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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

In Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) of developing countries typical problem
areas can be identified. These can be described as (Zurbrugg, 2003): 1) inadequate service
coverage and operational inefficiencies of services, 2) limited utilization of recycling
activities, 3) inadequate landfill disposal, and 4) inadequate management of hazardous and
healthcare waste. The need to understand community participation and community-based
environmental management initiatives have been addressed by researchers and concerned
institutions for the several years now (Richardson, 2003, Omran et al., 2006, Omran &
Gavrilescu, 2008).
A review of existing literature reveals that a great number of studies on SWM have
been undertaken, even prior to 1970 (van Beukering et al., 1999). Earlier studies show that
the prime consideration management of the public officials was the quick waste removal and
destruction (Melosi, 2005). During the 1970s the debate shifted to issues of waste utilization,
focusing on the technical and economic issues surrounding the allocation and utilization of
available resources. Also, the existing state-of-the-art of resource recovery for managing
municipal waste was examined (Bever, 1976; von Heidenstam, 1977). The early studies
reveal that recycling in the past was mostly industrial and based on financial considerations
to reduce production cost, unlike the current emphasis on recycling as a way of reducing
waste in the environment and preserve dwindling resources (Cointreau et al., 1984; Diwekar,
2005). During time, systems approaches have also been attempted at by authors dealing
with one or few aspects of MSWM (Imam et al., 2008; Omran and Read, 2008; Zurbrugg,
2003; van Beukering et al., 1999). Tsiliyannis (1999) discussed the main environmental
problems related to MSWM and in particular those concerning pollutant releases. The
analysis was based on the solid waste composition of Athens, Greece, and the facilities were
assumed to meet EU Directives and to include the proper disposal of residues. It was found
that landfilling with energy recovery produces slightly higher air pollution and greenhouse
gas releases, mainly owing to the emission of uncollected biogas. Chang and Wang (1997)
proposed a fuzzy goal programming approach for optimal planning of SWM systems, in
which they consider four objectives: economic costs, noise control, air pollution, and traffic
congestion limitations. Another possible approach is based on life-cycle assessment, which is
a tool can provide the data needed for choosing the best combination from an
environmental standpoint (Finnveden, 1996).
However, life-cycle assessment does not predict actual impact; assess risk, safety or
whether a threshold may be exceeded by choosing an option (Bagchi, 2004). With regards to
the development of a solid waste management system, Zia and Devadas (2007) attempted
to introduce a SWM system in Kanpur City and by analyzing the major problems pertaining
to SWM faced in the City. Because some of Indian cities are often characterized by poorly
rendered services including waste management, the most ignored of all basic
267 ANNALS OF THE FACULTY OF ENGINEERING HUNEDOARA – JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING. TOME VI (year 2008).
Fascicule 3 (ISSN 1584 – 2673)

Secondly. they suggested that urgent and immediate improvements of the waste disposal sites are necessary to meet the current demand for sustainable waste collection. in order to improve these problems. Another study conducted in Sir Lanka by Vidanaarachchi et al. landfilling has the lowest priority for waste disposal and solid waste incineration has been given a top priority over the other waste disposal methods although it is much more expensive. (2008) presented an overview on of solid waste management in Turkey. However. However. they drew conclusions that MSW management is a major problem facing municipalities. Elsewhere. “Bundesgerichtshof” (BGH). 2008). (2006) showed that most sites in the province are under capacity to handle any increased demand on waste collecting. determining methods of final disposal requires an understanding of the make-up of the MSW stream. India and suggested solution to some of the problems. TOME VI (year 2008). the Federal Law Court.. This study was carried out using two approaches.. to improve collection and transportation at Kolkata city. and issues related to disposal have become challenging as more land is needed for the ultimate disposal of solid waste. Department Leader City Cleaning. They have observed that the existing solid waste management system in the city is found to be highly inefficient. Firstly a review study based on published and unpublished information gathered by the authors and other scientists. they revealed that only 24% of the households have regular access to waste collection and that in rural areas it was less than 2%. informal interview was conducted with the representative director. They argued that the collection process is deficient in terms of manpower and vehicle availability. However. Bin capacity provided is adequate but locations were found to be inappropriate. with private