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INTRODUCTION

FROM HUMAN NEURONS TO ARTIFICIAL NEURONS


APPLICATION FIELDS
CONCLUSION

APPLICATIONS OF ARTIFICIAL NEURAL


NETWORKS
APPLICATIONS

ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS


INTRODUCTION
Artificial Neural Network
FROM HUMAN NEURONS TO ARTIFICIAL NEURONS
Why Use Neural Networks?
APPLICATION FIELDS
Advantages
CONCLUSION

What is a Neural Network?

A neural network is a processing device, either an


algorithm, or actual hardware, whose design was
motivated by the design and functioning of human brains
and components thereof.
The abilities of different networks can be related to their
structure, dynamics and learning methods.
There are many different types of Neural Networks, each
of which has different strengths particular to their
applications.

ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS


INTRODUCTION
Artificial Neural Network
FROM HUMAN NEURONS TO ARTIFICIAL NEURONS
Why Use Neural Networks?
APPLICATION FIELDS
Advantages
CONCLUSION

Artificial Neural Network

Historical background.
First Attempts.
Promising and Emerging Technology
Today

ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS


INTRODUCTION
Artificial Neural Network
FROM HUMAN NEURONS TO ARTIFICIAL NEURONS
Why Use Neural Networks?
APPLICATION FIELDS
Advantages
CONCLUSION

Features Of ANN

Their ability to represent nonlinear relations makes them


well suited for non linear modeling in control systems.
Adaptation and learning in uncertain system through off
line and on line weight adaptation Parallel processing
architecture allows fast processing for large-scale dynamic
system.
Neural network can handle large number of inputs and can
have many outputs.

SHAJEER.K.B ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS


INTRODUCTION
Artificial Neural Network
FROM HUMAN NEURONS TO ARTIFICIAL NEURONS
Why Use Neural Networks?
APPLICATION FIELDS
Advantages
CONCLUSION

Advantages

Adaptive learning
Self-Organisation
Real Time Operation
Fault Tolerance via Redundant Information Coding

ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS


INTRODUCTION
From Human Neurons to Artificial Neurons
FROM HUMAN NEURONS TO ARTIFICIAL NEURONS
Neural Network Models
APPLICATION FIELDS
Neural Network Models
CONCLUSION

From Human Neurons to Artificial Neurons

ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS


INTRODUCTION
From Human Neurons to Artificial Neurons
FROM HUMAN NEURONS TO ARTIFICIAL NEURONS
Neural Network Models
APPLICATION FIELDS
Neural Network Models
CONCLUSION

From Human Neurons to Artificial Neurons

Inputs
Weights
Threshold
Activation Function

ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS


INTRODUCTION
From Human Neurons to Artificial Neurons
FROM HUMAN NEURONS TO ARTIFICIAL NEURONS
Neural Network Models
APPLICATION FIELDS
Neural Network Models
CONCLUSION

Multilayer perceptron

ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS


INTRODUCTION
From Human Neurons to Artificial Neurons
FROM HUMAN NEURONS TO ARTIFICIAL NEURONS
Neural Network Models
APPLICATION FIELDS
Neural Network Models
CONCLUSION

Two hidden layer multilayer perceptron

ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS


Applications in Speech
INTRODUCTION
Neural Networks in Medicine
FROM HUMAN NEURONS TO ARTIFICIAL NEURONS
Image Compression
APPLICATION FIELDS
Process Modelling and Control
CONCLUSION
Targeted Marketing and Financial Forecasting

Applications

Voice Recognition - Transcribing spoken words into ASCII


text.
Image Compression - Because neural networks can
accept a vast array of input at once, and process it quickly,
they are useful in image compression.
Medical Diagnosis - Assisting doctors with their diagnosis
by analyzing the reported symptoms and/or image data
such as MRIs or X-rays.

ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS


Applications in Speech
INTRODUCTION
Neural Networks in Medicine
FROM HUMAN NEURONS TO ARTIFICIAL NEURONS
Image Compression
APPLICATION FIELDS
Process Modelling and Control
CONCLUSION
Targeted Marketing and Financial Forecasting

Process Modeling and Control - Creating a neural network


model for a physical plant then using that model to
determine the best control settings for the plant
Targeted Marketing - Finding the set of demographics,
which have the highest response rate for a particular
marketing campaign.
Financial forecasting - Using the historical data of a
security to predict the future movement of that security.

ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS


Applications in Speech
INTRODUCTION
Neural Networks in Medicine
FROM HUMAN NEURONS TO ARTIFICIAL NEURONS
Image Compression
APPLICATION FIELDS
Process Modelling and Control
CONCLUSION
Targeted Marketing and Financial Forecasting

Voice Recognition

Speech recognition: The objective is to determine the


sequence of sound units from the speech signal so that the
linguistic message in the form of text can be decoded from
the speech signal.
Speech synthesis: The objective is to determine the
sequence of sound units corresponding to a text so that a
given text message can be encoded to a speech signal.
Speaker identification: the objective is to determine the
identity of the speaker from the speech signal.

ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS


Applications in Speech
INTRODUCTION
Neural Networks in Medicine
FROM HUMAN NEURONS TO ARTIFICIAL NEURONS
Image Compression
APPLICATION FIELDS
Process Modelling and Control
CONCLUSION
Targeted Marketing and Financial Forecasting

NETTALK

used to generate synthetic speech


developed by Terry Sejnowski and Charles Rosenberg
The data representation scheme employed allows a
temporal pattern sequence to be represented spatially
NETtalk Data Representation

ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS


Applications in Speech
INTRODUCTION
Neural Networks in Medicine
FROM HUMAN NEURONS TO ARTIFICIAL NEURONS
Image Compression
APPLICATION FIELDS
Process Modelling and Control
CONCLUSION
Targeted Marketing and Financial Forecasting

NETTALK

Consider
Example:FIND FIEND FRIEND FEINT
a sliding window technique for representing words as
patterns

SHAJEER.K.B ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS


Applications in Speech
INTRODUCTION
Neural Networks in Medicine
FROM HUMAN NEURONS TO ARTIFICIAL NEURONS
Image Compression
APPLICATION FIELDS
Process Modelling and Control
CONCLUSION
Targeted Marketing and Financial Forecasting

Neural networks:medicine

SHAJEER.K.B ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS


Applications in Speech
INTRODUCTION
Neural Networks in Medicine
FROM HUMAN NEURONS TO ARTIFICIAL NEURONS
Image Compression
APPLICATION FIELDS
Process Modelling and Control
CONCLUSION
Targeted Marketing and Financial Forecasting

Neural networks in medicine

Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) are currently a hot


research area in medicine and it is believed that they will
receive extensive application to biomedical systems in the
next few years.
At the moment, the research is mostly on modelling parts
of the human body and recognising diseases from various
scans (e.g. cardiograms, CAT scans etc.)
Neural networks are ideal in recognising diseases using
scans since there is no need to provide a specific
algorithm on how to identify the disease.

SHAJEER.K.B ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS


Applications in Speech
INTRODUCTION
Neural Networks in Medicine
FROM HUMAN NEURONS TO ARTIFICIAL NEURONS
Image Compression
APPLICATION FIELDS
Process Modelling and Control
CONCLUSION
Targeted Marketing and Financial Forecasting

CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM:MODELLING

Neural Networks are used experimentally to model the


human cardiovascular system.
Diagnosis can be achieved by building a model of the
cardiovascular system of an individual and comparing it
with the real time physiological measurements taken from
the patient.
A model of an individuals cardiovascular system must
mimic the relationship among physiological variables (i.e.,
heart rate,blood pressures, and breathing rate) at different
physical activity levels.
If a model is adapted to an individual, then it becomes a
model of the physical condition of that individual.

