromi iZleva zogad warmodgenas msoflio


politikuri rukis regionalizaciis probleme-
bze, mosaxleobisa da meurneobis Camoyalibebis
istoriaze, regionebis centralur problemebze,
regionis qveynebis politikur-geografiul pro-
blemebze, bunebriv garemoze, resursebze da po-
litikaze, regionebis zogad demografiul sur-
aTze, politikuri geografiis istoriul wanam-
3
ZRvrebze, geopolitikaze, Tanamedrove politi-
kur geografiaze.

naSromSi yuradReba gamaxvilebulia iseT pa-


rametrebze rogoricaa: msoflio regoinebis ek-
onomikuri, politikuri, geografiuli da geopo-
litikuri CarCo, regionis saxelmwifoTa poli-
tikuri da ekonomikuri wesrigis konturebi, re-
gionebis geopolitikuri mdgomareoba, geopo-
litikuri da geoeknomikuri kavSirebisaken
ltolva.

yvelasaTvis naTelia, rom regionebis siZli-


eres Tanamedrove periodSi gansazRvravs Sem-
degi faqtorebi: samxedro, ekonomikuri, teqno-
logiuri da kulturuli. oTxive aRniSnul sfe-
roSi jerjerobiT aSS, Semdeg evropa da mso-
flios wamyvani qveynebi inarCuneben liderobas.
dReisaTvis regionalizaciis procesebi, msof-
lioSi mimdinare politikur proceebze dadebiT
gavlenas axdens.

regionalizaciis saqmeSi unda gamoiyos cv-


lilebaTa ori tipi: msoflio rukaze momxdari

4
cvlilebebi raodenobrivi maCveneblebis mixe-
dviT, meore _ cvlilebebi xarisxobrivi maCvene-
blebiT, romelTac gaaCnia Tavisi istoriul-ge-
ografiuli periodizaciis etapebi.

msoflio regionalizaciis procesebs saTave


daudo saerTaSoriso urTierTobaTa sistemis
Camoyalibebam. dReisaTvis regionalizaciis pr-
ocesebSi arsebobs Zlierebis sami centri: 1.
Crdilo amerikis atlantikuri sanapiro, 2.ev-
ropuli sanapiro, 3. evraziis Soreuli aRmos-
avleTi.

mas Semdeg rac saqarTvelo gaxda msoflio


Tanamegobrobis wevri, msoflio rukaze arse-
bul regionalizaciis procesebis Seswavlas,
mis warsulsa da dRevandelobas, da masTan
urTierTobas qveynisaTvis didi mniSvneloba
aqvs.

5
amerikis ekonomikuri daraioneba

iseTi didi qveynebisaTvis, rogoric amerikis


SeerTebuli Statebia miTumetes esoden maRali
momwifebuli meurneobisa da teritoriuli
str-uqturisa, ekonomikuri daraioneba iRebs
gansakuTrebiT did mniSvnelobas, magram dro-
Ta ganmav-lobaSi is cvalebadia.

kolonizaciis epoqaSi da SeerTebuli


Statebis arsebobis pirvel etapze yvelaze win
gamoyofdnen qveynis CrdiloeT da samxreT
nawilebs, romlebic Zlier gamoirCeodnen
saerTaSoriso da ekonomikuri ganviTarebiT.
teritoriis aTvisebis Semdeg dasavleT naw-
ilSi qveynis mesame didi raioni dasavleTia
samnawilad amgvari dayofa sabolood damkvi-
drda XIX saukunis miwuruls. daraioneba Seer-
Tebuli Statebisa, savsea siRrmiseuli azriT.
`CrdiloeT amerikisaTvis _ es industriis siZ-
lierea, giganturi qalaqebi, demokratizmi da
emigrantebis siuxve, xolo samxreTi _ es ubra-
6
lod cxeli klimatia, dajildoebuli Savka-
niani mosaxleobiT, socialuri cxovrebis Sene-
lebuli svliT da cxovrebiseuli CamorCeniT.

rac Seexeba dasavleTs _ es aris farTo hor-


izontebi da farTo SesaZleblobebi adamianis
saqmianobisaTvis. agreTve aris sustad miTviseb-
uli teritoria mdidari resursebiT, magram gam-
artivebuli cxovrebis wesiT~.

ukanaskneli aTeuli wlebis manZilze mdgo-


mare-oba sagrZnoblad Seicvala, es stereo-
tipebi nel-_nela Seudgnen sakuTari Tavis aRm-
ofxvras. sakma-risia vTqvaT, rom CrdiloeTis
wili resursebisa mosaxleobaSi sagrZnoblad
Semcirda 1990 wlis dasawyisSi 44 da 50%-iT,
samagierod samxreTis da dasavleTis resu-
rsebis nawili gaizarda. pirvelis SemTxvevaSi
34 da 22%-iT, xolo meoris SemT-xvevaSi 32 da
18%-iT.

es Zvrebi 90-ian wlebSi kvlav grZeldeboda,


rac gvaZlevs imis saSualebas rom gavakeToT
daskvna samive ekonomikur raionSi resursebis

7
da Zalebis gaTanabrebisa da ganviTarebis Se-
saxeb.

XX saukunis meore naxevarSi amerikis samwe-


vrianma ekonomikurma danawilebam gamoiwvia qve-
ynis dayofa oTx ekonomikur raionad. es gada-
wyv-tileba iseTma saWiro administraciulma or-
ganom miiRo, rogoric aris gadamwerTa biuro,
romelic xelmZRvanelobda mosaxleobis aRwe-
ras, mrewvelobas da sxva. amgvari dayofis dr-
os samxreTis da dasavleTis sazRvrebi ar Sec-
vlila, xolo CrdiloeTi ki or nawilad gaiyo
Crdilo aRmosavleTi da dasavleTis Sua
nawili.

mogvianebiT gadamwerTa sazogadoebam daiwyo


miReba ufro konkretuli gegmisa, romelic iT-
valiswinebda qveynis ZiriTadi teritoriebis
cxrawevrian ekonomikur daraionebas, romelic
gaxda farTod gamoyenebadi samecniero geogra-
fiul literaturaSi.

xarisxobrivad ekonomikur raionebSi ganixil-


eba axali inglisi, Suaatlantikuri Statebi,

8
Crdilo-aRmosavleTis centri, Crdilo dasa-
vleTis centri, samxreT atlantikuri centri,
samxreT-aRmosavleT centri, samxreT-dasavleTi
centri, mTiani Statebi da wynari okeanis Stati.

cxrave ekonomikuri raionis urTierTSedare-


biT aSS-s surs Tqvas, rom teritoriulad pir-
vel, meo-re da mesame adgilebs ikaveben wynari
okeane (26,4%), mTiani Statebi (22,8%), sabolood
Crdilo dasavleTi (13,7%). xolo rac Seexeba
mosaxleobis simravliT, gansakuTrebulad gamo-
iyofa samxreT atlantikuri Statebi.(17,6%), Cr-
dilo-aRmosavleTis centri (16,9%), da wynari
okeanis Statebi (16,1%).

1989 wels l.v.smirniaginma Tavis naSromSi


Tanamedrove amerikis portreti warmogvidgina
Tema, romelSic avtorma ganaxorciela araCve-
ulebrivi ekonomikuri danawileba da kidev uf-
ro mniSvne-lovani da rTuli daraioneba mosa-
xleobisa!

9
smirniagi amerikis Statebs yofs oTx mikro-
regionad, magram maT sazRvrebSi aseve gamoyofs
33 raions.

niu-iorki - amerikis SeerTebuli


Statebis ekonomikuri dedaqalaqi

niu-iorki erTaderTi da rTuli movle-


naa Tanamedrove samyaroSi. es gaxlavT reko-
rdulad didi zomis qalaqi, urbanizaciis Tavi-
seburi apofeziT, mowme usasrulo sididisa. es
aris sazeimo fasadi amerikis warmoebisa. aris
unikaluri saerTaSoriso centri. ucxoeli tu-
ristebisTvis niu-iorki aris saxecvlileba
mTeli amerikisTvis, magram Tavad amerikele-
bisaTvis es aris qalaqi kosmopoliti, grand-
iozuli qalaqi kapitalisturi da ganviTareba-
di qveynisa. ase axasiaTeben niu-iorks cnobili

10
amerikanizaciis Semswavleli geografebi a.v. no-
vikovi da l.v.smirniagini. momavalSi smirniagins
araerTxel moyavs niu-iorkis magaliTi, rogorc
msoflio qalaqisa, romlis mniSvneloba scdeba
amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis sazRvrebs, ai ra-
tomac aris aucilebeli da saintereso misi de-
talurad Seswavla.

niu-iorkis istoria moiTvlis araumetes IV


aswleuls. niu-iorkis ganviTarebaSi gansakuT-
re-buli roli iTamaSa misma ekonomikur _ geo-
gra-fiulma adgilmdebareobam. xarisxis zrda-
sTan da yovelmxriv ganviTarebasTan niu-iorki
sul ufro mkafiod gansazRvravda aSS-s rols,
rogorc misi ekonomikuri dedaqalaqi.

niu-iorkis aglomeracias uWiravs qveynis


teritoriis 0,2%, magram aZlevs 11% mis saSinao
produqciis zrdas. Tavisi produqciis warmo-
ebiT is cildeba mTel kanadas. niu-iorki arama-
rto ekonomikuri dedaqalaqia, romelsac pirve-
li adgili uWiravs transportis ganviTarebaSi,
is agreTve aris finansuri dedaqalaqi aSS-sa,

11
mniSvnelovani centri arawarmoebadi moqmedebis
marTvisa, informaciisa da kulturisa. ZiriTadi
krebuli misi qalaqobrivi funqciebisa dala-
gda jer kidev XIX-XX saukunis dasawyisSi,
magram urTierTobam maT Soris gansakuTrebiT
mecnierul-te-qnikuri reformebis epoqaSi, gain-
cada Zalian didi Zvrebi.

xangZlivi drois ganmavlobaSi niu-iorkis


mniSvnelobas gansazRvravda misi saporto funq-
ciebi. is ganlagebuli iyo havais arqipelagze,
qveynis SuaSi, romelic mosaxerxebeli iyo hud-
zonisTvis da eri arxisTvis. niu-iorki ki ori
aswleulis manZilze iyo aSS-s saporto qalaqi
mTeli dasavleTis gzisTvis da garkveuli dro-
is manZilze mTeli msofliosTvisac.

rac Seexeba tvirTbrunvas man pirveloba


dauTmo roterdams 1962 wels, Tumca mainc rCe-
boda msoflioSi did samgzavro portad. misi
gavliT sazRvao sadgurebs yovelwliurad 1
mln. mgzavri gadioda. niu-iorkis istoriuli
saporto funqciebi mWidrod ukavSirdeba misi

12
ganviTarebis da mrewvelobis funqcias. pirvel
rigSi, es ukavSirdeba sxvadasxva satvirTo ned-
leuls, romlis safuzvelzec did niu-iorkSi
warmoiSva mZime industriis warmoeba.

niu-iorki aSS-s centria da erT-erTi udidesi


centrTagania msoflioSi. am qalaqSi mdeba-
reobs qveynis udidesi banki, mTavari sadaz-
Rvevo kompaniebi, iseTi wamyvani saerTaSoriso
savaWro birJebi, rogoricaa xorblis, bambis,
yava-Saqris; niu-iorkis safondo birJa mieku-
Tvneba msoflioSi udides safinanso-sabanko op-
eraciebis ricxvs.

rogorc maRalganviTarebuli raioni, rogorc


msoflio qalaqi, niu-iorkSi mdebareobs Stab-
bina, ramdenime aTeuli msxvili samrewvelo da
aSS-s sxva korporaciebi, maT Soris eqsoni,
mobili, filipmorisi da sxva.

niu-iorki aSS-s udidesi samecniero-kulturu-


li centria. aq aris pirveli saswavlo dawe-
sebulebebi, samecniero institutebi, biblioTe-
kebi da muzeumebi, Teatrebi da kino-Teatrebi.

13
erTdroulad es aris axali ambebis dedaqa-
laqi, sadac mdebareobs udidesi satelevizo
kompaniebi. Zalian bevri, yvelaze mniSvnelovani
da masobirivi Jurnal-gazeTebis redaqciebi. es
aris SemTxveviTi poligrafiuli mrewveloba-
qalaqSi mniSvnelovani adgili eTmoba samkerva-
lo mrewvelobas.

axla mivubrundeT niu-iorkis teritorieuli


struqturis sakiTxs. ara mxolod aucilebls
da sainteresos, aramed friad araCveulebrivs.
misi ganxilvis gareSe SeuZlebelia gaigo Tu
ratom sxvadasxva, amasTan erTad mTlad utyuar
wyaroebSi, gvxvdeba am qalaqis mosaxleobis Se-
saxeb monacemebi. es monacemebi utyuaria. Ubra-
lod yvelaferi damokidebulia, imaze Tu ra fa-
rglebSi ganixileba niu-iorki. Tavis droze es
sazRvrebi ganisazRvreboda 5 struqturuli el-
ementisTvis.

qalaqis istoriuli birTvis qveS rogorc we-


si aRniSnaven niu-iorkis sagrafos, romelzedac
ganlagebulia patara manheteni. oTx mezobel

14
sagrafosTan erTad isini qmnian sakuTar qalaqs
niu-iorkis municipalitetis sazRvrebs, an rog-
orc uwodeben niu-iork-sitis.

aucilebelia gavigoT didi niu-iorkis Ses-


axeb, romlis moedani ar aRemateba aTss, mo-
saxleoba ki orjer ufro metia. aseT SemT-
xvevaSi niu-iorkis municipalur sazRvrebSi uma-
teben urbanizaciis areals, romelic ganla-
gebulia CrdiloeTiT da dasavleTiT. rodesac
saubaria didi niu-iorkis aglomeraciis Sesaxeb,
maSin moiTvlian urbanzaciis teritoriasac ga-
wolils niu-iork-sitisken dasavleTidan.

niu-iorkis mikromdgomareoba ukeTesia ganvix-


iloT sakuTari qalaqis magaliTze anda niu-
iork-siti, romelsac ukavia 781 kv/km da 1980
wels flobda 7,1 mln. macxovrebels.

xandaxan mas eZaxian arqipelags, es simarTles


Seesabameba, ramdenadac mxolod 1/8 misi teri-
toriebis mdebareobs materikul nawilSi, xolo
7/8 _ kunZulebze, romelic mdebareobs md.
paudzonis teritoriaze.

15
administraciuli TvalsazrisiT qalaqi iyofa
xuT raionad: manheteni, bruklini, kvinsi, bron-
qsi da steitenailendi. pirveli oTxi maTgani
ekuTvnis erT sagrafos, magram kunZuli stei-
tenailendi mdebareobs riCmondis sagrafoSi.
mTliTani qalaqi niu-iorki warmoiSva 1986 wels.

xuTi raionidan manheteni ganlagebulia kunZ-


ulze, romlis moedani sul 55kv/km-ia. misi mu-
dmivi mosaxleoba 1,5 mln. adamiania, magram yov-
eldRiuri samuSao saaTebi izrdeba 3-4jer. aq
mdebareobs farTo samuSao adgilebi finansur
sferoSi, marTvaSi, vaWrobaSi, mecnierebaSi,
kulturaSi da momsaxureobaSi.

zustad manhetenia is, rac gasazRvravs niu-io-


rkis arqiteqturul garegnobas rogorc qalaq
caTamrjens. es pirveli TormetsarTuliani Sen-
oba aq gamoCnda 1890 wels. axla maTi ricxvi
270-ia. maTgan 130 ormoc sarTilze metia. miwa
manhetenSi iseTi Zviria, rom rentabeluri yov-
lisSemZle ofisebi Tvlian, rom unda aSendes

16
mxolod maRali Senobebi, romlbeic iqnebian
ocdaaT sarTuliani.

Tanamedrove niu-iorkis winaSe dgas bevri mwv-


ave problema. es aris trnsportis, romelic ai-
xsneba aramarto qalaqis zomiT, aramed quCebis
sarTo siganiT, romelsac 10 aTasi km. avtoparki
gaezarda 13 mln. manqaniT, xolo metrosa-
dgurebi, romelic moicavs 460 sadgurs 1200
km-ia. agreTve mxedvelobaSi aris misaRebi qal-
aqis kunZulebrivi mdebareoba; misi calkeuli
nawilebi dakavSirebuli aris erTmaneTTan xid-
ebiT, gvirabebiT, bornebiT, gamSvebi saSua-
lebebiT, romlebic ukve ar aris sakmarisi da
es aris yvela garSemomyofTa problema. es yur-
adRebiT aris gansaxilveli Tumca amas gasa-
zRvravs misi geografiuli mdebareoba okea-
nesTan da niu-iorkis ganlagebis Tavisebureba.

niu-iorks ekuTvnis msoflioSi rekorduli


maCvenebeli nagvis raodenobis mxriv. erT sul
mosaxleze modis 2 kg. dReSi da azotis oqsi-
debis amaRlebis mxriv is Sedis msoflio qala-

17
qebis pir-vel aTeulSi. radikalur Secvlas mo-
iTxovs wyalmomaragebis sistema.

SeuZlebelia ar avRniSnoT im problemebis Se-


saxeb, romelic dakavSirebulia niu-iorkis mos-
axleobis eTnkur SemadgenlobasTan.

mosaxleobis 28%-s Seadgenen afroamerikelebi,


16%-espanurenovani amerikelebi, 5%-gadmosaxle-
bulebi aziur-wynari okeanis regionidan. Rog-
orc wesi isini cxovroben kompaqtur jgufebad
eTnikur qalaqebSi da raionebSi. manhetenSi es
aris Cinuri Cainatauni, feradkanianebis harle-
mi, espanurenovani zemoistsaidi. bruklinsi esp-
anureonavi bruklin heiti, afro-amerikuli park
slopi, bronqsSi espanurenovani riversaidi da
sxva.

SesaZlebelia zustad imiT aixsnas is, rom


cxovrebis xarisxiT niu-iorki bervad CamorCeba
iseT lider qalaqebs, rogoric aris vankuveri,
vena, ciurixi, verni, sidnei da Zalian bevri
sxva.

18
mosaxleobis ricxvi niu-iorkis aglomerciaSi
1950w. Seadgenda 12,3 mln-s, 1960w. 14,2 mln, magram
1970 wlis dasawyisSi is rCeba erTsadaimave
simaRleze 16 mln-dan 16,5 mln-mde. 2000 wels am
aglomeraciam daikava msoflioSi mexuTe adgi-
li.

`oqros Stati~ kalifornia

kaliforniis Stati gadaWimulia amerikis


ukidures dasavleTSi da Sedis wynariokeanis
Statis SemadgenlobaSi. pirvelad es adgilebi
aRmoCenili iyo espanelebis mier XVI saukunis
Sua periodSi. zustad maSin daerqva `kalifo-
rnia~.

aSS-s SemadgenlobaSi kalifornia Sevida


1848 wels meqsikasTan omis Semdeg, xolo ori
wlis Semdeg is gaxda aSS-s 31-e Stati. kali-
forniis Tanamedrove Stati TandaTan vi-

19
Tardeba. is mravali aucilebeli maCvenebliT
ikavebs qveyanaSi lideris pizicias.

daviwyoT misi teritoriuli zomebiT da mo-


saxleobiT. is 411 000 km2-ia da aSS-Si ikavebs me-
same adgils aliaskisa da texasis Semdeg. evro-
paSi is adgils uTmobs mxolod safrangeTs, es-
paneTs da Svecias.

saintereso da aucilebeli monacemebi


gaaCnia mas mosaxleobis Sesaxeb. 1850 wels rod-
esac kaliforniam miiRo Statis statusi, misi
mudmivi macxovreblebis ricxvi ver aRwevda 100
aTas adamians. XIX saukunis 90-ian wlebSi is
gaizarda 1 milioniT. 1910 wels maRwia 2,4 mln-
s. 1940 wels is am monacemebiT gvida mexuTe,
xolo 1950 wels me-2 adgilze. mxolod 1980-90-
ian wlebSi kaliforniis mosaxleoba gaizarda
6 mln. adamianiT. 1990-2000 wlebSi is kidev
gaizarda 4 mln. adamianiT, xolo sabolood
mosaxleobis ricxvma miaRwia 33,7 mln. adamians.

aranakleb aucilebelia isic, rom kalifor-


nia aSS-Si iTvleba ganviTarebul meqad. aq aris

20
aTobiT Zlieri umaRlesi saswavlebeli, asobiT
koleji. studentebis ricxvi 2 mln-s aRwevs.

kaliforniis did teritoriaze ganlagebu-


lia bevri saintereso RirsSesaniSneoba. SevCe-
rdeT mxolod sam maTganze; los-anjelesi, san-
francisko da didi kaliforniis (centraluri)
veli.

los-anjelesi _ daarsebulia meqsikidan wam-


osuli espanelebis mier, romlebic aq dasaxld-
nen me-18 saukunis bolos. miuxedavad imisa, rom
is ganlagebuli iyo nayofieri zRvis napirze,
viTaredeboda didi xnis manZilze. ase magali-
Tad: 1870 wels misi mosaxleoba Seadgenda sul
6000-s, 1990 wels _ 50 aTas adamians.

es iyo provinciuli qalaqi, cnobili Tavisi


sanapiroebiT da kinostudiebiT. SemdgomSi los-
anjelesis ganviTareba wavida swrafi tempiT. Uk-
ve 1930 wlis dasawyisSi is gaxda `milioneri~
qalaqi. 1970 wels los-anjelesma gauswro Cika-
gos da gaxda meore qalaqi aSS-Si niu-iorkis
Semdeg. 2000 wlis monacemebiT misi mosaxleoba

21
Seadgens 3,7 mln. adamians. metropolitenis are-
aliT misi mosaxleoba 2000 wels 9,5 mln. ada-
miania. Tu vnaxavT los-anjelesis mosaxleobis
monacemebs davrwmundebiT rom is TandaTan izr-
deba.

1950 weli _ 4 mln. 1960 weli _ 6,5 mln.

1970 weli _ 8,4 mln. 1980 weli _ 9,5 mln.

1990 weli _ 11,5 mln. 2000 weli _ 13 mln.

is ikavebs me-7 adgils msoflios maRalmona-


cemebian qalaqebs Soris. amasTan erTad viTar-
deba kvebis, navTobis da navTobgadamamuSavebe-
li sawarmoebi. Semdeg _ TviTmfrinavTmSeneblo-
ba, aviasaraketo kosmosuri warmoeba da sxva
maRali teqnologiebi.

ai ukve ramodenime aTeuli welia los-anje-


lesi gvevlineba niu-iorkis mTavar konkuren-
tad qveynis ekonomikuri saxelis mopovebaSi. am
konkurenciiT man Zalian bevrs miaRwia.

1980 wlis dasawyisSi los-anjelesi pirvel


adgilze gavida warmoebis ganviTarebis doniT.
22
didi los-anjelesi umsxvilesi centria
msoflioSi aerokosmiuri warmoebiT, sadac sru-
ldeba yvelaze saWiro administraciuli, gamoc-
dil konstruqciuli operaciebi, ramodenime
msxvil korporaciaSi. zustad aq 1970 wels iyo
Seqmnili kosmiuri xomaldi `apoloni~, axla ki
aq iqmneba mravaljeradi moxmarebis xomaldi
`Satli~. magram uwindeburad aq xorcieldeba
samxedro SekveTebis Sesruleba.

los-anjelesi gaxda aSS-is erT-erTi mTa-


vari samecniero da kulturuli centri. aq mde-
ba-reobs samxreT kolumbiis universiteti, mrav-
ali sxva msxvili universiteti sadac swavlobs
800 aTasi studenti. amas emateba aTeuli same-
cniero kvleviTi centri, romelic TanamS-
romlobs rogorc universitetebTan, ise sa-
mxedro sawarmoebTan.

los-anjelesi _ es aris agreTve saerTo


erovnuli kanonmdebeli Tanamedrove modis da
garTobis sferoSi. disneilendi mdebareobs mi-
si erT-erTi qalaqis teritoriaze, xolo kino-

23
in-dustriis sferoSi mas SeiZleba vuwodoT
msoflios mTavari centri. jer kidev 1930 wels
aq mdebare holivudi uSvebda 2/3 dan 3/4 _ mde
msoflio kinoproduqcias, mis 75 kinostudiaSi
dakavebuli iyo 50 aTasi adamiani. holivudis
dideba axlac aris SemorCenili.

magram es yvelaferi ar gamoricxavs bevr


problemas, romelic gamowveulia cxovrebis
ganvi-TarebiT da teritoriiT. es aris qalaqis
transportis problema. los-anjelesSi praqti-
kulad TiTqmis ar muSaobs satransporto saSu-
aleba, xolo piradi manqanebis ricxvi aWarbebs
5 mln-s. quCebi, gzatkecilebi, kempingebi ika-
veben qalaqis teritoriis mniSvnelovan nawils.

1990 wlis bolos kaliforniaSi mwvave ene-


rgetikuli krizisi ganviTarda. mis dasaZlevad
Statis xelisuflebas mouxda eqstremaluri
zomebis miReba. saswrafod iqna Sedgenili spe-
cialuri programa saqare da helio energeti-
kis ganviTarebisaTvis. sxvaTaSoris zustad ene-
rgokrizisma kaliforniaSi, daaCqara jorj buS

24
umcrosis gadawyvetileba, rom mieRo axali ene-
rgoprogramis gegma aSS-Tvis. los-anjelesSi
iseve rogorc mTels kaliforniaSi rTulad
dgas rasobrivi da erovnebaTSorisi damo-
kidebulebis problema.

san-francisko _ daarsebulia espanelebis


mier XVIII s-is bolos amave saxelwodebis ar-
xis napirebTan. qalaqis swrafi zrda daiwyo
`oqros cieb-cxelebis~ Semdeg. XIX saukunis bo-
lomde yvela ZiriTadi monacemebis mixedviT is
uswrebda los-anjeless, Semdeg san-franciskom
daTmo bevri pozicia. mosaxleobis ricxvia 775
aTasi. am qalaqs aSS-Si uWiravs me-13 adgili. Tu
mxedvelobaSi miviRebT mis aglomeracias maSin,
Tavisi 4 mln. mosaxleobiT, mas uWiravs me-4
adgili niu-iorkis, los-anjelesis da Cikagos
Semdeg. es metyvelebs imaze rom amerikelebis
umetesoba mas Tvlis yvelaze lamaz qalaqad
TavianT qveyanaSi.

didi kaliforniis veli _ uWiravs 700 klm-


ni sanapiro Rrmuli qedebs da sieranevadas

25
Soris, warmoadgens erT-erT umsxviles soflis
meuneobis raions Zalian maRali agroteqnikis
maCvenebliT. veli, romelzec miedineba
mdinareebi sakramento da sanxoakini farTo-
vdeba msxvili arxebis saSualebiT, ikvebeba
mdinaris wylebiT. mohyavT oras saxeobaze meti
kulturuli mcenare, maT Soris SeiZleba dava-
saxeloT: bamba, Saqris Warxali, brinji. aq
gaSenebuli aqvT sxvadasxva ku-lturebi: Wermis
baRebi, finikis baRebi, yurZnis venaxebi, atmis
da nesvis baRebi. aq aris nuSis mTeli pla-
ntaciebi da berZnuli kaklebi, xolo mis sam-
xreT nawilSi mohyavT limoni. mosaxleobam ukve
5 mln. adamians miaRwia, maT Soris arian rog-
orc legaluri, ise aralegaluri emigrantebi
meqsikidan. isini daqiravebulni arian soflis
meurneobis samuSaoebisaTvis romelic grZel-
deba mTeli weliwadi.

sainteresoa rom kaliforniis Stati ikavebs


wamyvan pozicias qveyanaSi alternatiuli ene-
rgiis wyaroebis moxmarebiT. aq cnobil geize-
rebis velze mdebareobs aSS-Si da mTels mso-
26
flioSi umsxvilesi geodeziuri terminali `gei-
ersi~ romelic 1980 wlis bolos flobda 2
mln. kvt. energias.

kalifornia iyo da rCeba aSS-s mTavar rai-


onad saqare eleqtrosadgurebis mSeneblobis
mxriv. aqve mohavas udabnoSi muSaobs ramoden-
ime mzis eleqtrosadguri. mTlianad, am Statis
1-2 mln. mcxovrebi sargeblobs eleqtroener-
giiT, romelic iwarmoeba misi alternatiuli
wyaroebiT.

aSS saerTaSoriso ekonomikuri


kavSirebi

SeerTebuli Statebi, rogorc msoflios


ekonomikis lideri, ikavebs wamyvan poziciebs
saerTaSoriso ekonomikur kavSirebSi.

am qveyanaze modis msoflios Sida vaWrobis


brunvis 15%, 32% _ i pirdapiri investiciebis

27
moculoba, romelic Cadebulia sxva qveynebis
ekonomikaSi.

aseTi maRali maCveneblebis ganmartebisaTvis


gavixsenoT aSS-s Zalian didi 1/3-is momcemi
mTliani Semosavli erovnuli produqtisa, igive
`meore ekonomika~ am qveynisa, romelic transna-
cionalurma kompaniebma Seqmnes mTeli msofli-
os ZiriTad regionebSi. zustad es gaxda erT-
erTi naTeli magaliTi transnacionaluri da
globaluri batonbisa msoflio meurneobis sfe-
roSi. sakmarisia iTqvas, rom sazRvargareTis
filialebSi transnacionalur kompaniebs dasa-
qmebuli hyavT 400 aTas kacze meti. unda avR-
niSnoT amerikis valutis gansakuTrebul rol-
ze _ dolarze, romelzec modis 2/3 mTeli mso-
flios valutis danazogi. TumcaRa, aSS-s ver
vuwodebT gaxsnil ekonomikur zonas. Tu Sevxe-
davT ZiriTad maCveneblebs aSS mniSvnelo-
vanwilad uTmobs adgils ekonomikuri ganviTa-
rebis bevr evropul saxelmwifos. vTqvaT eqspo-
rtis Semosavali erT sul mosaxleze StatebSi
Seadgens 2600 dolars, evropaSi 5750 dolaria.
28
saeqsporto kvota aSS-Si agreTve odnav dabla
dgas, vidre sxva qveynebSi. es aixsneba pirvel
rigSi misi mniSvnelovani Sidasabazro roliT,
romelic zomebSi gansxvavdeba.

tradiciuli forma aSS-s saerTaSoriso ekon-


omikisa, aris Sida vaWroba. 1960_2000 wlebSi mi-
si eqsporti 38-jer gaizarda, xolo importi 80-
jer da ufro metad. am droisaTvis importis
moculobam aSS-Si gadaaWarba eqsportis mocu-
lobas, aman Tavis mxriv gamoiwvia pasiuri sava-
Wro balansis zrda qveyanaSi. 2000 wlisaTvis
savaWro deficitma miaRwia uprecedento abso-
litur zomebs. savaWro deficitis msgavsi zrda
aixsneba ramodenime mizeziT: erT-erTi maTgania
1990 wlis miwurulisaTvis fasebis zrda nav-
Tobze da navTob produqtebze, meore mizezi
importis didi nawilis Senaxva da moxmareba
mineralur resursebSi, mesame mizezi konkure-
nciis safuZvelze aSS-s poziciebis dasusteba
ramodenime savaWro bazarze. amis magaliTebia
mravalricxovani savaWro omebi `saavtomobilo~
- iaponiasTan, `bananis~ - evropasTan da sxva.
29
aRsaniSnavia isic, rom aSS-s monopoliebi awa-
rmoebs brZolebs Tavis konkurentebTan ara
mxolod saerTaSoriso, aramed saSinao bazaar-
zec.

aSS-s saeqsporto struqturaSi manqanebisa da


mowyobilobebis wili kidev ufro gaizarda. Mi-
si specialuri saerTaSoriso korporaciebi iyv-
nen da rCebian navTobmompovebel, samSeneblo
warmoebis, avtomobilebis da TviTmfrinavebis
eqsportiorebad. maT daemata kompiuterebi, te-
lekomunikaciebi, samecniero da samedicino xel-
sawyoebi, aerokosmiuri da lazeruli teqnika.
agreTve gaizarda momxmarebelze arasavaWro
saqonlis gayidva: sayofacxovrebo, saofise da
farmacevtuli. maT gverdiT ramodenimejer Sem-
cirda metalis da qimikatebis warmoeba, magram
aSS mainc rCeba msoflioSi simindis, soios,
xorblis, brinjis da Tambaqos msxvil eqspo-
rtiorad. kidev ufro swrafad, vidre saqonlis,
izrdeba sxvadasxva momsaxureobis eqsporti,
romlis saSemosavlo zomis mixedviT (250 mlrd.

30
dolari weliwadSi) aSS ikavebs pirvel adgils
msoflioSi.

didi cvlilebebi moxda aSS-s saimporto str-


uqturaSic. 1970 wlis Sua ricxvebSi man 50%-ze
meti Seadgina, romelic daixarja manqanebze da
mowyobilobebze. exla mTavar saimporto wya-
rod aris qceuli manqanebi da mowyobilobebi,
es moxda im mTxovnilebebis safuZvelze, rome-
lic gamoiwvia struqturul ekonomikurma
gardaqmnam.

aSS-s geografiuli ganlageba Sida vaWrobaSi


agreTve cvalebadia. 1970 wlis dasawyisSi daax-
loebiT 70% ixarjeboda sxva qveynebis ganvi-
Tarebaze, xolo 30% ganviTarebadze. 1990 wlis
bolosaTvis ganviTarebuli qveynebis wili
Semcirda, ganviTarebadis gaizarda. ganviTare-
buli qveynebidan aSS yvelaze did savaWro ur-
TierTobebs amyarebs dasavleT evropaSi
germaniasTan, did britaneTTan, safrangeTTan
da niderlandebTan; kanadasTan da iaponiasTan.
ganviTarebadi qveynebidan laTinur amerikaSi

31
meqsikasTan da braziliasTan; CineTTan da aziis
axal industriul qveynebTan. amasTan meqsika da
malaizia aSS-Si gzavnian TavianTi eqsportis
90% -s, kanada 80%-s, fili pinebi 40%-s,
brazilia _ 30%-ze mets, iaponia ki daaxloebiT
20%-s. mTeli rigi am qveynebisaTvis amerikis
bazarze gamosvlis uflebis mopovebam, didi
roli iTamaSa ekonomikis ganviTarebaze. aRsa-
niSnavia rom vaWrobis momsaxureobis mxriv ame-
rika aqac liderobs, jer marto saerTaSoriso
turizmidan Semosavali Seadgens 85 mlrd. Do-
lars weliwadSi, es daaxloebiT igivea rac sa-
frangeTis, espaneTis da italiis saerTo wli-
uri Semosavali.

ufro did rols, vidre saerTaSoriso vaWro-


baa, aSS-s Sida ekonomikur kavSirebSi TamaSobs
kapitalis eqsporti. adre is xorcieldeboda
investiciebis `saportfelo~ formiT, xolo Sem-
dgom misi masStabebi gaizarda da sazRvar-
gareTis investiciebis pirdapiri mniSvneloba
miiRo. 1990 wlis bolos maTma gamoxmaurebam
aSS-dan weliwadSi miaRwia 150 mlrd. dolars,
32
xolo sazRvargareT Cadebuli kapitalis mTli-
anma Tanxam gadaaWarba 900 mlrd. dolars (sxva
monacemebiT 1,5 trln. dolars).

evropis centraluri aRmosavleTis qveynebi


ikaveben Zalian mokrZalebul adgils aSS-s Si-
da ekonomikur urTierTobebSi, igive SeiZleba
iTqvs ruseTis Sesaxeb, romelic ikavebs 35-e
adgils amerikis importior qveynebs Soris.

cota ufro sxvanairad gamoiyureba aSS-s Sida


ekonomikuri kavSirebi ruseTis mxridan, mis eqs-
portsa da importze amerika ikavebs me-2 adgi-
ls germaniis Semdeg; maTze modis Sesabamisad
eqsportis 9% da importis 12%. ruseTis eko-
nomikaSi investiciis zomis mixedviT aSS kvlav
me-2 adgilzea germaniis Semdeg. miuxedavad tvi-
rTbrunvis TandaTanobiT zrdisa 90-ian wlebSi,
mainc ver pas-uxobs orive qveynis interess. es
agreTve damokidebulia tvirTbrunvis struqtu-
razec: ruseTis eqsports aSS-Si ekuTvnis fola-
di, alumini, qimikatebi, Tevzis produqtebi, im-
ports ki xorci, frinveli, Tambaqos nawarmi

33
da manqanaTmSeneblobis produqcia. sainteresoa
rom aSS-sTan urTierTobaSi ruseTs gaaCnia
aqtiuri savaWro balansi.

