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KOLLOKVIUMI DOLGOZAT

(Fonológia-Fonetika)

Készítette: Szabó Fanni (BA - Anglisztika)

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Kovács János: A-Z angol kiejtés . References: Siptár Péter. 2012) Nádasdy Ádám: Background to English pronunciation (Nemzedékek Tudása Tankönyvkiadó. 2006) 2 .tankönyv és gyakorlókönyv (Corvina Kiadó.

The chapters are analysed independently. “Ways of spelling and pronouncing the sound [eɪ]”. 3 .tankönyv és gyakorlókönyv”. combining both simplicity and great focus on details. Introduction This coursework aims to analyse and summarize the four given chapters which I presented this semester. but to combine my own opinion on English pronunciation with the author’s comments. My aim was not only using the book to provide the definitions and examples. “Ways of spelling and pronouncing the sound [eɪ]”. the silent h”. examples and tasks included in the book “A-Z angol kiejtés . This writing highlights and offers deeper understanding to the reader about the definitions. The four chapters I will cover here are the following: “Ways of pronouncing the [h] sound. and finally. “Tense and lax vowels”.

must etc. sh. or if it’s at the beginning of a sentence. 4 . would. There are many cases when the letter h is silent. Task 23. To decide whenever the h is silent or not.2 demonstrates the distinction between the standard pronunciation of the h letter and the digraphs. If there is an auxiliary starting with h (e. before a consonant (e.4 brings our attention to the rules which determine in which cases the h is silent. but the sound [h] is not pronounced. rh. Ahmed) or at the end of the word (e. A digraph is a group of two successive letters which represent a single speech sound.: John. For example in the sentence “I gave him a book. as ea in “meat” or th in “path”. There are three distinct rules for this: when the h appears at the beginning of a non-stressed syllable inside the word (e. ph. and these have nothing to do with the sound [h].g. Another important part of this topic is to understand the pronunciation of the weak auxiliary forms which contain silent h. the silent h In the English language the letter h usually corresponds to the sound [h].g. kh. Task 23. th.4 introduces a task where we have to find all the silent consonants. could. We also have to mention that in the English language h can occur only at the beginning of the words or at the beginning of a stressed syllable inside the word. making the pronunciation of this union different from the norm. referring back to previous topics. offering a revision and a summarizing exercise for silent consonants. gh. we need to consider some rules.: yeah. In cases where should. which also resembles the Hungarian pronunciation. because together they form another speech sound. the h is also silent ([‘ʃʊdəv]. are combined with have. 23. In everyday language the h is normally silent. exhort. rehabilitate).: has) we pronounce the letter only if the auxiliary itself is stressed. This [h] sound is usually marked by the letter h but in some cases it appears as the second element of digraphs. exhibit.: vehicle. Of course in everyday language we aren’t able to pay attention to these rules every time.g. Further examples include: ch. Buddha. Silent means that when we pronounce a certain word. the h appears only in written form. It would make communication rough and the immediateness of spoken text doesn’t allow us to think about specific rules for too long. Ways of pronouncing the [h] sound.” ([ɡeɪvɪm]) the words “gave” and “him” merge and the letter h becomes silent.g. oh) the h is always silent. unlike in the Hungarian language. [‘wʊdəv]). and also brings our attention the silent h in the word “forehead” which rhymes to “horrid” if we pronounce it correctly. ah. Further examples for silent h are the following: exhaust.