agencies providing waste collection service at lower cost and grater efficiency (Hazra & Goel. Vidanaarachchi et al. (2006) presented an overview on the current solid waste management practices and situation in Macao during the last decade. public-private partnerships can be successful solution. issues and challenges of solid waste faced in the country’s Southern Providence. services on account of various reasons. the former capital of the German state Baden 1. Turan et al. 2008). For instance. The establishment of new regulations for more effective and efficient integrated solid waste management system is also necessary. Turan et al. A recent study conducted by Hazra & Goel (2008) has presented an overview on of current solid waste management practices in Kolkata. The regulations should indicate the appropriate authority to define and implement waste management regulations (Jin et al. Fascicule 3 (ISSN 1584 – 2673) . and the Federal Constitutional Court. Substantial number of household in areas without waste collection expects local authorities to collect their waste. However. However. Turkey still has over 2000 dumps because of insufficient financing. Stadt Karlsruhe from municipal council of Karlsrhe city. Further. However. is a city in the South-West of Germany near the French border (see Figure 1). many composting plants have failed because not enough attention was given to the quality of the product and to marketing activities. waste minimization needs to be implemented strictly in order to reduce the amount of solid waste. thus contributing to the inefficiency. Consequently. One of their suggestions was that for an effective and efficient solid waste management in Macao. A MSW decision support system based on integrated solid waste management should be developed for cities in Turkey (Turan et al. Karlsruhe is the location of the two highest Federal German courts. the “Bundesverfassungs- 1 Before Stuttgart became capital of Baden-Württemberg in 1953 268 ANNALS OF THE FACULTY OF ENGINEERING HUNEDOARA – JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING.000 inhabitants.. To conclude. DESCRIPTION OF KARLSRUHE CITY (GERMANY) Karlsruhe. authors provided some solutions for these problems. Hazra & Goel (2008) proved that there is no treatment is provided to the waste and waste is dumped on land after collecting it. They commented that open dumps can be detrimental to the urban environment. they drew conclusions that due to Macao’s geographic area and high cost of land. In spite of efforts to change open dumps into sanitary landfills and to build new modern recycling and composting facilities. (2006) described the problems. The annual generation increases in proportion to the rise in the population and urbanization. Jin et al. 3.. The city has more than 300. 2006). (2008) stated that composting is an excellent method of recycling bridgeable waste.

2005). The need to understand community participation and community-based environmental management initiatives have been addressed by researchers and concerned institutions for the several years now (Richardson. Zia and Devadas (2007) attempted to introduce a SWM system in Kanpur City and by analyzing the major problems pertaining to SWM faced in the City. mainly owing to the emission of uncollected biogas. offering equally humanities and socialLITERATURE REVIEW ON MSWM In Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) of developing countries typical problem areas can be identified. the most ignored of all basic 267 ANNALS OF THE FACULTY OF ENGINEERING HUNEDOARA – JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING. assess risk. van Beukering et al. Fraunhofer Institut für Informations- und Datenverarbeitung IITB. the government presidency of Northern Baden. 2003): 1) inadequate service coverage and operational inefficiencies of services. Fascicule 3 (ISSN 1584 – 2673) . In the sector of culture. TOME VI (year 2008). air pollution. Also. Omran & Gavrilescu. systems approaches have also been attempted at by authors dealing with one or few aspects of MSWM (Imam et al. During time. Greece. von Heidenstam. life-cycle assessment does not predict actual impact. 3) inadequate landfill disposal. and the facilities were assumed to meet EU Directives and to include the proper disposal of residues. Earlier studies show that the prime consideration management of the public officials was the quick waste removal and destruction (Melosi. 1977). noise control. 2006. 1976. focusing on the technical and economic issues surrounding the allocation and utilization of available resources. 2008.. the Handel-Festival and an elitary university. 2004). 2003. Another possible approach is based on life-cycle assessment. It was found that landfilling with energy recovery produces slightly higher air pollution and greenhouse gas releases. Omran et al.. The analysis was based on the solid waste composition of Athens. Diwekar. 2008). Zurbrugg. even prior to 1970 (van Beukering et al. Furthermore. Tsiliyannis (1999) discussed the main environmental problems related to MSWM and in particular those concerning pollutant releases. However. With regards to the development of a solid waste management system. sgericht” (BverfG). Chang and Wang (1997) proposed a fuzzy goal programming approach for optimal planning of SWM systems. The eldest technological university of Germany is located in Karlsruhe: the physicist Heinrich Herz and the engineer Robert Bosch as well as the chemician Fritz Haber have teached at this university. 