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AN1-001 are charged.

This is determined by comparing the voltage of the


Microgrid Test Bed batteries to a threshold that represents the minimum voltage
accepted for the batteries to be considered charged. Additional
focus on charging the batteries usually results when the
A. Bross argument is false, as the battery voltage is not above the
L. Breslin threshold. The case statement nested inside the boolean
Z. Zeitler argument of the battery charge is controlled by the generation of
PV energy compared to the required load for the system. The
DEC 2013 three cases represent PV generation that is greater than, less
than, or equal to the load. As the most deeply nested argument,
Overview it ultimately determines which components of the microgrid will
The basic microgrid design interconnects generation sources be activated. All of the data is also logged so that it can be
with loads and storage through the use of an intelligent control viewed to help diagnose any problems with the microgrid.
system. Microgrids can be made small enough to manage a
house or large enough to manage an entire city. We developed a PV data was collected from a PV array on campus and was used
simple test bed for a microgrid that simulates PV generation as to simulate the output of a PV array. Using a clamp-on current
an alternate energy source. It uses LabVIEW and the NI sbRIO meter, current data was collected for a house over the course of
9636 to automate the system. Additional research regarding a week. This data was sent to the electronic load to simulate the
battery storage was completed to determine ways to make the load for the microgrid.
system more robust in terms of using additional alternate energy
sources. Conclusion
The microgrid is able to operate automatically using the NI
Introduction sbRIO-9636. All case statements and booleans respond
The microgrid is a miniature, automated smart grid. It simulates correctly to the measured input values, and the data of the
the storage and usage of green energy in a system that is tied to system can be logged and viewed as a spreadsheet.
a power grid. It is operated by the NI sbRIO-9636, which is
programmed using LabVIEW. The LabVIEW model controls
the grid based on three main inputs: the predicted weather for Some problems were encountered when connecting multiple
the next day, the charge level of the storage/backup batteries, power supplies of different voltages together. The reasons for
and the difference between the load required and the power different voltages were that the PV power supply operated at a
generated. These factors determine which components of the higher voltage than the grid power supply because it had to be
grid will operate to satisfy the load requirement. able to charge the batteries. It was also determined that the PV
array needed to be stepped down to plug back into the grid
Discussion while charging a battery. This could all be completed using an
We started with a functional microgrid test bed, but in-line Uninterrupted Power Supply. These systems allow DC
unfortunately had no intelligent monitoring or control system. current to charge a battery system and convert DC to AC to
The system was designed to have a central control board that power the desired load. An autotransformer is also used in
ties multiple components together. These components include a conjunction with this system to step up or step down the voltage
power supply to simulate the grid, a power supply to simulate to the correct rating. Uninterrupted Power Supplies complete all
PV or renewable energy supply, an electronic load, battery the desired tasks needed to connect multiple voltage sources to
storage, and a solar battery charger. the grid. Each outside voltage source could be placed in line
with its own corresponding UPS, solving the problem of
Approach connecting multiple voltage sources together. This would be
To create an intelligent control system, a new control board was considered for future work with the system.
fabricated that enabled connection to an FPGA board. The new
control board was designed to allow all voltage and current References
measurement wires to connect with the FPGA. The current [1] "Electricity storage: Location, location, location and cost
measurements were done using shunt resistors placed in series - Battery storage for transmission support in Alaska".eia.gov.
with all devices. Due to the FPGAs 16-bit analog input Energy Information Administration (EIA). 2012 .
resolution, instrumentation amps were used to add gain to the
shunt resistor signals. The FPGA board used was the NI sbRIO- [2] Detailed explanation of UPS topologies "High-Availability
9636 which allows for 28 digital input/outputs and 16 analog Power Systems, Part I: UPS Internal Topology".
inputs. This board is programmed and controlled by NI
LabVIEW. [3] Staco Energy UPS On-line vs. Offline "UPS On-Line
Uninterruptible Power Supply Backup Power Source".
The LabVIEW model uses two case statements and a boolean
argument nested inside one another to determine which [4] Rasmussen, Neil (2011), The Different Types of UPS
components of the grid will operate at any given time. The first Systems, Schneider Electric, White Paper 1 rev. 7
case statement uses the result of the Weather Rating Scale
(WRS) input to decide how the system should operate based on
the irradiance of the sun. There are three cases for the
irradiance (1 = poor, 2 = okay, 3 = good). The boolean
argument nested in the WRS statement declares if the batteries