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# LNB 30503 Ship Structures

TOPIC 3

## 4.1 SIMPLE BEAM THEORY

The total bending moment or the stress is calculated by the simple beam theory using the
relation

M M M
or
y I I Z
y

where
stress at distance y from the neutral axis
M bending moment
I second moment of area

I/y will have its smallest value when y is greatest; that is when y is measured to the extreme
fibres, at the deck and bottom (keel). This value of I/y or Z is called the section modulus and
is the criterion of the strength of the girder in bending.

In most cases the critical hull girder cross section will be that section which contains the least
amount of effective material that is, the section containing the

Largest hatches or other openings but also depends on the distance of these from the neutral
axis.

EXAMPLE 4.1

In example 3.4 in Chapter 3, if the ship has second moment of area of the midship section
576m4, neutral axis 4.5m from deck and 5.1m from keel, find section modulus of the midship
section, and the location and value of where the maximum stress occurs.

Solution 4.1:

= 576m4 / 5.1m
= 112.94m3

## Section modulus, Zdeck= I / y

= 576m4 / 4.5m
= 128.00m3

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## Stress at keel, keel = M / Zkeel

= 9820.58 tonnes/m / 112.94m3
= 86.95tonnes/m4

## Stress at deck, deck = M / Zdeck

= 9820.58 tonnes/m / 128.00m3
= 76.72tonnes/m4

## 4.2 THE NEUTRAL AXIS

Theoretical analysis shows that the neutral axis occurs exactly at the centre of gravity of the
cross section of the object or beam.
But with the plate and angle acting together as a beam the neutral axis is close to the plate.
[NB. Material close to NA contributes little to the strength of a beam]

## 4.2.1 Neutral Axis of the Hull

To locate the NA of the hull, designers once again look for the centre of gravity of the hull
cross section. These include only on those parts or members of the hull structure that
contribute directly to the bending strength of the hull girder i.e. members that run
continuously fore and aft throughout at least the ships amidships half-length.

## 4.3 SECOND MOMENT OF AREA

The stiffness of a beam is directly influenced by a property of its cross sectional geometry
that we call its second moment of area.

EXAMPLE 4.2

## Calculate the second moment of area of the girder shown below.

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Solution 4.2

Local 2nd
Area, Height Moment of 2nd Moment of
Moment of
Item Scantlings a h area area
area
(mm2) (mm) ah (mm3) ah2 (mm4)
I (mm4)
Upper 152mm x
3800 240.5 913900 219792950 197916.667
Flange 25mm
203mm x
Web 2639 126.5 333833.5 42229938 9062545.917
13mm
Lower 203mm x
5075 12.5 63437.5 792969 264322.917
Flange 25mm
a = ah = ah2 = i =
11514 1311171 262815857 9524785.5

Step 1
Centre of gravity or height of neutral axis above baseline:

y=
ah 1311171 113.88mm 114mm
a 11514
Step 2
I base i ah 2
9524785.5 262815856.5
272340642 mm 4

Step 3
I base I NA Ay 2
or I NA I base A(h NA ) 2
272340642 - 11514(114)2 122704698mm 4

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EXAMPLE 4.3

Calculate second moment of area at neutral axis and hence section modulus for deck and keel.

8m
22 mm
3m

16 mm
13 m

14 mm

18 mm
1.5 m

12 mm 20 mm

20 m

Solution 4.3

Since the cross section is symmetry about the centerline, it is adequate to carry out the
calculation for one side of the ship and then double the resulting answer.

Local 2nd
Moment of 2nd Moment
Area, Height Moment
Item Scantlings area of area
a (m2) h (m) of area
ah (m3) ah2 (m4)
i (m4)
Upperdeck 6m x 22mm 0.132 13 1.716 22.308 -
2nd Deck 6m x 16mm 0.096 10 0.960 9.600 -
Side Shell 13m x 14mm 0.182 6.5 1.183 7.689 2.563
Tank Top 10m x 18mm 0.180 1.5 0.270 0.405 -
Bottom
10m x 20mm 0.200 0.0 - - -
Shell
Centre
1.5m x 6mm 0.009 0.75 0.007 0.005 0.002
Girder
ah2 =
a = 0.799 ah = 4.136 i = 2.565
40.007

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Step 1

## Height of Neutral Axis above keel,

hNA
ah 4.136 5.18m
a 0.799
Step 2
I base i ah 2
2.565 40.007
42.572 m 4

Step 3
I base I NA Ay 2
I NA A(h NA ) 2
or I NA I base A(h NA ) 2
42.572 - 0.799(5.18) 2 21.133 m 4
So, I NA (complete) 21.133 x 2 42.266 m 4

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EXAMPLE 4.4

The mass distribution and buoyancy between sections of a ship, 300m in length, balanced on
a hogging wave, are given below. The second moment of area of the midship section is
752m4 and the neutral axis is 9.30m from the keel and 9.70m from the deck.

Calculate the maximum direct stresses (keel and deck) given by the comparative calculation
and the maximum sheer force and bending moment.

Mass / m Buoyancy / m
Station
(MN) (MN)
1
0.88 0.005
2
1.609 0.025
3
2.093 0.714
4
3.082 3.038
5
2.56 5.684
6
3.064 6.368
7
3.237 4.929
8
3.489 2.445
9
2.22 0.498
10
1.645 0.106
11

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Solution 4.4

## Station Mass/m Buoyancy/m Load/m del SF SF mid SF del BM BM corr BM

MN MN MN MN MN MN MN MNm MNm
1 0 0 0 0
0.88 0.005 0.875 26.25 13.125 393.75
2 26.25 393.75 4.005 389.745
1.609 0.025 1.584 47.52 50.01 1500.3
3 73.77 1894.05 8.01 1886.04
2.093 0.714 1.379 41.37 94.455 2833.65
4 115.14 4727.7 12.015 4715.685
3.028 3.038 -0.01 -0.3 114.99 3449.7
5 114.84 8177.4 16.02 8161.38
2.56 5.684 -3.124 -93.72 67.98 2039.4
6 21.12 10216.8 20.025 10196.78
3.064 6.368 -3.304 -99.12 -28.44 -853.2
7 -78 9363.6 24.03 9339.57
3.237 4.929 -1.692 -50.76 -103.38 -3101.4
8 -128.76 6262.2 28.035 6234.165
3.489 2.445 1.044 31.32 -113.1 -3393
9 -97.44 2869.2 32.04 2837.16
2.22 0.498 1.722 51.66 -71.61 -2148.3
10 -45.78 720.9 36.045 684.855
1.645 0.106 1.539 46.17 -22.695 -680.85
11 0.39 40.05 40.05 0

## Maximum shear force = 128.76 MN

Maximum bending moment = 10196.78 MNm

M y
=
I

## 10196.78 MNm 9.3 m

Keel stress = 4
= 126.10MNm2
752 m

10196.78MNm 9.7m
Deck stress = 4
= 131.53MNm2
752m

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## 4.4 SECTIONS WITH TWO MATERIALS

Some ships strength cross section is composed of two different materials. Typically the hull
may be steel and the superstructure aluminum. Other materials used may be wood or
reinforced plastic. In such a case it is convenient to think in terms of an effective modulus in
one of the materials. Usually this would be in terms of steel.

The stress, , in a beam at a point y from the NA is Ey/R, where E is the Young Modulus or
Modulus of Elastic, and R is the radius of curvature. Provided transverse sections of the beam
or ship remain plane, this relationship will hold as the extension or strain at any given y will
be the same. For equilibrium of the section, the net force across it must be zero. Hence using
the subscripts s and a for steel and aluminum:

E A y E A y
(sAs + aAa) = 0 and s s s a a a 0
R R
that is:
E
As y s a Aa y a 0
Es

## The corresponding bending moment is:

BM = (sAsys + aAaya)

Es Ea
= A ys
2
s Aa y a2
R Es
Es I E
=
R

## where IE is the effective second moment of area.

The composite cross-section can therefore be considered made up of material s, usually steel,
if an effective area of material a is used in place of the actual area. The effective area is the
actual multiplied by the ratio Ea/Es. For different steels the ratio is effectively unity, for
aluminum alloy/steel it is about 1/3 and for GRP/steel it is about 1/10.

4.5 SUPERSTRUCTURES

Superstructures and deckhouses are major discontinuities in the ship girder. They contribute
to the longitudinal strength but will not be fully efficient in so doing. They should not be
ignored as, although this would play safe in calculating the main hull strength, it would run
the risk that the superstructure itself would not be strong enough to take the loads imposed on
it at sea. Also they are potential sources of stress concentrations, particularly at their ends.
For this reason they should not be ended close to highly stressed areas such as amidships.

A superstructure is joined to the main hull at its lower boundary. As the ship sags or hogs the
boundary becomes compressed and extended respectively. Thus the superstructure tends to be

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arched in the opposite shear forces due to the stretch or compression and normal forces trying
to keep the two in contact.

The ability of the superstructure to accept these forces, and contribute to the section modulus
for longitudinal bending, is regarded as an efficiency. It is expressed as:

0 a
Superstructure efficiency =
0

Where o, a and are the upper deck stresses if no superstructure were present, the stress
calculated and that for a fully effective superstructure.

EXAMPLE 4.5

## The midship section of a steel ship has the following particulars:

Cross-sectional area of longitudinal material = 2.3m2
Distance from neutral axis to upper deck = 7.6m
Second moment of area about the neutral axis = 58m4

A superstructure deck is to be added 2.6m above the upper deck. This deck is 13m wide,
12mm thick and is constructed of aluminum alloy. If the ship must withstand a sagging
bending moment of 450MNm, calculate the superstructure efficiency if with the
superstructure deck fitted, the stress in the upper deck is measured as 55MN/m 2. (Youngs
modulus of aluminum as 0.322 that of steel)

Solution 4.5

Since this is a composite structure, the second moment of area an equivalent steel section
must be found first. The stress in the steel section can then be found and, after the use of the
modular ratio, the stress in the aluminium can be determined.

Taking the Youngs modulus of aluminium as 0.322 that of steel, the effective steel area of
the new section is:

## Effective steel area = 2.3 + (13 0.012) 0.322 = 2.35 m2

The movement upwards of the neutral axis due to adding the deck:
(13 x 0.012)
0.322 (7.6 2.6) 0.218 m
2.35

The second moment of area of the new section about the old NA is:
58 0.322(13 0.012)(7.6 2.6)2 63.23 m 4

## The second moment or area about the new NA is:

63.23 2.35(0.218)2 = 63.12 m4

The distance to the new deck from the new NA = 7.6 + 2.6 0.218 = 9.98 m

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450 9.98
Stress in the new deck (as effective steel) = 71.15 MN / m 2
63.12

## Stress in the deck as aluminium = 71.15 / 0.322 = 220.96 MN / m2

The superstructure efficiency relates to the effect of the superstructure on the stress in the
upper deck of the main hull. The new stress in that deck, with the superstructure in the place,
is given as 55 MN / m2. If the superstructure had been fully effective it would have been:
450(7.6 0.218)
52.63 MN / m 2
63.12

450 7.6
with no superstructure the stress was 58.97MN / m 2
58

58.97 55
Hence the superstructure efficiency = 62.6%
58.97 52.63

## 4.6 CHANGES IN SHIPS SECTION MODULUS

Ships section modulus plays an important role in the overall transverse strength of a ship,
thus calculation process needs to be repeated till an optimum section modulus is obtained.
During this calculation process, ships section modulus structures will be added or deducted.

Figure 4.1 shows a structure with area, a, being added to a ship at distance y from the neutral
axis.

## Figure 4.1 Effect of adding area to a ships cross section

where,
A = Ship cross section area
I = 2nd moment of area at neutral axis
yD = distance from neutral axis to deck
yK = distance from neutral axis to keel

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As a result from the extra structure/area, the ships neutral axis will move h upward and 2nd
moment of area becomes I + I. The effect on deck is mainly based on the location of the
area a. For example, adding of the area will reduce the stress at deck but stress at keel might
increase. Thus, to assure that the stress at keel will not increase:

I I I
0
y K h y K

or

Iy K y K I Iy K Ih 0

till

I h

I yK

ay
h
Aa

## and the changes of 2nd moment of area:

I ay 2 i ( A a)(h) 2

due to the value of i (local 2nd moment of area) that is too small and can be neglected, thus:
a2 y2
I ay 2
A a
2
Aay

A a

if the added area located below the neutral axis, then y value will be negative. Similarly if
area is being reduced/deducted, then a and i will be negative.

## There are two situations that need to be considered:

a) Area being added in between the structure cross section modulus
b) Area being added at above the deck

For area being added in between the structure cross section modulus, the changes in keel are:
I h

I yK
or
Aay 2 ay

A ( A a) y K ( A a)
2

where,

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I

A
and
2
y
yK

To reduce the stress at keel and deck, area to be added must be located at distance more than
2 / yK from the neutral axis.

For area being added at above the deck, maximum stress will occur on the area/structure itself.
The distance of the area from the new neutral axis is:

ay
y h y
A a
Ay

Aa
and for situation where the new section modulus not less than I / yD:
I I I
0
y h y D

or

A y / y D 1
a

y2 / 2 1

where the value above is the minimum area to be added so that the maximum stress can be
reduced.

EXAMPLE 4.6

A superstructure deck with width 8.5m is plan to attached 2.7m above the main deck of a ship.
Find the thickness of the superstructure deck so that the stress on the superstructure deck will
not exceed the main deck.

Given:
A = 25000 cm2
INA = 280000 cm2 m2
Neutral axis from deck = 7.4 m

Solution 4.6

Using formula:
A y / y D 1
a

y2 / 2 1
where,

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y = 2.7 m + 7.4 m
= 10.1 m
2 =I/A
= 280000 / 25000
= 11.2 m2

thus,
10.1
2.5 1
a 7.4 = 0.090 m2
2
10.1
1
11.2
a bt
t a/b
= 0.090 m / 8.5 m
= 0.0106 m

## Movement of neutral axis,

Ay 2.5 10.1
y h
A a 2.5 0.09
y h 9.75 m

and
h 10.1 9.75 0.35 mm

## I at new neutral axis =

I
y h
yD
= 368920 cm2 m2

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## Example of Midship Scantling

Yahya Bin Samian, Department of Marine Technology, FKM , UTM Feb 2005

8m

## 1.5 m 1.75 m 1.5 m 1.5 m

1.5
DECK m
PLATE
t = 8 mm
DECK LONGL
A = 12 cm2
SIDE PLATE
t = 7 mm 2.0
m
LONG BKHD PLATE
t = 6 mm

INNER BOTTOM
PLATE SIDE LONGL 2.0
t = 6 mm A = 12 cm2 m
INNER BOTTOM
LONGL
CENTR A = 12 cm2
E
GIRDE 0.5 m
1m 2m 1m 1m BILGE
R 2.0
PLATE
t = 6 mm m
t = 6 mm

## SIDE GIRDER BILGE LONGL

2.8 m t = 6 mm A = 10 cm2
2.3
BOTTOM m
2.5 LONGL
m BILGE PLATE
A = 12 cm2 t = 10 mm

## 1m 2.5 m 1.25 m 1.25 m

BOTTOM
PLATE 4m
t = 10 mm

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## TYPE 1 : Vertical Plate

Data Required and Calculation Diagram
L = Length (m)
t = Thickness (mm) t
Z = Distance of Centroid from keel (m)
A = Area = L x t (m.mm) L
st 2
1 . Moment = A x Z (m .mm)
2nd. Moment = A x Z2 or 1st Moment x Z (m3.mm)
Io = Inertia Moment = L3 x t (m3.mm)
Z From Keel
TYPE 2 : Horizontal Plate
Data Required and Calculation Diagram
L = Length (m)
t = Thickness (mm) t
Z = Distance of Centroid from keel (m)
A = Area = L x t (m.mm)
1st. Moment = A x Z (m2.mm)
2nd. Moment = A x Z2 or 1st Moment x Z (m3.mm) L
Io = Inertia Moment = 0 (Negligible)

## TYPE 3 : Inclined Plate Z From Keel

Data Required and Calculation Diagram
L = Length (m)
t = Thickness (mm)
h = Distance of Centroid to base = L/2 x Sin() t
Z = Distance of Centroid from keel (m)
A = Area = L x t (m.mm) L
1st. Moment = A x Z (m2.mm)
2nd. Moment = A x Z2 or 1st Moment x Z (m3.mm) h
Io = [A x (2xh)2 ] / 12 (m3.mm)
Z From Keel
TYPE 4 : Sections
Data Required and Calculation Diagram
A = Area (m.mm)
= Area (cm2/100)
= Area (mm2/1000)
Z = Distance of Centroid from keel (m)
1st. Moment = A x Z (m2.mm)
2nd. Moment = A x Z2 or 1st Moment x Z (m3.mm)
Io = 0 (Negligable) Z From Keel
Sections can be grouped together provided they
have the same centroid position (Z)

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## EXAMPLE OF MIDSHIP SECTION MODULUS CALCULATION

L t Z A 1st Moment 2nd Moment Io Angle h
DESCRIPTION Type
(m) (mm) (m From Keel) (m.mm) (m^2.mm) (m^3.mm) (m^3.mm) (deg) (m)
Bottom Plate 4 6 0 24 0 0 0 HP
Inner Bottom Plate 5.5 6 2.8 33 92.4 258.72 0 HP
Deck Plate 4 8 10 32 320 3200 0 HP
Centre Girder 2.8 7.5 1.4 21 29.4 41.16 13.72 VP
Side Girder 2.8 6 1.4 16.8 23.52 32.928 10.976 VP
Long BKHD 7.2 6 6.4 43.2 276.48 1769.472 186.624 VP
bilge Plating 4.61 8 1.15 36.88 42.41 48.77 16.33 IP 30 1.15
Margin Plate 2.54 6 2.55 15.24 38.84 99.01 0.31 IP 11.3 0.25
Deck Longi x 4 (4x10/10) 9.8 4 39.20 384.16 0 Sec
Side Longi -1 (1x12/10) 8.3 1.2 9.96 82.67 0 Sec
Side Longi -2 6.3 1.2 7.56 47.63 0 Sec
Side Longi -3 4.3 1.2 5.16 22.19 0 Sec
Inner Botton Longi x 5 2.5 4 10.00 25.00 0 Sec
Bottom Longi x 2 0 2.4 0.00 0.00 0 Sec
Bilge Longi -1 0.43 1 0.43 0.18 0 Sec
Bilge Longi -2 1.15 1 1.15 1.32 0 Sec
238.12 896.52 6013.22 227.97
Actual Section Modulus
Total Area = 238.12 m.mm
Total 1st. Moment = 896.52 m^2.mm
Dist of NA from Keel = 3.76 m
Total 2nd. Moment = 6013.22 m^3.mm 60132.17 m^2.cm^2
Total Io = 227.97 m^3.mm 2279.67 m^2.cm^2
Total I about Keel = 62411.84 m^2.cm^2
Total I about NA = 59036.47 m^2.cm^2
Height of Deck = 10.00 m
Max y (ydeck or Ykeel) = 6.24 3.76 6.24 m
Section Modulus (Half) = 9468.53 m.cm^2
Section Modulus (Full) = 18937.06 m.cm^2
Required Section Modulus (Example based on Large Tanker)
L= 80 m
B= 16 m
CB = 0.7
C1 = 7.27
C2 = 0.01
SM required = 10422.27 m.cm^2 Safety Factor = 1.82 Acceptable but slightly over designed

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