2003. and 4) inadequate management of hazardous and healthcare waste. Karlsruhe with the research center Karlsruhe and different Frauenhofer Institutes (Fraunhofer- Institut f. 2005). unlike the current emphasis on recycling as a way of reducing waste in the environment and preserve dwindling resources (Cointreau et al. Karlsruhe is the residence of the district administrator. which is a tool can provide the data needed for choosing the best combination from an environmental standpoint (Finnveden. During the 1970s the debate shifted to issues of waste utilization. A review of existing literature reveals that a great number of studies on SWM have been undertaken. safety or whether a threshold may be exceeded by choosing an option (Bagchi.. 2) limited utilization of recycling activities. the existing state-of-the-art of resource recovery for managing municipal waste was examined (Bever. These can be described as (Zurbrugg. Fraunhofer-Institut für Chemische Technologie ICT) is best known as the centre of a upcoming technology region. System. The early studies reveal that recycling in the past was mostly industrial and based on financial considerations to reduce production cost. 1996). 1999). in which they consider four objectives: economic costs.. Omran and Read.. 1984. 1999). 2008.und Innovationsforschung ISI. Because some of Indian cities are often characterized by poorly rendered services including waste management. and traffic congestion limitations.

and the Federal Constitutional Court. DESCRIPTION OF KARLSRUHE CITY (GERMANY) Karlsruhe. Another study conducted in Sir Lanka by Vidanaarachchi et al. 3. many composting plants have failed because not enough attention was given to the quality of the product and to marketing activities. 2008). Vidanaarachchi et al. India and suggested solution to some of the problems. they suggested that urgent and immediate improvements of the waste disposal sites are necessary to meet the current demand for sustainable waste collection. TOME VI (year 2008). They argued that the collection process is deficient in terms of manpower and vehicle availability. The annual generation increases in proportion to the rise in the population and urbanization. The establishment of new regulations for more effective and efficient integrated solid waste management system is also necessary.. However. and issues related to disposal have become challenging as more land is needed for the ultimate disposal of solid waste. they drew conclusions that MSW management is a major problem facing municipalities. Secondly. They have observed that the existing solid waste management system in the city is found to be highly inefficient. services on account of various reasons.. (2008) presented an overview on of solid waste management in Turkey. (2008) stated that composting is an excellent method of recycling bridgeable waste. A MSW decision support system based on integrated solid waste management should be developed for cities in Turkey (Turan et al. Turan et al. the “Bundesverfassungs- 1 Before Stuttgart became capital of Baden-Württemberg in 1953 268 ANNALS OF THE FACULTY OF ENGINEERING HUNEDOARA – JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING. However. Department Leader City Cleaning. they revealed that only 24% of the households have regular access to waste collection and that in rural areas it was less than 2%.000 inhabitants. (2006) showed that most sites in the province are under capacity to handle any increased demand on waste collecting.. 2006). This study was carried out using two approaches. waste minimization needs to be implemented strictly in order to reduce the amount of solid waste. However. To conclude. public-private partnerships can be successful solution. Elsewhere. the former capital of the German state Baden 1.. In spite of efforts to change open dumps into sanitary landfills and to build new modern recycling and composting facilities. determining methods of final disposal requires an understanding of the make-up of the MSW stream. Substantial number of household in areas without waste collection expects local authorities to collect their waste. However. However. informal interview was conducted with the representative director. Jin et al. to improve collection and transportation at Kolkata city. authors provided some solutions for these problems. (2006) described the problems. They commented that open dumps can be detrimental to the urban environment. A recent study conducted by Hazra & Goel (2008) has presented an overview on of current solid waste management practices in Kolkata. One of their suggestions was that for an effective and efficient solid waste management in Macao. Fascicule 3 (ISSN 1584 – 2673) . Hazra & Goel (2008) proved that there is no treatment is provided to the waste and waste is dumped on land after collecting it. The city has more than 300. Bin capacity provided is adequate but locations were found to be inappropriate. they drew conclusions that due to Macao’s geographic area and high cost of land. Turkey still has over 2000 dumps because of insufficient financing. Karlsruhe is the location of the two highest Federal German courts. “Bundesgerichtshof” (BGH). (2006) presented an overview on the current solid waste management practices and situation in Macao during the last decade. landfilling has the lowest priority for waste disposal and solid waste incineration has been given a top priority over the other waste disposal methods although it is much more expensive. 2008). However. Further. issues and challenges of solid waste faced in the country’s Southern Providence. with private agencies providing waste collection service at lower cost and grater efficiency (Hazra & Goel. Turan et al. in order to improve these problems. the Federal Law Court. thus contributing to the inefficiency. Stadt Karlsruhe from municipal council of Karlsrhe city. Consequently. For instance. The regulations should indicate the appropriate authority to define and implement waste management regulations (Jin et al. is a city in the South-West of Germany near the French border (see Figure 1). Firstly a review study based on published and unpublished information gathered by the authors and other scientists.

van Beukering et al. The analysis was based on the solid waste composition of Athens. Furthermore. During time. Karlsruhe with the research center Karlsruhe and different Frauenhofer Institutes (Fraunhofer- Institut f.. The eldest technological university of Germany is located in Karlsruhe: the physicist Heinrich Herz and the engineer Robert Bosch as well as the chemician Fritz Haber have teached at this university. Zia and Devadas (2007) attempted to introduce a SWM system in Kanpur City and by analyzing the major problems pertaining to SWM faced in the City. 2008. in which they consider four objectives: economic costs. von Heidenstam. 1999). System. Zurbrugg. systems approaches have also been attempted at by authors dealing with one or few aspects of MSWM (Imam et al. Omran et al.und Innovationsforschung ISI. noise control. the Handel-Festival and an elitary university. The need to understand community participation and community-based environmental management initiatives have been addressed by researchers and concerned institutions for the several years now (Richardson. 2) limited utilization of recycling activities.. assess risk. In the sector of culture. and the facilities were assumed to meet EU Directives and to include the proper disposal of residues. 2008. 1999). 2003): 1) inadequate service coverage and operational inefficiencies of services. even prior to 1970 (van Beukering et al. With regards to the development of a solid waste management system. the most ignored of all basic 267 ANNALS OF THE FACULTY OF ENGINEERING HUNEDOARA – JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING. Omran and Read. Greece. Because some of Indian cities are often characterized by poorly rendered services including waste management. Fraunhofer-Institut für Chemische Technologie ICT) is best known as the centre of a upcoming technology region. offering equally humanities and socialLITERATURE REVIEW ON MSWM In Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) of developing countries typical problem areas can be identified. and 4) inadequate management of hazardous and healthcare waste. TOME VI (year 2008). Karlsruhe is the residence of the district administrator. Tsiliyannis (1999) discussed the main environmental problems related to MSWM and in particular those concerning pollutant releases. 2008). 2005). and traffic congestion limitations. The early studies reveal that recycling in the past was mostly industrial and based on financial considerations to reduce production cost.. life-cycle assessment does not predict actual impact.. Another possible approach is based on life-cycle assessment. Omran & Gavrilescu. 2005). the government presidency of Northern Baden. 1976. 2004). Fraunhofer Institut für Informations- und Datenverarbeitung IITB. Earlier studies show that the prime consideration management of the public officials was the quick waste removal and destruction (Melosi. Fascicule 3 (ISSN 1584 – 2673) . During the 1970s the debate shifted to issues of waste utilization. air pollution. 1984. 1996). which is a tool can provide the data needed for choosing the best combination from an environmental standpoint (Finnveden. 2003. safety or whether a threshold may be exceeded by choosing an option (Bagchi. Chang and Wang (1997) proposed a fuzzy goal programming approach for optimal planning of SWM systems. 2006. sgericht” (BverfG). the existing state-of-the-art of resource recovery for managing municipal waste was examined (Bever. Also. unlike the current emphasis on recycling as a way of reducing waste in the environment and preserve dwindling resources (Cointreau et al. These can be described as (Zurbrugg. 1977). It was found that landfilling with energy recovery produces slightly higher air pollution and greenhouse gas releases. mainly owing to the emission of uncollected biogas. 2003. focusing on the technical and economic issues surrounding the allocation and utilization of available resources. 3) inadequate landfill disposal. Diwekar.. However. A review of existing literature reveals that a great number of studies on SWM have been undertaken.

They argued that the collection process is deficient in terms of manpower and vehicle availability. (2008) stated that composting is an excellent method of recycling bridgeable waste. However. (2006) presented an overview on the current solid waste management practices and situation in Macao during the last decade. DESCRIPTION OF KARLSRUHE CITY (GERMANY) Karlsruhe. landfilling has the lowest priority for waste disposal and solid waste incineration has been given a top priority over the other waste disposal methods although it is much more expensive.000 inhabitants. This study was carried out using two approaches. Department Leader City Cleaning. with private agencies providing waste collection service at lower cost and grater efficiency (Hazra & Goel. Turan et al. However. public-private partnerships can be successful solution. to improve collection and transportation at Kolkata city. authors provided some solutions for these problems. Vidanaarachchi et al. waste minimization needs to be implemented strictly in order to reduce the amount of solid waste. To conclude. Jin et al. 3. They have observed that the existing solid waste management system in the city is found to be highly inefficient. Firstly a review study based on published and unpublished information gathered by the authors and other scientists. thus contributing to the inefficiency. the Federal Law Court.. Elsewhere. Secondly. they drew conclusions that MSW management is a major problem facing municipalities. the former capital of the German state Baden 1. (2006) showed that most sites in the province are under capacity to handle any increased demand on waste collecting. The city has more than 300. One of their suggestions was that for an effective and efficient solid waste management in Macao. Further. they revealed that only 24% of the households have regular access to waste collection and that in rural areas it was less than 2%. Another study conducted in Sir Lanka by Vidanaarachchi et al. However. In spite of efforts to change open dumps into sanitary landfills and to build new modern recycling and composting facilities. (2008) presented an overview on of solid waste management in Turkey. The annual generation increases in proportion to the rise in the population and urbanization. However.. is a city in the South-West of Germany near the French border (see Figure 1). For instance. 2008). they drew conclusions that due to Macao’s geographic area and high cost of land.. determining methods of final disposal requires an understanding of the make-up of the MSW stream. in order to improve these problems. 2006). Turkey still has over 2000 dumps because of insufficient financing. Fascicule 3 (ISSN 1584 – 2673) . informal interview was conducted with the representative director. many composting plants have failed because not enough attention was given to the quality of the product and to marketing activities. “Bundesgerichtshof” (BGH). and issues related to disposal have become challenging as more land is needed for the ultimate disposal of solid waste. Stadt Karlsruhe from municipal council of Karlsrhe city. Hazra & Goel (2008) proved that there is no treatment is provided to the waste and waste is dumped on land after collecting it. A recent study conducted by Hazra & Goel (2008) has presented an overview on of current solid waste management practices in Kolkata. They commented that open dumps can be detrimental to the urban environment. TOME VI (year 2008).. However. However. Turan et al. A MSW decision support system based on integrated solid waste management should be developed for cities in Turkey (Turan et al. issues and challenges of solid waste faced in the country’s Southern Providence. The regulations should indicate the appropriate authority to define and implement waste management regulations (Jin et al. Substantial number of household in areas without waste collection expects local authorities to collect their waste. and the Federal Constitutional Court. India and suggested solution to some of the problems. they suggested that urgent and immediate improvements of the waste disposal sites are necessary to meet the current demand for sustainable waste collection. services on account of various reasons. Karlsruhe is the location of the two highest Federal German courts. the “Bundesverfassungs- 1 Before Stuttgart became capital of Baden-Württemberg in 1953 268 ANNALS OF THE FACULTY OF ENGINEERING HUNEDOARA – JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING. The establishment of new regulations for more effective and efficient integrated solid waste management system is also necessary. (2006) described the problems. Bin capacity provided is adequate but locations were found to be inappropriate. Consequently. 2008).

2008. in which they consider four objectives: economic costs. Fascicule 3 (ISSN 1584 – 2673) . unlike the current emphasis on recycling as a way of reducing waste in the environment and preserve dwindling resources (Cointreau et al.. mainly owing to the emission of uncollected biogas. Greece. the government presidency of Northern Baden.. During the 1970s the debate shifted to issues of waste utilization. van Beukering et al. von Heidenstam. which is a tool can provide the data needed for choosing the best combination from an environmental standpoint (Finnveden. focusing on the technical and economic issues surrounding the allocation and utilization of available resources. In the sector of culture. Diwekar. Also. The early studies reveal that recycling in the past was mostly industrial and based on financial considerations to reduce production cost. Zurbrugg.. the most ignored of all basic 267 ANNALS OF THE FACULTY OF ENGINEERING HUNEDOARA – JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING. life-cycle assessment does not predict actual impact.. However. Omran and Read. 1976. 2003): 1) inadequate service coverage and operational inefficiencies of services. A review of existing literature reveals that a great number of studies on SWM have been undertaken. Another possible approach is based on life-cycle assessment. Karlsruhe is the residence of the district administrator. Because some of Indian cities are often characterized by poorly rendered services including waste management.. 1999). air pollution. The need to understand community participation and community-based environmental management initiatives have been addressed by researchers and concerned institutions for the several years now (Richardson. even prior to 1970 (van Beukering et al. The analysis was based on the solid waste composition of Athens. offering equally humanities and socialLITERATURE REVIEW ON MSWM In Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) of developing countries typical problem areas can be identified. 2003. Karlsruhe with the research center Karlsruhe and different Frauenhofer Institutes (Fraunhofer- Institut f. Omran & Gavrilescu. 2004). System. During time. 2008. Fraunhofer-Institut für Chemische Technologie ICT) is best known as the centre of a upcoming technology region. 1999). The eldest technological university of Germany is located in Karlsruhe: the physicist Heinrich Herz and the engineer Robert Bosch as well as the chemician Fritz Haber have teached at this university. 2006. Tsiliyannis (1999) discussed the main environmental problems related to MSWM and in particular those concerning pollutant releases. 3) inadequate landfill disposal. the existing state-of-the-art of resource recovery for managing municipal waste was examined (Bever. 2) limited utilization of recycling activities. and the facilities were assumed to meet EU Directives and to include the proper disposal of residues. assess risk. 1984. 1977). 2005). These can be described as (Zurbrugg. Furthermore. TOME VI (year 2008).und Innovationsforschung ISI. With regards to the development of a solid waste management system. Earlier studies show that the prime consideration management of the public officials was the quick waste removal and destruction (Melosi. and 4) inadequate management of hazardous and healthcare waste. the Handel-Festival and an elitary university. systems approaches have also been attempted at by authors dealing with one or few aspects of MSWM (Imam et al. Chang and Wang (1997) proposed a fuzzy goal programming approach for optimal planning of SWM systems. Fraunhofer Institut für Informations- und Datenverarbeitung IITB. safety or whether a threshold may be exceeded by choosing an option (Bagchi. 2003. 2008). 2005). It was found that landfilling with energy recovery produces slightly higher air pollution and greenhouse gas releases. Omran et al. sgericht” (BverfG). and traffic congestion limitations. noise control. Zia and Devadas (2007) attempted to introduce a SWM system in Kanpur City and by analyzing the major problems pertaining to SWM faced in the City. 1996).

Another study conducted in Sir Lanka by Vidanaarachchi et al. issues and challenges of solid waste faced in the country’s Southern Providence. Hazra & Goel (2008) proved that there is no treatment is provided to the waste and waste is dumped on land after collecting it. One of their suggestions was that for an effective and efficient solid waste management in Macao. (2006) showed that most sites in the province are under capacity to handle any increased demand on waste collecting. they drew conclusions that MSW management is a major problem facing municipalities.. The city has more than 300. (2008) presented an overview on of solid waste management in Turkey. services on account of various reasons. A recent study conducted by Hazra & Goel (2008) has presented an overview on of current solid waste management practices in Kolkata. to improve collection and transportation at Kolkata city.. with private agencies providing waste collection service at lower cost and grater efficiency (Hazra & Goel. is a city in the South-West of Germany near the French border (see Figure 1). the “Bundesverfassungs- 1 Before Stuttgart became capital of Baden-Württemberg in 1953 268 ANNALS OF THE FACULTY OF ENGINEERING HUNEDOARA – JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING. they revealed that only 24% of the households have regular access to waste collection and that in rural areas it was less than 2%. 2006). However. Secondly. Turan et al. thus contributing to the inefficiency. Turan et al. They have observed that the existing solid waste management system in the city is found to be highly inefficient. 2008). However. The regulations should indicate the appropriate authority to define and implement waste management regulations (Jin et al. They commented that open dumps can be detrimental to the urban environment. DESCRIPTION OF KARLSRUHE CITY (GERMANY) Karlsruhe. For instance. they drew conclusions that due to Macao’s geographic area and high cost of land. 3. Turkey still has over 2000 dumps because of insufficient financing. (2008) stated that composting is an excellent method of recycling bridgeable waste. waste minimization needs to be implemented strictly in order to reduce the amount of solid waste. TOME VI (year 2008). They argued that the collection process is deficient in terms of manpower and vehicle availability. Jin et al. India and suggested solution to some of the problems. Elsewhere. Fascicule 3 (ISSN 1584 – 2673) . Karlsruhe is the location of the two highest Federal German courts. Vidanaarachchi et al. However. in order to improve these problems. However. and issues related to disposal have become challenging as more land is needed for the ultimate disposal of solid waste. determining methods of final disposal requires an understanding of the make-up of the MSW stream. informal interview was conducted with the representative director. Bin capacity provided is adequate but locations were found to be inappropriate.. and the Federal Constitutional Court. Substantial number of household in areas without waste collection expects local authorities to collect their waste. Further. “Bundesgerichtshof” (BGH). the Federal Law Court. (2006) presented an overview on the current solid waste management practices and situation in Macao during the last decade.000 inhabitants. However. A MSW decision support system based on integrated solid waste management should be developed for cities in Turkey (Turan et al. Firstly a review study based on published and unpublished information gathered by the authors and other scientists. Stadt Karlsruhe from municipal council of Karlsrhe city. authors provided some solutions for these problems. public-private partnerships can be successful solution. In spite of efforts to change open dumps into sanitary landfills and to build new modern recycling and composting facilities. Department Leader City Cleaning. they suggested that urgent and immediate improvements of the waste disposal sites are necessary to meet the current demand for sustainable waste collection. The establishment of new regulations for more effective and efficient integrated solid waste management system is also necessary. To conclude.. landfilling has the lowest priority for waste disposal and solid waste incineration has been given a top priority over the other waste disposal methods although it is much more expensive. Consequently. (2006) described the problems. However. The annual generation increases in proportion to the rise in the population and urbanization. 2008). many composting plants have failed because not enough attention was given to the quality of the product and to marketing activities. This study was carried out using two approaches. the former capital of the German state Baden 1.

Karlsruhe is the residence of the district administrator. offering equally humanities and social . Fraunhofer Institut für Informations. Furthermore.und Datenverarbeitung IITB. In the sector of culture. Karlsruhe with the research center Karlsruhe and different Frauenhofer Institutes (Fraunhofer-Institut f. the Handel-Festival and an elitary university.sgericht” (BverfG). System. the government presidency of Northern Baden. Fraunhofer-Institut für Chemische Technologie ICT) is best known as the centre of a upcoming technology region.und Innovationsforschung ISI. The eldest technological university of Germany is located in Karlsruhe: the physicist Heinrich Herz and the engineer Robert Bosch as well as the chemician Fritz Haber have teached at this university.