g.g. one being the g at the end of the stem (e. [ɒ].3 where the rules of consonant duplication are stated. Tense and lax vowels mean the two grouping of vowels which can be distinguished by the environment in which they occur.g.: ask – asked – asking). vowels in lax position are pronounced as it follows: [æ]. but.2 are a bare introduction to 24. she. Duplicating consonants at the end of words is a necessary process in order to keep the lax position of the vowels as mentioned earlier. [ ɪ].: chaos. it is followed by the last consonant of the word (e. To determine the typical position of the vowel we need to consider some rules. the vowel is in the typical position of a lax vowel if: it is followed by more than one consonant (e.4 shows the actual sounds which we need to pronounce in each cases.g. if it is followed by a single consonant plus a single vowel (this vowel can also be a silent e) (e.: rag – ragging. The vowel is in the typical position of a tense vowel if: it is not followed by a consonant (e. Of course these cases are not identical with the words written only with one consonant (e. ship). If the word ends in a single consonant and we attach a suffix starting with a vowel.g. Of course there are exceptions but these exceptions are cannot be deduced in any way. [ʌ].: humbugging).g. and we need to be aware of the most important ones only. 24. we need to duplicate the consonant at the end of the word in order to keep it in the lax position (e. Tense and lax vowels This chapter introduces the distinction between tense and lax vowels.: enter – entered). No duplication is needed however.: hoping from the word “hope” which in this case is in the typical position of a tense vowel).: dread – dreaded). [e]. when the consonant at the end of the stem is a digraph (e. or when the vowel itself is non- stressed (e.g. recent. pet – petter). [ʊ]. 5 . According to the previously covered rules. picture).g. minus).g. and also in British English the l (e. when the word-stem ends in more than one consonant (e.: forgot. apply). In other words it means that one vowel corresponds to two or more different sounds depending on where it occurs in a word and each of them falls into a category due to position and pronunciation (they become either tense or lax).: letter.: nation. The list of examples which are seen in 24. These rules are only important in terms of written forms since in speech these distinctions are not present – duplicated consonants are pronounced as single ones.g. It has to be mentioned that there are exceptions considering this last rule.: travel – travelling). waggon.g. In the other case.

Normally the form with the tense vowel is the basic form.g. The u according to the previously mentioned rules keeps its tense pronunciation (u=[uː] or [juː]). Examples contain the following words: ‘agony.: demon and lemon share the same vowels and same consonants after the letter e. If the vowel is followed by a single consonant and a vowel. so the tense vowel becomes lax due to the ending (e. the a. value. in other words. since the “-ish” suffix is one of the suffixes which causes the sound to follow the pronunciation of a lax vowel. This tense-lax alternation is called vowel shift.The same needs to be stated with tense vowels and the list of sounds which we pronounce in case of them are the following: [eɪ]. [aɪ]. the pronunciation cannot be deduced from the elements in all cases (e. the pronunciation follows the typical tense pronunciation of u. called trisyllabic laxing. ‘camera. finish. In the case of the letter u. Exceptions are also present here since one of the rules is not reliable. -el.: democratic. 6 .: vision. planet. when it occurs in the tense position. i. spirit). ‘family and so on. [uː] or [ju ː] (exception here is the letter a at the end of the word. The same applies to these words as in the previous case. -ish. Libya. so it is pronounced as: [juː]. merit. but their pronunciation is different). mechanic. o=[ɒ]) despite their position. This rule is called pre-u laxing. The examples have to be learnt individually but there are some rules which make our job easier. In those words which has their primary stress on the third syllable from behind. because “sub-” counts as an independent affix. and the lax vowel appears in the derived word. schedule and so on. -et. e=[e]. idiot. [iː]. o letters in the stressed syllable correspond to the pronunciation of lax vowels (a=[æ]. dogmatic. i=[ɪ]. e. we can tell that in the majority of the cases.g. There are specific endings which can cause vowel shift such as: -ic. Syria). because that is always pronounced as: [ɑː]). the u in “punish” is also pronounced as [ʌ]. Vowel shift also occurs if the stressed syllable is followed by “graphically free” u. vanish. -it. Exceptions are the following: the u in “suburb” is pronounced as [ʌ]. so called CiV laxing occurs (e. [oʊ]. then a type of vowel shift. -id. It is. and examples contain: manual. cherish. If the i/y is the stressed vowel itself and followed by a consonant + i + vowel.g.

but understanding the pronunciation of words with common occurrence can help us highlight our misconceptions. This can be useful since pronunciation is a really important part of every language. Of course we cannot think about the rules in an everyday conversation.5 introduces a type of task which tests our knowledge of the previously mentioned rules in terms of practice.Task 24.6 in my opinion is not really connected to the topic. a basic tool which helps others to understand us better. Task 24. but it is put there to have something unconventional to read. focusing too much on the letter b and double t. 7 .

: vein. vanish). The last letter combination which has to be mentioned here is ei/ey. A diphthong is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.g. et (at the end of the word) (bouquet. pay). veil. [ə] in the word “saint” when it is used in front of names. Exceptional 8 . sovereign). village). private. spa). [ɔː] in the word “water”. au (gaol.g. magic.: mountain. [æ] with “plaid”.: delicate. [ɪ] with words ending in –age (e. This combination can also be pronounced as [ə] or [ɪ] if it occurs in a non-stressed syllable (e.g. lazy. As in the previous cases the possible pronunciations are listed here: regularly it is [eɪ] (e. gauge). steak). but it acts as a helping hand in such obvious cases. Other ways of spelling this diphthong include: ai/ay (aim. fountain). é/e (café. The other regular written form of the sound [eɪ] is ai/ay.g. [æ] when laxing rules are present (e. we gain further insight into the pronunciation of the written forms of [eɪ] (especially a.g. and as previously mentioned [eɪ] is the equivalent of the tense a (e.g. reign). ai/ay and ei/ey) and we realise that [eɪ] is merely the regular pronunciation of these letters and letter combinations. ao. [ə] or [ ɪ] with words ending in –ate and –ace (e. preface). fiancé). [e] in words like “any” “many”. The sound [eɪ] is pronounced similarly as the Hungarian word “éj”. ballet). ei/ey (weight. The possible pronunciations of the letter a in tense position are the following: regularly it is [eɪ]. population). says”. grey. [ɑː] when it is stressed and positioned at the end of the word and before silent h (e. tail.: make. great. ae (Gaelic).: foreign.g. hay. obey).: image. and we need to consider the possible pronunciation of this letter combination in order to understand the versatility of the English language.: camera. ea (break. Of course we cannot rely on such similarities when learning a language. As the chapter goes on. if it occurs in a non-stressed syllable it is [ə] or [ɪ] (e. Exceptional pronunciations include: [aɪ] in the word “aisle”. In written text this sound is normally symbolized with the letter a.g. Ways of spelling and pronouncing the sound [eɪ] The sound [eɪ] is one of the eight diphthongs in the English International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). The pronunciation of the letter a also differs in case of non-stressed stems: [ə] in words like “along”. [e] with words like “said. “soda”.: papa.

receive”. -ed (executed). If we attach the suffix –ive to verbs ending in –ate. -ive (creative). There are two basic groups of suffixes: neutral and non-neutral. deceit.: original.5 brings our attention to the possible written forms of this diphthong by asking us the make rhymes. -ize (nationalize).g. investigate). tolerable)). 9 . -er/-or (accelerator). its presence may influence the placement of stress. either. If they consist of three or more syllables the primary stress falls on the third syllable from the back (congratulate. -ese (Chienese). -able/-ible (identifiable). -ee (refugee).g. This is a really interesting task and certainly helps us understand the basics of the possible ways of pronunciation and might broaden our vocabulary. [e] as in “heifer. Self-stressed suffixes are one of the types of non-neutral suffixes and they take the primary stress on themselves. -ness (appropriateness). The most common examples include: -aire (questionnaire). -ique (unique). Neutral suffixes do not influence the place of stress.g. migrate). -ment (establishment). It is called weak suffix and it consists of one syllable with a weak vowel and as it is integrated into the word. -ing (interesting). arrival) Words ending with –ate has regular stressing: if the words they are attached to consist of two syllables. -oon (balloon). -ly (obligatorily). Section 25. -eer/-ier (career). The other type which has to be mentioned is the self-stressed suffixes. (We have to note that –able is only neutral if it’s added to already existing words. otherwise it is non-neutral if it is added to bound stems (e. [iː] as in “ceiling.: operate [‘ɒpəre ɪt] -> operative [‘ɒpərətɪv]). The suffix –al acts relatively different from the previously mentioned ones. neither”.6 introduces a slightly new topic in terms of stressing and how it is affected by different suffixes. -less (loveless). The task in 25. -ful (faithful).: probable.g. (e. leisure”.pronunciations include: [aɪ] as in “eye. the place of the stress doesn’t change but the pronunciation does: [eɪt] usually becomes [ət] (e.: create. Task 25. These suffixes are the following: -es (recognises). -ette (cassette). the suffix is always stressed (e.7 calls our attention on how to form words with the usage of different suffixes and also helps us practice the stressing of words which can be useful in everyday language.

8 test our knowledge on forming words with different suffixes. indicate -> indicative.9 offers us a rather difficult text to deal with and summarize this topic by containing all suffixes which are worthy to mention in one text. Reading practice in 25. testing our vocabulary also and developing our pronunciation in connection with this topic. interrogate -> interrogative.There are exceptions in terms of stress which need to be mentioned: relate -> relative. demonstrate -> demonstrative. narrate -> narrative. alternate -> alternative. Further tasks in 25. 10 .

ask). that “have to” is not an auxiliary therefore it is always used in the strong form. hall). It also lets us revise the phonetic symbols if we haven’t been already familiar with them. dance. [ɒ] after the letter w (wash. 26. while in the case of tense vowels the consonant falls into the following syllable (na. The second dialogue also points out the fact. 11 . Ways of spelling and pronouncing the sound [æ] This sound doesn’t have a Hungarian equivalent but it can be compared to sounds such as “e” but much wider. This sound is always symbolized by the letter a (the only exception here is “plaid”). Regularly it is [æ]. [ ɔː] before double l at the end of the word (ball. The reading practice in 26.ture). It is a good exercise to get the hang of the task. although the text is relatively long and reading it fully can be tiring. [æ] is the equivalent of the lax a. in other cases it is pronounced as [əv]. The next section deals with the possible pronunciation of the letter a when it’s lax. [ɑː] (after. After exemplifying every way of pronunciation. Just as the diphthong [eɪ] is the equivalent of the tense a. but it can also be [eɪ] (chamber). This form most commonly occurs after personal pronouns such as “I’ve. This rule is concerned with the division of words. The two dialogues in 26.2 comes up with a list of words which give the Hungarian “equivalents” of English words in terms on pronunciation. It introduces a new rule which helps us decide the pronunciation of the vowel. want). you’ve” and in these cases it is pronounced as [v]. while [æ] is a diphthong.4 offers a practice where we can test our knowledge and test if we memorized the previous examples. Task 26. 26. since Hungarian and English in this case has nothing to do with each other as the sound [e] in Hungarian is a monophthong.ural). The next section changes the topic from lax and tense vowels to the weak form of “have”.6 show us an example of the proper pronunciation of the weak “have”. fall. According to the rules of division the lax vowel falls into the same syllable as the consonant which follows it (nat. In my opinion this is not necessary to go through.1 introduces the topic and challenges us to pronounce the [æ] sound correctly whenever it occurs.5 states that rule which determines that if the vowel is followed by a single consonant plus a single vowel they become tense is not reliable.

: The children are dirty a\gain. In relatively short sentences the intonation falls from high and usually starts on the tonic. Intonation. In phonology a syllable which carries a tone will be called a tonic syllable. In statements the intonation also depends on the length of the sentence. (e.: Hilary noticed a very peculiar object that was lying on the \mantelpiece. (e. These tasks may help us highlight the most important things to focus on but cannot give us practical knowledge as such.g. The melody of the language must be learnt by constant practice to get a natural and satisfying result. such as rhythm.).7 deals with the intonation of declarative and directive sentences. but I truly believe these can be obtained only with practice.Finally. In English.). declarative and directive sentences usually have falling intonation just like in Hungarian. In case of longer sentences the intonation falls from low and it continues to become gradually lower and lower. 26.g. grammar and many other things are important parts of the English language. pronunciation. however it is not such an easy task as it seems. It is a really important topic to cover since the melody of the English language is unique and necessary to learn in order to communicate effectively and naturally. The tasks below encourage us to practice the intonation of English declaratives and directives. 12 .