SHAJEER.K.B ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS


Applications in Speech
INTRODUCTION
Neural Networks in Medicine
FROM HUMAN NEURONS TO ARTIFICIAL NEURONS
Image Compression
APPLICATION FIELDS
Process Modelling and Control
CONCLUSION
Targeted Marketing and Financial Forecasting

ELECTRONIC NOSES:DIAGNOSING

Electronic noses have several potential applications in


telemedicine.
The electronic nose would identify odours in the remote
surgical environment.
Telemedicine is the practice of medicine over long
distances via a communication link.

SHAJEER.K.B ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS


Applications in Speech
INTRODUCTION
Neural Networks in Medicine
FROM HUMAN NEURONS TO ARTIFICIAL NEURONS
Image Compression
APPLICATION FIELDS
Process Modelling and Control
CONCLUSION
Targeted Marketing and Financial Forecasting

Image Compression

ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS


Applications in Speech
INTRODUCTION
Neural Networks in Medicine
FROM HUMAN NEURONS TO ARTIFICIAL NEURONS
Image Compression
APPLICATION FIELDS
Process Modelling and Control
CONCLUSION
Targeted Marketing and Financial Forecasting

BOTTLENECK ARCHITECTURE

SHAJEER.K.B ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS


Applications in Speech
INTRODUCTION
Neural Networks in Medicine
FROM HUMAN NEURONS TO ARTIFICIAL NEURONS
Image Compression
APPLICATION FIELDS
Process Modelling and Control
CONCLUSION
Targeted Marketing and Financial Forecasting

QUANTIZATION

ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS


Applications in Speech
INTRODUCTION
Neural Networks in Medicine
FROM HUMAN NEURONS TO ARTIFICIAL NEURONS
Image Compression
APPLICATION FIELDS
Process Modelling and Control
CONCLUSION
Targeted Marketing and Financial Forecasting

HOW DOES A NETWORK LEARN TO DO THIS?

The goal of these data compression networks is to


re-create the input itself.
This data is presented over and over, and the weights
adjusted, until the network reproduces the image relatively
faithfully.
Once training is complete, image re-construction is
demonstrated in the recall phase.
we can continue to train the network if the output is not of
high enough quality.

ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS


Applications in Speech
INTRODUCTION
Neural Networks in Medicine
FROM HUMAN NEURONS TO ARTIFICIAL NEURONS
Image Compression
APPLICATION FIELDS
Process Modelling and Control
CONCLUSION
Targeted Marketing and Financial Forecasting

RECONSTRUCTED
ORIGINAL IMAGE
IMAGE

ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS


Applications in Speech
INTRODUCTION
Neural Networks in Medicine
FROM HUMAN NEURONS TO ARTIFICIAL NEURONS
Image Compression
APPLICATION FIELDS
Process Modelling and Control
CONCLUSION
Targeted Marketing and Financial Forecasting

PROCESS MODELLING AND CONTROL


APPLICATIONDS

ANN is able to emulate the information processing


capabilities of biological neural system.
Artificial neural networks are implemented as software
packages in computers and being used to incorporate of
artificial intelligence in control system.
ANN has overcome many of the difficulties that t
conventional adaptive control systems suffer while dealing
with non linear behavior of process.

ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS


Applications in Speech
INTRODUCTION
Neural Networks in Medicine
FROM HUMAN NEURONS TO ARTIFICIAL NEURONS
Image Compression
APPLICATION FIELDS
Process Modelling and Control
CONCLUSION
Targeted Marketing and Financial Forecasting

ANN DESIGN PARAMETERS INCLUDE

The interconnection strategy/network topology/network


structure.
Unit characteristics (may vary within the network and
within subdivisions within the network such as layers).
Training procedures.
Training and test sets.
Input/output representation and pre- and post-processing.

ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS


Applications in Speech
INTRODUCTION
Neural Networks in Medicine
FROM HUMAN NEURONS TO ARTIFICIAL NEURONS
Image Compression
APPLICATION FIELDS
Process Modelling and Control
CONCLUSION
Targeted Marketing and Financial Forecasting

LEARNING TECHNIQUES

Forward modeling
The basic configuration used for non-linear system
modeling and identification using neural network.
The number of input nodes specifies the dimensions of the
network input.
In system identification context, the assignment of network
input and output to network input vector.

ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS


Applications in Speech
INTRODUCTION
Neural Networks in Medicine
FROM HUMAN NEURONS TO ARTIFICIAL NEURONS
Image Compression
APPLICATION FIELDS
Process Modelling and Control
CONCLUSION
Targeted Marketing and Financial Forecasting

DIRECT INVERSE MODELING

This approach employs a generalized model suggested by


Psalters et al.to learn the inverse dynamic model of the
plant as a feed forward controller.
Here, during the training stage, the control input are
chosen randomly within there working range.
The corresponding plant output values are stored, as a
training of the controller cannot guarantee the inclusion of
all possible situations that may occur in future.

ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS


Applications in Speech
INTRODUCTION
Neural Networks in Medicine
FROM HUMAN NEURONS TO ARTIFICIAL NEURONS
Image Compression
APPLICATION FIELDS
Process Modelling and Control
CONCLUSION
Targeted Marketing and Financial Forecasting

Targeted Marketing and Financial Forecasting

ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS


Applications in Speech
INTRODUCTION
Neural Networks in Medicine
FROM HUMAN NEURONS TO ARTIFICIAL NEURONS
Image Compression
APPLICATION FIELDS
Process Modelling and Control
CONCLUSION
Targeted Marketing and Financial Forecasting

TARGETED MARKETING AND FINANCIAL


FORECASTING

A simple back-propagation network of three layers, and it is


trained and tested on a high volume of historical market
data.
The challenge here is not in the network architecture itself,
but instead in the choice of variables and the information
used for training. Neural Networks in business
Using neural networks for business purposes, including
resource allocation and scheduling.
There is also a strong potential for using neural networks
for database mining, that is, searching for patterns implicit
within the explicitly stored information in databases.
ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS
Applications in Speech
INTRODUCTION
Neural Networks in Medicine
FROM HUMAN NEURONS TO ARTIFICIAL NEURONS
Image Compression
APPLICATION FIELDS
Process Modelling and Control
CONCLUSION
Targeted Marketing and Financial Forecasting

MARKETING

The Airline Marketing Tactician is a computer system made


of various intelligent technologies including expert
systems.
A feed forward neural network is integrated with the AMT
and was trained using back-propagation to assist the
marketing control of airline seat allocations.
The adaptive neural approach was amenable to rule
expression.
The applications environment changed rapidly and
constantly, which required a continuously adaptive solution.

ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS


INTRODUCTION
FROM HUMAN NEURONS TO ARTIFICIAL NEURONS Reference
APPLICATION FIELDS Gratitude
CONCLUSION

CONCLUSION

The computing world has a lot to gain from neural


networks.
The neural network can be used to design a controller,
robotics, industrial manufacturing, aerospace and several
others.
The ability of a feedback network to store patterns can be
improved, if we can exploit the chaotic nature of the
network dynamics.
Due to inherent non-linearity and also due to the learning
ability, neural networks appear to be promising in some
decision making applications.

ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS


INTRODUCTION
FROM HUMAN NEURONS TO ARTIFICIAL NEURONS Reference
APPLICATION FIELDS Gratitude
CONCLUSION

REFERENCE

Artificial Neural Networks and its Applications Girish Kumar


Jha I.A.R.I Newdelhi 110 012 girishiasri@reddiffmail.com
Neural Networks:A Comprehensive Study 2nd Edition
Simon Haykin
Artificial Neural Networks:B Yegananarayana

ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS


INTRODUCTION
FROM HUMAN NEURONS TO ARTIFICIAL NEURONS Reference
APPLICATION FIELDS Gratitude
CONCLUSION

Thank You

ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS