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Topographic survey

Qassim University

Unaizah College of Engineering

Civil Engineering Department

Survey Basics (CE 112)
Dr. Waleed Tahawy

valleys. • These features may be grouped under three heads as follows: (1) the culture. or features constructed by man. streams. (2) the hypsography. Topographic survey Definition • Topographic Map: A topographic map is one which shows with practical accuracy all the drainage. or water features. roads. Dr. as cities. or relief of surface forms. culture. (3) the hydrography. as hills. and relief features that the scale of the map will permit. as ponds. villages. Waleed Tahawy . plains. lakes.

• Contour interval: is the difference between any two adjacent contour lines. Topographic survey Definition • Contour line: is a line on a map joining points of similar elevation. Dr. Waleed Tahawy .

Waleed Tahawy . Topographic survey Definition Contour plan with derived profile Dr.

Topographic survey Definition Contour map Dr. Waleed Tahawy .

• Cross section: is a profile of the ground. Dr. Waleed Tahawy . as well as at each significant change in slope. showing change in height along a line between two points. Topographic survey Definition • Profile: A series of elevations taken along a baseline at some repetitive station interval.

Waleed Tahawy . Dr. Using any computer software such as Excel. • Required: 1. Starting from the given BM. 2. determine the elevation every 10 meters along this route. Topographic survey Cross-section Leveling • Given: The general direction of the specific route and the location of a bench mark (BM) at the start of this route. You should do at least three setup covering about 15 points. draw the Cross-section.

This reading is the first back sight reading BS1. Dr. Waleed Tahawy . 2-Erect the leveling rod at the BM and take a reading through the level. This is the first intermediate reading IS. 3-Rotate the level head 180° without changing its position. 4-Erect the leveling rod at 50 m from the level location and take the reading. Topographic survey Cross-section Leveling • Procedure: 1-Set up the level 10 meters from the BM in the direction of leveling.

Dr. The reading of the rod at TP from the new position of level (setup 2) is BS2. you have to relocate level (setup 2). 5. Repeat step 4 as long as you can easily see the leveling rod. The reading of the rod taken when the level was in first position (setup 1) is called FS1. Waleed Tahawy . Once you cannot easily sight the leveling rod. Topographic survey Cross-section Leveling • Procedure cont. This is done by keeping the leveling rod in its last position (TP) and moving the level to the new position. 6.

Topographic survey Cross-section Leveling • Procedure cont. Repeat steps 4 to 6 until you finish your assignment. Waleed Tahawy . and summarize your data and calculations in a table similar to the following: Remark Station BS HI IS FS Elevation Dr. 7.

Figure 5. Waleed Tahawy .744 Dr. Topographic survey Cross-section Leveling • Example The following is a reduced set of Cross-section notes by Excel software.932 3.50 201.781 4.849 198.037 Ʃ 3.901 199. Remark Station BS HI IS FS Elevation BM 0+00 1.88 200 0+50 0.895 199.38 TP 1+00 1.1 shows a Cross-section plot of the example done by excel software.880 201.031 1+50 0.

Waleed Tahawy .037 Elevation 202 Fig. Cross-section Leveling 201 200 Elevation 199 198 197 0 50 100 150 200 BM 0+50 TP 1+50 Station Dr.1. 5. Topographic survey Cross-section Leveling • Example cont.781 – 4. Arithmetic check: 200 + 3.744 = 199.

3. Topographic survey Contour lines • Contour Characteristics • The following list provides a summary of contours: 1. Widely spaced contours indicate moderate slopes (spacing here is a relative relationship). Contours must be labeled to give the elevation value. Either each line is labeled or every fifth line is drawn darker (wider) and labeled. 2. Closely spaced contours indicate steep slopes. Dr. Contours are not shown going through buildings. Waleed Tahawy . 4.

Topographic survey Contour lines • Contour Characteristics • 5. additional readings (by total station or level) are taken at the time of the survey. The ground slope between contour lines is uniform. • 6. Waleed Tahawy . • 7. Dr. If the ground slope is not uniform between the points. Important points can be further defined by including a spot elevation (height elevation). Contour lines tend to parallel each other on uniform slopes.