SeiZleba vTqvaT, rom miuxedavad savaWro gac-


vlis CamorCenilobisa, SedarebiT warmatebu-
lad viTardeba sxva formebi, Sida ekonomikur
urTierTobebSi ruseTsa da aSS-s Soris, maga-
liTad samecniero teqnikur urTierTobebSi.
amerikis kapitaldabandebas ruseTis ekono-
mikaSi, pirdapir investiciebze moaqvs mxolod
30%.

aziis axali industriuli qveynebi.


saerTo daxasiaTeba

sazRvargareTis aziaSi axali industriuli


qveynebis (aiq) gaCena Tanamedroveobis imdenad
mniSvnelovani da araordineluri movlena iyo,
rom mis analizs samamulo da ucxouri lite-

34
raturis sakmaod didi nawili eZRvneba. aseT
qveynebs da teritoriebs miakuTvnebdnen oTx
aziur vefxvs koreis respublikas, singa-
purs, hongkongs da taivans.Aaxla maT xSirad
uwodeben pirveli talRis axal industriul
qveynebs. meore talRis qveynebs miakuTvneben
malaizias, tailands, filipinebs da masTan mia-
xloebul indonezias.
jer kidev me-20 saukunis Sua wlebSi am
qveynebis roli msoflio politikaSi da ekono-
mikaSi, unda iTqvas, rom mesame xarisxovani iyo.
magram Semdeg maT ufro aqtiurad da Tanmim-
devrulad daiwyes dawevis ganviTarebis poli-
tikis ganxorcieleba. amasTan Tavisebur nimuS-
ad, etalonad maTTvis iqca iaponiis gamocdi-
leba. sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT ganviTarebis
iaponuri modeli. SemTxveviT ar amboben, rom
aziis axali industriuli qveynebi weroebis so-
liviT, mfrinavi batebis gundiviT gahyva iapo-
nias. Aakademikosma n.i. moizlevma xatovnad Sea-
rqva iaponias daCqarebuli ganviTarebis kauWi.
amasTan, ara marto am qveynebis, aramed mTeli

35
aziis wynar okeanuri regionisTvis. marTalia,
xandisxan arCeven Crd. pirveli talRis qve-
ynebis da samxreTis meore talRis qveynebis
models. Tumca saerTo maT Soris ufro metia,
vidre gansxvaveba. orive SemTxvevaSi maT migvi-
yvanes, ise rogorc iaponiaSi namdvil ekono-
mikur saocrebasTan. Sedegad koreis respu-
blikam da singapurma ukve miiRes ekonomiurad
ganviTrebuli qveynebis oficialuri statusi.
amasTn koreis respublika Sevida rCeuli qve-
ynebis klubSi ekonomikuri TanamSromlobisa
da ganviTarebis organizaciis wevrad.
danamdvilebiT bolo 3 4 aTeuli wlis
ganmavlobaSi aziurma vefxvebma namdvili na-
xtomi gaakeTes CamorCenilobidan ganviTrebis
ufro maRali safexurisaken. Maman hpova mkveTri
gamoxatuleba msoflioSi mTliani Sida produ-
qtis yvelaze maRali namatis tempebis miRwevaSi,
romlmac 1960 1980 w.w. Seadgina 6 15 %
weliwadSi. 1990w. pirvel naxevarSi 6 9% da
mxolod 1990 wlis meore naxevarSi SesamCnevad
iklo.

36
yvela am qveynebSi aseTi maRali tempis way-
lobiT gaizarda mTliani Sida produqtebis
saerTo moculobis maCveneblebi:

qveyana m.S.p Aadgili


ml.dolari msoflioSi
valutis
oficialuri
kursi
Kkoreis 400 12
respublika
kunZuli 260 19
taivani
siangani 160 25

tailandi 132 30

indonezia 131 31
malaizia 81 40

37
cxrilis Sesavsabad damatebiT SeiZleba
iTqvas, rom m.S.p saerTo moculobiT koreis
respublikam valutis oficialuri kursis ga-
TvliswinebiT gauswro niderlandebs, avstra-
lias, meqsikas, ruseTs, argentinas, Sveicarias;
taivanma gauswro belgias, Svecias, avstrias,
TurqeTs; sianganma norvegias, poloneTs, saudis
arabeTs, samxreT afrikis respublikas; taila-
ndma da indoneziam fineTs, saberZneTs, port-
ugalias, irans, israels; malaiziam Ciles,
irlandias, pakistans, perus, axal zelandias,
CexeTs, ukrainas. yuradRebas ipyrobs agreTve
isic, rom aziis aiqis reitingi m.S.p-s maCve-
neblebiT, romelic gaangariSebulia valutis
msyidvelobiTi unaris safuZvelze umetes SemT-
xvevaSi ufro maRalia.
ara nakleb STambeWdavad gamoiyureba aziis
axali industriuli qveynebis m.S.p. maCveneblebi
saSualo suladobis mixedviT;

38
Qqveyana m.S.p. AaTasi Aadgili
dolari msoflioSi
(valutis
oficialuri
kursi)
singapuri 29,1 7
siangani 26,5 8
taivani 17,0 25
koreis 9,7 34
respublika
malaizia 4,7 49
tailandi 2,7 69
filipinebi 1,1 101

orive cxrilSi mocemuli cifrebis mixdeviT


Zneli araa SeiniSnos rom aziis axali qveynebis
m.S.p. gabnevis maCveneblebi suladobis gaTvali-
swinebiT sakmaod didia. Mm.S.p-s mixedviT erT
mosaxleze gaangariSebiT liderobs ukve ara
koreis respublika, aramed mosaxleobiT mcire
singapuri, romelsac odnav CamorCeba siangani.
maTi adgili msoflioSi Turme ufro maRalia,

39
maSin rodesac danarCeni axali industriuli
qveynebisa mniSvnelovnad ufro dabali.
sainteresoa, rom m.S.p. moculobiT erT
sul mosaxleze gaangariSebiT singapuri
aRemateba aSS-s, germanias, Svecias, safrangeTs;
SeiZleba davamatoT is, rom kidev ufro xelsa-
yrelia respublikis angariSi valutis msyidve-
lobiTi unaris safuZvelze. am SemTxvevaSi mas
mexuTe adgili ukavia msoflioSi (87% a.S.S-s
donisgan; siangans 71%; koreis respublikas
45%).
aziis axalma industriulma qveynebma aseT
STambeWdav warmatebebs miaRwies upirveles yov-
lisa industrializaciis politikis ganxorci-
elebiT. amasTan misi gatarebis prioriteti ucv-
leli ar rCeboda. industrializacia aq daiwyo
1950w.w. msubuq safeiqro mrewvelobaSi. 1960
1970w.w. aqcenti gadatanil iqna mZime mrewvelo-
bis dargebSi. ufro mogvianebiT ki prioriteti
mieniWa SedarebiT ufro Sromatevad da mecnie-
rebadtevad warmoebebs (eleqtronika, eleqtro-
teqnika, axali industriuli masalebi). Garkve-

40
uli mosazrebebidan gamomdinare SesaZlebelia
imis mtkiceba, rom aziis axalma industriulma
qveynebma igive gza gaiares, rac evropis ganvi-
Tarebulma qveynebma: aSS-m, iaponiam, magram gaak-
eTes es bevrad ufro swrafad. swored amaSi
mdgomareobs Tavad am cnebis axali industri-
alizaciis azri.
amasTan erTdroulad icvleboda am
qveynebis sagareo ekonomikuri prioritetebic.
industrializaciis sawyis etapze orientacias
axdendnen Canacvlebis modelze. kursi importis
Sesacvlelad sakuTari warmoebiT mimdina-
reobda nacionaluri warmoebis dacviT, impor-
tuli saqonlis konkurenciisgan. Mmeore etapze
moxda ekonomikis eqsportorientirebul saqo-
nelze gadasvla, rodesac axalma industriulma
qveynebma daiwyes orientireba jer rigiT liTo-
nze, zogierTi saxis manqanebze, qimikatebze, Sem-
deg ki ufro maRali teqnologiuri nawarmis
warmoebaze sagareo bazrisaTvis. Ggadasvla as-
eT Ria tipis ekonomikaze moiTxovda, rogorc
ekonomistebi aRniSnavdnen, sami dainteresebuli

41
mxaris Zalisxmevis gaerTianebas: nacionaluri
burJuaziis, saxelwifosa da ucxouri kapita-
lis. saxelmwifos zegavleniT Camoyalibda
ekonomikis msxvili saxelwifo seqtori, romel-
ic, rogorc wesi moicavs energetikas, transp-
orts, samTo - mopovebiT mrewvelobas.
Sedegad amisa aziis aiq-is meurneobaSi mo-
xda mniSvnelovani struqturuli gardaqmna. ase
malaiziaSi da tailandSi 1980w-dan 2000 w.mde
gaizarda mrewvelobis wili mSp-Si - Sesabamisad
38%-dan 48%-mde da 29%-dan 40%-mde. daaxloebiT
aseTive maCveneblebi axasiaTebs koreis respu-
blikas da indonezias da mxolod singapurSi
mrewvelobis wili Seadgens 34%-s. amjerad sam-
rewvelo warmoebis moculobiT koreis
respublikas me-11 adgili ukavia msoflioSi
(dgas ruseTze win), xolo gadamamuSavebeli mre-
wvelobis moculobiT me-10 adgilzea. taivani
Sesabamisad imyofeba me-18 da me-14 adgilze,
indonezia orive SemTxvevaSi 24-e adgilzea. tai-
landi me-20 da 23-ze. soflis meurneobis wili
mSp-s moculobaSi, rom araferi vTqvaT singa-

42
purze da sianganze, sadac is praqtikulad ar
arsebobs, koreis resp-ublikaSi Semcirda 5%-
mde da 10-15%-mde danarCen qveynebSi.
drois ganmavlobaSi aziis aiq-is umeteso-
bisaTvis savizito baraTad iqca eleqtruli
mrewveloba; maTze wilma am dargis produqci-
aSi 1990w. gadaaWarba 1\4. Eeleqtronuli warmoe-
bis profili TandaTan ufro icvleboda. aziis
aiq-ma daiwyo iaffasiani masiuri produqciis
gamoSvebiT (eleqtronuli saaTebi, mikrokalku-
latorebi, videoTamaSebi da sxva), Semdgom ki
gadavidnen ufro rTuli nawarmis gamoSvebaze
(feradi televizorebi, videomagnitofonebi) da
bolos personalur kompiuterebze. erTdro-
ulad daiwyes Tanafardobis cvlileba sayo-
facxovrebo da samrewvelo eleqtronikas Soris
ukanasasknelis sasargeblod. kidev ufro mniS-
vnelovania, rom ganviTarebasTan erTad aiq-i
amerikuli, iaponuri, evropuli detalebisgan
eleqtronuli aparaturis awyobidan gadavida
sakuTari integrirebuli warmoebis Seqmnaze,
romelic moicavs yvela ZiriTad teqnologiur

43
stadiebs. mniSvnelovania aRiniSnos is, rom ama-
sTn erTad daculia calkeuli qveynebis sawa-
rmoo specializacia. magaliTad radiomimRe-
bebis warmoebaSi gansakuTrebiT gamoirCeva ma-
laizia da singapuri, televizorebiT koreis
respublika, eleqtronuli saaTebiT siangani,
portatuli personaluri kompiuterebiT da no-
uTbuqebiT taivani.
mraval faqtorTa Soris, romelic xels
uwyobda aziis aiq-is ekonomikis struqturul
gardaqmnas ufro maRal teqnologiur safuZv-
elze, upirvels yovlisa yuradRebas imsaxur-
ebs SromiTi resursebis faqtori. bunebrivi re-
sursebis simciris gamo, am qveyanaSi mTvari
fsoni gaakeTes Tavis did SromiT resursebze,
romelic mudmuvad ivseba mosaxleobis sakmaod
maRli bunebrivi namatis wyalobiT. swored
SromiTi resursebis siiafem (muSaxelis Rire-
buleba aziis aiq-Si sam _ oTxjer dabalia,
vidre ekonomikurad ganviTrebul qveynebSi) mni-
Svnelovnad miizida aq dasavleTis transnacio-
naluri korporaciebi miTumetes, rom muSaxeli

44
am qveynebSi aRmoCnda aramarto iafi, aramed
disciplinirebuli.
misi bolo Tviseba pirvel rigSi dakavSir-
ebulia ganaTlebis donesTan. bolos da bolos
yvela aiq-ma Tavisi garRveva uzrunvelyo imiT,
rom SemoiRo sayovelTao saSualo ganaTleba,
aamaRla zogadi da profesiuli momzadebis
done Tanamedrove standartebamde. saxelmwifos
yvela problemaTa Soris ganaTlebis prio-
ritetulad aRiarebam gamoiwvia namdvili saga-
nmanaTleblo afeTqeba, romelmac Secvala
SromiTi resursebis xarisxi. ai ratom SeiZleba
daveTanxmoT a.p.liferovs, romelmac dawera im-
is Sesaxeb, rom aziis aiq-is ekonomikur sao-
crebas safuZvlad udevs ganaTlebis prio-
riteti amasTan ara deklaratiuli, aramed
savsebiT realuri.
es qveynebi ganaTlebisTvis gamoyofen mSp-
is 2,5-dan 4,5%-mde, rac maTi mTliani mSp-s
saerTo moculobidan gamomdinare sakmaod
sagrZnob Tanxas Seadgens. amis Sedegad isini
ukve miuaxlovdnen ganaTlebis srul dones.

45
jer kidev 1990w.-is dasawyisSi bavSvTa sabaziso
ganaTlebam miaRwia 90%-s. maT ricxvSi sruli
saSualo ganaTlebis mqoneTa raodenobam kor-
eis respublikaSi da taivanSi moicva bavSvebis
da mozardebis 80%., rac aRemateba iaponiis da
dasavleT evropis umetesi qveynebis mier miRwe-
ul dones. aziis aiq-is saSualo skolebis gam-
oSvebuli moswavleebis 1\3 ganagrZobs swavlas
universitetSi.Ggarda amisa es qveynebi xSirad
agzavnian Tavis studentebs saswavleblad aSS-
Si da dasavleT evropaSi. mniSvnelovania
aRiniSnos isic, rom sazRvargareTis qveynebSi
moswavle studentebi xSir SemTxvevaSi brunde-
bian samSobloSi, miuxedavad imisa, rom aq maT
ufro dabali xelfasi eqnebaT.
ganaTlebis maRali done dadebiT gavlenas
axdens iseT mniSvnelovan sinTetikur maCveneb-
lebze, rogoricaa adamianis ganviTarebis ind-
eqsi (agi), Tumca misi donis mixedviT singapuri,
siangani da koreis respublika jerjerobiT
msoflio qveynebis mesame aTeulSi Sedian.

46
yovelive Tqmuls SeiZleba daematos, rom
danaxarjebi samecniero kvleviT da sakonstru-
qtoro sacdel samuSaoebze pirveli talRis
oTxive qveyanaSi Seadgens m.S.p.S 1-2% da es maT
ayenebs sxva ganviTarebul saxelwifoebze ma-
Rla da aaxlovebs dasavleTis qveynebTan. ga-
daiRes ra dasavleTis gamocdileba, isini daa-
dgnen industriuli da mecnieruli (teqnolo-
giuri) parkebis da teqnopolisebis Seqmnis gzas.
1990w Sua wlebSi aseTi teqnopolisebi hqondaT
aziis aiq-is umetesobas.
naTel magaliTad SeiZleba CaiTvalos
aziis aiq-Si yvelaze msxvili samecniero-sam-
rewvelo parki sinCJuSi taivanze, romelic mde-
bareobs dedaqalaq taibedan samxreT dasa-
vleTiT 70km.is daSorebiT. samecniero dasay-
rdens aq wa-rmoadgens ori universiteti, xolo
sawarmoo dasayrdens ki _ aTeulze meti firma,
romlebic muSaoben maRali teqnologiis sfe-
roSi. erT magaliTs warmoadgens msxvili same-
cniero - samrewvelo parki pinangi malaiziaSi,
romelic erTsaxelian kunZulze qveynis dasa-

47
vleT sanapiroze mdebareobs. SemTxveviT aRar
ucdis mas silikonis kunZuli, ramdenadac
parkis dawesebulebebi specialdeba naxevargam-
tarebis pladebis anu Cipebis warmoebaSi. maT
gareSe SeuZlebelia kompiuterebis, televizo-
rebis an magnitafonebis warmoeba, romlebsac
uSveben mTel msoflioSi. mesame magaliTia
singapuris samecniero sawarmoo parki, romelic
aerTianebs 10 samecnioero kvleviT instituts
da 45 samrewvelo korporacias.
am jgufis qveynebis kidev erTi mniSvnel-
ovani damaxasiaTebeli saerTo niSani mdgomare-
obs maT Ria ekonomikaSi, maT Rrma SezrdaSi
saerTaSoriso geografiuli Sromis ganawile-
baSi. Jer kidev 1980w. bolos aiq-is pirveli
talRis oTxi qveynis wilma ganviTrebadi samya-
ros saerTo samrewvelo eqsportSi Seadgina
55%. 1990w. bolos mTeli msoflios eqsportSi
wilis mixedviT koreis respublikas me-14 adg-
ili ekava (2%-ze meti) da uswrebda bevr ganv-
iTrebul qveyanas. maT Soris ruseTsac. Aamas
unda daematos, rom pirveli talRis qveynebi

48
eleqtronikis bazarTan erTad, aseve gavidnen
avtomobilebis, eleqtroxelsawyoebis, sazRvao
gemebis, dazgebis, zogierTi saxis SeiaraRebis
da sxva teqnikurad rTuli saxis manqanaTmSe-
neblobis produqciis msoflio bazarze. maT
SeZles gaemagrebinaT Tavisi poziciebi bazre-
bze qimiuri da msubuqi nawarmiT.
oTxive pirveli talRis aiq-is ekono-
mikuri strategiis erTi ZiriTadi safuZveli
iyo da rCeba Semdegi orientacia maqsima-
lurad miizidos ucxouri kapitali. am mizniT
maTi mTavrobebi wavidnen Sesabamisi SezRudve-
bis Sesustebaze da maSinve pirobebis miax-
loebaze ucxouri filialebis da wvrili-
kompaniebis saqmianobis miaxloebaze naciona-
luri firmebisaTvis miRebul reJimTan. 1970-
1980w.-Si gansakuTrebuli am politikaSi ekava
Tavisufali ekonomiuri, anu saeqsporto zonis
teritoriebis Seqmnas, riTac administraciuli
da finansuri xasiaTis upiratesoba eniWebodaT
ucxoel mewarmeebs, sadac aucilebeli infra-
struqtura maT eZleodaT Semcirebuli tari-

49
febiT da izRudeboda profkavSirebis saqmi-
anoba. amJamad aseTi zonebi moqmedeben koreis
respublikaSi, indoneziaSi, taivanze, filipine-
bSi. isini umetes SemTxvevaSi warmoadgenen sam-
rewvelo zonebs.
Aaziis axali industriuli qveynebis mier
Segrovili simdidris realizeba xdeba oqros
valutis rezervebiT da investiciis formiT sa-
kuTar ekonomikaSi, Tumca zogierTi misi pro-
duqti atarebs gulaxdilad ambiciur xasiaTs.
erT-erTi aseTi saxis magaliTia caTmbj-
enebis mSeneblobiT gataceba. gansakuTrebiT
singapurSi, seulSi, kualalumpurSi. Kkualalu-
mpuris samxreTiT 40 kilometrze ukve daarsda
malaiziis axali dedaqalaqi patradjaia, ase
ewoda am qveynis pirveli premier ministris ab-
dula raxmana patris saxelis sapativsacemod.
am qalaqis mSenebloba, romelic mimdinareobs
caric adgilze unda dasruldes 2008w. savara-
udod misi mosaxleoba Seadgens 250 kacs.
Mmagram 1997w, aziuri vefxvebis SeteviTi
ganviTareba uecrad Sewyda savaluto-finansuri

50
krizisis gamo, romelic gadaizarda saerTo ek-
onomikurSi. msgavsi ram aq adrec momxdara, mag-
ram 1997-1998w.w.-is krizisi gansakuTrebiT Rrma
aRmoCnda.
F finansuri krizisi daiwyo 1997w. ivlisSi.
tailandis batas kursis mkveTri dacemiT. amis
kvaldakval moxda malaiziis, indoneziis da fi-
lipinebis nacionaluri valutis vardna da
wlis bolos krizisma miaRwia koreis respubli-
kas, siangans da Seexo iaponiasac. magram albaT
misgan ufro Zlierad dazaralda indonezia, sa-
dac valuta 75% gaufasurda. erTdroulad mkve-
Trad daiwia m.S.p. da samrewvelo warmoebis na-
matma. umetes qveynebSi savaWro balansis saldo
uaryofiTi gaxda. daiwyo bankebidan mosaxle-
obis Senatanebis gamotana da maTi ucxour val-
utaSi gadayvana. bankrotobam moicva aTsobiT
firma. eqstraordinalur antikrizisul zomaTa
ricxvs SeiZleba miekuTvnos aseTic: imisTvis,
rom eSvelaT saxelmwifosaTvis daeZlia kriz-
isi samxreT koreis yovelma meoTxe ojaxma Caa-

51
bara Tavisi faseulobebi, Tanac or Tve naxe-
varSi Segrovil iqna 225t. oqro.
am krizisis Semdeg bevri politikosi cdi-
lobda daedgina misi mizezebi. maT Soris Cve-
ulebrivad asaxelebdnen aziis aiq-is modelis
arasrulfasovnebas. magaliTad, iseTi rogor-
icaa uzomo eqsportiT gataceba Sida bazris
dazaralebiT, nacionaluri valutis mibma lar-
Tan da sxva. SesaZloa daematos, rom globali-
zaciis pirobebSi am krizisis Sedegebi Tavis
Tavze iwvnia ara marto samxreT aRmosavleTis
da aRmosavleTi aziis qveynebma, aramed mrava-
lma sxva qveyanamac. magaliTad saqonlis eqs-
porti a.S.S.-dan aziis qveynebSi, romelic kri-
zisamde Seadgenda am qveynis mTeli eqsportis
30%-s mniSvnelovnad Semcirda, amiT ufro metad
gaizarda deficiti mis savaWro balansSi. Kkri-
zisma agreTve gamoiwvia msxvili politikuri
ryevebi, xelisuflebis Secvlis CaTvliT, rome-
lic moxda indoneziaSi.
krizisis Semdgom zogierTi specialisti
amtkicebda, rom gadaxedvas saWiroebs aziis ai-

52
q-is ganviTarebis modeli, romelic dafuZne-
bulia ekonomikis saeqsporto orientaciaze.
danamdvilebiT SromiTi resursebis kvalifi-
kaciis zrdis gamo aziis aiq-Si xelfasis donis
zrda iwvevs warmoebuli saqonlis gaZvirebas
da kargavs yofil konkurentunarianobas msof-
lio bazarze. pirvel rigSi es yvelaferi exeba
pirveli talRis aiq-is. gasakviri araa, rom
bevrma ufro ubralo da masiurma sawarmoebma
ukve daiwyes gadasvla meore talRis aiq-Si.
miT umetes, rom pirveli talRis~ qveynebSi
m.S.p.-s SeqmnaSi ukve mTavar rols asrulebs ara
mrewveloba, aramed momsaxurebis sfero.
ar SeiZleba SeumCneveli darCes garkveuli
gansxvaveba pirveli talRis qveynebs Soris. aq
ki win aRmoCnda malaizia da tailandi, romle-
bmac SeZles ufro swrafad daeZliaT krizisi
da dabrunebodnen ekonomikuri zrdis maRal te-
mpebs. indonezia da filipinebi kvlav Zlier Ca-
morCebian maT m.S.p. produqciis doniT da sxva
mravali maCveneblebiT. am bunebrivi da adamia-
nuri resursebiT mdidar qveyanaSi jer kidev ar

53
amowurula eqstremaluri ganviTarebis saSua-
lebebi, gansakuTrebiT imis gaTvaliswinebiT,
rom iq muSaxelis Rirebuleba da kvalifikacia
mniSvnelovnad maRalia, vidre malaiziaSi da
tailandSi.
imis mtkiceba, rom bolo xanebSi
sazRvargareTis aziaSi Cndebian mesame talRis
axali industriuli qveynebi (aiq). pirvel rigSi
es exeba vietnams, sadac 1986w. daiwyo ekonomikis
Zirfesviani reformireba, romelic didi xnis
ganmavlobaSi iyo gayinul mdgomareobaSi. is
orientirebulia mravaldargovan meurneobaze,
arasamTavrobo seqtoris aRiarebaze, soflis
meurneobaSi koleqtiuri sakuTrebis uaryofaze,
mkacri centralizebuli dagegmarebis sistemi-
sagan gandgomaze.
axali ekonomikuri politikis Sedegebma ar
daagviana gamovlena, rom bolo aT weliwadSi
qvey-nis m.S.p orjer gaizarda. ganviTareba
hpoves iseTma saeqsporto warmoebebma, rogo-
ricaa sa-mTomopovebiTi mrewveloba (madani, nav-
Tobi), soflis meurneoba (tropikuli miwaTmoq-

54
medeba) da gansakuTrebiT Sromatevadi eleq-
tronika da sainformacio teqnologiisTvis mow-
yobilobebisaTvis warmoeba; 2000w. ukve iqna
gamoSvebuli 1 miliardi dolaris Rirebulebis
sainformacio teqnika. sursaTis uqoneli
qveynidan vietnami gadaiqca (meore adgili msof-
lioSi) brinjis wamyvan eqsportiorad. am qvey-
nis ganviTarebis perspeqtivis Sefasebisas gaT-
valiswinebuli unda iqnes masSi 45mln. Eekono-
miurad aqtiuri mosaxleobis arseboba. koreis
respublika, rogorc axali industriuli ganvi-
Trebuli qveynis magaliTi aRmosavleT aziaSi.
1945w. iaponiis damarcxebis Sedegad meore
msoflio omis dros a.S.S.M Seiyvana Tavisi jar-
ebi samxreTiT, xolo sabWoTa kavSirma ki ko-
reis Crdilo nawilSi. ase aRmoCnda korea gayo-
fili CrdiloeT da samxreT nawilebad, rom-
elTa ganviTareba SemdegSi wavida sruliad ga-
nsxvavaebuli gzebiT. 1950-1953w.w. Crdilo kor-
easa da samxreT koreas Soris mimdinareobda
omi, romelic faqtiurad mSvidobianad ki ar
damTavrda, aramed zaviT da maT Soris gamyofi

55
xazis dadgeniT, romelic gadis 38-e paralelze.
am omis dros koreis orive mxaris ekonomikam
didi zarali ganicada. am omis dros samxreT
korea sakmaod CamorCenil, ZiriTadad agrarul
qveyanas warmoadgenda.Mmisi m.S.p. struqturaSi
soflis meurneobaze modioda 68%, maSin rod-
esac mrewvelobaze mxolod 15%. m.S.p erT sul
mosaxleze gadaangariSebiT 100 dolarsac ki
ver aRwevda. mosaxleobis umravlesoba gauna-
Tlebeli (wera-kiTxvis ucodinari iyo). misi
bunebrivi namati Seadgenda 3%-s weliwadSi. umu-
Sevroba da arasruli dasaqmeba mudmiv movlenas
warmoadgenda. savaWro balansi daiyvaneboda de-
ficitTan. koreis omis Semdeg samxreT koreis
ganviTareba moicavs ramodenime Tanamimdevrul
etaps.
jer kidev 1950 wlebis meore naxevarSi pir-
vel etapze uwinares yovlisa vidre Seudgeb-
odnen ufro radikalur gardaqmnebs, qveyanaSi
ganxorcielda mniSvnelovani mosamzadebeli Ro-
nisZiebebi. maT SeiZleba miekuTvnos agraruli
reforma, romliTac miwa kerZo sakuTrebaSi

56
gadaeca maT, vinc mas amuSavebs. aseve ucodina-
robis likvidacia. amasTan gamoyenebuli iqna
nacionaluri tradiciebi. konfucis swavlebis
Tanaxmad, koreelebi yovelTvis didi pati-
viscemiT epyrobodnen codnas da aRmerTebdnen
maswavleblebs. ukve 1960 wlebis dasawyisSi Tvi-
Toeul koreels SeeZlo wera - kiTxva.
naklebi warmateba iyo ekonomikaSi. am eta-
pze Warbobda importCanacvlebadi ganviTarebis
modeli, orientirebuli Sida bazris uzrunve-
lyofaze. magram mTlianobaSi man ar gaamarTla.
Sida bazari Zalian viwro aRmoCnda. amasTan sa-
kuTari warmoebis gansaviTareblad uxdebodaT
mowyobilobebis Semotana, rasac qveyana ver awa-
rmoebda. Sedegad importma bevrad gadaaWarba
eqsports, rac ar iyo xelsayreli. qveyanas ki-
dev ufro gauWirdeboda, rom ara didi daxma-
reba a.S.S.-sgan, romelic yovelTvis miiltvoda
daepirispirebina samxreT korea socialistur
Crdilo koreasTan.
Mmeore etapze 1960-ian wlebSi samxreT kor-
eam daiwyo industrializaciis politikis gan-

57
xorcieleba, Tanac klasikuri sqemiT, e.i. daiwyo
igi msubuqi mrewvelobidan. amasTan aqcenti ga-
keTebuli iqna qveynisaTvis tradiciul safe-
iqro dargebze (bambeuli, qsovilebi, triko-
taJi), fexsacmelebis warmoebaze da aseve xis
damuSavebaze. viTardeboda aranaklebad tradi-
ciuli kvebis mrewvelobis dargebi safqvavi
da Saqris mrewveloba. orientacia am Sroma-
tevad warmoebaze miznad isaxavda, rogorme dae-
kavebina Warbi, iafi muSaxeli, romelic gamud-
mebiT izrdeboda mosaxleobis maRali bunebrivi
namatiT. magram mTavari siaxle mdgomareobda
ara amaSi, aramed importCanacvlebadidan ekono-
mikis ganviTarebis eqsportorientirebul mode-
lze gadasvlaSi, rac gamowveuli iyo mosa-
xleobis jer kidev dabali msyidvelobiTi una-
riT da savaluto saSualebebis ukmarisobiT. Uk-
ve 1960w.-Si saqonlis eqsporti ramdenjerme gai-
zarda, Tumca qveynis savaWro balansis saldo
kvlav uaryofiTi rCeboda.
mesame etapze, romelmac moica ZiriTadad
1970-iani wlebi, samxreT korea gadavida indu-

58
strializaciis Semdeg stadiaze, romelic iT-
valiswinebda mZime mrewvelobis upirveles ga-
nviTarebas, pirvel rigSi metalurgiuli, man-
qanaTmSeneblobis, qimiuri. mokle drois ganm-
avlobaSi Seiqmna msxvili Savi metalurgia, ro-
melmac saSualeba misca sakmaod gaezarda Tu-
jis warmoeba. foladis gamodnobis raodenobiT
qveyana gavida meore adgilze aziaSi iaponiis
Semdeg, Tanac Tavidanve es sfero orientirebu-
li iyo progresul teqnologiebze. aSenebuli
iqna msxvili metalurgiuli kombinatebi fxoxa-
nSi da kvanianSi. aseve gaizarda metalurgiis
warmoeba.
metalurgiis safuZvelze daiwyes sakuTari
manqanaTmSeneblobis Seqmna. am sferoSi pirvel
planze wamoiwia dazgaTmSnebebloba, romelic
emsaxureboda industrializaciis moTxovnebs
da Sida bazris gafarToebas, romelic ZiriTa-
dad orientirebuli iyo eqsportze. 1980-ian
wlebSi wyalSi CaSvebuli gemebis tonaJi xuT-
jer ufro metad gaizarda.AaTvisebuli iqna
supertankebis, kerebis warmoeba. ganviTarda ag-

59
reTve sayofacxovrebo eleqtronika. daCqarebu-
li ganviTareba daiwyo ZiriTadad qimiam da nav-
Tobqimiam. gamagrebul iqna energetikuli baza,
uwinares yovlisa atomuri energetikis wyalo-
biT; pirveli atomuri eleqtrosadguri mwyo-
brSi Cadga 1978wels.
mZime mrewvelobis ganviTarebaze gadasvla
ar niSnavda uaris Tqmas eqsportze orienta-
ciisgan. zogierT sferoSi eqsporti gaizarda
kidec. magaliTad 1980w-Si yvela wyalSi Casa-
Svebi sazRvao gemebis 9\10 sazRvargareT gasa-
yidad iyo gamiznuli. samxreT koreis eqsportis
sasaqonlo struqturaSi mZime mrewvelobis pro-
duqcia TiTqmis ukve daewia msubuqi mrewve-
lobis nawarms. pirvel adgilze jer kidev iyo
teqstili, Semdeg mas mosdevda liTonebi, eleq-
tronika, satransporto saSualebebi. es niSna-
vda Sromatevadi dargebis Semcirebas da kapi-
taltevadi dargebis wilis zrdas. savaWro bal-
ansis saldo ki ukve dadebiTi gaxda.Aamas Sei-
Zleba daematos, rom koreis saqonlis mTavari
Semsyidvelebi gaxdnen aSS, iaponia, dasavleT

60
evropis qveynebi. koreis importSi pirveli adg-
ili ekava iaponias. amavdroulad gaizarda qve-
ynis damokidebuleba axlo aRmosavleTis qveyne-
bidan navTobis importze.
meoTxe etapze 1980-ian w.w. industriali-
zacia grZeldeboda. amasTan gansakuTrebiT did
yuradRebas uTmobdnen atomur energetikas, man-
qanaTmSeneblobas, gemTmSeneblobas. magram eko-
nomikuri politikis mTavari mimarTuleba ukve
amaSi ki ar mdgomareobda, aramed industriali-
zaciis kidev ufro maRal stadiaze gadasvlaSi,
romelic ukavSirdeboda maRalteqnologiuri
dargebis upirates ganviTarebaze gadasvlas.
samxreT koreuli ekonomikuri modelis as-
eTma modifikaciam Tavis mxriv stimulireba mis-
ca investiciebs samecniero kvleviTi da sakons-
truqturo sacdeli samuSaoebis sferoSi, rom-
lebmac miaRwies m.S.p. 2%-s, rac Seesatyviseba
bevr wamyvan dasavleTis qveynebis dones.
erTdroulad xdeboda mowinave sazRvar-
gare-Tuli teqnologiebis importis yvelanairi
waxaliseba, romlis ganxorcieleba daiwyes jer

61
kidev industrializaciis dasawyisSi, sadac
xdeboda uaxlesi teqnologiuri damuSaveba.
msgavsi movlenis ufro naTel magaliTs
warmoadgens eleqtronuli mrewveloba. dasawyi-
sSi aTvisebuli iqna lampiani mimRebebi, tranzi-
storebi, diodebi, SavTeTri televizorebi, Sem-
deg magitofonebi, feradi televizorebi, kom-
piuterebi da sxva. eleqtronuli produqciis
warmoebis da eqsportis moculobiT 90-iani
wlebis dasawyisSi koreis respublika msofli-
oSi meeqvse adgilze gavida.
Sesabamisi cvlilebebi moxda qveynis saga-
reo vaWrobaSic. 1990 wlisTvis samxreT koreis
wvlili msoflios eqsportSi gaizarda 2%-mde.
eqsportis sasaqonlo struqturaSi mZime mrewv-
lobis produqciis wili orjer da metad aRema-
teboda msubuqi mrewvelobis nakeTobis wils.
samxreT korea Sevida msoflio liderTa ric-
xvSi. misi mTavari savaWro partniorebi arian
iaponia, aSS da CineTi.
mexuTe etapze 1990-ian w.w. samxreT korea
sabolood Camoyalibda, rogorc ekonomikurad

62
ganviTarebuli industriuli qveyana, postindu-
striuli ganviTarebis sagrZnobi elementebiT.
amMaTwleulebis bolos man daikava mniSvnelo-
vani poziciebi msoflios ekonomikaSi.
samxreT koreis adgili msoflios
samrewvelo warmoebaSi.

produqciis saxe adgili msof.


war-Si
sazRvao gemebi pirveli

televizorebi meore

plastmasebi meoTxe

sinTetikuri boWkoebi meoTxe

avtomobilebi mexuTe

foladi mexuTe

eleqtroenergia,gamomuSavebuli Mmeeqvse
atomuri el.sadgurebis mier

63
qveynis ekonomikaSi erTdoroulad grZel-
deboda mniSvnelovani struqturuli Zvrebi.
daiwyo 15 wliani gegmis ganxorcieleba, romel-
mac gansazRvra saxelmwifos samecniero-teqni-
kuri politika. am gegmis Tanaxmad sul ufro
metad prioritets aniWebda mikro eleqrtro-
nikas, viwro qimias, informatikas, avtmobiliza-
cias. amasTan daCqarda gadasvla sayofa-
cxovrebo warmoebidan samrewvelo eleqtroni-
kis, gansakuTrebiT satelekomunikacio mowyobi-
lobebis, sakopirebeli aparatebis, faqsebis, kav-
Siris da sxva Tanamedrove saSualebebis, samre-
wvelo robotebis gamoSvebaze. Aatomuri ener-
gies ganviTarebis didi programis realizaciis
Sedegad 1990-ian wlebSi qveyanaSi ukve moqme-
debda 12 atomuri reaqtori. Zalian mniSvnelova-
ni cvlilebebaa dasaxuli meurneobis makro
sferoSi. es imaSi mdgomareobs rom, arasawa-
rmoo sfero samxreT koreaSi swrafad viTarde-
ba vidre sawarmoo. Sedegad misi wili saerTo
Sida produqciis SeqmnaSi ukve 1\2-iT gaizarda.

64
1993w. samxreT koreis ekonomikur
leqsikonSi Sevida cneba axali ekonomika,
romelic pir-vel rigSi niSnavs msxvili
ekonomikuri gardaqmnis dawyebas.
saqme imaSia, rom qveynis roli sayofacxov-
rebo meqanizmSi yovelTvis Zalian didi iyo da
aman miiyvana msxvili saxelwifo seqtoris wa-
moqmnasTan. saxelmwifo aseve axorcielebda eko-
nomikis centralizebul dagegmarebas; 1962-
1992w.w. realizebul iqna xuT wliani gegma. mTa-
vroba ki astimulirebda msxvili finansuri sam-
rewvelo jgufebis Seqmnas _ egreTwodebuli
`Cebolebis, romlebic warmoadgenen uzarmazar
sawarmoo konglomeratebs. magaliTad SeiZleba
moviyvanoT msoflioSi cnobili samsungi,
xende da sxva.
oTxi aTeuli wlis ganmavlobaSi indust-
rializaciis da ekonomikuri reformebis Sede-
gad, aseve mniSvnelovnad Seicvala samxreT kor-
eis meurneobis teritoriuli struqtura. pirv-
el-meore etapebze am procesSi wamyvan rols
TamaSobda qveynis Crdilo-dasavluri nawili

65
qalaqebiT seuli, inCxini, sxva sityvebiT rom
vTqvaT, dedaqalaqis regionebi. mas hqonda ganvi-
Tarebuli msubuqi mrewveloba da gaaCnda xel-
sayreli satransporto-geografiuli mdebareo-
ba. mesame etapze, roca namati miiRo mZime mre-
wvelobam, swrafad ganviTarda zRvispira raio-
nebi, aseTi gadaxra zRvisken ganpirobebuli iyo
nedleulis da saTbobis sazRvao gziT Semota-
niT. yvelaze metad igi Seexo qveynis samxreT-
aRmosavleT sanapiros, sadac axali samre-
wvelo raioni Camoyalibda aglomeraciaSi kor-
eis umsxviles saporto qalaq pusasTan. swored
misken iyo mimarTuli sazRvao satransporto
xidebis didi nawili, romelic akavSirebda sam-
xreT koreas avstraliasTan, sparseTis yuris
regionebTan, indoneziasTan da sxva qveynebTan.
umsxvilesi sazRvao portebis ricxviT es pata-
ra qveyana CamorCeba mxolod iaponias, CineTs da
aSS.s.
mTlianad regionaluri politika, romel-
sac xistad awarmoebda koreis mTavroba, mima-
rTuli iyo dedaqalaqis upiratesi rolis Sem-

66
cirebisaken da sxva raionebis ganviTarebisaken.
aman miiyvana iqamde, rom seulis wili qveynis
samrewvelo warmoebaSi 21%-dan 1980 wels Semci-
rda 14%-mde 1990 wlisTvis. magram mxedvelobaSi
unda iqnes miRebuli isic, rom qveynis saqalaqo
mosaxleobis wili dedaqalaqSi am aTwleulSi
gaizarda 22%-dan 25%-mde da isic, rom 1980
wlebis Sua xanebSi grZeldeba rigi qalaqebis
ganviTareba, romlebic funqcionalurad mWid-
rodaa dakavSirebuli seulTan. Sedegad deda-
qalaqis regionis mosaxleobam gadaaWarba 18
mln kacs.
amavdroulad moxda mTavari samrewvelo
koridoris seulipusanis formireba, romel-
mac gaiara gza msubuqi da kvebis mrewvelobis
upiratesi ganviTarebidan eleqtronikis da sxva
mecnierebadtevadi warmoebis prioritetamde.
miuxedavad amisa jer kidev 1990 wlebis Suidan
sadedaqalaqo regionSi koncentrirebuli iyo
qveynis mTeli mecnierebadtevadi sawarmoebis
2\3. magram Semdgom am wilma iwyo kleba, radgan
1991 wels 9 axali teqnopolisis da teqnopa-

67
rkebis Seqmnis programa iTvaliswinebs maT gan-
Tavsebas sadedaqalaqo regionis gareT. davu-
matebT rom koredori seulipuasani ara mxo-
lod samrewveloa, aramed satransportoc, rad-
gan es ori qalaqi dakavSirebulia satranspo-
rto polimagistraliT. 2004w. ki mwyobrSi unda
Cadges 112km sigrZis maRal siCqariani rkinigza
seulipuasani, romelsac eqneba eqvsi sadguri,
gvirabebi saerTo sigrZiT 189km, xidebi da rki-
nigzis yrilebi. dasaxuli tranzkoreis rki-
nigzis magistralis agebis Semdeg es koridori
SeiZens saerTaSoriso xasiaTs.
rac Seexeba Tavisufal ekonomikur zonebs,
isini samxreT koreaSi ramdenimea. yvelaze didi
daarsda 1970 wels saporto qalaq masanSi qvey-
nis samxreT-aRmosavleTiT. am zonaSi muSaobs
70-ze meti sawarmoo, maTgan naxevari erTobli-
via iaponiasTan da aSS-sTan. isini uSveben kompi-
uterebs, orgteqnikas, sayofacxovrebo eleqtro-
nikas, eleqtroxmovan sistemebs, samedicino mow-
yobilobebs, xelsawyoebs, optikas da sxva.Aam

68
zonis eqsportis moculoba 2 mlrd. dolars
aRemateba weliwadSi.

Aazia-wynari okeanis regioni msoflio


bazarze

Mmsoflio bazris politstruqturuli siv-


rcis modeli ara marto ar gamoricxavs, aramed
garkveulad varaudobs kidec mTavari simZimis
centris gadaadgilebas erTi regionidan meo-
reSi. Uukve naTqvamia evropul da Crd. amerikul
Zalis centrze msoflio mmarTvelobaSi. bolo
periodSi sul ufro xSirad laparakoben da
weren azia-wynari okeanis regionis rolze, ro-
melic sul ufro aqtualuri xdeba, amitomac
xSirad Cndeba gamonaTqvamebi wynari okeanis
xanis mmarTveloba da Aa.S.

msgavsi prognozebi adrec gakeTebula, Tu-


ndac karl marqsis nawerebSi, romelic jer ki-
dev naxevari saukunis win werda, rom wynari
okeane iseTive rols Seasrulebda, rogorsac
atlantis.

69
azia_wynari okeanis regionze isev alapar-
akdnen XX saukunis meore naxevris dasawyisSi,
rodesac misi qveynebi gansakuTrebuli dinamiu-
robiT viTardebodnen. Aamis ramdenime mizezi
arsebobda. pirvel rigSi es iyo uzarmazari ra-
odenobis da amasTan erTad xarisxobrivad ma-
Rali samuSao resursebis arsebobis faqti. Meo-
re misi mdidari da mravalferovani bunebrivi
resursebi, aluminis, rkinis, uranis udidesi
maragi, romelsac msoflio warmoebis 50-70%
ukavia, amas emateba misi gansakuTrebulad mom-
gebiani ekonomikur-geografiuli mdebareoba, mi-
si gasasvleli sazRvao regionebSi, arqipelagis
qveynebSi da sxv. aRsaniSnavia misi gansakuT-
rebuli unari praqtikaSi ganaxorcielos same-
cniero-teqnikuri revoluciis uaxlesi miRwe-
vebi da farTod gamoiyenos is Tavis saqmia-
nobaSi. SemTxveviTi ar aris, rom azia-wynari
okeanis regioni gaxda axali qveynebis indus-
trializaciis samSoblo.

XX saukunis meore naxevarSi yvela am res-


ursis gamoyenebis Sedegad, azia_wynari okenis

70
regionis qveynebi msoflio bazris wamyvan po-
ziciebze gadavidnen. miuxedavad imisa, rom ric-
xobrivi monacemebi xSirad cvalebadia, gamoTv-
lebis didi nawili metyvelebs imaze, rom 1990
wlis bolos maTze modioda msoflio vaWrobis
40-45%, aq igulisxmeba manqanaTwarmoebis 70% ,
sazRvao mimosvlis 60%.

azia-wynari okeanis qveynebis ricxvs SeiZ-


leba mivakuTvnoT, iseTi qveynebi, rogoricaa
Sril-anka, indoeTi da a.S. xSiria ricxobrivi
uzustobebi, regionis qveynebis raodenobasTan
dakavSirebiT. CineTis ekonomikur literaturaSi
gvxvdeba miTiTeba, rom am regionSi 32 qveyanaa.
logikurad Cndeba kiTxva, saWiroa Tu ara, am
regions mivakuTvnoT mTeli ruseTis teritoria,
Tu SeiZleba mxolod ukiduresi aRmosavleTiT
SemovivifargloT? igive kiTxva SeiZleba daes-
vas amerikis SeerTebul Statebs da kanadas.

regionis aseTi moculobis gamo, gamoiyofa


punqtebi da aseve qvesistemebi. Eesenia aziuri,
Crd.Aamerikuli, samxreT amerikuli da okeaneT-
is sistemebi. Aaris SemTxvevebi, rodesac qveyne-
71
bis ierarqias misi ekonomiuri siZlieris mixe-
dviT gansazRvraven, gamoyofen umaRlesi eSelo-
nebis saxelmwifoebs - aSS, iaponia, CineTi da
ruseTi, saSualo eSelonebis qveynebs avstra-
lia, aziis nawili, zelandia da okeaneTis qve-
ynebis umravlesoba, dabali eSelonebis qveynebi
- vietnami, daosi, kamboja, daTino da a.S.
istoriul-geografiuli poziciidan aseTi mid-
goma sakmaod sainteresoa, rameTu omis Semdgom
periodSi azia_wynari okeanis qveynebis ekonomi-
uri ganviTareba sinqronulad ar momxdara.
ganviTarebis pirveli faza, romelic XX
saukunis 60-ian wlebSi daiwyo dakavSirebuli
iyo iaponiis ekonomikis swraf zrdasTan, rome-
lsac ekonomikuri saswauli uwodes. Mmeore
talRa, romelmac 1970 weli moicva, gamoi-
xateboda axali industriuli qveynebis aRmav-
lobaSi, Taviseburi naxtomi cnobili aziuri
vefxvebis koreis respublika, singapuri, hon-
gkongi da taivani. regionis ganviTarebas, Cine-
Tis teritoriis uzarmazari gazrda asrulebda.

72
erT-erTi prognozis mixedviT, romelic
aSS - Si gakeTda 2020 wlisTvis yvela didi
ekonomikuri baza azia_wynari okeanis sferoSi
iqneba moqceuli. amasTan erTad sididis mixe-
dviT pirvel adgils daikavebs CineTi (20trl.
dol.), meore adgilze iqneba aSS (13.5), mesame _
iaponia (5), meoTxe _ indoeTi (4.8), mexuTe _
indonezia (4.2), meeqvse _ koreis respublika (3.4)
da meSvide _ tailandi (2.4).

ruseTi, azia_atlantikur regionSi gansaku-


TrebiT civi omis damTavrebisa da sruliad
axali geopolitikuri garemos gaCenis Semdeg
flobs yvela monacemebs imisaTvis, rom gaxdes
ufro mniSvnelovani da sagrZnobi yvelasaTvis.
vaWrobis mxriv azia_atlantikuri regionis qv-
ynebidan ruseTi inarCunebs dadebiT safinanso-
savaWro balanss. Aam qveynebis bazarze igi
flobs upiratesobas cimbiris da ukiduresi aR-
mosavleTis resursebis wyalobiT, Rebulobs
mza produqcias. aseTi Sidaekonomikuri urTie-
rTobebi da kavSirebi momavalSi did yuradRe-
bas saWiroebs, imisaTvis, rom moinaxos infra-

73
struqturis ganviTarebis iseTi gzebis Zieba,
romelic nakleb drosa da xarjebs moiTxovs.
amasTan udidesi adgili ukavia da yovelTvis
eqneba ruseTis ukiduresi aRmosavleTis regi-
ons moculobis mixedviT, resursebiT mdidars
da rac mTavaria, igi flobs bunebriv gasas-
vlels `wynari oekanis ukiduresobamde .

saerTaSoriso geografiuli Sromis


gadanawilebis cneba

es cneba iqcevda da iqcevs mravali geogr-


afis yuradRebas, maT Sorisaa: baranski, vitve-
ri, kolokovski, sauSkini da sxv. Bbaranskim am
cnebas misca ganmarteba, romliTac igi
gaacalkeva or nawilad, bunebriv da socialur
nawilebad. Seiswavla misi istoriuli safu-
Zvlebi, daaxasiaTa es cneba, rogorc erT-erTi
mTavari faqtori ekonomikuri geografiisa. igi
yovelTvis xazs usvamda imas, rom nebismier qve-
yanas SeuZlia awarmoos mravali saxis saqo-
74
neli, rom es mxolod mis mravalferovnebaze
metyvelebs da ara mis monawileobaze saerTa-
Soriso ekonomikaSi. misi Teoriis ganxorci-
eleba praktikaSi mxolod maSinaa SesaZlebeli,
rodesac qveynebi erTmaneTisTvis Sromoben, ro-
desac maTi Sromis Sedegi gadadis erTi qve-
ynidan meoreSi, rac Semdeg msoflio vaWrobis
gazrda-gafar-Tovebaze aisaxeba. vitveri werda
sam faqtorze, romelzec formirdeba saerTa-
Soriso ekonomikuri Sromis gadanawileba. Ppir-
vel rigSi mwarmoebeli qveyana unda flobdes
sagrZnob upiratesobas sxva qveynebTan Seda-
rebiT, meore, garda konkurenti qveynebisa, unda
arsebobdes qveynebi, sadac warmodgenili pro-
duqcia ufro maRal fasad gaiyideba da maseme,
produqciis gadaadgilebis xarji ar unda aRe-
matebodes produqciis warmoebis fass. vitveri
Tavis naSromebSi aseve ganixilavda geografi-
uli Sromis gafarToebas, am procesSi axali
teritoriebis CarTviT.

sauSkinma baranskisa da vitverisgan gansxv-


avebiT cnebis problemebze gaamaxvila yuradRe-

75
ba. Tavis naSromebSi igi axasiaTebda am cnebis
mniSvnelobas geografiis mecnierebisTvis, gani-
xilavda mis kavSirs transportirebasTan, bune-
briv resursebTan, garemosTan.

gadanawilebis cnebas SemdgomSi did yura-


dRebas uTmobda bagamalovi. amavdroulad man
zustad gansazRvra faqtorebis mTeli jgufi,
romelzec dayrdnobilia saerTaSoriso geogra-
fiuli Sromis gadanawileba. esenia:

bunebriv-geografiuli
ekonomikur-geografiuli
socialur-politikuri
samecniero teqnikuri faqtorebi.

sabolood SeiZleba iTqvas, rom saerTaSo-


riso geografiuli Sromis gadanawilebis cne-
bas Tan sdevs ori ganuyofeli procesi. pirvel
rigSi esaa saerTaSoriso specializirebuli wa-
rmoeba, romelsac SeuZlia iyos, rogorc darg-
TaSoriso, aseve Sidadargobrivi. dargTaSoriso
warmoebis dros qveyana, rogorc wesi awarmoebs
da eqsportirebas ukeTebs SedarebiT naklebi

76
saxis produqcias, upirveles yovlisa advilad
misaReb produqcias, benzins da aseve soflis
meurneobas.

saerTaSoriso ekonomikuri integracia

saerTaSoriso ekonomikuri integracia mso-


flios sameurneo cxovrebis erT-erTi Tvals-
aCino movlenaa. Mmas SeuZlia miiRos sxvadasxva
formebi, miaRwios garkveul zRvars, magram misi
gavlena msoflio sameurneo bazarze dRiTidRe
izrdeba, aseve yoveldRiurad matulobs sainte-
gracio jgufebi. Ggeografiul da ekonomikur
literaturaSi saerTaSoriso ekonomikuri inte-
graciis mravali ganmarteba arsebobs. Mmisi zu-
sti da sruli ganmartebisTvis, magaliTad Sei-
Zleba moviyvanoT Semdegi: saerTaSoriso ekono-
mikuri integracia warmoadgens internacionali-
zaciis, msoflio sameurneo cxovrebis axal et-
aps, romelic dafuZnebulia sxvadasxva qveynebis
saerTo adaptaciasa da siaxloveze, maT Rrma da

77
saimedo urTierTobebze. ekonomikur literatu-
reSi aseve xazi esmeva, imasac, rom es procesi
ara marto sameurneoa, aramed samecniero po-
litikuric, romelic aerTianebs qveynebs. am
procesSi Cveulebisamebr ikveTeba ramdenime Se-
degobrivi etapi: Tavisufali vaWrobis zona,
sabaJo kavSiri, saerTo bazari, ekonomikuri da
savaluto kavSiri da bolos politikuri kav-
Siri.

procesebis xSir gazrdaze metyvelebs faq-


ti, rom 1990 wlisaTvis arsebobda ukve msgavsi
saxis 90-mde xelSekruleba, magram amasTanave
unda iTqvas, rom am xelSekrulebebis umravle-
soba dadebulia ekonomikuri dajgufebebis mi-
er, amitom mas Znelia uwodo internacionaluri.
Mmsoflio gamocdileba mowmobs imaze, rom ase-
Ti dajgufebebi SeiZleba warmoiqmnas mxo-lod
Zalian maRali donis ekonomiur qveyanaSi, rom-
elic orientirebulia Sida-dargobrivi specia-
lizaciis gaumjobesebaze. aqedan gamomdinare
ekonomikur rukaze msgavsi dajgufebebi unda ve-

78
Zebod CrdiloeTiT, Tumca isini ukve samxreT-
Sic SeiniSneba.

saerTaSoriso ekonomikuri integracia Seg-


viZlia gavyoT or ZiriTad formad: regional-
uri da sadargo integraciebi. Ppirvels ufro
gavrcelebuli da meti mniSvneloba aqvs. XX
saukunis dasawyisSi ekonomiuri integracia wa-
rmodgenili iyo ramdenime didi da saSualo
zomis dajgufebebiT. rogorc mosalodneli iyo
ori mTavari dajgufeba ganlagda or wamyan re-
gionSi - das. evropa da Crd. amerika. das. evropa
_ evrokavSiri, romelmac ganviTarebis ramo-
denime etapi gaiara 25 qveyniT da mTliani mo-
saxleobiT 455 mln. kaci (2004 we-li). Crd.
amerika SeTanxmeba Tavisufali vaWrobis Ses-
axeb, romelic or etapad formirdeba, mTliani
mosaxleobiT 440 mln.kaci aSS, kanada da meq-
sika. yvela dajgufebis saboloo mizani erTi
iyo, isini isaxavdnen rac SeiZleba swrafad
gasuliyvnen Tavisufali vaWrobis zonaSi.

79
msoflio meurneobis
transnacionalizacia

transnacionalur korporacias miakuTvneben


msxvil safinanso-samrewvelo, nacionalur an,
iSviaTad internacionalur kapitals, romelic
moqmedebs or an met qveyanaSi da aqvs gadawyve-
tilebis miRebis iseTi sistema, romelic saSu-
alebas aZlevs mas miusadagos resursebis ga-
danawilebis saerTo strategia da politika,
teqnologiebi da pasuxusmgebloba. gazardos
Tavisi poziciebi msoflio meurneobaSi da mii-
Ros maqsimaluri mogeba. msoflio meurneobis
transnacionalizacia Cveulebriv Seicavs saTao
kompanias da mis filialebs. agreTve asoci-
rebul kompaniebs, ganyofilebebs da sxv.

pirveli msoflio meurneobis transnacio-


nalizacia, rogorc saerTaSoriso karteli ga-
Cnda jer kidev pirvel msoflio omamde. omis
periodSi maTi ricxvi gaizarda da formebis
mravalferovnebac gadidda. meore msoflio om-
is Semdeg Seiqmna msoflio meurneobis trans-

80
nacionalizaciis sazRvargareTuli filial-
ebic. da bolos 1980-ian wlebSi warmoiqmna Tana-
medrove msoflio meurneobis transnacionali-
zacia, romelic gamoirCeoda didi ekonomikuri
ZaliT da Tavisi struqturuli ganStoebebiT.
msgavsi saxis procesi warmoadgens saerTaSo-
riso warmoebis kompleqss, romelic ara mxo-
lod sabazroa, aramed sawarmoo xasiaTsac ata-
rebs. msoflio meurneobis transnacionalizacia
aqcents akeTebs ara marto saTao sazRvarga-
reTis qveynebSi saqonlis gatanaze, aramed axal
adgilebSi kapitalis dabandebas, romlebic mWi-
drodaa dakavSirebuli adgilobriv warmoebas-
Tan. saerTo jamSi yovel msoflio meurneobis
transnacionalizaciis sazRvrebSi.

samecniero literaturaSi xSirad Sevxvde-


biT cifrebs anu msoflio meurneobis transna-
cionalizaciis raodenobas, saerTaSoriso sta-
tistikis mixedviT 1970wels msoflioSi iri-
cxeboda 7000 msoflio meurneobis transn-
acionalizacia. 1980 wels maTi ricxvi gaiza-

81
rda 10000 mde. 2000 wlisTvis ki Cveneba iyo
daaxloebiT 60000 dan 600000 mde.

ricxobriv zrdasTan erTad izrdeba da


xdeba maTi xarisxobrivi cvlilebebi. pirvel
rigSi did rols TamaSobs udidesi msoflio
meurneobis transnacionalizaciebi, romlebic
imorCileben naklebi Zalauflebis mqone komp-
aniebs. meores mxriv adre msoflio meurneobis
transnacionalizaciis firmebi TavianT Svilo-
bil kompaniebs garkveul damoukideblobas aZ-
levdnen, exla ki ufro mWidrod ikvrebian da
Zlierdebian maTi integraciuli kavSirebiT.
sxva mxriv daiwyo sazRvargareT Sereuli komp-
aniebis formireba adgilobrivi nacionaluri
kapitalis monawileobiT, rac maT konkurentuna-
rianobaze metyvelebs. aseve sul ufro xSiri
xdeba sxva qveynebSi eqsportis praqtika ara
saqonlis, aramed kapitalis pirdapiri invest-
ticiebis saxiT. msgavsi investiciebi midis iseT
samecniero dargebSi, rogoricaa eleqtronika,
informatika, bioteqnologia, qarxnebis Seqmna,
raTa ganxorcieldes didi samecniero-teqnikuri

82
proeqtebi sawarmoebis mSeneblobasa da momsa-
xurebis sferoSi.

klasikur msoflio meurneobis transnaci-


onalizaciasTan erTad Cndeba ukve globaluri
meurneobis sferoebi, romlebic aviwroveben
sxvadasxva dargebs, ara regionalur, aramed
globalur doneze da Tan atareben Sesabamis
strategias. da bolos msoflio meurneobis
transnacionalizacia xdeba ufro specializ-
irebuli saxis produqciaze da iqceva konglo-
meratad, romelic uSvebs sxvadasxva daniS-
nulebis saqonels da orientacias akeTebs
momsaxurebis sxvadasxva sferoze.

msoflio meurneobis transnacionalizaciis


roli Tanamedrove msoflioSi gamoixateba Se-
mdegi cifrobrivi maCveneblebiT. 2000 wlis gay-
idvebis saerTo jamma gadaaWarba 10 trilion
dollars, romelic aWarbebs amerikis da das-
avleT evropis maCveneblebs. msoflio meur-
neobis transnacionalizacia amJamad akontr-
olebs msoflio mrewvelobis warmoebis 1/2-s,
vaWrobis da momsaxurebis 1/3-s. es yvelaferi
83
mowmobs imas, rom msoflio meurneobis trans-
nacionalizacia asrulebs mTavar rols Tana-
medrove msoflio meurneobaSi. akademikos moi-
seevis azriT Tanamedrove msoflio Tavad aris
es procesi.

inglisuri gazeTi Financial Timesi aqve-


ynebs msoflios 500 udidesi kompaniebis sias.
1990 wlis bolos msoflios ZiriTadi regionebi
ase gadanawilda : Crd. amerika - 235, evropa -
145, iaponia - 71, azia-wynari okeanis regioni
(iaponiis gareSe) - 35, laTinuri amerika - 8,
afrika - 4, axlo aRmosavleTi - 1, avstralia -
1. sxva qveynebs Soris liderebia aSS, iaponia,
didi britaneTi, Ggermania, safrangeTi, kanada.
es cifrebi did sivrceze miuTiTebs, maTi 90%
mdebareobs dasavleTis yvelaze ganviTarebul
qveynebSi, ufro zustad msoflio meurneobis 3
did centrze ( aSS, evropa da iaponia), 10 % ki
ganviTarebad qveynebze modis.

did interess iwvevs 10 udidesi msof-


lio meurneobis transnacionalizacia msof-
lioSi, Tumca unda aRiniSnos, rom am aTeulis
84
Semadgenloba sxvadasxva wyaroebSi mocemulia
sxvadasxva monacemebis bazaze dayrdnobiT, wli-
uri gayidvebis moculobiT an damokidebulia
sabazro kapitalizaciaze, aseve sazRvargareTu-
li investiciebis sidideze. amis gamo maTi rei-
tingi izrdeba, miuxedavad amisa pirvel aTe-
ulSi yovelTvis Sedis transnacionaluri zegi-
gantebi: jeneral motorsi, ford moto-ri,
eqsoni, ai bi emi (aSS), toiota motorsi
(iaponia), roial daC Seli ( didi britaneTi,
holandia) . 1990 wlis monacemebiT jeneral
motorsis gayidvebis wliuri mocu-loba mer-
yeobda 150 miliard dolaridan 200 miliard
dolaramde. Mman gadaaWarba msoflio meur-
neobis transnacionalizaciis iseT qveynebs, ro-
goricaa norvegia, dania, portugalia, saber-
ZneTi, CexeTi, rumineTi da indoneziac ki.

miuxedavad aseTi maCveneblebisa msgavsi ko-


mpaniebis msoflio meurneobis transnacion-
alizaciis saqmianoba ZiriTadad koncentrirebu-
lia saTao qveynebTan urTierTobaze, maSin ro-
ca sazRvargareTuli filialebis produqcia

85
Seadgens 20-25%-s. sxva kompaniebisaTvis ki
korporaciuli weli izrdeba 50 % -iT, gayid-
vebis maCveneblebi iwevs 47-80% mde. Aam mxriv
rekordsmenebi arain Sveduri eleqtroluqsi
( 89%) , holandiuri filips eleqtroni-qsi (
93%) da ra Tqma unda Sveduri firma nestle
(98%).

sxva qveynebis gareT pirdapiri


investiciebis daxmarebiT msoflio meurneobis
transnaciona-lizacia qmnis meorad ekonomikas.
amis magaliTia aSS. jer kidev 1980-ian wlebSi
amerikul kapitalze aSenebul sazRvargareTis
sawarmoebSi dasaqmebuli iyo 6.5 milionze meti
adamiani, xolo mogebis wilma Seadgina misi 1/3.
Tavisi meoradi ekonomikis zomebiT aSS bevrad
uswrebs iaponiis, didi britaneTis, germaniis da
safrangeTis analogiur maCveneblebs.

ukve ganixileba sakiTxi msoflio


meurneobis transnacionalizaciis SesaZlo
Seqmnisa ruseTSi. moiseevis azriT imisaTvis,
rom ruseTi Sevides msoflio meurneobis tra-
nsnaciona-lizaciaSi, rogorc partniori mas un-
86
da hqondes Tavisi Zlieri korporaciebi, kon-
kurentunarian msoflio bazarze, xolo es xde-
ba qveyanaSi arsbuli monopoliebis safuZvelze.
moskovis saxelmwifo universitetis zogierTi
geogra-fis azriT 1990 wlisTvis ruseTSi ar-
sebobda 30-40 udidesi safinanso-samrewvelo
jgufi, romlebic SeiZleboda yofiliyo safu-
Zveli ms-gavsi msoflio meurneobis transna-
cionalizaciis formirebisa. Ees exeba upirve-
les yovlisa gaznavTobis kompleqss, qimiur da
meta-lurgiur mrewvelobas, aseve aviaciis, rak-
etmSeneblobis da energo manqanaTmSeneblobis
warmoebas. gazpromi- gazis mrewvelobaSi,
lukoili _ navTobis, alrosa- ukve gaxdnen
transnacionaluri korporaciebi. 2005 wlisa-
Tvis msoflios 500 udidesi kompaniebis siaSi
pirvelad Sevida rao eies rasia ( 248 adgili).

87
teritoria rogorc ganTavsebis
faqtori

teritoriis ganTavsebaze, rogorc faq-


torze ukve werdnen baranski, sauSkini, maier-
goizi, pokSiSevski, romelebmac xazi gausves
Cveni mecnierebisaTvis gansakuTrebul mniSvnel-
obas teritoriuli midgomis sakiTxSi. maSbicma
teritoriuloba Seitana geografiis paradigmis
mniSvnelovan siaTa ricxvSi. marTlac, terito-
riuloba unda gavigoT, rogorc erT-erTi mTa-
vari principi da midgoma ekonomikuri da
socialuri geografiisa.

teritoria _ es aris saxelmwifos war-


moebis siZlieris elementi. iseTi Semadgeneli
eleme-ntebi, rogoricaa bunebrivi resursebi da
maTi aTvisebis pirobebi, romlebic xels uwy-
oben meurneobis aTvisebas. zogierTma geog-
rafebma wamoayenes Tezisebi imis Sesaxeb, rom
nebismier teritorias aqvs Tavisi moculoba
e.i. SeuZlia daitios mosaxleobis garkveuli

88
raodenoba da samrewvelo da sxva obieqtebi.
aseTi moculoba damokidebulia mis sidideze,
sivrcis sameurneo organizebulobaze, ekolo-
giur situaciaze da sxv. rogorc wesi, rac
ufro vrcelia qveyana, miT ufro mraval-
ferovania misi bunebrivi resursebi da mas aqvs
SesaZlebloba teritoriuli manevrirebis, axa-
li miwebis aTvisebis, sivrciTi Zvrebisa, Sromis
raionTaSoriso formirebis.

teritoriebis sidide problemebsac qmnis.


es aris manZilis dafarva, gadatanis siSore, sa-
Wiro infrastruqturis Seqmna da misi momwi-
febis miRweva. es problema dgas ruseTis, kana-
dis, avstraliis, braziliis, CineTis da indo-
eTis winaSe. rogorc mosalodneli iyo ruseTi
am mimarTebaSi Zalian CamorCeba sxva qveynebs,
miuxedavad imisa, rom man sabWoTa kavSirisgan
memkvidreobiT miiRo DZalian Zlieri navTobene-
rgetikuli kompleqsi. XX saukunis 90-ian webSi
pirveladi energoresursebis warmoeba Semcirda
1/4-iT. erTdroulad Seicvala energiis way-
roebis warmoebis struqtura, romelSic Sem-

89
cirda qvanaxSiris da navTobis wili da gai-
zarda bunebrivi airi 50%-iT.

msoflio navTobmrewveloba

navTobmrewveloba msoflio navTobenerge-


tikuli mrewvelobis wamyvani dargia. igi Zlier
gavlenas axdens mTel msoflio meurneobaze da
aseve msoflio politikaze. navTobmrewveloba
gamoirCeva didi kapital moculobiT da dRes
arsebuli msoflios eqsploataciis navTob Wab-
urRilebi milions aRwevs. navTob samrewvelo
mopoveba XIX saukunis SuaSi erTdroulad sam
qveyanaSi daiwyo: ruseTSi, rumineTSi da aSS-Si.
XX saukunis dasawyisSi ukve 20 qveyana moipo-
vebda navTobs, magram yvelaze mets aSS, vene-
suela da ruseTi. 1940 wlisTvis navTobmom-
povebel qveyanaTa ricxvi gaizarda 40-mde da
wamyvani roli SeinarCunes aSS-m, ruseTma, vene-
suelam da iranma. 1970 wels ukve 60 - mde

90
miaRwia, 1990 wels - 80. xolo 1990 wlis bolos
95-ma. jer kidev 1960 wlebSi navTobis msoflio
mopovebis naxevari modioda dasavleT naxevar-
sferos qveynebze, xolo Semdeg pirveloba gada-
vida aRmosavleT qveynebze. Sesabamisad gaiza-
rda navTobis msoflio mopoveba. 1980-ani wlebis
Semdeg daiwyo krizisi da navTobis fasi
mkveTrad gaizarda msoflio bazarze.

msgavsma situaciam imoqmeda navTobis mopo-


vebis geografiul suraTze, ramac igi gaxada
ararentabeluri, eqstremaluri bunebrivi piro-
bebis mqone Znelad misawvdom adgilebSi. 1990
wlebis dasawyisSi navTobis msoflio mopoveba
ase Tu ise dastabilurda. es ar momxdara resu-
rsebis SezRudviT, aramed navTobmompovebeli
qveynebis politikiT, pirvel rigSi ki opekis we-
vri qveynebisa. aseTi politika iTvaliswinebda
mopovebis mkacr normirebul kvotas, imisaTvis,
rom fasi ar davardniliyo. aseTive politikas
atarebda is qveynebic, romlebic ar Sediodnen
opekis SemadgenlobaSi. mxolod 1990-iani wle-
bis bolos moxda didi aRmasvla, 2004 wlisTvis
91
ki 3.8 miliard saxelmwifoTa mesame jgufebs
Soris navTobis mopovebis ganawileba Seicvala;
Seicvala 2 jgufs Soris; kapitalistursa da
socialisturs Soris, radganac dasavleTSi da
ganviTarebad qveynebSi mopovebuli navTobis
mTeli wili jer kidev XX saukunis 20-30-ian
wlebidan moyolebuli imyofeboda saerTaSo-
riso navTobis kartelis kontrolis qveS, rom-
elSic Sedioda 7 udidesi kompania, amerikuli
standart oilis meTaurobiT. magram, male gaa-
qtiurdnen opekis qveynebic da navTobis mopo-
vebis 40%-s isini akontrolebdnen. rac Seexeba
ganviTarebad qveynebs 1990 wlis bolos 60%
avidnen msoflio navTobis mopovebaSi, maSin
roca dasavleTis mTeli wilis maCveneblebi
24% iyo.

92
msoflio finansuri bazari

msoflio meurneobis SemadgenlobaSi


msoflio saqonlis da momsaxurebis bazrebs
Soris ganTavsda msoflio finansuri bazari,
romelsac sakmaod rTuli struqtura aqvs. Aam
bazris safuZvelia kapitalis mozidva mdidari
qveynebidan im qveynebSi, sadac mcire kapitalia.

kapitalis mozidva xdeba ori ZiriTadi


formiT: samewarmeo da sesxiT, anu sasesxo ka-
pitaliT. samewarmeo kapitalis gamowveva sTa-
vazobs organizaciebs sazRvargareT filiale-
bSi, Svilobil sawarmoebSi, Sereuli sawarmoe-
bis kapitals, romelsac iTviseben warmoebiT,
vaWrobiT da ekonomikis sxva daxmarebebiT.Ees
xdeba ori formiT: pirdapiri da porTfelis
investiciiT. Ppirdapiri kapitaldabandeba uzr-
unvelyofs sazRvargareTuli sawarmoebis mTli-
an an nawilobriv ( daax. 25% ) flobas aqciona-
luri kapitaliT, romelic saSualebas aZlevs
investors akontrolos igi. saporTfele inv-

93
estticia es iseTi kapitaldabandebaa, rome-
lic xorcieldeba aqciebis, obligaciebis da
sxva fasiani qaRaldebis SesyidviT.

msoflio finansuri saqmianobis sami


ZiriTadi arealia:

9 _ aSS. kapitalis eqsportiT igi pirvel


adgilzea. amerikuli kapitalis mTavari momx-
marebelia dasavleT evropa, aseve kanada,
laT.amerika da sxv.
9 _ dasavleT evropa. sazRvargareTuli
investiciebis masStabiT igi mniSvnelovnad us-
wrebs aSS-s. Tumca kapitalis gadideba xdeba
TviT evropis qveynebs SigniT, rac aisaxeba mWi-
dro integraciiT evrokavSiris qveynebs Soris.
kapitalis eqsportiT meore adgilze aSS-a.
9 _ iaponia. Mman gauswro did britaneTs,
iaponiis ZiriTadi kapitali gadis das. evropaSi.
miuxedavad amisa igi kapitalis 1/4 gzavnis gan-
viTarebad qveynebSi. ( korea, brazilia, malai-
zia, filipinebi ).

94
B msoflio finansuri struqtura sakmaod
rTulia. samewarmeo da sesxobrivi kapitaldaba-
ndebebi, oqros bazris gafarToeba, kreditebi,
valuta, fasiani qaRaldebi da sxv. aman Seqmna
mTeli rigi finansuri organizaciebi. Eesenia
saxelmwifo da komerciuli bankebi, savaluto
da safinanso birJebi, sakredito dawesebule-
bebi, sainvesticio fondebi, finansuri kompa-
niebi .es yvelaferi ki qmnis msoflio finansuri
sistemis infrastruqturas. maT Soris gansa-
kuTrebuli mniSvneloba eniWeba birJebs da ban-
kebs.

bankebi, romlebic jer kidev kapital


dagrovebis epoqaSi Seiqmna evropaSi, didi gan-
viTareba hpova axlandel droSi, roca maT mmar-
Tveli pozicia daikaves kapitalis sesxiT baza-
rze. gardatexa moxda XXs-is 60-ian wlebSi,
radgan am dros gaCnda ori tendencia: 1)
nacionaluri bankebis Serwyma da bankigigante-
bis Seqmna; 2) sxvadasxva qveynebis bankebis Ser-
wyma da sazRvargareTuli sabanko konsorci-
umebis Seqmna, romlebmac ufro did monopoli-
95
zaciamde miiyvana sabanko sistema da trans-
nacionaluri bankebis Seqmna.

exla msoflioSi funqcionirebs imdeni ban-


ki, rom maTi daTvla SeuZlebelia. 1990-iani
wlebis bolos msoflios 40 udidesi bankebidan
10 iyo iaponuri, 8 - amerikuli, 6 - franguli,
4 - inglisuri da germanuli, 3 - Sveicaruli, 2 -
holandiuri da Cinuri, 1 avstraliuri.

Zalian gavrcelda safondo birJebi, rom-


lebic fasiani qaRaldebiT vaWroben. aseT bir-
Jebze iyideba aqciebi, romlis procesSic dgi-
ndeba maTi sabazro fasi. aqciebis kursis
cvlilebiT izomeba ama Tu im dargis monacemebi
da qveynis mTeli ekonomikis monacemebic ki,
amitom maT yuradRebiT akvirdebian saxelmwifo
organoebi da kerZo mewarmeni. Uucxo valutis
vaWrobisas arsebobs specializirebuli sava-
luto birJebi.

bankebis zrdasTan da finansuri saqmi-


anobis koncentraciasTan erTad Seiqmna finan-
suri centrebi jer nacionaluri, Semdeg saer-

96
TaSoriso da bolos msoflio. swored isini
agroveben da agzavnian mTels msoflioSi udi-
des sasesxo kapitals, maT xelSia mniSvne-
lovani savaluto, sakredito, sadazRveo da
sxva finansuri operaciebi. aseTi finansuri cen-
trebi sul 10-15-ia.

msoflios safinanso centrebs Soris pir-


vel adgilzea dasavleT evropa. pirobiTad is
SeiZleba daiyos Zvel da axal centrebad. Yyve-
laze naTeli magaliTia londoni, am qalaqSia
msoflioSi wamyvani savaluto birJa, ( Tavisi
dRiuri brunviT utoldeba niu-iorkis da toki-
os birJebs erTad ). evropaSia udidesi safondo
birJa fasiani qaRaldebisa, aq agreTve xdeba
oqros operaciebi da kreditebi. Llondonis
yoveli me-5 adamiani finansebiTaa dakavebuli,
umetesoba ki muSaobs qalaqis saqmian finansur
centrSi - sitiSi. Aasevea parizic , igi mTavar
nacionalur safinanso centridan gadaiqca mso-
flios mniSvnelovan finansur centrad. Tumca
misi specializacia ufro viwroa da Semoifa-
rgleba mxolod sabanko kreditebis bazriT.
97
londons da parizs konkurencias uwevs ciu-
rixi, romlesac Sveicariis finansur dedaqa-
laqs uwodeben, igi qveyana bankiris repute-
ciiT sargeblobs. ciurixi , rogorc msoflio
safinanso centri gamoirCeva oqros da fasiani
qaRaldebis bazrebze.

bolo wlebSi dasavleT evropaSi dafuZnda


kidev sami msoflio rangis safinanso centri.
es aris luqsemburgi, romelic evrokavSiris
finansur dedaqalaqad iTvleba da speciali-
zirebulia grZelvadiani kreditebis gacemiT. am
patara qveyanaSi 200 - mde bankia, romelic aTa-
sobiT sainvesticio fondis saqmes ganagebs.
kidev erTi `sagadasaxado samoTxea lixtenSta-
ini, sadac aTasobiT ofSeruli kompaniaa dare-
gistrirebuli. Aaseve mainis frankuTxedi, rome-
lic II msoflio omis Semdeg gaxda ucxouri
investiciebis importis centri da Semdeg maTi
udidesi eqsportiori. igi gamoirCeva grZelva-
diani sabanko kreditebiT da fasiani qaRal-
debiT. aSS-Si msoflios udidesi safinanso

98
centri iyo da aris niu-iorki, sadac msofli-
oSi yvelaze didi safondo birJaa.

singapuri, rogorc axali


industrialuri ganviTarebis qveynis
magaliTi samxreT-aRmosavleT aziaSi

singapuri (pirdapiri TargmaniT lomis qal-


aqi) _ aziis kidev erTi industriuli qveyanaa.
bevri ram masSi tipiuria am jgufis sxva qveyne-
bisTvisac, magram bevri ram mkveTrad gansxvave-
buli. daviwyoT Tundac am qveynis sididiT, zo-
miT, romlis farTobi Seadgens mxolod 650 kv.
km. es moskovis farTobze naklebia da evropis
yvelaze msxvil mikrosaxelmwifoze andoraze
odnav meti. radgan, sazRvargareT aziis terito-
riuli masStabebi sul sxvagvaria, maTi raode-
nobidan gamomdinare, singapuric savsebiT SesaZ-
lebelia, miekuTvnos mikrosaxelmwifoebis kate-
gorias da miuxedavad imisa, rom misi mosax-
leoba ukve 39 mln. adamianze metia, aziuri mass-

99
tabebiT is ar aris didi raodenobis. rac See-
xeba mosaxleobis simWidroves, Zneli ar aris
gamosaTvlelad, is uaxlovdeba Semdeg maCveneb-
els 6100 adamiani 1 kv.km-ze. e.i. (monakosTan erT-
ad) aris rekorduli mTels msoflioSi. singa-
puris eTnikur SemadgenlobaSi ki mkveTrad ga-
moiyofa sami jgufi: Cinelebi (77%), malaizi-
elebi (14%), indoelebi (7%). mosaxleobis dana-
rCen nawils Seadgenen ZiriTadad evropelebi da
maTi STamomavlebi.

miuxedavad imisa rom singapuris istoria Sua


saukuneebidan iwyeba, misi warmomavlobis isto-
rias ganixilaven 1819 wlidan. zustad am wels
ingliselebma daarses aq Tavisi savaWro faqto-
ria, romelic Tavdapirvelad ekuTvnoda post-
indur kompanias, Semdeg ki streitssetlmentis
(dasaxleba srutesTan) proteqtoratis Semad-
geneli nawili gaxda, ufro mogvianebiT ki Camo-
yalibda inglisuri kolonia.

misi birTvi gaxda sazRvao porti singapuri,


romelic mdebareobs daaxloebiT kalkutasa da

100
kantonis SuaSi (axlandeli guanCJou). Tavidan
misi specializacia iyo saneleblebis eqsporti
mcire vondis kunZulebidan, Semdeg ki kauCukisa
da kalas eqsporti malaidan.

XIX saukunis Sua wlebSi es kunZuli fregat


paladaze mogzaurobisas moinaxula rusma mwe-
ralma i.a. gonCarovma. man ase daaxasiaTa es kun-
Zuli (porti).

singapuri_erT-erTi msoflio bazaria, sad-


ac jer kidev yvelaferi Semodis, rac saWiroa
da ar aris saWiro, rac sasargebloa da mavnea
adamianisaTvis. Aaq naxavT aucilebel nivTebs:
purs, qsovilebs, sawamlavs, samkurnalo balax-
ebs. germanelebi, frangebi, ingliselebi, ameri-
kelebi, somxebi, sparselebi, indoelebi, Cinele-
bi _ yvela Camovida aq, raTa iyidon da gayidon.
sxvagvari moTxovnebi da miznebi aq ar aris.

SemdegSi ingliselebma daarses aq Tavisi erT-


erTi umsxvilesi samxedro-sazRvao baza. pirve-
li msoflio omi ar Sexebia singapurs, meore

101
msoflio omis wlebSi ki is iyo dapyrobili ia-
poniis mier.

omis Semdeg singapurma miaRwia jer forma-


lur TviTmmarTvelobas britanuli Tanamegobr-
obis CarCoebSi (1959w), Semdeg ki is cota xnis
ganmavlobaSi Sedioda malaiziis federaciaSi,
magram 1965 wels gamovida misi Semagdenlobi-
dan da gaxda damoukidebeli saxelmwifo -
respublika singapuri.

singapuris gegrafiuli mikromdebareobis Tav-


isebureba mdgobareobs imaSi, rom is warmoa-
dgens kunZulovan saxelmwifos, romelic ganl-
agebulia imave dasaxlebis dablobian kunZulze
da masTan axlo myof patara kunZulebze. sam-
xreTiT is singapuris srutiT gamoyofilia ind-
oneziur kunZul sematrisgan, CrdiloeTiT ki
viwro joxoris srutiT _ malaiziisgan. sark-
inigzo magistrali akavSirebs singapurs joxo-
ris srutis meore mxares ganlagebul malai-
ziur qalaq joxorbarusTan (Semdeg is midis
kualalumpurSi da bangkokSi). sarkinigzo magis-

102
tralisTvis specialurad agebuli iyo damba
sruteze, romelzedac gadis mravalmxrivi saav-
tomobilo magistrali da wyalsadenis sami mi-
li (singapuri iRebs sasmel wyals malaiziidan).

singapuris istoriuli birTvi Camoyalibda


kunZulis centraluri nawilis samxreT zRvis-
pireTSi, sadac singapuris sruteSi Caedineba pa-
tara mdinare singapuri. aq jer kidev SemorC-
enilia kolonialuri periodis saxlebi, magram
dRes qalaqis centraluri arealis iersaxe ul-
traTanamedrovea, samTavrobo SenobebiT, otel-
ebiT, sacxovrebeli saxlebiT, maRaziebiT, gar-
Tobis adgilebiT.

maTi umravlesoba ganlagebulia maRliv Sen-


obebSi da caTambjenebSi. yvelaze didi caTamb-
jenebi 60 da 65 sarTuliania. centraluri area-
li garSemortymulia sacxovrebeli SenobebiT,
esenic mravalsarTuliania (igrZnoba miwis ukm-
arisoba). sacxovrebeli Senobebi 3 da 5 oTaxia-
nia da sakmaod keTilmowyobili.

103
mokled rom vTqvaT, centraluri areali mi-
mdebare sacxovrebeli raionebiT gaxlavT qvey-
nis dedaqalaqi singapuri, romlis mosaxleoba
Seadgens 2 mln. adamians. mosaxleobis danarCeni
nawili ki cxovrobs e.w. axal qalaqebSi, gare-
ubnebSi, yvelaze didi maTgan _ qalaqi jur-
ongia. yvela gareubani dakavSirebulia avtobu-
sebis marSrutebiT da metorpolitenis ramde-
nime xaziT;

singapuris samrewvelo profili misi isto-


riis manZilze icvleboda ramdenimejer. Tavid-
an, mravali aTwleulis manZilze saxelmwifos
mTavari funqcia iyo saerTaSoriso vaWroba,
romelic dayrdnobili iyo reeqsportze. es
niSnavs imas, rom singapuris gavliT msoflio
bazarze igzavneboda produqcia, warmoebuli
mezobel qveynebSi. jer kidev 1960 wels
reeqsportis wili mTels eqsportSi Seadgenda
95%-s. Semdeg ki industriuli ganviTarebis war-
matebebis wyalobiT, es wili Semcirda da wina
planze wamoiwia mza produqcia, warmoebuli
singapurSi.
104
2000 wels singapuris eqsportma Seadgina 140
mlrd. dolari (2,2% msoflio), maT Soris adg-
ilobrivi produqciis _ 80 mlrd dolari (1.2%).
pirveli SexedviT es wilobrivi maCveneblebi Se-
iZleba arc ise maRali mogveCvenos, magram es
ase ar aris. meore maCveneblis mixedviTac ki pa-
tara singapuri uswrebs iseT gigant qveynebs
rogoric arian ruseTi, avstralia, brazilia,
sxva qveynebze rom araferi vTqvaT. misi savaWro
partniorebi arian: iaponia, aSS, malaizia da
tailandi, evrokavSiris qveynebi.

singapuris mTeli savaWro qseli iyo, da as-


eTia axlac, mWidrod dakavSirebuli sazRvao
portTan, romelic Tavdapirveld daarsda mdi-
nare singapuris SenakadSi. axla ki mas uWiravs
TiTqmis mTeli sanapiro zoli, romelic ukavS-
irdeba singapuris srutes, sadac ganlagebulia
specializirebuli saporto terminalebi. 1990-
ian wlebSi tvirTbrunviT (330 mln. tona weli-
wadSi) singapuris portma gauswro roterdams
da gavida pirvel adgilze msoflioSi. misi ge-
mTbrunva Seadgens 130 aTas gems dRe-RameSi. 400-
105
ze meti sanaosno xazi akavSirebs singapurs
msoflios 740 portTan. Cveulebisamebr Tavad
portSi da mis reidze sruteSi erTdroulad
imyofeba 700-800 gemi aTeulobiT qveynidan. kon-
teinerul gadazidvebSi ki singapuri inawilebs
1-2 adgilebs sianganTan.

singapuris industrializaciis aCqarebis ga-


nxorcielebis dasawyisSive 1960-ian wlebSi sw-
rafad ganviTarda ,,saporto mrewveloba~, rome-
lic orientirebuli iyo importuli nedleulis
gadamuSavebaze. pirvel rigSi es exeba iseT ,,bi-
nZur~ warmoebas, rogoric aris navTobgadamu-
Saveba da navTobqimia, romelic 1970-ian wlebSi
gaxda aq sakvanZo mrewveloba. singapuris xuTi
navTobgadamamuSavebeli qarxnis simZlavrem mia-
Rwia TiTqmis 60 mln. tonas da am maCveneblis
mixedviT igi gavida mesame adgilze msoflioSi
amerikuli hiustonisa da holandiuri roter-
damis Semdeg. sainteresoa isic, rom es navTobis
maragi navTsacavebTan erTd gadatanili iqna
Svid patara kunZulze, romlebic mdebareobs
qalaq jurongis samxreTiT. es patara kunZulebi
106
faqtiurad gaaerTianes erT didi kunZulad,
ramac xeli Seuwyo didi samrewvelo zonis Seq-
mnas. am zonis bazaze iaponurma da germanulma
koncernebma ukve daiwyes Tanamedorve msxvili
navTobqimiuri warmoebis ganviTareba. proeqti
iTvaliswinebs dambis agebas, romelic daaka-
vSirebs kunZul jurongs am samrewvelo raionis
mTavar nawilTan.

`saporto mrewvelobis~ dargs unda mivakuT-


vnoT gemTmSeneblobac. aq aSeneben supertanker-
ebs 500 aTas t. tonaJiT da navTobsaburR baqn-
ebs. didi mniSvneloba aqvs aseve gemebis Seke-
Tebas.

1980-1990 wlebSi singapuris industriuli


profili Seicvala. misi mTavari mimarTuleba
gaxda eleqtronika, romelzedac axla modis
mTeli samrewvelo warmoebis naxevari. jer ki-
dev 1970-ian wlebSi daarsebuli es dargi Tavda-
pirvelad dafuZnebuli iyo amwyob operaciebze
da agreTve orientirebuli iyo mcirekvalific-
irebul samuSao Zalaze. magram 1980-ian wlebSi

107
ganxorcielebuli iyo swrafva maRalteqnolo-
giur warmoebaze, romlebic Cvens droSi warmo-
dgenilia sayofacxovrebo da sawarmoo eleqt-
ronikiT. eleqtronuli mrewveloba amJamad do-
minirebs, kerZod qalaq singapurSi da axali qa-
laqebis did nawilSi.

ar aris gasakviri, rom Tavad singapuric ax-


dens eleqtronizaciis, warmoebis sainformacio
teqnologiebis danergvis mkveTri magaliTebis
demonstrirebas. is ukve Sevida kompiuterebis
momxmarebeli qveynebis pirvel xuTeulSi, aSS,
Sveicariisa da SvedeTis Semdeg. singapuris
portis konteinerul terminalze muSaobs eleq-
tronul-gamoTvliTi centri, romelic irCevs
yoveli operaciisaTvis optimalur variants da
agreTve akontrolebs CamotvirTvis da datvi-
rTvis process.

Cangis saerTaSoriso aeroportSi ki romlis


mgzavrTbrunva Seadgens 28 mln. mgzavrs weliw-
adSi, TviTmfrinavebis gamgzavrebisa da Camo-
svlis procesi kontroldeba kompiuterebis me-

108
SveobiT erT wuTamde sizustiT. kompiuteriza-
ciam moicva mTeli sasazRvro da sabaJo kont-
roli, saqalaqo transporti, ganaTlebis sis-
tema, magram singapuris momavals amJamad uka-
vSireben ara marto sawarmo, mwarmoebel, aramed
arasawarmoo sferos. jer kidev 1990-ian wlebSi
singapuris ekonomikuri strategia mimarTuli
iyo, pirvel rigSi, sainformacio infrastru-
qturis ganviTarebaze, raTa is gamxdariyo info-
rmaciis damuSavebisa da gamoyenebis mTavar reg-
ionalur centrad, agreTve sainformacio pro-
gramebis damuSavebis sferos ganviTarebis miz-
niT. amisTvis saWiro gaxda saTanado indus-
triis Seqmna.

momavalSi msxvili regionaluri da msoflio


savaWro centris funqciis SenarCunebiT singa-
puri gaxda momsaxureobis sferos, marketingisa
da finansuri saqmianobis mniSvnelovani centri.
aq mdebareobs 3000 meti transnacionaluri kom-
pania, zogi maTgani Sedis `miliardelebis mso-
flio klubSi. singapuris savaluto birJa yov-
elwliuri brunviT CamorCeba mxolod londons,
109
niu-iorksa da tokios. misi safondo birJa ems-
axureba mTel samxreT-aRmosavleT azias. qal-
aqis centralur arealSic ki, albaT, yvela maR-
livi Senobis naxevarSi ganTavsebulia bankebis
da sxva msgavsi dawesebulebebis sammarTve-
loebi. da kidev erTi singapurisaTvis perspeq-
tiuli saqmianobis sfero _ saerTaSoriso tu-
rizmia. ukve axla singapurSi Cadis 5-6 mln tu-
risti weliw-adSi. maT izidavs ara mxolod
ultraTanamedrove arqiteqtura, aramed servi-
sis maRali done _ mSvenieri otelebi, gar-
Tobebis kargad ganvi-Tarebuli industria, sava-
Wro centrebis simravle. singapuris aeroporti
Cangi, metro, 73 sarTuliani sastumro `Sang-
rila~ aRiarebulia saukeTeso obieqtebad mso-
flioSi.

SeiZleba davamatoT, rom singapurma daimsax-


ura agreTve msoflioSi yvelaze sufTa qalaqis
statusi, ara marto jarimebis mTeli sistemis
wyalobiT (500-dan-1000 singapurul dolaramde),
aramed kulturis saerTaSoriso donis wyalo-
biT. aq arsebobs Tavazianobis erovnuli komi-
110
tetic ki. amJamad seriozulad ganixileba ag-
reTve singapuris, romelic mdebareobs 127 km-iT
ekvatoridan DCrdiloeTiT, msxvil sakurorto
centrad Camoyalibebis perspeqtiva. amasTanave
unda gaviTvaliswinoT, rom samrewvelo saq-
minobis sferos ukavia teritoriis naxevari,
danarCeni misi nawili ki uWiravs tyeebs, saso-
flo sameurneo kulturebs (isini Zalian mcire
raodenobiTaa warmodgenili) da auTvisebel mi-
webs. amJamad mTavar sakurorto funqciebs asr-
ulebs sentosis patara kunZuli singapuris sr-
uteSi. aq SegviZlia vixiloT pirveli mosaxle-
obis dasaxleba, Zveli porti, peplebis egzoti-
kuri parki, orqideebis parki (orqidea_singapu-
ris nacionaluri yvavilia), aziis umsxvilesi
okeanariumi _ `wyalqveSa~ samyaro, agreTve wy-
lis kunZuli, Sadrevnebis kunZuli, e.w. vulka-
nolendi. bunebrivi parki aris kunZulis aRmosa-
vleT sanapirozec. mis dasavleT nawilSi ki
mdebareobs bunebrivi rezervuari tropikuli
floris nairsaxeobiT, frinvelebisa da yvela
saxis peplebis saocari samyaroTi. meore bune-

111
briv rezeruarSi mdebareobs gadamfreni frinve-
lebis dasvenebis adgili maTi migraciis dros
aRmosavleT aziidan. mTeli wlis ganmavlobaSi
muSaobs turistebisTvis niangebis sacavi.

qveynis erovnul gerbze gamokveTili devizia:


`dae ayvavdes singapuri da yvela ambobs, rom
es devizi warmatebiT xorcieldeba. Zalian pat-
ara qveyanas sabazro da Ria ekonomikiT msof-
lioSi pirveli adgili ukavia `ekonomikuri
Tavisu-flebis doniT da meore _ aSS-s Semdeg
sakuTari produqciis konkurentunarianobiT.
singapuri ekonomikuri stabilurobis kargi
magaliTia _ 1997-1998 wlebis krizisic ki mas ar
Sexebia. amasTanave singapuri gamoirCeva Sesa-
Suri politikuri stabilurobiT, magram rogo-
rc xSirad, igi ZiriTadad dafuZnebulia qveynis
marTvis avtoritarul meTodebze.

112
navTobisa da gazis sabadoebi -
gigantebi sparseTis yuris zonaSi

sayovelTaod cnobilia rogor did rols


TamaSobs sparseTis yuris qveynebis ekonomikaSi
navTobis roli. sakmarisia iTqvas rom navTobis
wili saudis arabeTis, quveiTis da iranis saeq-
sporto SemosavlebSi Seadgens 90-95%, erayis,
kataris da gaerTianebuli arabeTis emiratebis
wili ki 95-100%-sac. navTodolarebis Semodine-
bis wyalobiT am qveynebma SedarebiT mokle
droSi SeZles Tavisi ekonomikis rekonstruqcia
da Semosavlebis Zalian maRali donis uzru-
nvelyofa erT sul mosaxleze (gaerTanebul
arabeTis emiratebSi da katarSi 15-20 aTasi do-
lari). zustad navTobiT simdidre ganapirobebs
sparseTis yuris geopolitikur mdgomareobas
aziaSi da msoflioSi. magram es simdidre uSu-
alod aris dakavSirebuli naxSirwyalbadis sa-
badoebTan, romlebic miekuTvneba gigantur kat-
egorias.

113
specialistebi navTobis geologiis dargSi
sawyisi maragebis maCveneblebiT yofen navTobis
sabadoebs xuT jgufad:

1. mcire (10 mln.tonamde)


2. saSualo (10-50 mln)
3. msxvili (50-500 mln)
4. giganturi (500-1000 mln)
5. unikaluri (1 mlrd tonaze meti)
zogi SefasebiT 1980-iani wlebis dasawyisSi 25
aTas navTobis sabadoebidan gigantur da unika-
lur kategorias miekuTvneboda mxolod 45
(0,18%), magram saerTo maragSi maTi wili aRema-
teboda 80%-s. aseT sabadoebSi yvelaze didi
koncen-traciiT gamoirCeva axlo da Sua aRmo-
savleTis regioni. SemTxveviTi ar aris, rom
navTobis maragiT mas ukavia konkurenciis gar-
eSe pirveli adgili msoflioSi. am regionis
farglebSi ki pirveloba ekuTvnis sparseTis yu-
ris navTobairis auzs. am auzs ukavia miwis
qerqis didi teritoria. auzis teqtonur rukaze
gamoiyofa ori mTavari nawili: araviis fila da
mesopotamiis gverduli.
114
saZirkveli Cawolilia 5-8 km siRrmeze da am
uzarmazar naleqian sisqeSi warmoqmnilia uamr-
avi amoburculobebi da naoWebi, romlebTanac
dakavSirebulia navTobairis warmoqmna. yvelaze
meti sabadoebi aris saudis arabeTSi da iranSi,
Semdeg ki eraySi.

navTobis sabado gavari iTvleba yvelaze ms-


xvil sabadod ara mxolod axlo da Sua aRmo-
savleTSi, aramed msoflioSi. is aRmoCenilia
1949 wels. misi sigrZe Seadgens 250 km da sigane
15-25 km-de. sxvadasxva wlebSi am sabadoze
navTobis mopoveba aRemateboda 100 mln tonas,
sul ki eqspluataciis ganmavlobaSi aq mopove-
buli iyo ra-mdenime mlrd. tona navTobi.

sabado aRajari aRmoCenili iyo jer kidev


1937 wels, magram misi damuSaveba daiwyo 1948
wels. isic warmoadgens msxvil amoburculobas
sigrZiT 50 km da siganiT 6-7 km. Semdgari kir-
qvis napralebisagan. sabado didi burgani (el-
burqani) aRmoCenili iyo 1938 wels, misi
damuSaveba ki daiwyo 1946 wels.

115
sabado es safania, aRmoCenili 1953 wels, gen-
etikurad dakavSirebulia antiklinalur naoW-
Tan, romlis sigrZe Seadgens 60 km sigane ki 20
km. produqtiuli fenebis saSualo siRrme aq
Seadgens 1,5 km. auzis unikaluri sabadoebisgan
gansxvavebiT es sabado mdebareobs sparseTis
yureSi da iTvleba TiTqmis yvelaze msxvil sa-
zRvao sabadod msoflioSi. navTobis sawyisi
maragiT essafania yvelaze mdidaria CrdiloeT
zRvis sabadoebSi.

sabado kirkuti mdebareobs erayis Crdiloe-


TSi, erayis qurTistanSi da aRmoCenili iyo 1927
wels. esec antiklinaluri naoWia, romlis sig-
rZe TiTqmis 100 km-ia, sigane ki 5 km.

sparseTis yuris auzi gamoirCeva ara mxolod


sabado gigantebis didi raodenobiT aramed nav-
Tobis xarisxiT. umravles SemTxvevaSi igi rbi-
lia da naklebgogirdovani.

imis wyalobiT, rom maTi umravlesoba Sadr-


evnulia, maTi saSualo produqtiuloba Sead-
gens saudis arabeTSi, iranSi, eraysa da quve-

116
iTSi 800t. dRe-RameSi, maSin rodesac msof-
lioSi saSualod es maCvenebeli 3t. udris. mag-
ram msoflio rekordsmeni gaxlavT sabado aRa
jari, sadac WaburRilebis umravlesoba iZleva
700-800 t. navTobs.

pekini da Sanxai - CineTis udidesi qalaqebia.


isini Sedian agreTve msoflios udidesi qalaq-
ebis aTeulSi. pekini qveynis administraciuli
dedaqalaqia. Sanxais ki SeiZleba vuwodoT eko-
nomikis dedaqalaqi. am qalaqebs bevri saerTo
aqvT, amasTanave isini Zalze gansxvavdebian er-
TmaneTisagan. miuxedavad yvelafrisa, TiToeuli
maTgani Taviseburad asrulebs msoflioSi mosa-
xleobis raodenobiT yvelaze didi qveynis sav-
izito baraTis funqcias.

CineTis dedaqalaqi pekini qveynis umniSvnel-


ovanesi politikuri, ekonomikuri da kulturu-
li centria. is ganlagebulia didi Cinuri dab-
lobis CrdiloeT nawilSi, 120km-iT zRvidan.
uZvelesi droidan daarsebul savaWro gzebze,
romlebic akavSirebs qveynis CrdiloeT-aRmosa-

117
vleT da aRmosavleT raionebs, aRmosavleT,
dasavleT da samxreT raionebTan. dasavleT da
CrdiloeT mxridan pekini garSemortymulia mTe-
biT da mxolod misgan 50 km. dacilebiT gadis
didi CineTis kedlis erT-erTi nawili. sam-
xreTis mimarTulebiT ki mas ar gaaCnia mkveTr-
ad gamokveTili sazRvrebi.

cnobilia rom pekinis istoria iTvlis 3000


wels. am adgilze daarsebul punqtebze pirveli
xseneba miekuTvneba Zv.w. II aTaswleuls. Semdeg
qalaqi izrdeboda, mas hqonda sxvadasxva saxe-
lwodeba, igi iyo sxvadasxva saxelmwifoebrivi
warmonaqmnebis dedaqalaqi. monRoluri dinastia
iuanis marTvis dasawyisidan XIII s-Si pekini
(saxelwodebiT xanbaliki, e.i. xanis qalaqi)
xdeba CineTis dedaqalaqi. Semdeg minis dina-
stiis gamefebidan igi kargavs Tavis dedaqa-
laqur funqciebs, magram 1421 wlidan kvlav
xdeba dedaqalaqi. im droidan dRemde pekini
rCeba CineTis dedaqalaqad. 1949 wels pekini aR-
iares dedaqalaqad.

118
1949 wlamde, dedaqalaqis funqciis dakargvis
Semdeg pekini neli tempebiT viTardeboda, misi
ganviTareba ZiriTadad warmoadgenda savaWro
gamanawilebel centrs. mrewveloba aq Seda-
rebiT mcire iyo, Warbobda iseTi dargebi, rog-
oricaa kvebis da safeiqro mrewveloba, farTod
iyo gavrcelebuli kustaruli dargebi. 1949
wlis Semged pekinma gacilebiT swrafi tempebiT
daiwyo ganviTareba. radikalurad Seicvala misi
funqciebic:

1. pekini asrulebs mniSvnelovan dedaqalaqur-


administraciul funqcias, radgan aq ganlage-
bulia saxelwifo xelisuflebis yvela umaR-
lesi organo.

2. mis mTavar funqciaTa ricxvs miekuTvneba


samrewvelo funqcia. saxalxo mmarTvelobis
wlebSi pekini gadaiqca qveynis erT-erT ums-
xviles industrial centrad. axla mis sam-
rewvelo profils gansazRvravs mZime mre-
wveloba, masSi ki igulisxmeba iseTi dargebi
rogoricaa manqanaTmSenebloba, Savi metalur-

119
gia, qimiuri mrewveloba, energetika. mTeli maTi
produqcia warmoebulia warmoebebSi, romelic
aSenebulia saxalxo mmarTvelobis periodSi.

3. Zalze mniSvnelovania pekinis savaWro sa-


transporto funqcia. is gaxda qveynis erT-erTi
mTavari satransporto kvanZi. pekinidan gadis 4
sarkinigzo magistrali, romlebic akavSirebs
dedaqalaqs qveynis sxva raionebTan. magram bo-
lo dros ufro popularulia sagzao da saha-
ero transporti. pekinSi warmoebuli produ-
qciis didi nawili miemarTeba eqsportSi, Zir-
iTadad iaponiaSi, aSS-Si da evropis qveynebSi.

4. bolo wlebSi ufro mniSvnelovani xdeba


CineTis dedaqalaqis arawarmoebiTi funqciebi.
am sferoSi dasaqmebuli pekinelebis ricxvma
miaRwia 30%. am funqciebs miekuTvneba mom-
saxureba, sabanko saqme, jandacva, ganaTleba,
kultura, mmarTveloba. pekinSi mdebareobs Cin-
eTis saxalxo respublikis mecnierebaTa aka-
demia, aTeuli umaRlesi saswavlebeli da kvle-

120
viTi instituti, 20-ze meti Teatri, amdenive
muzeumi.

bunebrivia, rom pekinis aseTma swrafi tempiT


ganviTarebam ganapiroba misi mosaxleobis rao-
denobis zrdac. 2000 wels pekinSi cxovrobda
10,8 mln adamiani. 1980 wlidan qalaqis mosa-
xleba izrdeboda ZiriTadad soflebidan Camo-
saxlebuli adamianebis da maRali Sobadobis
wyalobiT. magram Semdeg demografiuli poli-
tikis zemoqmedebiT mosaxleobis zrda Sem-
cirda. samagierod administraciuli reformis
Sedegad gaizarda qalaqis farTobi, mas Semo-
uerTda ramdenime axlo mdebare soflebis
mazra. samomavlo prognozi metyvelebs imas,
rom 2010 wlisaTvis didi pekinis mosaxleobam
SeiZleba Seadginos 18 mln kaci.

arqiteqturis dagegmarebis mxriv pekini asax-


avs Sua saukuneebis CineTis ZiriTad tradici-
ebs, rodesac xuroTmoZRvrebi mimarTulni iyvn-
en mkveTri marTkuTxuli qalaquri struqturis
Camoyalibebaze.

121
Zveli pekini Sedgeba 2 nawilisagan _ Sida da
gare qalaqisagan. Sida qalaqs aqvs kvadratis
forma, romlis centrSi ganlagebulia kedliT
garSemortymuli e.w. akrZaluli qalaqi, arqite-
qturuli kompleqsebiT, romelic aSenebulia
dinastia minis mmarTvelobisas. aq ganlage-
bulia mravali sasaxle da pavilioni, romle-
bsac gaaCniaT Tavisi dasaxeleba tipiur Cinur
stilSi. aq mTavari sasaxle aris guguni, rom-
lis SesasvlelTan aris moedani saxelwodebiT
tiananmeni. is yvelaze didia msoflioSi. tiana-
nmeni iSifreba rogorc sulieri simSvide,

gare qalaqi Camoyalibda minis epoqaSi, ro-


gorc vaWrobisa da xelosnobis centri. aq dRe-
mde SemorCenilia viwro quCebi erTsarTuliani
Tixis saxlebiT. qalaqis am nawilis mTavar Ri-
rsSesaniSnaobas warmoadgens cnobili zecis
taZari, romelic agebulia 1420 wels da xanZris
Semdeg aRdgenili iyo XIX saukunis bolos.

naambobi ar gviCvenebs rom pekini uproblemo


qalaqia. ara, pekinis mZlavrma ganviTarebam gam-

122
oiwvia mTeli rigi rTuli problemebis warmo-
Soba. es gaxlavT mosaxleobis simWidrove. qa-
laqSi mudmivad aris sacobebi, miuxedavad ars-
ebuli metropolitenis qselisa da 300-ze meti
saavtobuso marSrutisa. aRsaniSnavia rom Cine-
lTa umravlesoba pirad satransporto saSua-
lebad iyenebs velosipedebs, romelTa ricxvi 8
mlns. Seadgens.

CineTis saxalxo respublikis ekonomikuri


dedaqalaqia Sanxai _ qveynis usxvilesi savaWro,
satransporto, finansuri da kulturuli cent-
ri. is ganlagebulia mdinare xuanpuze. Cinu-
ridan TargmanSi Sanxai niSnavs `zRvis zemoT.
Sanxais ekonomikuri da geografiuli mdeba-
reoba Zalze xelsayrelia. aq formirebulia
xmeleTisa da mdinareebis sazRvao satran-
sporto gzebis mTavari kvanZi. Sanxais istoria
iwyeba IV saukunidan, rodesac zRvis sanapiroze
Seiqmna meTevzeTa dasaxleba.

istoriuli dokumentebi metyveleben imaze,


rom axlandeli dasaxleba marTlac mdebare-

123
obda aRmosavleT CineTis zRvis sanapiroze, mag-
ram Semdeg mdinare ianZis deltis gafarToebis
Sedegad Sanxai aRmoCnda misgan daSorebuli 50
km-iT.

didi xnis ganmavlobaSi es adgili iTvleboda


naklebad mimzidvelad. cvlilebebi moxda mas
Semdeg rac daiwyes mdinare ianZis SesarTavSi
gemebis mSenebloba. magram mTavari gardatexa
moxda ukve XIX saukunis Sua wlebSi. opiumis
pirveli omis Semdeg (1840-1842). ingliselebma
SeZles CinelebisTvis Tavs moexviaT xelSekru-
leba, romlis Tanaxmad Sanxai xdeboda ucx-
ouri gemebisaTvis Ria sazRvao porti. mokle
xanSi is gadaiqca CineTis mTavar saporto qal-
aqad da aseve qveynis samrewvelo, savaWro da
finansur centrad.

garda imisa rom Sanxai Sevida msoflios didi


qalaqebis ricxvSi aq yvaoda usamarTloba, eqs-
pluatacia, danaSaulobebi. misTvis damaxasia-
Tebeli iyo Zalze mkveTri socialuri kont-
rastebi. aq evropuli feSenebeluri dasaxle-

124
bebis gverdiT arsebobda Raribi da mWidrod
dasaxlebuli raionebi.

Sanxai rCeba CineTis mTavar samrewvelo cen-


trad: masSi ganlagebulia 13000 sawarmo, roml-
ebic awarmoeben mTeli qveynis samrewvelo pro-
duqciis 7%. Sanxai konkurencias uwevs ara mar-
to calkeul regionebs aramed mTel rig qvey-
nebs. bolo wlebSi SanxaiSi didi yuradReba
eqceva mecnierul warmoebebs saeqsporto ori-
entaciiT.

ganviTarda Sanxais savaWro-satransporto


funqciac. jer imitom, rom is mzardi Cinuri
ekonomikis lideris rols asrulebda da ag-
zavnida Tavis produqcias qveynis sxva regi-
onebSi. meore imitom rom droTa ganmavlobaSi
misma produqciam ufro metad miiRo saeqsporto
mimarTuleba. saerTo jamSi, Sanxai uzru-
nvelyofs CineTis saxalxo respublikis sagareo
vaWrobis 0,25%.

sruliad axali movlena iyo SanxaisaTvis


arawarmoebiTi sferos ganviTareba. saxalxo xe-

125
lisuflebis wlebSi qalaqi gadaiqca kul-
turisa da mecnierebis msxvil centrad, sadac
funqcionirebs 45 umaRlesi saswavlebeli da
mravali samecniero kvleviTi instituti. aq
muSaobs 800 000 specialisti, maT Soris wamyvani
specialistebi iseT dargebSi, rogoricaa
mikroeleqtronika, bioteqnologia, roboteqnika,
xelovnuri masalebi, optika, okeanologia.

bolo drois ganmavlobaSi Sanxais savizito


baraTi xdeba Waobisa da sasoflo-sameurneo
farTobze gaSenebuli axali raioni puduni,
romelic lideri gaxda axali teqnologiebis
dargSi da nouhauSi.

1990-iani wlebis miwuruls podunSi ukve ar-


sebobda Tavisufali vaWrobis zona, samrewvelo,
savaWro, samecniero specializaciis raionebi,
sazRvao porti konteineruli terminaliT. aq
registrirebulia 400000 meti sawarmo ucxouri
monawileobiT. aq dafuZnebulia ramdenime tra-
nsnacionaluri korporaciis Stabbinebi da war-

126
momadgenlobebi. 2000 wlisaTvis pudunis saerTo
produqciam gadaaWarba 20 mlrd. dolars.

Sanxais ekonomikur zrdasTan erTad izrdeba


misi mosaxleobac. 2000 wlisaTvis misi mosaxle-
oba Seadgenda 14,2 mln kacs.

Sanxais arqiteqturul-gegmiuri iersaxec Se-


icvala. uwindeburad mis mTavar fasads warmo-
adgens xuanpus sanapiro. axali sacxovrebeli
saxlebis mSeneblobaSi Sanxai ar Camouvardeba
pekins, aq SenarCunebulia Zveli qalaqic. XX
saukuneSi aq aSenda caTambjenebi, romelTa sim-
aRlea 380-460 m. amis gamo mas uwodeben aziis
manhetens.

rogorc pekinSi aseve SanxaiSic bevri gada-


uwyveteli problemaa, yvelaze mTavari aqac mo-
saxleobis didi matebaa. qalaqSi arsebobs rog-
orc satransporto, aseve fexiT mosiaruleTa
sacobebi. pekinisa da Sanxais ganviTarebis pers-
peqtiuli gegmebi iTvaliswineben am mwvave prob-
lemebis gadawyvetis aucileblobas.

127
CineTis sagareo ekonomikuri kavSirebi

CineTi msoflios erT-erTi uZvelesi derJavaa.


jer kidev uZveles droSi arsebobda didi abre-
Sumis gza, romelic akavSirebda zeciur imperi-
as xmelTaSua zRvis qveynebTan. Sua saukuneebSi
igi Secvala sxva zRvis gzam, romelic gadioda
aziis samxreT sanapiroze. CineTidan gamohqond-
aT abreSumi, faifuri, qaRaldi da rkinis nakeT-
obebi. sazRvao vaWroba hyvaoda CineTSi adrin-
del, axal droSic da didi geografiuli aRmo-
Cenebis periodSic, magram Semdeg CineTi gadavi-
da Caketili karis politikaze, romelic grZ-
eldeboda XIX s-is Suamde, e.w. opiumis omamde.

1949 wels CineTis saxalxo respublikis Seqmn-


amde qveynis sagareo ekonomikuri kavSirebi mkve-
Trad asaxavda misi ekonomikis mdgradobas. Cine-
Ts gahqonda Tavisi soflis meurneobis tradic-
iuli produqtebi: Cai, bamba, abreSumi, soio da
samTo madanis nedleuli. Semohqonda sursaTi
da sxva samrewvelo saqoneli.
128
axal CineTSic ki didi naxtomisa da kul-
turuli revoluciis dros sagareo ekonomiku-
ri kavSirebi meorexarisxovani iyo. magram Ria
karis politikaze gadasvlis Semdeg situacia
Seicvala. sagareo ekonomikur kavSirebs mieniWa
didi mniSvneloba, rac gaxda ekonomikuri aRmav-
lobis mniSvnelovani winapiroba. am yvelaferma
xeli Seuwyo Cinuri ekonomikis sabazro relse-
bze gadayvanas da mis Sezrdas saerTaSoriso
ekonomikur urTierTobebSi. am cnobili urTieT-
obebis formebidan CineTisaTvis yvelaze didi
mniSvneloba aqvs ors: sagareo vaWrobas da ucx-
ouri kapitalis mozidvas.

sagareo vaWroba _ es ekonomikuri urTierTob-


ebis is tipia, romelSic CineTma STambeWdav wa-
rmatebebs miaRwia. saboloo jamSi qveynis ekon-
omika romelic 2-3 aTaswleulis win iTvleboda
yvelaze daxurulad msoflioSi, gaxda yvelaze
Ria.

sagareo vaWrobis ganviTarebis maRalma tempe-


bma gamoiwvia mniSvnelovani cvlilebebi CineTis

129
mdgomareobaSi msoflio tabelis rangebSi. eq-
sportis moculobiT CineTs ukavia meSvide adgi-
li msoflioSi, xolo importis moculobiT _
mecxre. mudmivad izrdeba eqsporti importTan
SedarebiT, rac zrdis qveynis Semosavals.

1980-iani wlebis dasawyisidan SedarebiT Zli-


er Seicvala CineTis saxalxo respublikis saga-
reo vaWrobis sasaqonlo struqturac, am garda-
qmnis ZiriTadi mimarTuleba mdebareobda eqspo-
rtis gakeTilSobilebSi, rac niSnavs mza sawar-
moo produqciis raodenobis gazrdas pirveladi
gadamuSavebis produqciasTan erTad da nedleu-
lTan SedarebiT.

CineTi msubuqi mrewvelobis produqciis trad-


iciuli mimwodebelia sagareo bazarze. am prod-
uqcias miekuTvneba bambisa da abreSumis qsovil-
ebi, trikotaJi, fexsacmeli, saTamaSoebi, sport-
uli da turistuli saqoneli. plastmasisa da
manqanaTmSeneblobis saeqsporto produqcias mi-
ekuTvneba: dazgebi, gemebi, SeiaraRebis sxvadasx-
va nivTebi, magram am produqciaSi Warbobs sao-

130
jaxo eleqtronikis nawarmi. rogorc msubuqi
mrewvelobis produqciac, isini didi moTxovneb-
iT sargebloben msoflio bazarze. amavdroul-
ad warmoebs sursaTisa da soflis meurneobis
nedleulis eqsportic. maTSi Warbobs bostneu-
li, xili, Tevzi, zRvis produqtebi da agreTve
bamba. CineTi agrZelebs agreTve qvanaxSiris, fe-
radi da Savi liTonebis eqsports.

CineTis ekonomikis industrializaciam da mo-


dernizaciam ganapiroba misi importis xasiaTic,
romelSidac Warbobs manqanebi, satransporto
saSualebebi, samrewvelo eleqtronika. samrewve-
lo aRWurvilobis forsirebuli importis Ziri-
Tadi mizania Cinuri mrewvelobis teqnologiuri
donis amaRleba, aseve misi produqciis xarisxis
amaRlebac, es Zalian mniSvnelovania, radgan
dRemde nivTebi markiT made in china gansakuT-
rebiT maRali xarisxiT ar gamoirCevian. aseve
CineTs uwevs navTobisa da navTobproduqtebis,
rkinisa da qimikatebis importic. SeiZleba dava-
matoT rom CineTi aris SeiaraRebis msxvili imp-
ortiori.
131
CineTis saxalxo respublikis sagareo vaWrob-
is geografiuli ganawileba asaxavs or sawinaa-
Rmdego tendencies _ koncentraciisken da deko-
ncentraciisken. qveyana vaWrobs 160 qveyanasTan,
magram maTgan mxolod aTeuli miekuTvneba maT
mTavar savaWro partniorTa ricxvs.

porvel rigSi eseni arian misi mezobeli qveyn-


ebi: iaponia, korea, malaizia, indonezia, romle-
bTanac savaWro kavSirebis ganviTarebas xels
uwyobs CineTis satransporto da gegorafiuli
mdebareoba.

meore rigSi dgas aSS, visTan vaWrobaSic Cine-


Ts yovelTvis aqvs savaWro brunvis dadebiTi
saldo.

mesame adgilze arian evrokavSiris qveynebi:


germania, niderlandebi, didi britaneTi, safran-
geTi, italia da a.S.

meoTxe partniori ki ruseTia. magram vaWrobis


moculoba qveynebs Soris 1990-ian wlebSi iyo
dabali da ar Seesabameboda maT moTxovnebsa da

132
SesaZleblobebs. saerTo saqonlis brunvis moc-
ulobiT ruseTi iyo mxolod meaTe adgilze.

2002 wlis bolos CineTi miRebuli iyo sagar-


eo savaWro organizaciaSi. CineTis sagareo eko-
nomikuri kavSirebis meore mTavari forma dakav-
Sirebulia savaluto-finansur sferosTan da
gamoisaxeba upirveles yovlisa kapitalis impo-
rtSi, romelic farTod gamoiyeneba qveynis eko-
nomikuri da socialuri ganviTarebis tempebis
daCqarebisTvis.

CineTi iyenebs sazRvargareTidan investiciebis


mozidvis sxvadasxva xerxebs. Zalze didi mniSv-
neloba eniWeba sesxebs da kreditebs, romlebs-
ac qveyana iRebs ucxouri qveynebis mTavrobebid-
an da saerTaSoriso finansuri organizaciebid-
an, romelTa ricxvs miekuTvneba msoflio banki
da saerTaSoriso savaluto fondi, magram Cine-
TisTvis ufro mniSvnelovani gaxda pirdapiri
investiciebi, romlebic mozidvis moculobiT
CamorCeba mxolod aSS-s.

133
sagareo ekomomikuri kavSirebis sxva formebs
SeiZleba miekuTvnos sawarmoo TanamSromloba.
1990-iani wlebis bolos qveyanaSi iyo 300 aTasam-
de erToblivi sawarmo ucxouri kapitalis mo-
nawileobiT, romlebis wilic sagareo vaWroba-
Si Seadgenda 1/2-s. samecniero teqnikuri kavSir-
ebi jer-jerobiT gamoixateba ZiriTadad teqnik-
uri dokumentaciis da nouhaus SesyidviT dasav-
leTis qveynebisgan. Tu SevexebiT momsaxurebis
sferos, aRsaniSnavia, rom CineTi ufro met Se-
mosavlebs iRebs saerTaSoriso turizmidan
(2002 wels dafiqsirebuli iyo 37 mln. turistu-
li jgufi). is sTavazobs SromiT momsaxurebas-
ac. sxva qveynebSi samuSaod yovelwliurad miem-
arTeba aTobiT da aTasobiT mln. Cineli.

agreTve aRsaniSnavia isic, rom 1990-iani wle-


bidan Tavad CineTmac daiwyo kapitalis gatana _
kreditebisa da pirdapiri investiciebis form-
iT.

134
iaponia: teritoria, sazRvrebi,
mdgomareoba, mosaxleoba

teritoriis zomebis mixedviT iaponia SeiZle-


ba SevadaroT evropis iseT qveynebs rogoricaa
germaniis federaciuli respublika, norvegia da
aziis iseT saxelmwifoebs, rogoricaa: vietnami,
malaizia. iaponia Tavisi konfiguraciiT Zalian
gansxvavdeba msoflios mravali qveynisgan, rad-
ganac warmoadgens saxelmwifo _ arqipelags.
mis SemadgenlonaSi daaxloebiT 4000 kunZulia,
Tu CavTvliT patara kunZulebsac. saxelwifos
ZiriTad saxes warmoadgens 4 yvelaze didi kunZ-
uli _ xonsiu, kiusiu, sikoku da hokai-
du,hromlebic Seadgenen iaponiis arqipelags. am-
is garda iaponias ekuTvnis riukius 200_ze meti
kunZulTa arqipelagi da agreTve sakmaod moSo-
rebuli kunZulebi wynar okeaneSi.

administraciulad iaponia iyofa 47 prefetur-


ad. iaponias gaaCnia mxolod sazRvao sazRvrebi,
radganac misi napirebi Zalian SeWrilia sanapi-
135
ro zolis sigrZe aRwevs 30000 kvadratul kil-
ometrs, rac Sefardebulia ekvatoris sigrZis
3/4-Tan. iaponiis erT kvadratul kilometrze
modis 80km. sanapiro zoli. iaponiaSi ar aris
adgili, romelic iqneba 120 km-iT daSorebuli
zRvidan. amitomac maT cxovrebaSi zRva TamaSo-
bs mniSvnelovan rols. XIX saukunis bolomde
iaponiis mTeli mniSvnelovani satransporto da
savaWro kavSirebi aziisken iyo mimarTuli. XVI
saukuneSi iaponelebi SeiWrnen koreaSi, amis Se-
mdgom ara erTxel SeWrilan koreasa da CineT-
Si. dResdReobiT SeiZleba iTqvas rom iaponias
uWiravs centraluri mdebareoba azia _ wynari
okeaniis regionSi.

ruseTis teritoriidan iaponia daSorebulia


ori zRviT, es zRvebia: oxoti da iaponiis zRva.
ruseTsa da iaponias Soris urTierTobaSi mniS-
vnelovani adgili ukavia kuriliis kunZulebs,
romlebic mdebareobs hokaidosa da kamCatkas
Soris 1200 kilometrze. 1855 wlis simodis tra-
qtatis mixedviT es samxreT kunZulebi marTlac
iaponias ekuTvnoda, II msoflio omSi iaponiis
136
damarcxebis Semdeg kuriliis kunZulebi gadav-
ida sabWoTa kavSiris SemadgenlobaSi. 1951 wlis
samSvidobo xelSekrulebiT kuriliis kunZule-
bi arc iaponias ekuTvnoda da arc ruseTs, ris
Sedegadac ruseTama uari Tqva xeli moewera xe-
lSekrulebaze. es sakiTxi mravaljer ganixile-
boda da savaraudod 2000 wels mas xeli unda
mosweroda, magram es jer ar momxdara da kuri-
liis kunZulebis problema dResac gadauWrel-
ia.

XX saukunis I naxevarSi iaponiis mosaxleo-


ba gaizarda 44 milionidan 83 milionamde. jer
kidev 1950-iano wlebis dasawyisSi ricxvi izrd-
eboda 1,5 miloni adamianiT, xolo 1950 wlebis
Sua periodSi mosaxlebis zrdadobam swrafad
iwyo cvla iaponiaSi.

137
tokio _ msoflios yvelaze didi
qalaqi

iaponiis erTerTma premierminstrma erTxel


Tqva rom iaponia Sedgeba ori qveynisgan da mar-
Tlac tokios roli iaponiaSi SeiZleba Sevada-
roT parizis rols safrangeTSi. es aris qveynis
politikuri da administraciul-mmarTvelobiTi
centri, londonis da niu-iorkis msgavsad udid-
esi saerTaSoriso finansuri centri. igi warmo-
adgens wamyvan centrs mecnierul gamogonebaSi.
tokio es aris qalaqi, romelic ancvifrebs war-
mosaxvas sxva maravli cifrebiT, swored am yve-
lafriT aixsneba iaponuri Tqmuleba: ,, iaponia
iwyeba tokioSi.

tokios istoria iwyeba XV saukunis Suidan.


qalaqs safuZveli Cauyara 1437 wels aSenebulma
cixesimagrem edom, rac niSnavs ,,yureSi Sesv-
las. marTlac igi mdebareobda qveyanis yvela-
ze did dablob kantos aRmosavleT nawilSi.
1590 wels edos daepatrona msxvili feodali
138
ieasu tokugava, siogunov tokugavas dinastiis
damaarsebeli, romlebic marTavdnen 1603 wlidan
1867 wlamde. mTeli am drois ganmavlobaSi edo
iyo maTi rezidencia, im dros oficialur deda-
qalaqad iTvleboda kioto, sadac imperatori
imyofeboda.

siogunebis likvidaciis Semdeg 1869 wels kio-


todan edoSi gadatanil iqna iaponiis impera-
toris rezidencia. amis Semdeg dedaqalaqma
iwyo swrafi zrda, qalaqis moxaxleoba Sead-
genda 1 000 000 adamians, aseTi zrda grZelde-
boda XX saukunis I naxevramde. 1910 wels to-
kios mosaxleoba Seadgenda 2,8 milion adamians,
1920 wels - 3,7-s, 1930 wels - 5,4-s, 1940 wels - 7,4
milion adamians. am periodSi qalaqis ganvi-
Tareba orjer seriozulad dairRva. pirvelad
es moxda 1923 wlis seqtembris dasawyisSi, rod-
esac Zlierma miwisZvram da amis Semdeg Zlierma
cecxlma Seiwira 100 000 adamianis sicocxle da
usaxlkarod darCa 3,5 milioni adamiani. meore
ki dakavSirebuli iyo amerikis aviaciur Seteve-
bTan. 1945 weli, rodesac daiRupa 250 000 adam-
139
iani da daaxloebiT 900 000 saxli iqna danger-
uli.

rac Seexeba dRevandeli iaponiis dedaqalaqs


tokios, is ikavebs 577 kvadratul kilometrs,
rac mniSvnelovnad naklebia moskovis farT-
obze. zustad am teritoriaze cxovrobs 8 000
000 adamiani. mosaxleobis qalqidan gadineba
stabilurobas unarCunebda tokios, magram unda
gvaxsodes rom igi Seefardeba avsrtriis mosax-
leobas, xolo aRemateba Sveicariis mosaxle-
obas. qalaqi tokio iyofa 23 administracuil
raionad. mis SemadgenlobaSi Sedis imperatoris
sasaxle, partalamentis Senoba, sinZiukus mTava-
ri sadguri, Teatri kabuki, caTambjenebi, uamra-
vi patara parki.

1991 w. sinZiukus raionSi damTavrda axali


administraciuli centris mSenebloba, romelic
moicavs or caTambjens da kongresis Senobas.
teritoriis ukmarisobis gamo iaponiis dedaqa-
laqma gadaiwia tokios yureSi. im teritoriebze

140
mdebareobs mxolod portebi, samrewvelo dawes-
ebulebani da sawyobis Senobebi.

didi tokios teritoria igivea rac TviTon


qalaqi. Mmisi farTobia 2,1 aTasi kvadratuli ki-
lometria da 90-iani wlebis SuaSi mosaxleoba
Seadgenda 12 000 000 adamians. qalaqis Semo-
garenis teritoriaze romelic Serwymuli iyo
tokiosTan dasavleTis mxridan, mdebareobes 26
patara qalaqi, romelTa mosaxleoba mWidro
kavSirSia dedaqalaqTan. tokios aglomeracia
tokiosa da tokios prefeqturis garda moicavs
sam mezobel prefeqturas 87 qalaqiT (iokogama,
kavasaki, tiba da sxv.) Cveulebriv mas keixinis
aglomeracias uwodeben: am dasaxlebaSi toki-
osgan aRebulia ieroglifi ,,kei (dedaqalaqi)
da iokogamisagan ieroglifi ,,xin (napiri).

Bbolo dros gamoikveTa agreTve tokios met-


ropolitenis areali. Mmis SemogarenSi Sedis
150 dasaxlebuli punqti da 1990 wlis Sua per-
iodSi mosaxleobam 30 000 000 adamians mia-Rwia,
anu qveynis mTeli mosaxleobis 1/4nawili.

141
qaosiT gamorCeoda ,,edo-s daSeneba. Mmsgavsad
londonisa, romelic Zlieri xanZris Semdeg
1666w iqna gadamwvari, qalaqi ,,edoc 1657 wels
ganadgurda, magram ganaxlebul iqna zustad
Zveli saxiT. centrSi ganlagebuli iyo siogu-
novis rezidencia.

erT-erTi iaponeli specialisti ambobda, rom


tokios ,,qalaq amebas uwodebs. 1960 wlidan
igi xdeboda ufro Tanamedrove qalaqi. didi
roli iTamaSa amaSi 1964 wlis olimpiadam, ro-
mlis mzadebisTvisac iqna aSenebuli aramarto
sportuli nagebobani, aramed sxva mravali
Senobac. qalaqSi gaCnda satelevizio anZa 333m.
da amis Semdeg Sendeboda caTambjenebi 50-60
sarTulis simaRlis. Ees aris adgili ara mar-
to caTambjenebis, aramed saSualo da orsar-
Tuliani Senobebisac. tokio izrdeba ara mar-
to zeviT daSenebebiT, aramed miwis qveSac. misi
qalaqebis da quCebis qvemoT ganlagebulia
faqtiurad kidev erTi qalaqi, miwisqveSa maRa-
ziebiT, restornebiT, sportuli darbazebiT,
sawyobebiT, farexebiT, romlebic dakavSirebul-
142
ia erTmaneTTan. gasakviri ar aris rom did
tokioSi orientacia Zalze rTulia. mkvidr mos-
axleobasac da turistebsac amaSi exmareba
qalaqis taqsis mZRolebi, romlebic msoflioSi
yvelaze swraf da xarisxian mZRolebad
iTvlebian. xalxs SeuZliaT isargeblon qalaqis
metropoliteniT, magram sadgurebi da metros
matareblebi Zalian gadatvirTulia. Aar unda
dagvaviwydes, rom qalaqis centrSi mezobel
prefeqturebidan Camodis yoveldRe samuSaod
daaxloebiT 6-7 milioni adamiani. erTi Sexe-
dviT tokio warmoadgens uzarmazar fantasti-
kur arsebas, sadac gverdi-gverd arsebobs ori
polaruli urTierTwinaaRmdegoba: qalaqis jo-
joxeTi da qalaqsgareT samoTxe. ase moixsenieba
tokio erT-erT CanawerSi romelic naTargmnia,
rogorc ,,tokio oci wlis Semdeg. qalaqgareT
samoTxe upirveles yovlisa aris ultra-
Tanamedrove caTambjenebi, sadac ganlagebulia
dawesebulebebi da ofisebi. Qqalaqi jojoxeTi
ki, viwro quCebi manqanebiT gadatvirTuli,
mWidro daSenebebi, TiTqmis ar aris gamwvaneba

143
da mcenareebi, Aaris kanalizaciis qselis nak-
leboba. Hhaiveis oras kilometrze dagegmili
iyo gaSeneba ormwkriviani moZraobis, orive
mxares SuqniSnebis gareSe, magram radganac am
haiveiT sargeblobs 1 000 000 mZRoli, mravalk-
ilometriani sacobebi iqceva namdvil jojoxeT-
ad. didi kontrasti arsebobs agreTve qalaqis
sxvadasxva nawilebs Soris. mkafiod gamoikveT-
eba administraciuli centri imperatoris sasax-
liT, parlamentisa da saministroebis Senobeb-
iT. tokios RirsSesaniSnav adgilad iTvleba ag-
reTve msoflioSi yvelaze didi Tevzis bazari
cukiZi, sadac dilis xuT saaTze unda mixvideT
rom auqcions miuswroT. Aakihabas savaWro raio-
nSi gamotanilia uSualod eleqtronuli teqni-
ka. hariZukus raionSi, Cveulebriv axalgazrdo-
ba atarebs dros, romelsac dasavluri orient-
acia aqvs. ai ratomac arsebobs ase didxans tok-
ios safuZvliani Secvlis proeqti. maT Sorisaa
qalaqebis mSeneblobis proeqti da tokios yur-
es daSrobis ramodenime proeqti. Aarqiteqtor
kiso kurokavam SesTavaza am akvatoriis yureSi

144
Seeqmna kunZuli, romlis farTobic 30 000 heqta-
ri iqneboda, mosaxleoba ki 5 000 000 adamiani.
misi centraluri nawili garSemortymuli unda
yofiliyo 2 arxiT, romelTa napirzec iqneboda
mravalsarTuliani Senobebi, xolo maT gverdiT
iqneboda avtostradebi. am proeqtebSi agreTve
unda ganTavsebuliyo saerTaSoriso aeroporti,
otelebi, reaqciuli zonebi da unda Seqmniliyo
mocurave kunZuli. faqtiurad es proeqti ukve
xorcieldeba, romlis Tanaxmadac tokios yure
Tavisufldeba portisgan da sxva Senobebisagan.
im teritoriebze romlebic wylisgan daaSres
kvlavac iqneba tokios axali raioni, romelic
Canafiqris mixedviT unda gaxdes Tanamedrove
saerTaSoriso saqmianobis finansuri da
sainformacio centris etaloni. mTeli mSeneb-
loba gayofilia oTx nawilad, romelnic damo-
ukidebelni arian TavianTi specializaciiT, ro-
mlebic erTmaneTTan dakavSirebulni iqnebian
380 metriani saseirno da saavtomobilo xeivneb-
iT. zogierTi ukve aSenebuli Senoba unikalur-
ia. ginesis wignSi weria, rom tokioSi aSenebu-

145
lia piramida TviTformirebad betonisagan, rom-
elic 2004 metria simaRliT. Aam ultra caTamb-
jenma unda gantvirTos qalaqi. Pproeqtis mixed-
viT igi itevs 1 000 000 adamians da ikavebs 2800
kvadratul metrs. misi eqspluataciisaTvis gam-
oyenebuli iqneba mzisa da qaris energia. ginesis
wignSi agreTve moxvda samSeneblo teqnologia
,,tiap-is gamogoneba, romelic iTvaliswinebs
rom Senoba ukve mTeli sarTulebiT Sendeba. am
proeqtebTan erTad arsebobs dedaqalaqis gada-
tanis proeqti sxva qalaqSi, yovel SemTxvevaSi
1993 wels qveynis parlamentma miiRo swored es
gadawyvetileba da amis realizebisTvis sami we-
li gamoyo.

146
iaponiis ganviTarebis modeli

Tanamedrove iaponia sayovelTaod aRiarebuli


lideria msoflios ekonomikaSi. oqros valutis
rezerviT da sxva mravaliT igi uswrebs msofl-
ios TiTqmis yvela qveyanas. mecnieruli produq-
ciis warmoebis mixedviT igi adgils uTmobs mx-
olod amerikas. zogierTi avtori wers, rom ia-
ponia ekonomikuri ganviTarebiT sakmaod konser-
vatiuli qveyanaa, romelmac bolo 150 wlis gan-
mavlobaSi orjer ganicada radikaluri gardaq-
mna. pirvelad meiZis revoluciis Semdeg, romel-
mac mas saSualeba misca gadasuliyo Zveli feo-
daluri, socialur-ekonomikuri sistemidan kapi-
taluri ekonomikisaken da gamxdariyo WeSmarit-
ad amomavali mzis qveyana. meored ki meore mso-
flio omis Semdeg, rodesac qveyana omSi aramar-
to damarcxda, aramed dakarga mTeli Tavisi ko-
loniebi. amerikis xelmZRvanelobiT qveyanaSi
gatarda ekonomikuri reformebi. upirvelesyo-
vlisa isini moicavdnen demonopolizacias, sam-
xedro mrewvelobis konservacias, fulis, sagad-
asaxado da miwis reformas.
147
miuxedavad amisa iaponiis ekonomikuri ganviT-
areba 20-e saukunis meore naxevris periodSi iyo
gansxvavebuli. masSi gamoyofen 4 momdevno etaps
da TiToeul maTgans ergeboda Tavisi ekonomik-
uri modeli.

20-e da 21-e saukuneSi kvlav mouwia iaponias


Tavisi ekonomikuri modelis reformireba. aseTi
reformireba moicavs arsebuli sistemis Secvl-
as.

daaxloebiT saukunis meoTxedis gan-mavlobaSi


iaponia iyo nomer meore qveyana amerikis Semdeg.
1990-ian wlebSi misi ganviTareba Seferxda, xo-
lo CineTis piriqiT gaizarda. dRes ki CineTi
Tavisi zomebiT da mrewvelobis mocu-lobiT us-
wrebs iaponias.

148
iaponiis eleqtroenergetika

iaponiis swrafi ekonomikuri zrda omis Semd-


gom periodSi gaZlierda da gamyarda. amis dama-
sabuTebelia am qveyanaSi eleqtroenergiis gamo-
muSavebis monacemebi (miliardi kilovati saaT-
Si)

1950w - 45 1980w 578

1960w 116 1990w 835

1970w- 360 2000w 1080

1993 wels iaponiam gauswro ruseTs da gavida


meore adgilze amerikis Semdeg. iaponiis energe-
tikam gaiara ramodenime etapi. pirvel etps SeiZ-
leba vuwodoT hidroenergetikuli. 1950 wels
hesis wili eleqtroenergiis saerTo gamomuSave-
baSi Seadgenda 85%-s, 1960 wels igi Semcirda da
iyo 50%. iaponiaSi ar aris didi hesebi. yvela
hidrosadguri aris mcire zomis da ZiriTadad

149
ganlagebulia kunZul xonsius raionebSi. maTma
saerTo ricxvma 600-s miaRwia.

meore etapi moicavs 1960-iani wlebis da 1970


wlis pirvel naxevars da mas SeiZleba vuwodoT
Tboenergetikuli. Tboenergetikuli sadguri Se-
ndeboda manamdec, magram isini orientirebulni
iqnen adgilobrivi naxSiris resursebze. kunZul
kiusiudan naxSiri mohqondaT Tboenergetikul
sadgurzec, saidanac ikvebeboda tokaidos udid-
esi qalaqebi. 1960 wels iaponia navTobis impor-
ts awarmoebda da amitomac naxSiri Secvales
navTobiT, radganac igi metad privilegirebuli
gaxda. iaponiis yvela energetkuli sadguri gan-
lagebulia wynari okeanis da iaponiis zRvis Si-
da sanapiroebze, tokios maxloblad. 1970 wels
eleqtroenergiis gamomuSaveba gaizarda da mia-
Rwia 80%-s.

mesame etapi daiwyo 1970 welSi dawyebuli el-


eqtronergetikuli krizisis Semdeg. navTobis
uecarma gaZvirebam da misma importis klebam ga-
moiwvia koncefciis gadaTvaliereba, romelic

150
eleqtroenergetikasac Seexo. iaponia Zalian mo-
wadinebuli iyo atomuri energetikis swraf gan-
viTarebaSi. amitomac mesame etaps ewodeba atom-
ur-energetikuli. erTi SexedviT es SeiZleba
ucnauri mogeCvenoT. kargadaa cnobili, rom iap-
onia pirveli qveyanaa, romelmac gadaitana hir-
osimosa da nagasakis atomuri dabombva. agreTve
cnobilia, rom es qveyana mdebareobs seismurad
saSiS zonaSi da aesis mSeneblobisas aucilebe-
lia ZviradRirebuli damatebiTi saSualebebi.
iaponiis atomuri energetika mTlianad damokid-
ebulia importul uranis nedleulze da Tu am-
aze daTanxmdnen es imitom, rom qveyanas ar gaaC-
nda sxva alternativa energetikis ganviTarebis-
aTvis.

atomur-energetikuli reaqtorebis mSenebloba


iaponiaSi daiwyo 1970 wlis dasawyisSi ameriku-
li da franguli firmebis licenziiT. 1980 wl-
is Sua xanebSi qveyanaSi ukve arsebobda 30 reaq-
tori, xolo gamomuSavebuli enegria Seadgenda
18%. 1980 wlis bolosaTvis iqna damTavrebuli
iseTi atomuri sadgurebis mSenebloba
151
rogoricaa fukusima (romlis simZlavrecaa 8,8
mln. kilovati da igi uzarmazaria aramarto ia-
poniaSi, aramed mTels msoflioSi), takahama (si-
mZlavre 3,4 mln. kilovati), hitati da sxva mrav-
ali. faqtiurad iaponiis yvela aesi ganlagebu-
lia zRvis sanapiroze. es aixsneba imiT, rom ku-
nZul honsius mdinareebi ver amarageben aess wy-
liT raTa moxdes reaqtorebis gaciveba wylis
cirkulaciiT.

meoTxe etapisaTvis, romelsac SeiZleba vuwo-


doT Tanamedrove, damaxasiaTebelia Semdgomi
zrda eleqtroenergetikuli simZlavrisa, rome-
lmac 1990 wlis bolosaTvis miaRwia da aRemata
220 mln. kilovats da qveyanaSi arsebobda 50 ae-
sze meti, romlis simZlavrec iyo TiTqmis 45
mln. kilovati, TiTqmis mTeli warmoebuli ele-
qtroenergiis 35%.

1970 wlis SuaSi energetikuli krizisis dros


iaponiam didi yuradReba mianiWa ,,mzis Suqs,
romelic iTvaliswinebda mzis energiis farTo
gamoyenebas, xolo dRes misi roli mainc umniS-

152
vnelo Savi metalurgia qveynis erT-erTi uZve-
lesi industriuli dargia, romelic ganicdis
qronikul vardnas warmoebaSi. miuxedavad amisa
iaponiaSi igi iyo da rCeba erT-erT mniSvnelov-
an dargad. foladis dnoba izrdeboda 1970 wl-
is Suamde. romelmac 1973 wels maqsimums miaRw-
ia. upirveles yovlisa es aris dasawyisi didi
kapitaluri mSeneblobisa. 1960-1970 wlebSi qveya-
naSi aSenda Savi metalurgiis 20 axali msxvili
qarxana. 1980 wels kidev daeca liTonis dnoba,
romelic dakavSirebuli iyo ekonomikur ganviT-
arebasTan. sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Semdeg iap-
onia gavida pirvel adgilze. SemdgomSi iaponi-
as am adgilis SesanarCuneblad amerikasTan brZ-
ola uwevda, xolo 1996 wels iaponiam es adgi-
li CineTs dauTmo. amasTan erTad unda gaviTva-
liswinoT, rom teqnikuri done liTongadamd-
nobi dawesebulebebisa iaponiaSi sakmaod maRal-
ia vidre amerikaSi da dasavleT evropaSi. amas
garda iaponia didi xani rCeboda msoflioSi
udides liTonis eqsportiorad, magram am bolo
xanebSi es eqsporti TandaTanobiT Semcirda. yo-

153
vel SemTxvevaSi 2000 wlisaTvis iaponias liTo-
nis dnobaSi daewia ruseTi da germania. iaponiis
Savi metalurgiisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia didi
mwarmoebrivi koncentracia. 14 umsxvilesi meta-
lurgiuli sawarmoTagan iaponiaSi mdebareobs
8, im dros rodesac amerikaSi da das. evropaSi
aris 3. amerikisagan gansxvavebiT es raionebi da
centrebi ganlagebulia zRvis sanapiroze. maTg-
an yvelaze uZvelesi kitakiusu _ mdebareobs
kunZul kiusius CrdiloeTiT. qalaqi kitakiusu
warmoiqmna 1963w. iaponiis zogierTi kombinati
aSenda ara ubralod zRvis sanapiroze, aramed
specialurad gadarecxil teritoriebze am miz-
nisaTvis.

iaponiis manqanTmSenebloba

maqanaTmSenebloba warmoadgens iaponiis mrewv-


elobis guls. am produqciis RirebulebiT iapo-
nia adgils mxolod amerikas uTmobs, xolo eqs-
portiT ki pirveli adgili uWiravs msoflioSi.
gansakuTrebiT gamoikveTeba iseTi dargebi, rog-
154
oricaa: gemebis mSenebloba, avtomobilebis, da-
zgebis, robototeqnikis da sxva mravali eleqt-
ronikis warmoeba. axla iaponia warmoadgens ka-
rg magaliTs Zveli, axali da uaxlesi indust-
riis dargebisas. Zvel dargebs miekuTvneba ge-
mebis mSenebloba, raSic 1956 wels iaponias pir-
veli adgili ekava, bolo wlebSi ki mas korea
daewia am dargSi. axal dargs miekuTvneba dazg-
ebis mSeneblobis warmoeba. liTonis gadamamuSa-
vebeli dazgebiT iaponia msoflioSi pirvel ad-
gilze gavida jer kidev 1982 wels. aranakleb
mniSvnelovan dargs warmoadgens avtomanqanebis
warmoeba axal dargSi. daaxloebiT am dargiT
dakavebulia 700 000 adamiani. avtomobilebis mS-
enebloba dafuZnda 1920w. Sua periodSi. 1923w.
miwisZvram Zalian daaziana qalaqis transporti
tokioSi da sxva centrebSi. amitomac saWiro ga-
xda tramvaisa da qalaqis rkinigzis Secvla av-
tobusebiT. Tavdapirvelad mas SeerTebul Stat-
ebSi yidulobdnen. 1924-1925 wlebSi amerikulma
firmebma ,,fordi da ,,jeneral motors-ma tok-
ios raionSi aaSenes TavianTi pirveli avtomobi-

155
lebis asawyobi qarxnebi, romlebic 1930w. gadav-
ida ZiriTadad satvirTo manqanebis awyobaze,
romelsac moixmarda iaponiis armia. meore msof-
lio omis periodSi es yvelaferi ganadgurda
da mxolod 1950w. dasawyisSi daiwyes avtobuse-
bisa da satvirTo manqanebis gamoSveba. Semdeg
ki msubuqi manqanebisac. am periodSi iaponiam
awarmoa 30 000 avtomobili, im dros rodesac
amerikam awarmoa 8 000 000.

1960-ian wlebSi iaponiam TiTqmis 7-jer gazar-


da manqanebis warmoeba, 1970w. kidev 2-jer da uk-
ve 1974w. iaponiam gadauswro amerikas avtomobi-
lebis eqsportiT da sul male maTi gamoSvebiT-
ac ki. 1980-ian w-Si iaponia kvlav liderobda. mx-
olod 1994w. moipova amerikam pirveli adgili.
weliwadSi iaponia awarmoebs 5 000 000 avtomobi-
lis eqsports da amitomac mas msoflio bazaar-
ze pirveli adgili uWiravs.

mxedvelobaSi unda miviRoT, rom iaponia


ara marto moculobiT uswrebs sxva qveynebs,
aramed xarisxiTac da produqciis TviTRirebu-

156
lebiTac. amerkisagan gansxvavebiT iaponia didi
xania awarmoebs ekonomiur da SedarebiT mcire
zomis avtomobilebs, xolo energetikuli kriz-
isis dawyebisas am mimarTulebam miiRo axali
ganviTareba. bunebis dacvis kanonebis gamo iapo-
niam daiwyo yvelaze ,,sufTa avtomobilebis wa-
rmoeba, romlebic nakleb mavne nivTierebebs
gamoyofdnen atmosferoSi.

da bolos, uaxles dargs miekuTvneba say-


ofacxovrebo eleqtronika, romlis masStabebiT-
ac iaponia adgils uTmobs mxolod amerikas,
xolo misi eqsportiT pirveli adgili ukavia.
1990-ian wlebSi am dargSi saqmianobiT dakavebu-
li iyo 1,8 mln. adamiani. rogorc cnobilia arc
es dargi darCa Seucvleli. adre iaponia umTav-
resad awarmoebda audio da video apa-raturas,
xolo Semdeg gadavida ufro rTuli produqci-
is warmoebaze. magaliTad: personaluri kompite-
rebi, romelic 1990-ian wlebSi weliwadSi 8 000
000 gamodioda.

157
iaponiis wynari okeanis sartyeli

iaponiis sameurneo teritoriul struqturas


gaaCnia erTi damaxasiaTebeli Tavisebureba. mas-
Si garkveviT gamoirCeva ori ZiriTadi nawili,
romelTac uwodeben saxisas (mzians) da zurgi-
sas (Crdilisas). saxis ZiriTad nawils qmnis
kunZuli honsiu, romelic gadaWimulia simonos-
ekamde da agreTve CrdiloeT sanapiro sikokusa
da kiusius kunZulebisa. am teritorias, romel-
sac uWiravs daaxloebiT 1/3 mTeli iaponiis fa-
rTobisa uwodeben _ wynari okeanis sartyels.
kunZul kiusius CrdiloeTiT warmoiSva im dro-
isaTvis iaponiis mTavari naxSirmetalurgiuli
baza. 1960-iani wlebidan moyolebuli mravali
aseTi baza Seiqmna xelovnurad damSral terit-
oriaze, romlebic zRvas waarTves.

wynari okeanis sartyels xSirad uwodeben sa-


warmoos, magram es mTlad marTali araa. mimdeb-
are dablobebi, romelTa Sorisac yvelaze msxv-
ili aris kanto, erTdroulad aris msxvili sam-
158
eurneo raioni sadac ganviTarebulia brinjis
moyvana, bostneulisa da xilis moyvana, Rorebi-
sa da frinvelebis moSeneba da sxva. SegaxsenebT
rom wynari okeanis sartyelis teritoriazea ga-
nlagebuli tokaidos megapolisi, romlis mosa-
xleobac Seadgens 70000000 adamians da mis Sema-
dgenlobaSi Sedis qalaqis daaxloebiT 25 agl-
omeracia. amitomac wynari okeanis sartyeli
did rols TamaSobs iaponiis mosaxleobis meur-
neobasa da cxovrebaSi.

aTi ekonomikuri raionidan, romlebaTac iyofa


mTeli iaponiis teritoria, mTlianad an nawil-
obrivad eqvsi maTgani Sedis wynari okeanis sar-
tyelSi. esenia _ kanto, tokai, kinki, tiugoku,
sikoku, da kiusiu. maT gaaCniaT rogorc oTxi
niSani erTobisa ise 4 niSani sxvaobisa.

am sartyelis aRmosavleTiT mdebareobs kant-


os raioni _ iaponiis mTavari ekonomikuri rai-
oni. tokioSi met kocentracias ganicdis eleqt-
ronika da sxva maRali teqnologiis dargebi,
rogoricaa poligrafiuli, samkervalo da kveb-

159
is dargebi. CrdiloeT kanto iaponiis erT-er-
Ti mTavari sasoflo-sameurneo raionia. samx.
das.-iT kanto faqtiurad erwymis tokais raions,
romlis fuZesac warmoadgens nagois garSemo
formirebuli aglomeracia tiukio. adre es rai-
oni cnobili iyo Tavisi teqstilis warmoebiT.
Semdeg aq gaizarda Savi metalurgiisa da navT-
oqimiis sawarmoebi. axla mis ,,saxes warmoadge-
ns eleqtronuli. saavtomobilo, saaviacio da
sxva uaxlesi dargebi. aglomeraciis sazRvrebs
miRma ganviTarebulia sasoflo meorneobac. yu-
reSi, romlis napirzec ganoiaa ganlagebuli
iaponiis margalitis warmoebis mTavari centria.

tokais raionis das.-iT mdebaroebs raioni kin-


ki, romelsac monacemebiT meore adgili uWiravs
kantos raionis Semdeg. Tavdapirvelad aq daiw-
yo teqstilis warmoeba, xolo Semdeg sxva raio-
nebis msgavsad ganviTarda Savi metalurgia, qi-
miuri da navToqimiuri sawarmoebi, sxvadasxva
saxis manqanebis warmoeba da bolos mecnieruli
dargebi.

160
iaponuri teqnopolisebi

iaponia cnobilia rogorc qveyana ganviTare-


buli mecnierebiT. inJinrebisa da mecnirebis ri-
cxviT igi adgils mxolod amerikas uTmobs. ge-
ografiuli poziciebidan gamomdinare yvelaze
met interess warmoadgens sakiTxi iaponiaSi me-
cnierebis teritoriuli organizacia es qveya-
na yovelTvis gamoirCeoda mecnierebis terito-
riuli koncentraciis doniT, romlebic ZiriTa-
dad ganlagebulia kantos, tokais da kinkis ra-
ionebSi. mxolod did tokioSi xorcieldeboda
mecnieruli gamokvlevebis TiTqmis naxevari, ro-
melic qveyanaSi warmoebda da iq aswavlidnen
mTel profesorTa naxevari. ganaTlebas iRebda
arsebul studentTa 40%. metad mniSvnelovania,
rom 1970 wlis dasawyisSi moxda ,,didi gadasax-
leba mecnierebisa tokiodan mecnierebis axal
qalaq cukubuSi, romelic specialurad am mizn-
isTvis iqna aSenebuli. igi mdebareobs dedaqal-
aqis Crdilo-aRmosavleTiT 60km.-ze, igi sul ma-
le gaxda mecnieruli gamokvlevebis centri.
1990 wlis Sua xanebSi cukubuSi muSaobda 78 sx-
161
vadasxva mecnieruli dawesebuleba. maT Soris 2
universiteti, 46 nacionaluri macnierul-kvlev-
iTi laboratoria, 8 kerZo firmebis sawarmoebi
da mecnieruli dawesebulebebi, magram es yvela-
feri iyo dasawyisi. ufro masStaburi mecnieru-
li gamokvlevebis decentralizacia daiwyo Sem-
degi programis ganxorcielebis Sedegad romel-
sac ,,teqnopolisi hqvia. sityva ,,teqnopolisi
(tekunoporisi) iaponur leqsikokonSi gaCnda
1980w. programa ,,teqnopolisi pirvelad formi-
rebul iqna 1980w. specialur dokumentSi, rome-
lic momzadda sagareo vaWrobis saministroSi.
igi iTvaliswinebda balansirebul maRalteqno-
logiur sawarmos. amavdroulad sakmaod naTl-
ad iqna formirebuli momavali teqnopolisebis
ZiriTadi kriteriumebis ganTavseba. 1983w. miiRes
kanoni teqnopolisebis Sesaxeb da daiwyo misi
ganxorcieleba. Tavidan es programa iTvaliswi-
nebda 7-8 teqnopolisis Seqmnas, magram aRmoCnda,
rom masSi monawileobis miRebaze survili mxo-
lod 40 prefeqturam gamoTqva 47-dan. amitomac
1983-1984w. damtkicda 14 teqnopolisis proeqti,

162
xolo SemdgomSi maTi saerTo ricxvi davida 26-
mde. 12 maTgani miekuTvneba naxevradperiferiul
raions, xolo 14 periferiuls. aseTi teqnopo-
lisebi Seiqmna iaponiis ekonomikur yvela raio-
nSi. SeTanxmebis mixedviT teqnopolisebi Seiqmna
universitetul qalaqebTan, mag. hakotateSi, es
aris okeanis teritoriis aTvisebis warmoebis
saSualebebi, akiteSi eleqtronika, megatroni-
ka, nagaokeSi perspeqtiuli teqnikuri sisteme-
bis warmoeba, dizainis industria. ucunomiaSi
eleqtronika, hamamacuSi oftoeleqtronika,
toiamaSi bioteqnologia, informatika.

garemos dabinZureba da iaponiis


ekologiuri problemebi

swrafma ekonomikurma ganviTarebam gamoiw-


via aseTive swrafi garemos dabinZureba. amis
ramdenime mizezia: erT-erTi maTgania teritori-
is zomebis simcire, misi reliefi, geologiuri
wyoba, atmosferos cirkulacia da sxva bunebri-
vi faqtorebi (miwisZvra, taifuni da sxva stiqi-
163
uri ubedurebebi). meores mxriv es aris ,,binZu-
ri warmoebebi, rogoricaa Tboenergetika, Savi
da feradi metalurgia, qimiuri, navToqimiuri
da cementis warmoeba. mesame es aris teritor-
iuli struqtura da mWidro mosaxleoba. dRes
iaponiis teritoriis TiTqmis 15% warmoadgens
ama Tu im xarisxis nakrZals. mis ZiriTadobas
warmoadgens erovnuli parkebi, romlis umetes-
oba ganlagebulia kunZul honsius Sida mTian
raionebSi da sxvebi mis mimdebare dablobebze
an sxva kunZulebze. 1970-ian wlebSi pirvelad
Seiqmna wyalqveSa parkebi kunZul sikoku da ok-
inavaze. erovnuli parkebis garda arsebobs kid-
ev 300-ze meti raionuli da prefeqtuli parkebi
da agreTve 500-ze meti sxva da sxva nakrZali.
yovel wliurad mas stumrobs daaxloebiT 100
mln. adamiani, magram miuxedavad amisa mraval
raionSi ekologiuri mdgomareoba kvlav daZabu-
lia.

164
iaopniis saerTaSoriso,

ekonomikuri kavSirebi

iaponia warmoadgens naTel magaliTs im qveyn-


isa, romelic aqtiurad aris CarTuli Sromis
saerTaSoriso geografiul gayofaSi. misTvis
damaxasiaTebelia yvela saxis Sidaekonomikuri
kavSirebis ganviTareba, magram aseTi kavSirebis
sxva da sxva saxeebis mniSvneloba drodadro
icvleboda. iaponiam SeZlo moepovebina myari
poziciebi iseT saqmianobaSi rogoricaa kapita-
lis gatana. iaponiis sagareo vaWroba SeiZleba
daxasiaTdes sami ZiriTadi maCvenebliT: brunva-
doba, struqtura da geografiuli gadanawileba.

gare brunvadobis zomebiT (850 miliardi do-


lari) Tanamedrove iaponias uWiravs msoflioSi
mesame adgili amerikisa da germaniis Semdeg. mi-
si wili saqonlis msoflio eqsportSi aRemate-
ba 8%-s, xolo msoflio importSi 5%. eqspor-
tiT igi adgils uTmobs mxolod amerikas, xo-
lo importiT _ amerikas da germanias.

165
erT-erTma cnobilma Jurnalistma iaopniis ek-
onomika ganviTarebis pirvel etapze Seadara
uzarmazar gadamamuSavebel qarxanas, romelsac
Semoaqvs yvela saWiro nedleuli, Semdeg amuSa-
vebs mas da gzavnis msoflio bazarze ukve pro-
duqciis saxiT. ar aris gasakviri, rom am etapze
iaponia gardaiqmna mineraluri nedleulisa da
navTobis uzarmazar msoflio importiorad,
Savi da feradi metalurgiis, navTmSeneblobisa
da navToqimiis produqciis eqsportiorad. Semd-
eg qveynis eqsportis struqturaSi ufro meti
roli iTamaSa avtomobilebma, sayofacxovrebo

eleqtronikam da sxva mravalma.

1990-ian wlebSi iaopniis eqsports Seadgenda


manqanebis warmoeba (avtomobilebi, gemebi, tele-
vizorebi, fotoaparatebi, kompiuterebi, integra-
luri sqemebi da avtomaturi xelsawyoebi) Tu-
mca zogierTi sawarmos eqsportma miaRwia 50-
70% da mets. rac Seexeba imports iaponia kvlav
damokidebulia sxva da sxva saxis nedleulisa
da navTobis Semotanaze. ufro metic, igi warmo-

166
adgens msoflioSi yvelaze msxvil, Semsyidvels
(qvanaxSirisa, rkinisa da feradi metalebisa). na-
vTobis wliuri SemotaniT igi mxolod amerikas
uTmobs adgils. Tu ufro detalurad davaxasi-
TebT iaponiis importis geografiuli gadanawi-
lebas SeiZleba davamatoT rom masSi pirveli
adgili uWiravs aRm. da samxreT-aRmosavleT az-
iis qveynebs. meore adgili iaponiis importSi
uWiravs amerikas. koreadan, indoneziidan, malai-
ziidan da singapuridan iaponias Semoaqvs navT-
obi, xis masala, bunebrivi Txevadi gazi da Savi
da feradi metali. kaliforniidan Semodis rog-
orc mza nawarmi iseve qvanaxSiri, bamba, xorba-
li, fosforiti, farmacevtuli nawarmi da komp-
iuterebi. 1990-ian wlebSi amerikis mniSvneloba
iaponiis importSi metad gaizarda manqanebisa
da danadgarebis xarjze. samxreT-dasavleTi az-
iis qveynebis wilma 1980w. piks miaRwia, rac da-
kavSirebuli iyo navTobis fasis swraf zrdasT-
an, Semdeg ki igi Zalian Semcirda. avstraliis
wili ki piriqiT, yovelTvis izrdeboda. am qve-
yanaze axla modis daaxloebiT mTeli iaponiis

167
qvanaxSiris importi. pirvel adgilze (daaxlo-
ebiT 1/3) iyo da rCeba amerika, sadac mimarTul-
ia ZiriTadad saavtomobilo eqsporti, sxva da
sxva eleqtronuli xelsawyoebi da danadgarebi.
meore adgili (1/4) ekuTvnis samx.-aRm. azias (gan-
sakuTrebiT gamoiyofa singapuri, tailandi, ma-
laizia) mesame (1/5) dasavleT evropas (german-
ia). saerTo jamSi iaponiis sawarmoo eqsporti
moicavs msoflios yvela msxvil regions: upirv-
eles yovlisa es exeba avtomobilebis eqsports.

iaponiaSi udidesi mniSvneloba eniWeba kapita-


lis eqsports. mas pirdapiri kavSiri aqvs oqros
valutis rezervis zrdaSi, romelic xels uwyo-
bs mis msoflio pirvelobas. am maCvenebliT iap-
oniis kapitalis eqsportSi monawileobas iReben
saxelmwifo da monopoliebi. 1990-iani wlebis
SuaSi iaponiis kapitalis eqsporti gavida pirv-
el adgilze msoflioSi da didi xani inarCune-
bda am adgils. magram krizisis Semdeg 1997-
1998w. eqsportis moculoba sagrZnoblad Semci-
rda. miuxedavad amisa sazRvargareTis saerTo
kapitaldabandeba 1990-iani wlebis bolos aRema-
168
ta 300 mlrd. dolars. geografiuli poziciebi-
dan umetes interess warmoadgens iaponiis sazR-
vargareTuli investiciebi. es daiwyo 1970-ian
wlebSi, magram maTi moculoba iyo umniSvnelo.
1980-iani wlebis bolos iaponia gardaiqmna mso-
flioSi erT-erT udides eqsportiorad pirdapi-
ri sazRvargareTuli investiciebiT. 1990-iani
wlebis bolos iaponiis pirdapiri sazRvargare-
Tuli investiciebis saerTo raodenobidan 40%
meti igzavneboda amerikaSi, 25% _ aziis sxva da
sxva qveynebSi, 15% _ dasavleT evropis qveyneb-
Si, xolo daaxloebiT 10% _ laTinuri amerikis
qveynebSi. amas SeiZleba davumatoT is rom iapo-
nia liderobs sxva qveynebisaTvis finansur dax-
marebaSi (10 mlrd. dolari) mravali qveynebisa-
Tvis iaponia donor qveyanad iqca. magaliTad:
(CineTi, indoeTi, indonezia, tailandi, filipi-
nebi) aziis qveynebi, afrikis qveynebidan (hana,
kenia, tanzania), laTinoamerikis (brazilia, meqs-
ika, peru, Cile) da dsT-s qveynebis (azerbaijani,
yirgizeTi). 1980-iani wlebidan moyolebuli iap-
onia ufro aqtiurad monawileobs mecnierul-

169
teqnikur TanamSromlobaSi. masSi monawileobis
mTavari formaa msxvilmasStaburi mravalwliani
programebi. magaliTis saxiT SeiZleba moviyvan-
oT erovnuli programa ,,adamianis sazRvrebi,
romelic 2005 wlamdea gaTvlili. saqonlis br-
unva ruseTsa da iaponias Soris 1990-ian wlebSi
Seadgenda 3,5-4,5 mlrd. dollars weliwadSi,
rac 40-jer naklebia iaponiasa da CineTs Soris.
ruseTis eqsports iaponiaSi warmoadgens xe-tye,
metalebi da naxSiri. iaponiidan ki ruseTs miew-
odeba manqanaTwarmoebis produqcia. ruseTis
bazarze iaponias myarad uWiravs pirveli adgi-
li eleqtronikis gayidvaSi, iseTi cnobili fi-
rmebisa rogoricaa ,,soni da ,,panasoniki.

170
msoflios navTobis mrewveloba

navTobis mrewveloba msoflios saTbobener-


getikuli mrewvelobis wamyani dargia. igi Za-
lian did gavlenas axdens mTel msoflio mre-
wvelobaze da saerTod msoflio politikazec.
navTobis mrewveloba gamoirCeva sakmaod didi
kapital tevadobiT.

navTobis samrewvelo mopoveba erTdroul-


ad sam qveyanaSi ruseTSi, rumineTsa da aSS-Si
me-XIX-e saukunis Sua xanebSi daiwyo. XX-is
damdegs mas ukve msoflios 20 qveyanaSi moipo-
vebdnen, magram yvelaze metad aSS_Si, venesue-
lasa da ruseTSi. 1940w. navTobgadamamuSavebel
qveyanaTa ricxvi 40-mde gaizarda, Tumca mowina-
veebad iTvleboda aSS, ssrk, venesuela da agr-
eTve irani. 1970w. navTobgadamamuSavebel qveyan-
aTa ricxvma 60-s miaRwia, xolo 1990w-s 80-s.
1990-iani wlebis bolos ki 95-s. jer kidev 1960-
ian wlebSi navTobis msoflio mopovebis naxev-
ars iZleoda dasavleT naxevarsferos qveynebi,

171
magram Semdgom pirvelobas miaRwia aR. naxevar-
sferos qveynebma.

Sesabamisad izrdeboda navTobis msoflio


mopovebac. 1980-iani wlebis damdegamde, iafi na-
vTobis epoqaSi es zrda iyo winsvliTi, magram
Semdgom mas daetyo energetikuli (navTobis)
krizisis zemoqmedeba, romelmac rogorc ukve
avRniSneT, gamoiwvia msoflio bazarze navTob-
is mkveTri gaZvireba am garemoebam gavlena moa-
xdina navTobis mopovebis geografiazec, vinai-
dan igi gaxda ararentabeluri mraval Znelad
misadgom raionSi, sadac eqstremaluri bunebr-
ivi pirobebi arsebobda. 1990-iani wlebis damde-
gs navTobis msoflio mopovebis done Sedareb-
iT gastabilurda es dakavSirebuli iyo ara na-
Ziebi resursebis SezRudvasTan aramed rigi na-
vTobgadamamuSavebeli qveynebis politikasTan,
pirvel rigSi ki opeka-s wevrebisa, rogorc ms-
oflio navTobis bazarze fasebis mTavari reg-
ulatorisa. navTobze fasebis vardnis gaWianu-
rebul viTarebaSi aseTi politika iTvaliswin-
ebda mkacrad normirebuli kvotebis SemoRebas,
172
misi mopovebis zomebze, raTa fasebi ar dacemu-
liyo. analogiur politikas atarebda zogier-
Ti qveyanac, romlebic ar Sediodnen opeka-Si
da mxolod 1990-iani wlebis bolos aRiniSna
axali aRmavloba 3.8 mlrd t-mde 2004w-Tvis.

1990-iani wlebis bolos koniunuqtura msof-


lios navTobis bazarze araerTxel Seicvala.
1996w-s SedarebiT myari balansis pirobebSi, na-
vTobis miwodebasa da moxmarebas Soris navTo-
bze saSualo fasi 1 tonaze 145 dolari SenarC-
unda. 1999w-s 135 dolamde Semcirda, xolo
1998w-s katastrofulad daeca 1 tonis fasi 80
dolaramde ga-xda. bunebrivia, aseTma klebam
mkveTrad Seamcira navTob eqsporiori qveynebis
Semosvlebi, maTi sanavTobe renta. imisTvis rom
xelaxla gaezardaT es Semosavlebi opeka-s we-
vrma qveynebma, romelTac SeuerTda: norvegia,
meqsika, omani, ruseTi daiwyes navTobis mopove-
bis Semcireba Sedegad misma fasma kvlav iwyo
zrda, Tanac ise, rom 1999w bolosTvis 160-170
dolars miaRwia 1 tonaze Semdgom ki 200-300
dolarsac ki gadaaWarba. aman dartyma miayena
173
mTavari navTobimportiori qveynebis ekonomikas,
upirvelesad ki aSS-s, did britaneTs, gfr-s,
gamoiwvia ra SeiZleba iTqvas, mini krizisi nav-
TobmoxmarebaSi da aiZula es qveynebi gamoeyen-
ebina TavianTi, xelSeuxebeli komerciuli mar-
agi. mxolod 2000 wlis bolosTvis mdgomareo-
ba navTobis bazarze gaxda SedarebiT stabile-
ri.

Mme-20 saukunis me-2 naxevarSi navTobis mso-


flio mopovebis gadanawileba agreTve Seicva-
la qveynebis sam jgufs Soris. saerTod, jer
swori iqneboda gvelaparaka ara sam, aramed qv-
eynebis or dajgufebaze kapitalisturebisa da
socialisturebze, vinaidan navTobis TiTqmis
mTeli mopoveba dasavleTis qveynebSic da mso-
flios ganviTarebad qveynebSic faqtobrivad
jer kidev me-20 saukunis 20-30-ian wlebSi warm-
oqmnili saerT. navTobis kartelis (snk) kontr-
olqveS imyofeboda. am kartelSi Sedioda Svi-
di umsxvilesi navTobis kompania (Svidi da),
romelTac saTaveSi edga amerikuli standart
oili. opeka-s Seqmnis Semdeg pirvel xanebSi
174
es Svidi da akontrolebda ganviTarebadi qve-
ynebis mier navTobis mopovebis aranakleb 2/3-s
magram 1970-iani wlebis Sua xanebis krizisis
Semdeg aseve ganviTarebadi qveynebis mier Tavi-
anTi navTobis resursebis nacionalizaciis da
sakuTari navTobis saxelmwifo kompaniebis Seq-
mnis Semdeg snk-is roli nulamde davida, axla
musikas ukveTdnen ukve opeka-s qveynebi da
es arcaa gasakviri,vinaidan amJamad swored ope-
kas 11 qveyana akontrolebs navTobis mopovebis
daaxloebiT 40%-s xolo Tu vilaparakebT yve-
la ganviTarebad qveyanaze, maSin 1990-iani wleb-
is bolos maTma wilma navTobis msoflio mop-
ovebaSi 60% Seadgina roca dasavleTis qveyneb-
is wili 24%-ia. hidrosocialisturi da soci-
alisturi qveynebis wili ki 16%-mde Semcirda,
rac aixsneba adre ssrk-Si Semaval qveyanaTa
umetesobaSi navTobis mopovebis vardniT; 1990-
iani wlebis damdegamde es wili meti iyo.

yofil ssrk-Si navTobis mopovebis mateba


xdeboda 1970-1980-ian w. dasavleT cimbiris nav-
Tobis auzTa gaxsnisa da aTvisebis gamo. amasT-
175
an mopovebis piki miRweul iqna 1988w-s 624mln
t. magram ukve 1990w-s igi Semcirda 570 mln t-
mde, xolo 1991w-s 515 mln t-mde. aseTi vardnis
mizezi mravalia. es kapitaldabandebaTa ukmar-
isobacaa da dazverviTi da saZiebo burRvis mo-
culobaTa Semcirebac, milebis ukmarisobac da
mowyobilobaTA cveTac, moZvelebuli teqnolo-
giebis gamoyenebac da sxva uamravi ram, rac sa-
badoebis swraf datborvas iwvevda. isic unda
gaviTvaliswinoT,rom 1990-iani w. damdegs bevrma
umsxvilesma sabadom ukve miaRwia maqsimaluri
mopovebis stadias da mxolod XXI saukunis da-
mdegs navTobis mopovebam ruseTsa da dsT-is
sxva qveynebSi (yazaxeTSi, azerbaijanSi) kvlav

iwyo zrda.

dasavleT evropaSi navTobmopovebaSi naxt-


omi moxda 1970-1980-ian wlebSi, rac aixsneba Cr.
zRvispireTis auzis eqspoataciaSi SesvliT. az-
iaSi ki 1990-iani wlebis dadgomamde SeimCneoda
mopovebis winsvliTi zrda, rac dakavSirebuli
iyo sparseTis yuris zonaSi aseve indoneziasa

176
da CineTSi. msxvilesi sabadoebis aTvisebasTan
1990-ian wlebSi navTobis mopoveba kvlav gaiza-
rda. afrikaSi gardatexa 1960-ian wlebSi daiw-
yo, roca aiTvises libiis da nigeriis navTobis
resursebi da mopoveba gaizarda alJirsa da
egvipteSi. Cr. amerikaSi mopoveba izrdeboda
1970-iani w. damdegamde, Semdeg misi done gasta-
bilurda xolo 1990-iani wlebidan man iwyo
kleba. laTinur amerikaSi navTobis mopovebis
zrda iyo ufro Tanazomieri, amasTan msxvil
navTobgadamamuSavebel qveyanaTa ricxvSi venes-
uelasTan erTad Sevida meqsikac. navTobis mop-
ovebam avstraliaSi zrda mxolod 1980-ian wle-
bSi iwyo.

Sesabamisad icvleboda msxvili regionebis


wilic navTobis msoflio mopovebaSi. jer kid-
ev 1950w-s misi 1/2-ze meti modioda Cr. amerika-
ze, romelsac didi CamorCeniT mosdevda sazRv-
argareTuli evropa, laTinuri amerika, ssrk.
1970w-s pirvel adgilze aRmoCnda ukve sazRvar-
gareTuli azia, meoreze Cr.amerika, mesameze _

177
ssrk, meoTxeze _ afrika, mexuTeze _ laTinuri
amerika.

aSkaraa rom msxvili regionebis reitingi ga-


nisazRvreba upirvelesad mTavari navTobmompo-
vebeli qveynebiT (saudis arabeTi, ruseTi, aSS,
irani meqsika, CineTi, nigeria) SegviZlia avRniS-
noT, rom 1990-iani wlebis ganmavlobaSi didi
cvlilebebi mTavari navTobmompovebeli qveyneb-
is SemadgenlobaSi ar momxdara, magram mowina-
ve sameuli qveynis Tanmimdevroba erTgvarad
sxvanairi gaxda (1990w. navTobis mopovebaSi pir-
veli adgili ekava ssrk-s, meoreze iyo aSS, mes-
ameze saudis arabeTi).

navTobis mrewvelobasTan erTad Cveulebr-


iv ganixilaven xolme mis SedarebiT damoukide-
bel qvedargs navTobgadamamuSavebel mrewvelo-
bas.

1990-iani wlebis bolos msoflioSi iyo


daaxloebiT 700 navTobgadamamuSavebeli qarxa-
na (6gq) pirveladi gadamuSavebis saerTo simZl-
avriT 3.7 mlrd t. am dargis sawarmoebi ganawi-

178
lebulia mTel dedamiwaze bevrad ufro Tanab-
rad, vidre navTobis resursebi da mopoveba, vi-
naidan TiToeuli metnaklebad msxvili sax. is-
wrafvis flobdes sakuTar ngqebs, romlebic
imuSavebs Sida moxmarebis bazarze, xolo umet-
eswilad eqsportzec. am TvalsazrisiT ekono-
mikurad ganviTarebuli qveynebis mniSvnelovani
upiratesoba msoflios yvela ngq-is Sejamebu-
li simZlavriT savsebiT asaxsnelia: Cr. ameri-
kaSi koncentrirebulia 930 mln t., dasavleT
evropaSi 700 mln t., iaponiaSi aseTi simZlavre-
ebis 250 mln t., aRmosavleT evropis qveynebsa
da dsT-Si kidev 650 mln. t. da mxolod danarC-
eni modis ganviTarebad qveynebze.

aseTi Tanafardoba Camoyalibda mravali


aTwleulis ganmavlobaSi,vinaidan iTvleboda
rom ekonomikurad mamogebiania nedli navTobis
Semotana da misi gadamuSaveba moxmarebis adgi-
lze. Tumca 1980-1990-ian wlebSi sul ufro mka-
fiod gamovlinda sawinaaRmdego tendencia awa-
rmoon nedli navTobis pirveladi gadamuSaveba
misi mopovebis raionebSi, xolo Semdeg moaxdi-
179
non ukve miRebuli navTobproduqtebis eqsport-
ireba. am tendencias safuZvlad udevs rogorc
ganviTarebadi qveynebis industrializacia upi-
rveles yovlisa, navTobmompoveblebis aseve da-
savleTis qveynebis politikac, romelic mimar-
Tulia WuWyiani warmoebebis gadatanaze ganvi-
Tarebad qveynebSi. Sedegad bolo xanebSi navT-
obgadamuSavebis simZlavreebi ganviTarebad qve-
ynebSi sakmaod swrafad izrdeba da ukve mniSv-
nelovan zomebs aRwevs: laTinur amerikaSi 300
mln-s. afrikaSi 150-s. amJamad ganviTarebadi qve-
ynebis wili ngq-ebis msoflio simZlavreSi ukve
daaxloebiT 1/3-s Seadgens, amasTan es maCvenebe-
li agrZelebs zrdas. upirveles yovlisa es ex-
eba sparseTis yuris navTobmompovebel qveynebs
_ saudis arabeTs, irans, erays, quveiTs, roml-
ebsac gaaCnia navTobgadamuSavebis mniSvnelova-
ni simZlavreebi; isini ZiriTadad eqsportzea
gaTvlili. exeba es sxva navTobmompovebel qvey-
nebsac (venesuela, meqsika, indonezia), agreTve
brazilias, indoeTs, argentinas, tailands, sa-
dac ngq-ebi upiratesad an savsebiT muSaobs Si-

180
da bazrebisaTvis. navTobgadamamuSavebel msxv-
il centrebad agreTve iqca msoflio sazRvao-
sno gzebis zogierTi sakvanZo wertili (singap-
uri), karibis zRvis kunZulebi (virginiis, nide-
rlanduri antiliis aseve trinidadi da toba-
go) amasTan iq ganlagebuli ngq-ebi gamoirCeva
navTobis gadamuSavebis gansakuTrebuli simZl-
avriT (20-30 mln. t. weliwadSi).

ruseTSi 1990-ian wlebSi navTobis mrewvel-


oba seriozul kriziss ganicdida, ramac gamoi-
wvia navTobis mopovebis donis Semcireba 2-jer,
xolo misi gadamuSaveba TiTqmis aseve. aseTi
Semcireba ganpirobebuli iyo grZelvadiani xas-
iTis faqtorebiT, upirvelesad investiciebis
SemcirebiT am dargSi mopovebis TviTRirebule-
bis mudmivi zrdis fonze, romelic dakavSireb-
ulia mis Semdgom win wawevasTan Cr. da aRmos-
avleT raionebSi, yvelaze mdidari sabadoebis
mniSvnelovan gamolevasTan, sadac navTobs moi-
poveben iafi Sadrevnuli xerxiT, investiciebis
Semcirebis ar SeiZleba, ar gamoewvia mravali
uaryofiTi Sedegi. erT-erTi maTgani gaxda nav-
181
Tobis saZiebo burRvis moculobebSi CamorCena,
ris Sedegadac naZiebma maragebma Sewyvita saTa-
nadod mopovebis aucilebeli namatis kompensi-
reba. yovelive amas SeiZleba davumatoT dargis
arc Tu ise martivi saorganizacio gaformeba
da konkurencia ruseTis navTobis biznesis Zir-
iTad subieqtebs Soris esaa umsxvilesi bunebr-
ivi monopoliebi lukoili, iukosi, sedan-
ko, rosnefti, sibnefti da sxv., agreTve fa-
swarmoqmnis rTuli problemebi Sida bazarze
da navTobze msoflio fasebis meryeoba, magram
bolo wlebSi am dargma SeZlo krizisis daZl-
eva da navTobis mopovebam swrafad iwyo zrda.
ufro metic, msoflio bazarze navTobze faseb-
is mkveTri zrdis wyalobiT igi savaluto saS-
ualeba (navTobSemosavlebis) gaxda qveynis biu-
jetSi.

182
gaTxevadebuli bunebrivi gaziT
saerTaSoriso vaWroba

1970-iani wlebidan dawyebuli


msoflio ene-rgetikuli meurneobis axali
faqtoris saxiT mogvevlina gaTxevadebuli
bunebrivi gazi (gbg). interesi am
energomatareblis mimarT ganpirob-ebuli iyo
mravali mizeziT .maT Soris SeiZle-ba
davasaxeloT bunebrivi gazis didi resurse-bis
arseboba aziis, afrikis da laTinuri amer-ikis
mraval qveyanaSi, romelic mopovebis Semd-eg
SeuZlebelia gazsadenebis meSveobiT mivawo-
doT ekonomikurad ganviTarebul qveynebs maSin
roca gbg-is saeqsporto miwodeba SedarebiT
ioli gansaxorcielebelia da amasTanave ar sa-
Wiroebs ZviradRirebuli gazis magistralebis
mSeneblobas. saWiroa gaviTvaliswinoT isic
rom gaTxevadebuli gazi xelsayrelia gamosaye-
neblad meurneobis mraval dargSi (gansakuTr-
ebiT elenergetikasa da komunalur-sayofacxov-
rebo seqtorebSi) da gazis gaTxevadebis teqno-

183
logia da misi Semdgomi transportireba ukve
savsebiT aTvisebulia.

sawarmoo-teqnologiuri kompleqsi gbg-is wa-


rmoebasa da miwodebaze Tavis TavSi moicavs
Semdeg Semadgenel nawilebs:

1) bunebrivi an gzad mdebare navTobiani gaz-


is sabado (msoflio masStabiT isini daaxloe-
biT yvela miwodebis 2/3-s uzrunvelyofs, gazis
danarCen nawils iZleva navTobgadamamuSaveb-
eli qarxnebi);

2) qarxana bunebrivi gazis gasaTxevadeblad


162*c temperaturaze, misi droebiTi Senaxvis
tevadobisTvis;

3) gazsaeqsporto terminali, sadac miRebul


gbg-s tumbaven specialur tankergazis gadamta-
nebSi;

4) daniSnulebis adgilze gazsaimporto term-


inali, sadac xdeba miwodebuli gbg-is gadmot-
virTva;

184
5) gbg-is sacavi da misi regazifikaciis sadg-
uri;

6)mowyobilobebi gbg-is miwodebisaTvis gazis

qselSi.

msgavsi teqnologiebis SesamuSaveblad pirv-

eli cdebi Catarda aSS-Si jer kidev XX-is 40-


ian wlebSi, xolo samrewvelo realizacia maT
poves iqve 1950-ian w. male aSS-Si konstuirebu-
li da agebuli iqna pirveli tankeri-gazmatare-
beli, romelic ara marto awvdida gaTxevadeb-
ul bunebriv gazs meqsikis yuris sabadodan,
aramed ramdenime reissac axdenda did britane-
TSi. Tavdapirvelad gbg-is msoflio warmoeba
izrdeboda sakmaod nela, magram 1970-iani wleb-
is Sua xanebis energetikuli krizisis da navT-
obis mkveTri gaZvirebis Semdeg dasavleTis mr-
avali qveynis interesi mis gamosayeneblad Ses-
amCnevad gaizarda. aman stimuli misca gazis
gaTxevadebisTvis qarxnebis mSeneblobas, aseve
gazis terminalTa da Seiqmna tanker-gazmatare-

185
belTa floti. gbg-is mimarT interesi dResac
arsebobs, razec upirveles yovlisa; metyvele-
bs misi msoflio warmoebis zomebi, romelic
jer kidev 1995w. 275 mln t-s Seadgenda. kvlav
izrdeba tanker-gazmatareblebis flotic, amas-
Tan tipiuri tankeris tevadobac agreTve gaiza-
rda 10-15 aTasi m-3-dan 80-100-mde, xolo Semdeg
120-130-mde, misi 165-mde gazrdis perspeqtiviT,
SemdgomSi ki 200.

1990-iani wlebis bolos gaTxevadebuli bu-


nebrivi gazis warmoeba mogvarda ukve sakmaod
bevr qveyanaSi, amasTan maTgan 15-20-ma miaRwia
metnaklebad mniSvnelosan zomebs. sazRvargare-
Tis evropaSi aseTi qveynebia didi britaneTi
da norvegia, sazRvargareTis aziaSi ki indone-
zia, malaizia, saudis arabeTi, gaerTianebuli
arabeTis emiratebi, katari, CineTi, indoeTi, af-
rikaSi _ alJiri, egvipte da libia, Cr. amerika-
Si _ aSS da kanada, laTinur amerikaSi _ meqsi-
ka, venesuela da brazilia; maT ricxvSi Sedis
avstraliac. CamoTvlil qveyanaTa umetesoba

186
ara marto awarmoebs, aramed gbg-is eqsportsac
axdens

gbg-is ZiriTadi eqsportiorebi iyvnen da rC-


ebian ganviTarebadi qveynebi pirvel rigSi, sam-
xreT-aRmosavleT aziis, magram aseve afrikis
da samxreT-dasavleT aziis, maSin roca ekono-
mikurad ganviTarebuli qveynebis wili msofl-
io eqsportSi ar aRwevs 1/10-sac ki. bunebrivia,
am nawilobrivi maCveneblebis ukan dgas calke-
uli qveyana. 1990-iani wlebis bolos samxreT-
aRmosavleT aziis qveynebidan eqsports uzrun-
velyofda indonezia, malaizia, brunei, afriki-
dan _ alJiri da nigeria, samx.-dasavleT azii-
dan _ katari da abudabi. dasavleTis qveynebs
Soris gbg-is eqsportiorebs miekuTvneba mxol-
od aSS da avstralia. mniSvnelovania gaviTva-
liswinoT, rom wamyvani qveyana eqsportiorebis
es jgufi ar rCeba ucvleli. ukve XX-XIs mijn-
aze masSi Sevida kidev ramdenime qveyana (kata-
ri, nigeria, trinidadi da tobago).

187
gbg-is eqsportior qveyanaTa jgufis gver-
diT Camoyalibda sakmaod mdgradi importior
qveyanaTa jgufi. es upirveles yovlisa, aRmosa-
vleT aziis qveynebia iaponia (gbg-is mTeli mso-
flio imports 1/2-ze meti), koreis resp. da tai-
vanis kunZ., agreTve dasavleT evropis qveynebi
safrangeTi, espaneTi, italia, belgia, Cveuleb-
riv am jgufSi rTaven TurqeTsac. gbg-is impo-
rtirebas cotaoden aSS-ic axdens. am qveynebi-
dan zogierTs (iaponias, koreis respublikas,
kunZ. taivans) bunebrivi gazi mxolod gaTxevad-
ebuli saxiT Semoaqvs, sxvebi ki (safrangeTs,
belgias rom aRaraferi vTqvaT aSS-ze), gbg-is
importTan erTad upiratesad orientirebas ax-
dens gazsadenebis gazis importze.

geografiuli TvalsazrisiT gansakuTrebiT


sainteresoa is garemoeba, rom gbg-is eqsportis
da importis calkeuli raionebi erTmaneTTan
mWidrodaa dakavSirebuli da erTad qmnis saer-
TaSoriso gazsatransporto sistemebs, romel-
Tagan TiToeuli Tavis TavSi moicavs mTel sa-
warmoo jaWvs bunebrivi gazis mopovebidan dan-
188
iSnulebis adgilze momxmareblebTan miwodeba-
mde. XXI saukunis damdegs msoflio meurneoba-
Si Camoyalibda ori ZiriTadi gazsatranspor-
to sistema aziur-wynarokeanuri sistema da af-
rikul-dasavleTevropuli.

Aazia wynari okeanis regionis gazsatranspo-


rto sistema yvelaze mZlavri da ganStoebu-
li uzrunvelyofs gbg-is mTeli msoflios sae-
qsperto-saimporto miwodebaTa 1/2- ze mets. am
regionSi yvelaze msxvili eqsportiori iyo da
aris indonezia, romelic Tavisi gazis sabadoe-
bis safuZvelze Seqmna gazkondensaturi qarxne-
bi bontangaSi, kunZ. kalimantanis aRmosavleT
sanapiroze (es qarxana 20 mln. t. gbg-is mwarmo-
eblobiT weliwadSi msoflioSi yvelaze msxvi-
lad iTvleba) da kunZ. sumatris CrdiloeTiT.
malaiziis da bruneis gazkondensanturi qarxn-
ebi agreTve mdebareobs kunZul kalimantaze,
mxolod mis CrdiloeT sana-piroze. am qarxneb-
is terminalebs akavSirebs gazis xidebi ramd-
enime gazmimReb terminalTan, romlebic mdebar-
eobs iaponiis kunZul honsiuze, wynari okeanis
189
sanapiroze. gbg-is miwodeba indoneziidan kore-
is respublikaSi daiwyes 1980-iani wlebis Sua
xanebSi, xolo taivanSi 1990-iani wlebis damde-
gs. Semdeg koreisTvis miwodebaSi CaerTo mala-
iziac. Mmeore gazis xidi azia-wynari okeanis
regionSi (awr) Camoyalibda abu-dabis emiratsa
da iaponias Soris. es moxda mas Semdeg, rac
1970-iani wlebis Sua xanebSi sparseTis yuris
patara kunZul dasze aages bunebrivi gazis ga-
saTxevadeblad qarxana. iq gazs awvdidnen ori
Selfuri sabadodan. 1990-iani wlebis bolos
abu-dabis magaliTs mibaZa katarma, romelic
gbg-is qarxnebi da terminali aago iaponiasa da
koreis respublikaSi maTxevadebuli gazis sae-
qsportod.

Aaziawynari okeanis regions kidev ori gazis


xidi SeiZleba mivakuTnoT. isini aerTianebs ia-
ponias, msoflioSi gbg-is yvelaze msxvil momx-
marebels, erTi ukavSirdeba alaskas meore
avstralias. alaskaze agebuli qarxana da gbg-
is terminali ankorijis axlos agebul iqna
1960-iani wlebis bolos da maSinve tanker-gazm-
190
atareblebma aqedan daiwyo gaTxevadebuli bun-
ebrivi gazis miwodeba kunZul honsius sanapir-
oze.

am gadabmis Seqmnas xeli Seuwyo ramdenime


faqtorma. upirveles yovlisa, iaponiis polit-
ikam, romelic didi xania miznad isaxavda Tavi-
si gazis importis maqsimalur diversifikacias;
meore, TviT alaskaze gbg-is msxvili momxmareb-
lebis praqtikulma arsebobam. mesame, aSS-is wy-
nari okeanis Statebis dauintereseblobam, rad-
gan isini orientirebuli iyo adgilobriv gaz-
sa da gazis miwodebaze kanadidan gazsadenebis
meSveobiT gbg-is alaskadan miRebaSi. rac Seexe-
ba am gbg-is transportirebas aSS-is aRmosavl-
eT sanapiroze panamis arxiT, es varianti Zalze
Zviri aRmoCnda. iaponur bazarze ki gbg alaski-
dan savsebiT konkurentunariani aRmoCnda; gans-
akuTrebiT imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom iaponuri
kapitali monawileobda am amerikuli Statis
gazis sabadoebis damuSavebaSi.

191
gazis xidi avstraliasa da iaponias Soris
ukve 1990-ian wlebSi Camoyalibda. igi akavSire-
bs gazkondensantur qarxanas kontinentis Crdi-
lo-dasavleT sanapiros iaponur kunZul honsi-
us terminalTan da qarxanasTan.

Aafrikul dasavleTevropuli
gazsatransporto sistema

gaaCnia prioriteti warmoSobis drosTan da-


kavSirebiT, magram miwodebaTa moculobiT mni-
Svnelovnad CamorCeba azia-wynari okeanis regi-
onis sistemas. misi warmoSoba ganpirobebulia
ori ZiriTadi faqtoriT: pirvel rigSi, resur-
suliT, romlis gavlena erTis mxriv gamovlin-
da dasavleT evropis umetesi qveynis bunebrivi
gaziT uzrunvelyofis ukmarisobiT da meore
mxriv gazis didi Warbi resursebis arsebobiT
Cr. afrikis qveynebSi upirvelesad alJirsa da
libiaSi, romelTa sakuTari moTxovnebi am sax-

192
is saTbobSi didi araa. Mmeore, ekonomikur-geo-
grafiuli mdgomareobiT an sxva sityvebiT rom
vTqvaT Cr. afrikis qveynebis SedarebiTi siaxl-
oviT evropis samxreT da dasavleT nawilTanac
ki.

wamyvani qveyana, romelic Cr. afrikaSi gaTx-

evadebuli gazis eqsportioria alJiri. man pir-


velma daiwyo gbg-is mniSvnelovani eqsporti sa-
frangeTSi, espaneTsa da belgiaSi. am Tvalsaz-
risiT iqve meore qveyanaa libia, magram misi
miwodebebis maStabi dasavleT evropisTvis arc
ise didia da igi mxolod espaneTSia mimarTu-
li. 1990-iani wlebis bolos gbg-is eqsportior-
ebs miemata kidev erTi afrikuli qveyana nige-
ria, sadac gazis gasaTxevadeblad aSenda qarx-
ana portxarkortSi da gazsaeqsporto termin-
ali bonSi. gbg-is eqsportiorebisTvis emzadeba
egviptec.

garda am ori gazsatransporto sistemisa, ar-


sebobs sxva msgavsi gadabmebi Tumca isini mn-
iSvnelovnad mcire zomebisaa.

193
specialistTa umravlesoba gbg-is warmoeb-
is da saerTaSoriso vaWrobis perspeqtivebs sa-
kmaod xelsayrelad miiCnevs. wamyvani roli kv-
lav awris qveynebs ekisreba; prognozebis Tana-
xmad 2010 wlisTvis gbg-is miwodeba SeiZleba
gaizardos 130-150 mln. t-mde. gbg-is eqsportio-
rTa ricxvs momavalSi SeiZleba SeuerTdes axa-
li qveynebi rogorebicaa: norvegia, irani, ieme-
ni, venesuela, papua-axali gvinea, xolo qveyana
importiorebs daemateba CineTi, indoeTi,
pakistani, tailandi.

ruseTSi, romelic yovelTvis orientireb-


uli iyo qselur gaze, gaTxevadebuli bunebri-
vi gazis gamoyeneba 1990-iani wlebis bolomde
farTo gavrcelebas ar povebda, Tumca gazis
mrewvelobis ganviTarebis Semdgomi strategia
iTvaliswinebs gbg-is warmoebis ganviTarebas,
romelic ukve dawyebulia Selfuri sabadoebis
bazaze saxalinis Cr. nawilSi. es gazi gaTvali-
swinebulia rogorc eqsportisaTvis aseve Sida
moxmarebisaTvis Soreul aRmosavleTSi.

194
msoflio okeaneSi navTobis da
bunebrivi gazis mopoveba

navTobis da bunebrivi gazis mopovebas mso-


flio okeanis akvatoriebSi ukve sakmaod xangr-
Zlivi istoria aqvs. zRvidan navTobis mopoveb-
as primitiuli xerxebiT jer kidev XXI s-Si aw-
armoebdnen ruseTSi (kaspiis zRvaze), aSS-sa (ka-
liforniaSi) da iaponiaSi. zRvidan navTobis
da gazis mopovebis namdvilad swrafi zrda
1960-ian wlebSi daiwyo. kidev ufro meti gaqane-
ba pova man 1970-1980-ian wlebSi. 1970 wels aseTi
qveyana iyo mxolod 20, xolo 1990-iani wlebis
damdegs ukve 50-ze meti. Sesabamisad izrdeboda
navTobis zRvidan msoflio mopovebac. dabeji-
TebiT SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom zRvidan navTobis
mopovebis aseTi zrda ganpirobebuli iyo ori
ZiriTadi faqtoriT. jer erTi, 1970-iani wlebis
Sua xanebis enegetikuli krizisis Semdeg, ram-
ac navTobis mkveTri gaZvireba gamoiwvia, inter-
esi gaizarda Selfuri auzebis da sabadoebis
mimarT, romelTac manmade arc ise farTod iye-
nebdnen. isini naklebad iyo gamoleuli da gar-
195
kveul ekonomikur mogebas hpirdeboda mompoveb-
elT, rogorc ukve avRniSneT, navTobis da gaz-
is zRvidan mopoveba resursuli sazRvrebis ga-
farToebis maSindeli politikis mkafio magal-
iTi gaxda da meore zRvis sabadoebis msxvilma-
Stabiani aTviseba SesaZlebeli gaxda mTeli
rigi teqnikuri siaxleebis wyalobiT da upirv-
elesad saburRi platformebis gamoyenebiT.

aseTi platformebiT jer kidev 1990-iani


wlebis damdegs gaiburRa daaxloebiT 40 aTasi
zRvis WaburRili, amasTan burRvis siRrme mud-
am izrdeboda. jer kidev 1980-iani wlebis damd-
egs zRvis navTobis 85%-s iRebdnen 100m-mde siR-
rmeebSi, burRva 200m siRrmeze saerTod ar xde-
boda. 1990-iani wlebis Sua xanebSi maqsimaluri
burRvis siRrme 1000m-mde gaizarda, xolo 1998w-
s 1800m-mde. amJamad burRvis siRrme ukve 3000m-ia
da kidev meti. siRrmis zrdasTan erTad rewva
napiridan sul ufro Sors xdeba. Tavdapirvel-
ad aseTi daSoreba 10-15 km-s ar aWarbebda, Sem-
deg 50-100 km-s axla ki 400-500 km-s aRwevs. faqt-

196
obrivad es niSnavs, rom mas ukve SeuZlia gasc-
des kontinentur Selfs.

bolo xanebSi zRidan navTobis mopovebis


tempebi Semcirda. saqme isaa, rom energetikuli
krizisis daZlevis Semdeg roca axal sakmaod
iafi navTobis mopovebis xangrZliv stadiaSi
SevediT mravali Selfuri sabados damuSavebis
gagrZeleba gansakuTrebiT maRal ganedebSi ub-
ralod ararentabeluri gaxda misi didi TviT-
Rirebulebis gamo xmeleTTan SedarebiT.

mTlianobaSi zRvis akvatoriebSi WaburRile-


bis burRva bevrad Zviria vidre xmeleTze, amas-
Tan igi sul ufro Zvirdeba, rac mopovebis si-
Rrme matulobs. burRvaze danaxarjebi 20-30m
siRrmeze 2-jer aWarbebs analogiur danaxarje-
bs xmeleTze. burRvis Rirebuleba 50m-ze 3-4
jer izrdeba, 200m-ze ki 6 jer. burRvis danaxa-
rjebi marto siRrmeze ki ara sxva bunebriv fa-
qtorebzecaa damokidebuli, mag. arqtikis piro-
bebSi igi ufro Zvir-ia (15-16-jer), vidre subtr-
opikebSi.

197
msoflio eleqtroenergetika

eleqtroenergetika saTbob-energetikuli kom-


plesis SemadgenlobaSi Sedis qmnis ra masSi
e.w zeda sarTuls. SeiZleba iTqvas rom igi
warmoadgens msoflio meurneobis erT-erT sab-
azo dargs. misi roli aixsneba adamianuri moR-
vaweobis yvelaze sxvadasxva sferos eleqtrof-
ikaciis aucileblobiT, amitomac msoflios sa-
Tbob-energetikuli balansis eleqtrofikaciis
done, romelic izomeba pirveladi energo resu-
rsebis raodenobiT, rac eleqtroenergiis warm-
oebaze ixarjeba sul ufro da ufro izrdeba
ganviTarebul qveyn-ebSi ukve 2/5-s gadaaWarba.

eleqtroenergiis msoflio warmoebis


dinamika

XX saukunis me-2 naxevarSi eleqtroenergiis


gamomuSaveba gaizarda TiTqmis 15-jer, mTeli
am xnis ganmavlobaSi eleqtroenergiaze moTxo-
vnis zrdis tempebi aWarbebda pirvelad energo-

198
resursebze moTxovnis zrdis tempebs. Sesabami-
sad isini 1990-iani wlebis pirvel naxevarSi Se-
adgenda 2.5% da 1.5%-s weliwadSi.

prognozebis Tanaxmad 2010 wlisaTvis eleq-


troenergiis msoflio moxmareba SeiZleba gai-
zardos 18-19 trln kvt/sulze xolo 2020 w-
Tvis 26-27 trln kvt.-mde sulze. Sesabamisad ga-
izarda msoflios eleqtrosadgurTa dadgeni-
li simZlavreebic romelTa donem ukve 1990-iani
wlebis Sua xanebSi 3 mlrd kvt-s gadaaWarba.

qveynebis sam ZiriTad jrufs Soris eleqt-


roenergiis gamomuSaveba gadanawildeba Semdegi
saxiT: ekonomikurad ganviTarebuli qveynebis
wilad 65% modis ganviTarebadis 22% da gard-
amavali ekonomikis mqoneTa 13%. varaudoben,
rom perspeqtivaSi ganviTarebadi qveynebis wili
gaizrdeba da 2020 wlisaTvis isini gamoimuSave-
bs msoflio eleqtroenergiis daaxloebiT nax-
evars.

eleqtroenergiis msoflio warmoebis gadana-


wileba msxvil geografiul regionebs Soris

199
agreTve TandaTanobiT icvleba. ase mag. 1950w.
Cr. amerikis wilad modioda 46%, dasavleT ev-
ropis 25, aRmosavleT evropis (ssrk-Tan erTad)
14, aziis 10, laTinuri amerikis, avstraliis da
okeaneTis 2-2 da afrikis wilad 1%. 1990-iani
wlebis bolos Cr. amerikis wili 30%-mde Semc-
irda, dasavleT evropis 19-mde, aRmosavleT ev-
ropis (dsT-Tan erTad) 11 %-mde, maSin roca az-
iis wili 30%-mde gaizarda, laTinuri amerikis
5-mde afrikis TiTqmis 3%-mde avstraliis da
okeaneTis wili ki ucvleli darCa. prognozeb-
is Tanaxmad 2010w. eleqtroenergiis moxmareba
Cr. amerikasa da azia-wynari okeanis regionSi
gautoldeba daaxloebiT 6tr-ln kvt/sulze.
dasavleT evropaSi igi Seadgens 2800 mlrd kvt
sulze laTinur amerikaSi 1350 mlrd-s afrika-
Si 550mlrd-s axlo da Sua aRmosavleTSi 350
mlrd kvt sulze.

regionebis aseT wesrigs garkveulwilad


ganapirobebs eleqtroenergiis mTavari qveyana
mwarmoeblebi. eleqtroenergiis warmoebis maCv-
enebeli mosaxleobis 1 sulze gaTvliT aris
200
yvelaze mniSvnelovani maCvenebeli romelic ax-
asiaTebs ama Tu im qveyanas vinaidan igi yvela-
ze metad asaxavs eleqtrofikaciis xarisxs mis
ekonokmikaSi. es maCvenebeli mTeli mTeli mso-
fliosTvis TandaTanobiT izrdeba da amJamad
Seadgens daaxloebiT 2500 kvt-s sulze. sulad-
obrivi gamomuSaveba romelic am saSualo rao-
denobriv mijnas aWarbebs ukve aqvs msoflios
55 qveyanas, rogorc mosalodneli iyo maT So-
ris Warbobs ekonomikurad ganviTarebuli Cr.
amerikis (kanada 16-aTasze meti kvt/sulze, aSS
daaxloebiT 13 aTasi) sazRvargareTuli evrop-
is (safrangeTi daax. 9 aTasi ermania daax. 7 aT-
asi). qveynebi iaponia, (8 aTasze meti kvt/sulze)
magram maT Soris msoflios Cempionad rCeba
norvegia sadac sulze eleqtroenergiis warmo-
ebis maCvenebeli 26 aTas kvt-s aWarbebs sulze.
ganviTarebad msoflioSi saSualo msoflio
doneze meti suladobrivi gamomuSaveba aqvs Za-
lian cota qveyanas ZiriTadad navTobmompoveb-
lebs (quveiTi-daaxloebiT 14 aTasi kvt sulze)
katari 10 aTasi Saudis arabeTi gaerT. arabe-

201
Tis emiratebi, bahreini 6 7.5 aTasi, magram
am qveynebis umravlesobas eleqtroenergiis su-
ladobrivi gamomuSaveba Zalze cota aqvs 1000
kvt sulze da amaze naklebic ki.

eleqtroenergiis warmoebis struqtura aseve


ucvleli rCeba XX saukunis Sua xanebamde aq
Warbobda naxSirze momuSave el-sadgurebi, hes-
ebis mciredi danamtebi. dRes suraTi aseTia:
eleqtroenergiis msof. warmoebis TiTqmis 2/3
modis saTbob energetikul sadgurebze da 1/5
1/6 ki hesebsa da atomur el sadgurebze, pro-
gnozebis Tanaxmad saTbob energetikul sadgu-
rebze saTbobis gamoyenebis struqtura perspeq-
tivaSi ramdenadme Seicvleba: 2010 w. gazis wi-
li SeiZleba gaizardos 17 24% xolo mazuT-
is Semcirdeba 6-7%-mde.

sxvadasxva bunebrivi da ekonomikuri mizeze-


bis gamo eleqtroenergiis warmoebis maCvenebl-
ebi msof. msxvil regionebSi SeiZleba mniSvne-
lovnad gansxvavdebodes saSualo msof. maCvene-
blisgan. msgavsi struqturuli kontrastebi ki-

202
dev ufro mkafiod vlindeba calkeuli qveyneb-
is magaliTebze. am TvalsazrisiT isini SeiZle-
ba daiyos sam did jgufad.

pirveli jgufis qveynebisTvis damaxasiaTebe-


lia eleqtroenergiis gamomuSaveba saTbob ene-
rgetikuli sadgurebSi, romlebic muSaobs nax-
Sirze, mazuTsa da bunebriv gaze. am jgufs mie-
kuTvneba aSS, sazRvargareTis evropis umetesi
qveyana da dsT, aseve iaponia, CineTi, indoeTi,
avstralia da sxva. gansakuTrebul qvejgufs
qmnis is qveynebi, romlebSic saTbobenergetiku-
li sadgurebi iZleva mTeli eleqtroenergiis
95-100%.-s. eseni tipiurad an naxSiris (polone-
Ti, samx.afr. resp.) an navTobgazis qveynebia (sa-
udis arabeTi, quveiTi, omani, erayi, libia, alJ-
iri, tobago, TurqmeneTi) an is qveynebia romle-
bic orientirebulia Semotanil saTbobze (dan-
ia, irlandia, belorusia, moldaveTi, israeli,
iordania, singapuri, somali, kuba) garda amisa
am qvejgufSi Sedis daaxloebiT 40 mcir, upira-
tesad kunZulovani qveyana. maT ZiriTad yvelas

203
Semoaqvs saTbobi TavianTi eleqtrosadgurebis-
Tvis.

Tanamedrove umsxviles saTbobenergetikul


sadgurebs aqvs 4/5 mln kvt simZlavre. yvela es
sadguri ZiriTadad mdebareobs iseT adgileb-
Si, sadac ufro advilia energetikuli naxSir-
is, navTobis Tu gazis miwodeba.

Qmeore jgufSi Sedis is qveynebi sadac


hidroenergetika Warbobs isini 50 metia sazRva-
rgareTis evropaSi da sazRvargareTis aziaSi
SedarebiT cotaa. samagierod afrikaSi aseTi
qveyana 20 metia, amasTan zogierT maTganSi (zam-
bia, mozambiki, kameruni da a.S.) faqtobrivad
mTeli eleqtroenergia gamomuSavdeba hesebze.
rac Seexeba laTinur amerikas, am qveynebSi hid-
roenergetika ganmsazRvrelia, gamonaklisia me-
qsika da argentina. Cr. amerikis qveynebidan meo-
re jgufSi Sedis kanada, okeaneTis qveynebidan
axali zelandia, dsT-s qveynebidan tajikeTi,
saqarTvelo, yirgizeTi.

204
umsxviles Tanamedrove hesebs 5-6 mln. kvt-s
simZlavre aqvs, zogierTs ki 10-12mln. kvt-c ki.

jer kidev 180-iani wlebis bolos msof. moqm-


edi 110 hesidan simZlavriT kvt-naxevari dasav-
leTis qveynebSi iyo, gansakuTrebiT aSS-sa da
kanadaSi, 1/3 ganviTarebad qveynebSi, xolo da-
narCeni socialistur qveynebSi. TumcaRa bolo
dros Zalian msxvil hesebs arc sazRvargareT-
is evropaSi da arc Cr. amerikaSi ukve aRar aS-
eneben, gadavidnen ra hidroakumlatoruli ele-
qtrosadgurebis mSeneblobaze, aseve mcire da
dabalwnevian hesebze. miuxedavad amisa hidroe-
nergetikuli potencialis Semdgomi aTviseba
energetikis ganviTarebis umniSvnelovanes amo-
canad rCeba. dabolos mesame jgufs qmnis is
qveynebi, romlebSic Warbobs atomur eleqtro-
sadgurSi gamomuSavebuli eleqtroenergia, ese-
nia upirveles yovlisa, safrangeTi, belgia,
slovakeTi, slovenia da litva.

205
eleqtroenergiiT vaWrobis saerTo mocu-
loba Seadgens daaxloebiT 500mlrd kvt-s su-
lze weliwadSi anu misi Sejamebuli warmoebis
3.5%-s. eleqtroenergiis msxvil eqsportiorebs
miekuTvneba safrangeTi, kanada, paragvai, germa-
nia, xolo importiorebs upirveles yovlisa
aSS,Ggermania, italia, brazilia, Sveicaria.

ruseTi eleqtrosadgurTa saerTo simZlav-


riT msoflioSi mxolod aSS-s CamorCeba. igi
flobs 440 siTbur da Hhidravlikur eleqtro-
sadgurs, romelTa simZlavre Sesabamisad 132
mln da 44 mln kvt-ia, aseve 9 atomur elsa-
dgurs, simZlavriT 22 mln kvt. es sadgurebi,
romelTa Zabva 220 kvze maRalia maTi saerTo
sigrZe ki 150 aTas km-s Seadgens. ruseTis yvela
elsadguris daaxloeb-iT 4/5 qmnis qveynis ene-
rgetikul sistemas. ruseTis energetika yove-
lTvis viTardeboda swrafi tempebiT, Tumca
1990-ian wlebSi misi zrdis tempi Senelda,
ZiriTadad kapitaldabandebaTa mkveTri Semci-
rebis gamo. ruseTis energetikis ganviTarebis
perspeqtivebi dakavSirebulia mTeli rigi rTu-
206
li problemebis gadawyvetis aucileblobasTan.
gansakuTrebiT imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom misi
ZiriTadi fondebis 2/3-ze meti gacveTilia da
maTi rekonstruqciisaTvis saWiroa daaxloebiT
20 mlrd dolari. Tu aseTi rekonstruqcia ar
Catardeba qveyana el. energiis dificits Sei-
Zleba Seejaxos. ai amitom miiRes gadawyve-
tileba reformaze ruseTis erT-erTi umsxvi-
les bunebriv monopoliasTan rao ees ruse-
TTan dakavSirebiT.

msoflios atomuri energetika

atomuri (birTvuli) energetika SeiZleba


ganvixiloT rogorc msoflio energetikis erT-
erTi mniSvnelovani qvedargi, romelmac me-20
saukunis me-2 naxevarSi mniSvnelovani wvlili
Seitana el. energiis warmoebaSi. gansakuTrebiT
es exeba planetis im regionebs sadac araa an
TiTqmis araa sakuTari pirveladi energetiku-
li resursebi. Tanamedrove atomuri sadguebi
gamomuSavebuli el-energiis TviTRirebulebiT
207
ukve savsebiT konkurentunariania sxva tipis
el-sadgurebisgan isini imiT gansxvavdeba rom
atmosferos ar abinZurebs gamonabolqvebiT,
rac namdvilad maTi Rirsebaa.

gasakviri araa, rom bolo aTwleulebis gan-


mavlobaSi msoflio atomuri energetika gada-
iqca msxvil dargad, msoflio meurneobis mniS-
vnelovan Semadgenel nawilad. jer kidev 1970w
msoflios yvela atomurma el-sadgurma gamoim-
uSava el-energiis mxolod 85 mlrd kvt sulze,
magram ukve 1980w-s daaxloebiT 700 mlrd, xo-
lo 1990 w-s 1800 mlrd, 2002w-s ki TiTqmis 2700
mlrd kvt sulze. imavdroulad izrdeboda ms-
oflios atomur el-sadgurTa Sejamebuli simZ-
lavrec.

atomuri energetikis swrafi zrdis pirveli


programebi SeimuSaves jer kidev me-20-s-is 50-
60-ian wlebSi aSS-Si, did britaneTSi, ssrk-Si,
Semdeg gfr-Si, iaponiaSi, magram umeteswilad
isini ver Sesrulda, es upirveles yovlisa, at-
omuri elsadgurebis arasakmarisi konkurentun-

208
arianobiT aixsneboda saTbob elsadgurebTan
SedarebiT, romlebic naxSirze, mazuTsa da ga-
zec muSaobda.

msoflio energetikuli krizisis dawyebam,


ramac mkveTrad gaaZvira navTobi, atomuri ener-
getikis Sansebi swrafad gazarda. pirvel rig-
Si, es exeba im qveynebs, romelTac ara aqvs nav-
Tobis da gazis didi resursebi, zogjer ki na-
xSiri. aseTebia: safrangeTi, gfr, belgia, Sved-
eTi, fineTi, iaponia, koreis respublika. ise ki
atomuri energetikis ganviTarebis msxvili pro-
gramebi miiRes mineraluri saTbobiT iseT md-
idar qveyanebSi rogoricaa: aSS da ssrk.

1970-iani wlebis bolos dasavleTis bevri


eqsporti miiCnevda, rom XXI s-is damdegs simZ-
lavres SeiZleba 1300-1600 mln kvt-Tvis miRwia,
anu yvela elsadguris Sejamebuli simZlvris
daaxloebiT naxevrisaTvis, xolo Tavad aes-i
gaCndeboda msoflios 50 qveyanaSi. mirek-is
me-10 sesiaze ganixileboda prognozi 2020 w.,
romlis Tanaxmadac, atomuri energetikis wili

209
saTbobis da energiis msoflio moxmarebaSi iq-
neboda 30%.

magram ukve 1980-iani wlebis Sua xanebSi at-


omuri energetikis zrdis tempebi kvlav Senel-
da. es mizezTa kompleqsiT aixsneba. maT Soris
energomomaragebis politikis warmatebebi, navT-
obis TandaTanobiT gaiafeba da gansakuTrebiT
aes-is nagebobaTa ekologiuri Sedegebis Ggada-
faseba. es gadafaseba moxda amerikis aes Tri
meil ailend-ze avariis Semdeg gansakuTrebiT
ki Cernobilis aes-ze katastrofis mere (1986w),
romelic Seexo ukrainis, belorusiis da ruse-
Tis 11 olqs anu 17 milion adamians. am avariam
gamoiwvia radiaciis momateba 20 qveyanaSi, 2000
km-is radiusSi Cernobilidan. Cr.-dasavleTiT
radioaqtiurma neleqebma miaRwia norvegiis Cr.
raionebs, dasavleTiT md. reins, samxreTiT spa-
rseTis yures.

ai amitomac atomuri energetikis ganviTare-


ba aSkarad Senelda, Tumca sxvadasxva qveynis
politika am dargis mimarT sruliadac ar aRm-

210
oCnda erTnairi. am poziciidan isini SeiZleba
davyoT sam jgufad.

pirvel jgufs miekuTvneba ase vTqvaT qveyana


`uarmyoflebi, romlebmac saerTod gaauqmes
TavianTi atomuri programebi da miiRes gadaw-
yvetileba aes-ebis saswrafo an TandaTanobiT
daxurvaze, ase mag. avstriaSi daakonserves ukve
damTavrebuli aes-i venis axlos. italiaSi 1987
wlis referendumis Semdeg 3 aes-i daxures, me-
oTxe ki TiTqmis damTavrebuli gadaakeTes sa-
Tbob. energetikl elsadgurad da a.S. aseve mo-
xda SvedeTSi, sadac 12 moqmedi atomuri rea-
qtori daxures 2010 w-mde. arada es qveyana
atomuri elenergiiT 1 sul mosaxleze pirvel
adgilze iyo msoflioSi.

meore jgufs SeiZleba mivakuTnoT is qve-


ynebi, romlebmac ar daSales TavianTi aes-ebi,
magram gadawyvites axlebi aRar aeSenebinaT. am
jgufSi xvdeba aSS da sazRvargareTi evropis
umetesi qveyana, sadac 1990-ian wlebSi faqtob-
rivad aRar dawyebula arc erTi axali atomu-

211
ri sadguris mSenebloba. masSi aseve Sedian ru-
seTi da ukraina.

mesame jgufSi Zalze mcirericxovania. masSi


Sedis is qveynebi romelnic miuxedavad yvela-
frisa kvlavindeburad axorcieleben TavianT
farTomaStabian atomur energetikul program-
ebs (safrangeTi, iaponia, koreis resp.) an iRe-
ben maT xelaxla (CineTi, irani).

Aam sami jgufis Semadgenloba ar rCeba


ucvleli, ase magaliTad bolo xanebSi ama Tu
im mizezis gamo ramdenime qveyanam gadaxeda
TavianT negatiur damokidebulebas atomuri
elsadguris mSeneblobaze: esenia: italia, espa-
neTi, SvedeTi, xolo 2002 w-s aSS-m mwyobrSi
Caayena Tavisi pirveli aes-i. rumineTma da kan-
adam ki piriqiT daiwyes zogierTi SezRudvis
ganxorcieleba. kidev ufro mniSvnelovanwilad
exeba es germanias. iq 1998 wlis Semodgomaze,
roca xelisuflebis saTaveSi movida social-
demokratTa da mwvaneTa koaliciuri mTavro-
ba am ukanasknelTa zewoliT miiRes gadawyv-

212
etileba daexuraT 20 germanuli atomuri ener-
gobloki, romlebic qveyanaSi warmoebuli el-
energiis 1/3-s iZleoda. am gadawyvetilebas hya-
vda Tavisi momxreebi da mowinaRmdegeebic, rom-
elTac miaCndaT, rom amas SeiZleba qveynisTvis
didi zarali mieyenebina.

atomur energetikaSi saerTo msoflio situ-


acia XXI-s-is damdegisaTvis SeiZleba daxasia-
Tdes Semdegi mTavari maCveneblebis daxmarebiT.
31 qveyanaSi 248 aes-ze eqsploataciaSia 441 sam-
rewvelo atomuri energobloki. dadgenili Se-
jamebuli simZlavriT 354 mln kvt-ze meti. ase-
Ti energoblokebi msoflioSi warmoebuli el-
energiis 18%-s gamoimuSavebs. mSeneblobis sta-
diaSia kidev daaxloebiT 40 energobloki 35
mln kvt-mde simZlavriT.

msoflio atomuri energetikis geografi-


ul aspeqts Tu ganvazogadebT, SeiZleba vamtki-
coT, rom msoflio atomuri energetika, xatov-
nad rom vTqvaT, emyareba sam veSaps- evropas

213
(dsT-is CaTvliT), Cr. amerikasa da azia-wynari
okeanis regions.

msoflios uranis mrewveloba

uranis mrewveloba, momuSave atomur ener-


getikaze da masTan mWidrod dakavSirebuli,
moicavs or ZiriTad sawarmoo stadias. pirveli
maTgania uranis madnis mopoveba, romelic gvxv-
deba qviSaqvis, fosforian, ZarRveul da zog-
ierTi sxva tipis sabadoebSi. maT moipoveben
karierebis, Saxtebis, miwisqveSa gamotutviT,
agreTve iReben danamati produqtis saxiT spi-
lenZis da oqros sabadobebSi. meore stadia
uranuli koncentratebis warmoebaa, romelTac
swored atomur energetikaSi iyeneben. am war-
moebas Cveulebriv rentabelurad miiCneven Tu-
ki 1 kg uranis fasi ar aWarbebs 80 dolars.

uranuli koncentratebis msoflio warmoeb-


is dinamika gamoirCeva Zlieri cvalebadobiT.
Tavis maqsimums 45 aTas t-s man 1970-iani wlebis

214
bolos miaRwia. es iyo energetikuli krizisis
dro, roca atomuri energetikis ganviTarebis
perspeqtivebi yvelaze warmtaci Canda, xolo 1
kg uranis fasi avida 100 dolaramde da zeviT.
magram 1985 w. daiwyo uranze moTxovnis vardna
da Sesabamisad misi warmoebac, romelic Sem-
cirda 31 aTas tonamde 1994 da 1990-iani wlebis
bolomde daaxloebiT aseTive doneze darCa.

literaturaSi am aTwleuls Cveulebriv axa-


siaTeben rogorc msof. uranuli mrewvelobis
Rrma krizisis dros da marTlac moqmedi ura-
nis sabadoebis saerTo ricxvi am wlebis ganma-
vlobaSi ramdenjerme Semcirda. daixura bevri
sabado dasavleT da aRmosavleT evropaSi, af-
rikaSi, kanadaSi, xolo aSS-Si maTi ricxvi 343-
dan 11-mde Semcirda. krizisi ori ZiriTadi miz-
eziT iyo gamowveuli, jer erTi Tavad atomuri
energetikis ganviTarebis SenelebiT, ramac
uranuli nedleulis siWarbemde migviyvana; ur-
ani didi raodenobiT grovdeba sawyobebSi. meo-
re civi omis damTavrebiT da msoflio baz-
arze uranis im maragebis SemodeniT, rac dag-
215
rovili iyo konfrontaciis mravali wlis gan-
mavlobaSi, zesaxemwifoTa samxedro uwyebebis
mier.

amerikel specialistTa SefasebiT, 1993 w.


msoflioSi maRalgamdidrebuli `samxedro ur-
anis maragebma 1700 t Seadgina rac daaxloebiT
500 t. dabalgamdidrebuli uranis eqvivalentu-
ria. Tuki mTeli es urani iqneboda gamoye-
nebuli saTbobebis saxiT atomuri elsadgure-
bisTvis, 1990-iani w. Sua xanebSi, uranuli ko-
ncentratebis mimdinare warmoebiT daifareboda
birTvuli saTbobis saxiT aes-is msof. yovel-
wliuri moTxovnebis mxolod naxevari, rac Se-
fasebuli iyo 62-63 aTas t, maSin roca maT
darCenil nawils dafaravdnen adre dagrovili
maragebis da iaraRis uranis gadamuSavebis
xarjze.

216
saerTaSoriso konfliqtebis
Seswavlis da marTvis Teoriuli
safuZvlebi

saerTaSoriso konfliqtebis problema aris


saerTaSoriso urTierTobebis Teoriis centra-
luri problema. es marTobulia, Tu gaviTvali-
swinebT im amocanas, rac dgas kaocbriobis win-
aSe bolo aTwleulebSi: _ esaa globaluri
TermobirTvuli katastrofis acileba, anu br-
Zola sicocxlisaTvis. radgan nebismieri Seiar-
Rebuli brZola aris politikuri konfliqtis
ukiduresi gamovlineba, misi umaRlesi stadia.

saerTaSoriso konfliqti _ esaa uSualo an


Teoriulad interesebis dapirispireba ori an
ramodenime mxaris (saxelmwifoebis, saxelmwifo-
Ta jgufebis, politikuri moZraobis), rac efu-
Zneba subieqturi Tu obieqturi xasiaTis uTan-
xmoebas.

Tavisi warmoSobiT winaaRmdegobebi da sax-


elmwifoTa Soris problemebi SeiZleba iyos

217
teritoriuli, nacionaluri, religiuri,
ekonomiuri, samxedro-strategiuli, samecniero-
ekonomiuri da a.S. magram mTlianobaSi konfli-
qti yovelTvis iRebs politikur saxes, radgan
es winaaRmdegobebi da dapirispirebebi gaiaz-
reba da wydeba saxelmwifoebis mier ganxor-
cielebadi sagareo politikis formebis meqa-
nizmebiT.

saerTaSoriso konfliqtis warmoSoba da


ganviTareba dakavSirebulia ara marto obieq-
tur saxelmwifoTa Soris warmoSobil dapiris-
pirebebze, aramed iseT subieqtur faqtorze, ro-
goricaa TviTon qveyanaTa sagareo politika.
konfliqti warmoiSoba, mzaddeba da wydeba sax-
elmwifoTa gaazrebuli, mizanmimarTuli saga-
reo politikiT, ar SeiZleba ar gaviTvalisw-
inoT is subieqturi faqtori, rogoricaa masSi
monawile politikuri moRvaweebis piradi daxa-
siaTeba. zogjer liderTa Soris damokidebu-
lebam SeiZleba iqonios mniSvnelovani gavlena
saerTaSoriso urTierTobebze, maT Soris kon-
fliqturi situaciis ganviTarebaze.
218
saerTaSoriso urTierTobebis praqtikisaTvis
cnobilia saerTaSoriso konfliqtebis sxva-
dasxva tipebi da saxeebi. Tumca erTiani, yvelas
mier aRiarebuli saerTaSoriso konfliqtebis
tipologia ar arsebobs. saerTaSoriso konfli-
qtebis klasifikaciaSi yvelaze xSirad gvxvdeba
maTi dayofa simetriulad da asimetriulad.
simetriulebs miekuTvneba is konfliqtebi, rom-
lisTvisac damaxasiaTebelia masSi monawile
erTnairi Zalis mqone mxareebi. asimetriuli
konfliqtebi _ esaa sxvadasxva potenciis mqone
mxareebs Soris konfliqtebi.

kanadelma konfliqtologma a. raportma war-


moadgina konfliqtebis saintereso klasifi-
kacia: man kriteriumad gamoiyena saerTaSoriso
konfliqtis mimdinareobis forma. misi azriT,
konfliqtebis sami saxe arsebobs: `brZolis~,
`TamaSis~ da `debatebis~. mSvidobisa da uSiSro-
ebisaTvis yvelaze sariskoa `brZolis~ formis
konfliqti. TviTon saxelwodeba ambobs, rom
masSi monawile mxareebi Tavidanve saomrad ari-
an ganwyobili da cdiloben maqsimaluri zar-
219
ali miayenon erTmaneTs, miuxedavad negatiuri
Sedegisa maTTvis. aseT konfliqtSi monawileTa
qceva SeiZleba Sefasdes iracionalurad, rad-
gan isini miuRwevad mizans isaxaven, araade-
kvaturad aRiqvamen saerTaSoriso situacias da
mopirdapire mxaris moqmedebas.

piriqiT, konfliqti, romelic viTardeba `Ta-


maSis~ formiT, monawileebis moqmedeba ganisa-
zRvreba racionaluri mosazrebebiT. miuxedavad
garegnuli sabrZolo SemarTebisa, monawileebi
cdiloben ar miiyvanon TavianTi damokidebu-
leba ukiduresobamde. gadawyvetileba miiReba
yvela garemoebebis da faqtorebis gaTvaliswi-
nebiT, rac dafuZnebulia situaciis obieqturad
Sefasebaze.

konfliqti, romelic viTardeba rogorc


`debati~ damaxasiaTebelia monawileTa swrafva,
gadaWran konfliqturi dapirispireba kompromi-
sebis gamoyenebiT.

saerTaSoriso konfliqti SeiZleba ganixi-


loT rogorc saerTaSoriso urTierTobebis da-

220
moukidebeli gamovlineba. saerTaSoriso konf-
liqtebis subieqtebi SeiZleba iyvnen saxelmwi-
foebi, saxelmwifoTaSorisi gaerTianebebi, saer-
TaSoriso organizaciebi gaeros CaTvliT, or-
ganizaciebad gaerTianebuli politikur sazoga-
doebrivi Zalebi qveynis SigniT da sazogad-
oebriv arenaze. konfliqtis dros SeiZleba Sei-
cvalos misi xarisxi da dainteresebuli mxa-
reebis xasiaTic, konfliqtis adgili da masSi
monawileebis ierarqiis miznebi. SeiZleba gafa-
rTovdes an Semcirdes monawileTa ricxvi, Sei-
Zleba Seicvalos monawile da dainteresebuli
mxareebi.

saerTaSoriso konfliqtis ganviTarebis kv-


leva saSualebas gvaZlevs CamovayaliboT bevri
misi mizezis kvlevis aspeqti, rac mniSvne-
lovania analizisaTvis, xolo misi mizezis da
struqturis Seswavla ZiriTadad konfliqtis
struqturuli, funqcionaluri mxaris gamokv-
levas uwyobs xels. ar SeiZleba saerTaSoriso
konfliqtis es aspeqtebi ganvixiloT erTmane-
Tisagan izolirebulad. konfliqtis Tanamim-
221
devrulad cvalebadi faza gvaZlevs saSualebas
ganvixiloT igi, rogorc erTiani procesi, rom-
elsac axasiaTebs sxvadasxva urTierTdamo-
kidebuli mxareebi.

saerTaSoriso konfliqtebis ganviTarebis fa-


za araa nebismieri drois abstraqtuli mon-
akveTi, romlis drosac viTardeba mocemuli ko-
nfliqti: isini realurad ganisazRvreba isto-
riuli, socialuri mizezebiT, es mizezebi vlin-
deba konkretul TvisebebSi, romelic Seexeba im
saxelmwifoTa Sida maxasiaTeblebis cvaleba-
dobas, romlebic monawileoben konfliqtebSi,
saerTo politikuri da konkretuli interesebi,
mizanebi, saSualebebi, sagareo kavSirebi da mxa-
reTa pasuxismgeblobebi, masStabebi da konf-
liqtis ganviTarebis intensiuroba, axali mona-
wileebis Cabma da am konfliqtisTvis damaxasi-
aTebeli brZolis xerxebis, kavSirebis da pas-
uxismgeblobebis saerTaSoriso pirobebTan, ro-
melSic viTardeboda konfliqti.

222
mocemuli konfliqtis arsTan dakavSirebiT
Sinaarsi da forma, misi monawileebis mizani da
konkretuli interesebi, gamoyenebuli saSuale-
bebi da SesaZleblobebi moqmedebis damatebiTi
saSualebebis Setanis axali monawileebis Cabma
an gamosvla da saerTaSoriso konfliqtis pir-
obebis ganviTareba SeiZleba viTardebodes sru-
liad sxvadasxva, maT Soris arastandartuli
winaswar gauTvaliswinebeli fazebiT. zogier-
Ti faza SeiZleba amovardes mTlianad, Seiqmnas
carieli sivrce ama Tu im konfliqtis tipiur
ganviTarebaSi. SeiZleba warmoiSvas aseve moul-
odneli fazebi, romlebic Secvlis konfliqtis
tipiur suraTs. konfliqtis fazebi SeiZleba Se-
mWidrovdes an gaiwelos droSi, daiyos nawi-
lebad. saerTaSoriso konfliqtma, Tavis ganvi-
TarebaSi, ramodenime dReSi an saaTSi gaakeTos
naxtomi fazebs Soris, magram SeuZlia ganviT-
ardes nel-nela. SeiZleba is viTardebodes faz-
idan-fazamde, izrdebodes, magram amave dros Se-
saZlebelia, rom erTYadgilas itkepnebodes, me-

223
ordebodes es fazebi da daiwios konfliqtis
donem.

saerTaSoriso konfliqtis pirveli fazaa


principuli politikuri urTierToba, romelic
Camoyalibda obieqturi da subieqturi winaaR-
mdegobebis safuZvelze, saerTaSoriso arenaze
dapirispirebuli mxareebis ekonomikuri da po-
litikuri interesebi da misTvis damaxasia-
Tebeli ekonomikuri, ideologiuri, samxedro-
strategiuli, diplomatiuri urTierToba moce-
mulia dapirispirebis gamoxatuli SefardebiT
mwvave konfliqtur formaSi.

meore fazaa konfliqturi mxareebis mier


gansazRvruli interesebi, miznebi, strategiebi
da brZolis formebi obieqturi da subieqturi
dapirispirebis gadaWrisaTvis potencialis da
SesaZleblobis gaTvaliswinebiT mSvidobiani da
ar-mSvidobiani saSualebebiT, gareSe kavSirebis
gamo-yenebiT da valdebulebebiT; Sida da saer-
TaSoriso situaciis SefasebiT. am fazaSi mxa-
reebis mier ganisazRvreba an TiTqmis realurad

224
tardeba praqtikuli RonisZibebi, romlebic
atareben brZolis da TanamSromlobis xasiaTs,
romlis mizanicaa gadaWras dapirispireba ama
Tu im qveynis in-teresebis dasacavad, maT So-
ris kompromisis safuZvelze.

mesame faza mxareebis mier konfliqtSi


gamoyenebuli farTo diapazonis ekonomikuri,
polit-ikuri, ideologiuri, fsiqologiuri, mo-
aluri, samarTlebrivi, diplomatiuri da sam-
xedro (magr-am ara pirdapiri saomari formiT)
saSualebebi, sxva saxelmwifoebis Careva ama Tu
im formiT, konfliqtSi uSualod monawile mxa-
reebis brZolaSi individualurad, blokebisa
da molaparakebebis saSualebiT, gaeros saSu-
alebiTY Semdgomi garTulebuli sistemis po-
litikuri damokidebulebiT da konfliqtSi mon-
awile uSualo Tu gareSe Zalebis moqmedeba.

meoTxe fazaa brZolis gaZliereba yve-


laze umaRles politikur donemde saerTa-
Soriso politikur krizisamde, romelic moi-
cavs uSualo monawileebis konfliqts, moc-

225
emuli da sxva regionebis saxelmwifoebs, mso-
flios udidesi saxelmwifoebi, gaero da rig
SemTxvevaSi mTeli msoflio. sxva sityvebiT rom
vTqvaT, krizisi SeiZleba gadaizardos msoflio
krizisSi, rac Seicavs SeiaraRebuli konfli-
qtis saSiSroebas.

mexuTe fazaa saerTaSoriso samxedro


konfliqti dawyebuli SezRuduli konfliqtiT,
Tanamedrove uaxlesi iaraRis gamoyenebiT udi-
des samxedro brZolaSi gadazrdis SesaZle-
blobiT, mokavSireebis da udidesi msoflio sa-
xelmwifoebis Carevis da teritoriebis gafar-
ToebiT.

saerTaSoriso konfliqtebis ekonomikuri


ganviTarebis Seswavla Zalian mniSvnelovania
maTi acilebisa da regulirebisaTvis. konf-
liqtis warmoSobis SemTxvevaSi aucilebelia
misi lokalizaciisken swrafva, dakonserveba
sawyis stadiaSi. mniSvnelovan adgils ikavebs
saerTaSoriso politikuri krizisis faza. misi
saSiSroeba imaSi mdgomareobs, rom igi mWidrod

226
akavSirebs konfliqtur mxareebs samxedro Seta-
kebamde. saerTaSoriso krizisis dros situacia
icvleba swrafad, izrdeba da aqtiurdeba samxe-
droTa roli, romlebmac nebiT Tu uneblieT
SeiZleba ubiZgon konfliqtis monawileebs Za-
lis gamoyenebisaken. civi omis droindeli sae-
rTaSoriso politikuri krizisi Seicavda did
saSiSroebas, aseve SeeZlo gamoewvia Termo-
birTvuli katastrofa. im dros yvelaze cnobi-
li krizisi iyo 1962 wlis `karibis zRvis kriz-
isi~, rac dakavSirebuli iyo f. kastros mier
kubaSi Zalauflebis mopovebasTan, romlis dro-
sac daupirispirda aSS-s da ssrk-s interesebi.
im dros Zalian swrafad ganviTarda konfliq-
tis dasawyisi fazebi da gadaizarda ara mxol-
od saerTaSoriso krizisSi am qveynebTan dakav-
Si-rebiT, aramed globalur krizisSi.

am periodis movlenebis analizi gviCvenebs,


rom Seqmnili situaciis mizezi iyo orive saxe-
lmwifoebis meTaurebis Secdomebi, sapirispiro
mxaris moqmedebebis araswori Sefasebebi. kari-
bis krizisis gaRvivebaSi didi roli miekuT-
227
vneba sabWoTa liders nikita xruSCovs, romel-
mac ver Seafasa amerikis axalgazrda preziden-
tis j. kenedis potenciali, is saerTaSoriso
saqmeebSi gamoucdelad CaTvala, miuxedavad
amisa, bolo wuTebSi n. xruSCovma da j. kenedim
SesZles ufskrulis piras SeCereba da gamonaxes
gzebi kubis garSemo konfliqturi situaciis
daregulirebis.

civi omis droindeli Zalian bevri


konfliqti momzadebuli iyo mopirdapire blok-
ebis mier, zogierTis ukan idga ori zesaxe-
lmwifo aSS da ssrk. civi omis damTavrebis
Semdeg SesaZlebeli gaxda gaxsniliyo gza zog-
ierTi am konfliqtis gadaWrisa, magram amave
dros warmoiSva daZabulobis axali kerebi, pl-
anetis bevr regionSi iRvreba sisxli, mTlianad
ar gamqrala globaluri SeiaraRebuli Seta-
kebis saSiSroeba, amitom saerTaSoriso uSiSro-
ebis problema aqtualuria winandeburad.

TeoriaSi da praqtikaSi arsebobs mravali gza


konfliqturi situaciidan gamosvlisa. saerTa-

228
Soriso konfliqtis SemTxvevaSi, romelic ukve
gadasulia SeiaraRebuli brZolis fazaSi, mxa-
reebi iswrafvian sabrZolo gamarjvebisken da
gamarjvebuli karnaxobs Tavis nebas damarcxe-
buls. konfliqti wydeba, magram igi momavalSi
SeiZleba ganaxldes. ase magaliTad, pirveli
msoflio omi damTavrda germaniis da misi
mokavSireebis damarcxebiT da samSvidobo pir-
obebi nakarnaxevi iyo antantis mxareebis mier,
Tumca SezRudvebi da damcireba, romlebic iyo
dakavSirebuli versalis samSvidobo molapara-
kebebTan gaxda masazrdovebeli niadagi germa-
nelTa Soris warmoSobili da gazrdili reva-
nSistuli ganwyobis, ramac xeli Seuwyo hit-
lers saxelmwifos saTaveSi mosvlas. sabolo-
od man warmoSva axali msoflio omi. erTi
mxaris gamarjveba da meore mxaris kapitulacia
samxedro damarcxebis Sedegad warmoadgens
calmxriv gzis konfliqtis ganaxlebisken, gzas,
romelic eyrdnoba Zalis gamoyenebas.

konfliqtis mSvidobianad gadaWris gzebi mo-


iTxovs masSi monawile yvela mxaris Zalisxme-
229
vas. konfliqtebis mSvidobianad mogvareba
farTe cnebaa, romelic moicavs konfliqturi
situaciidan gamosvlis ramodenime mimarTule-
bas.

pirveli _ esaa konfliqtebis gadaWra anu


misi gamomwvevi mizezebis aRmofxvra, romelic
mTavrdeba konfliqtis damTavrebis SeTanxmebis
xelmoweriT. meore _ aris konfliqtis reg-
ulireba. regulirebis arsi mdgomareobs imaSi,
rom konfliqtis Rrma mizezebi mTlianad ar
aRmoifxvreba, magram SeiZleba SemdgomSi misi
CarCoSi moTavseba, rac iZleva dainteresebuli
mxareebis garantias minimaluri usafrTxoebisa.
konfliqtis regulirebis xelSekrulebaSi moc-
emulia pirobebi, rom konfliqti ar gan-
viTardeba cudi scenariT, amave dros misi mTl-
ianad gadawyveta gadatanilia momavalSi. mesame
es aris konfliqtis acilebis gza, anu Sei-
araRebuli fazis ar daSveba. Tu daiwyo Siara-
Rebuli moqmedeba mesame varianti SesaZlebels
xdis SeTanxmebas Serigebis SesaZleblobas. uki-
dures SemTxvevaSi cecxlis Sewyvetas. Tu gavi-
230
TvaliwinebT saSiroebas, romelic Tan sdevs Se-
iaraRebul brZolas, misi ar daSveba da Sewy-
veta aris Zalian faseuli.

konfliqtis mSvidobiani daregulireba yvela


variantSi gulisxmobs molaparakebebis warmo-
ebas. molaparakebis procesi konfliqtis situa-
ciaSi, miT umetes saerTaSoriso aris Zalian
rTuli da axasiaTebs specifika da igi iyofa
ramodenime etapad.

* pirveli etapi molaparakebis momzadebaa;

* meore etapi monawileebi uyeneben


erTmaneTs Tavis winadadebebs, amavdroulad
akritikeben mopirdapire mxaris poziciebs;

* mesame etapi niSnavs molaparakebis Zir-


iTadi sakiTxebis garSemo diskusiaze gadas-
vlas;

* meoTxe etapi molaparakebis finalur


etapze an iReben erTobliv gadawyvetilebas,
dokuments (sabuTs), an sabolood Sedis CixSi
molaparakeba.

231
molaparakebebi asrulebs rig mniSvnelovan
funqciebs. maT Soris ZiriTadia _ molapara-
kebis centrSi myofi problemis erToblivad
gadaWra. amis garda molaparakebebi asrulebs
sainformacio komunikaciur funqcias. molapara-
kebis msvlelobisas mxareebs SeuZliaT gacva-
lon informacia, romelic exeba ara marto uSu-
alod process, aramed sxva sakiTxebsac orive
mxarisaTvis sainteresos. sanam mimdinareobs mo-
laparakebebi, mis monawileebs aerTianebs komu-
nikaciis myari xazebi, rac Zalian mniSvnelo-
vania konfliqturi situaciis pirobebSi, roca
normalur urTierTdamokidebuleba darRveulia.
saerTaSoriso problemebis gansakuTrebul sit-
uaciebSi molaparakebebma SeiZleba Seasrulos
romelime Sidapolitikuri problemis gadaWris
funqcia.

specialistebi yuradRebas amaxvileben mola-


parakebis kidev erT funqciaze, romelic ar ar-
is dakavSirebuli uSualod mis SinaarsTan. es
funqcia imaSi mdgomareobs, rom molaparakebaSi
monawile pirebi mimarTaven ara mxolod partni-
232
orebs, aramed Tavisi qveynis sazogadoebriv az-
rs, socialur jgufebs da politikur Zalebs
imisaTvis, rom miiRon maTi mxardaWera da Se-
saZlebelia Secvalos maTi azri da moqmedeba
maTi interesebis Sesabamisad. molaparakebebis
propagandistuli funqciis mkafio magaliTia l.
trockis moqmedeba 1918 w. brest-litovskSi.
bolSevikuri revoluciis erT-erTma liderma
da sagareo saqmeTa saxalxo komisarma uxel-
mZRvanela sabWoTa ruseTis delegacias germa-
nias, avstria-ungreTis da maT mokavSireebTan
molaparakebis dros. trocks aRelvebda is saki-
Txebi, romelsac ixilavdnen profesionali dip-
lomatebi. misTvis mniSvnelovani iyo ara imde-
nad zavis dadeba qveynisaTvis sasurveli piro-
bebiT, aramed magaliTi mieca evropuli da mso-
flio reoluciebisaTvis Tavisi teritoriuli
koncefciebis Sesabamisad. amitom trocki mima-
rTavda ara germanel generlebs da diploma-
tebs, aramed maT `Tavs zemoT~ _ `germanel sae-
rTaSoriso proletariats~. brestis xelSekru-
lebebi dasrulda misi uazro da upasuxi-

233
smgeblo gancxadebiT. `sabWoTa ruseTi wyvets
oms, samSvidobo xelSekrulebas ar awers xels,
armias ukeTebs demobilizacias~. es magaliTi
gviCvenebs, rom molaparakebis procesis fita-
ciur-propagandistuli funcia axdens negatiur
gavlenas mis Sinaarsze.

saerTaSoriso molaparakebebisTvis saWiroa


specialuri momzadeba, romlis drosac gani-
sazRvreba misi dro, adgili, yalibdeba dRis
ganrigi, ganisazRvreba warmomadgenelTa done.
radgan konfliqtis pirobebSi am sakiTxebis te-
qnikuri gadawyveta ar aris advili, zogjer
xdeba saWiro `molaparakebebi molaparakebe-
bze~.

erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi winapiroba mola-


parakebebis procesis dawyebisaTvis aris mola-
parakebuli sivrcis qona, anu situacia, romlis
drosac SesaZlebelia Teoriulad miaRwion
orive mxarisaTvis rame misaReb daTmobebs. Tu
ar arsebobs molaparakebuli sivrce, maSin saW-
iroa konfliqturi situaciidan gamosvlis sxva

234
xerxebis moZebna, an sakuTari poziciebis xel-
axla gadaxedva. aseTi molaparakebebis sivrcis
ar qonis magaliTia CeCneTi. saomari moqmedebe-
bis ganaxlebis Semdeg ruseTSi da mis sazRvre-
bs gareT xSirad ismoda mowodebebi dawyebul-
iyo molaparakebebi ruseTis xelisuflebasa da
CeCen separatistebs Soris, magram am SemTxvevaSi
ar arsebobda molaparakebis sivrce, radgan er-
Ti mxare eWvis gareSe ganixilavda CeCneTs, rog-
orc ruseTis Semadgenel nawils, xolo meore
ikavebda sruliad sapirispiro pozicias.

msoflio politika da msoflio


ekonomika globalizaciis pirobebSi

arsebobs mravali mcdeloba, mieces yovlismo-


mcveli ganmarteba globalizacias, magram SeuZ-
lebeli gaxda saerTo ganmartebis micema. Tumca
bevrisTvis misaRebia globalizaciis Tanamedr-
ove etapis ganmarteba, romelic entoni gidensis
mier aris SemoTavazebuli. igi mas gansazRvravs

235
`rogorc msoflio damokidebulebis intensifi-
kacia~ damakavSirebeli erTmaneTisgan daSore-
buli adgilebisa ise, rom lokaluri movlenebi
yalibdeba mravali milis moSorebiT mimdinare
movlenebiT da piriqiT.

amrigad, saubaria msoflio ekonomikis da po-


litikis yvela segmentis mzard urTierTkavSi-
rze, dRes globalizacia niSnavs integraciuli
procesebis axal etaps msoflioSi da iwvevs
mTeli kacobriobis Cabmas erTian Ria sistemaSi
safinanso-ekonomikur, sazogadoebriv-politik-
ur da kulturul kavSirebSi uaxloesi sainfo-
rmacio da satelekomunikacio saSualebebis sa-
fuZvelze. mudmivad usvavs xazs dRes mimdinare
globaluri cvlilebebis ekonomikur safuZve-
ls. sxvadasxva avtorebi gamoyofen globaliza-
ciis sxvadasxva aspeqtebs, magaliTad saorgani-
zacio marTviTi, ekonomikur-teqnikuri, sivrcob-
rivi, kulturuli, politikuri.

sinamdvileSi globalizacia ar aRmoCnda ise


`globaluri~ da universaluri, rogorc warmo-

236
gvedgina. is sruliad realuria da, upirveles
yovlisa, aris saerTo veqtori msoflios ganvi-
Tarebisa. Taviseburad gamawonasworebeli sxva-
dasxva Zalebis da tendenciebisa. igi gansazRvr-
avs metad mniSvnelovani da gavleniani klasis
ekonomikur, politikur da sxva procesebs sxva-
dasxva doneze, warmoSoben aseve sxvadasxva pri-
ncipebs, wesebs, normebs da procedurebs gadawy-
vetilebis misaRebad. Tanamedrove etapis globa-
lizaciis daxasiaTebisas unda gaviTvaliswinoT
sami mniSvnelovani istoriuli mdgomareoba:

1) sabWoTa blokis daSla da popularuli si-


stemis, saerTaSoriso urTierTobis gafarToeba.
2) msoflio ganviTarebis lideri qveynebis gada-
svla postindustriul stadiaSi.

3) msoflio ekonomikis regionalizacia.

* kapitalis, moZraobis masStabebis da tempeb-


is cvalebadi zrda.

* saerTaSoriso sawarmoebis qselebis Seqmna,


simZlavreebis swrafad ganviTareba unificireb-

237
uli da standartuli produqciis warmoebisaT-
vis.

* msoflio safinanso bazrebis Camoyalibeba,


romlebSic tardeba operaciebi swrafad da pra-
qtikulad, 24 saaTis ganmavlobaSi.

* safinanso sferos Camoyalibeba, romelic ga-


nsazRvravs mrewvelobis ganviTarebis, soflis
meurneobis infrastruqturis momsaxurebis sfe-
ros. dReisaTvis safinanso sfero TviTon yali-
bdeba `realur ekonomikad~.

* msoflio safinanso bazrebis gamosvla cal-


keuli saxelmwifoebis iurisdiqciidan.

* axali, mZlavri ekonomikuri subieqtebis Seq-


mna transnacionaluri korporaciebis gaerTian-
ebisa da gadaylapvis Sedegad.

* mkveTrad gafarToveba Sromis bazris, muSa-


Ta bazris da maTi struqturebis cvla, romel-
ic warmoebs axali teqnologiebis danergvis xa-
rjze, ramac gamoiwvia erTis mxriv masobrivi
migracia ganviTarebul qveynebSi da sagrZnobl-

238
ad Secvala tradiciuli eTnikuri Semadgenlo-
ba mosaxleobisa, ramac warmoSva zogierT maT-
ganSi socialuri daZabuloba, meores mxriv
warmoebis migracia, evropidan da aSS-dan regi-
onebSi, sadac SenarCunebulia cxovrebis tradi-
ciuli wesebi. aman Tavis mxriv warmoiSva ankl-
anuri modernizaciis fenomeni, mesame msoflios
bevr qveyanaSi da aseve gamoiwvia socialuri da-
Zabulobis zrda.

* warmoiSva Taviseburi Semosavlebis gadanaw-


ileba ganviTarebuli CrdiloeTis sasargeblod.
aseTi gadanawilebis mkafio magaliTad SeiZle-
ba gamoviyenoT cnobili `fasebis makrateli~ _
mzardi gansxvaveba nedleulis da mza produqc-
iis fasebisa. aseTi gadanawileba Crdiloeli qv-
eynebis sasargeblod warmoadgens geoekonomiku-
ri renituli gadasaxadis arss, rac warmoadge-
ns Tavisebur globalur gadasaxads ekonomikur
saqmianobaze.

* msoflio ekonomikis farglebSi vlindeba


misi specializirebis segmentebi: TviTmyofadi

239
`did sivrceebis~. gaerTianebuli kulturuli
istoriuli kodebiT, sameurneo saqmianobis sti-
liT, saerTo socialur-ekonomikuri faqtoreb-
iT da strategiuli mizanmimarTulebiT. yalibd-
eba msoflio sistema `ekonomikuri pluralizm-
is~ sami centriT: Crdilo da samxreT amerika _
aSS-s egidiT, evropa evrokavSiris egidiT, sa-
mxreT-aRmosavleT azia iaponiis egidiT.

globalizaciis procesi aseve did gavlenas


axdens saerTaSoriso urTierTobebis sistemaze
da mis cvlilebaze. saubaria, upirveles yovli-
sa, nacionaluri saxelmwifoebis rolis Semcir-
ebaze da arasaxelmwifoebrivi aqtorebis rolis
gazrdaze axali saerTaSoriso institutebis Se-
qmnaze.

mTlianobaSi globaluri samyaros saerTaSo-


riso urTierTobebis axal damaxasiaTebelad Se-
iZleba gamovyoT:

* ara saxelmwifo aqtorebis ekonomikuri pot-


encialis zrda da misi damoukideblobis moT-
xovnis realizacia saerTaSoriso sferoSi.

240
* saxelmwifoTa Sida da gare politikis saz-
Rvrebis moSla.

* warmoiqmneba pirobebi, romlis drosac geo-


ekonomikuri da geofinansuri Zalaufleba karn-
axobs msoflios TamaSis Tavis wesebs, rac qmn-
is Tavisebur neoliberaluri globalizaciis
sakanonmdeblo bazas, geopolitika amarTlebs
maT, xolo samxedro komponenti icavs. doploma-
tia am SemTxvevaSi xelovnebis sferodan gadad-
is msoflios ekonomikurad gardaqmnis teqniku-
rad gaformebis doneze.

amis garda globalizaciam saerTaSoriso are-


naze gamoiyvana moqmedi pirebis mTeli jgufi
(saerTaSoriso finansuri institutebi, ekolog-
iuri da samarTaldamcavi organizaciebi, reli-
giuri moZraobebi, teroristuli jgufebi, dana-
Saulebrivi gaerTianebebi, kvleviTi centrebi
da bevri sxva). Zalian gansxvavebulia Tavisi mi-
znebiT da interesebiT, rac tradiciuli dipl-
omatias aqcevs, rogorc erT-erT mravalTa Sor-

241
is, saerTaSoriso urTierTobebis azrad da sak-
amaTo problemis mosagvarebel meqanizmad.

globalizaciis pirobebSi farTovdeba areali


da intensiuri, ekonomikuri, kulturuli, fina-
nsuri kavSirebi mTels msoflioSi. globaliza-
cia, romelic aRniSnavs globaluri ekonomiku-
ri procesebis adaptacias adgilobriv pirobeb-
Si, an ufro farTod igi sazRvravs CaxlarTu-
li procesebis da urTierT adaptaciis globa-
luri `mimdinareobebis~ da kulturuli tradi-

ciebis da `adgilebis~ socialur umoqmedobas.

avtori wignisa `konkurenciis sazRvrebi~ gva-


frTxilebs, rom msoflioSi ukve midis brZola
srolebis gareSe, magram brZola sicocxlisaT-
vis. es aris brZois axali saxe _ `fsiqologi-
ur-ekonomikuri omi globaluri marTvisaTvis~.

konkurencia msoflioSi iqca `universalur


kredo ideologiad~; transnacionalisturi kom-
paniebi ganixilaven mTel planetas rogorc erT
msoflio bazars, globalizacia qmnis ganxeTqi-

242
lebis zrdis saSiSroebas saxelmwifoTa keTil-
dReobaTa Soris am pirobebSi SeuZliaT ganm-
tkicdnen ara marto isini, romelTa gankargul-
ebaSia uaxloesi teqnologiebi da iaffasiani,
kvalificiuri da moqnili samuSao Zala~.

amrigad, ekonomikur sferoSi miRebuli ganvi-


Tarebis Sedegad XX s-is bolos globalizacia
gascda mis sazRvrebs da realurad iwyo msof-
lios politikuri struqturis gardaqmna. amit-
om dRes mkvlevarTa yuradRebis centrSia glo-
balizaciis iseTi winaaRmdegobebi, rogoricaa:

* urTierTkavSiri saerTo sakaciobrio inter-


esebisaTvis msoflioSi, nacionaluri da eTnik-
uri Taviseburebebi.

* globalizaciisa da identurobasTan swrafv-


aSi xalxTa TviTgamorkvevaSi, socialur sazog-
adoebaSi, pirovnulobaSi.

* sazogadoebriv wesrigSi, saxelmwifos Sign-


iT SenarCunebuli wesrigi da `bunebrivi garemo-

243
ebebiT~ gamefebuli saerTaSoriso urTierTobe-
bi da a.S.

244
gamoyenebuli literatura

1. r. gaCeCilaZe, axlo aRmosavleTi, sivrce,


xalxi, politika; Tb., 2003w.
2. T. grigolia, m. amirgulaSvili, z. kvetena-
Ze; Savi zRvis auzSi mimdinare integraci-
uli procesebi (1991-2008); Tb., 2009
3. z. daviTaSvili, nacionalizmi da globa-
lizmi; Tb., 2003w.
4. a. rondeli, saerTaSoriso urTierTobebi,
Tb., 1996w.
5. q. jijeiSvili, msoflio politika; Tb.,
2004w.
6. g. Wanturia, sazRvargareTis qveynebis geo-
grafia; Tb., 2004w.
7. g. jolia, qveyanaTmcodneoba, azia, amerika,
okeaneTi; Tb., 2003w.
8. g. jolia, saerTaSoriso ekonomikuri ur-
TierTobebi; Tb., 2002w.
9. amerikis Seswavlis sakiTxebi; Tb., 2002w.
10. .. ,
,.,1998.
245
11. . . , ,
.,2003.
12. .. , ,
, , ,
2001.
13. .. , .
, ., 1999
14. .. ,
, ., 2001.
15. XX
, .. 1998.
16. D. Held, Global transformation, Stanford 1999.
17. I. Wellerstein, The politics of the world economy,
Combridze, 2005.

246
Sinaarsi

1. Sesavali __________________________ 3
2. amerikis ekonomikuri daraioneba _____ 6
3. niu-iorki -_ amerikis SeerTebuli Sta-
tebis ekonomikuri dedaqalaqi ________ 10
4. `oqros Stati~ kalifornia __________ 19
5. amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis saerTaSo-
riso ekonomikuri kavSirebi __________-27
6. aziis axali industriuli qveynebis saer-
TaSoriso daxasiaTeba ______________ 34
7. azia-wynari okeanis regioni msoflio
bazarze __________________________- 69
8. saerTaSoriso geografiuli Sromis gada-
nawilebis cneba ____________________ 74
9. saerTaSoriso ekonomikuri integracia - 77
10. msoflio meurneobis transnacionaliza-
cia _______________________________ 80
11. teritoria rogorc ganTavsebis faqto-
ri ________________________________ 88
12. msoflio navTobmrewveloba _________ 90
247
13. msoflio finansuri bazari __________ 93
14. singapuri, rogorc axali industrialuri
ganviTarebis qveynis magaliTi samxreT-
aRmosavleT aziaSi __________________ 99
15. navTobisa da gazis sabadoebi _ gigantebi
sparseTis yuris zonaSi _____________ 113
16. CineTis sagareo ekonomikuri kavSire_
bi ________________________________ 128
17. iaponia: teritoria, sazRvrebi, mdgomare-
oba, mosaxleoba ___________________ 135
18. tokio _ msoflios yvelaze didi qala-
qi ________________________________ 138
19. iaponiis ganviTarebis modeli _______ 147
20. iaponiis eleqtroenergetika _________ 149
21. iaponiis manqanaTmSenebloba _________ 154
22. iaponiis wynari okeanis sartyeli ____ 158
23. iaponuri teqnopolisebi ____________ 161
24. garemos dabinZureba da iaponiis ekolo-
giuri problemebi ____________ 163
25. iaponiis saerTaSoriso ekonomikuri kav-
Sirebi ____________________________ 165

248
26. msoflios navTobis mrewveloba _____ 171
27. gaTxevadebuli bunebrivi gaziT saerTaSo-
riso vaWroba ______________________ 183
28. afrikul _ dasavleTevropuli gazsatra-
nsporto sistema ________________-___ 192
29. msoflio okeaneSi navTobis da bunebrivi
gazis mopoveba _____________________ 195
30. msoflio eleqtroenergetika ________ 198
31. msoflios atomuri energetika _______ 207
32. msoflios uranis mrewveloba _______ 214
33. saerTaSoriso konfliqtebis Seswavlis da
marTvis Teoriuli safuZvlebi ______ 217
34. msoflio politika da msoflio ekonomika
globalizaciis pirobebSi __________ 235
35. gamoyenebuli literatura __________ 245

249
ibeWdeba avtoris mier warmodgenili saxiT

gadaeca warmoebas 01.05.2009. xelmowerilia dasabeWdad


21.05.2009. qaRaldis zoma 60X84 1/16. pirobiTi nabeWdi Tabaxi
15,5. tiraJi 100 egz.

sagamomcemlo saxli `teqnikuri universiteti~, Tbilisi,


kostavas 77