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ABC

CONSTRUCTION WORK
RATES
Material ,Manpower & Machineries
ALTAIR

16
Rule of Thumb
Rule of Thumb

Task / Description Slow Ave Fast Units


Site Investigation Pre Drilling 5.0 4.0 3.0 days/no
Ground Excavation, Hydraulic Backhoe - 50.0 - m3/day
Bored Piling, 25-70m deep 10.0 8.0 6.0 days/no
Formwork Fixing - 12.0 - m2/day
Reinforcement Fixing - 0.7 - Tonnes/day
Concrete Placement - 16.0 - m3/day
Scaffold Erection, Steel Falsework - 140.0 - m3/day
Blockwork Laying - 7.0 - m2/day
Plastering and Rendering - 12.0 - m2/day
Blockwork Laying 7.0 12.0 17.5 m2/day
Stonework Cladding - 5.1 - m2/day
Window Glazing - 1.5 - m2/hr
Granolithic Flooring - 4.5 - m2/hr
Floor Screeding - 4.5 - m2/hr
Floor Screeding - 60.0 - m2/day
Ceramic Wall Tiling - 1.5 - m2/hr
PREPARATION
WORKS
Site Clearance
Initial Works

Clearing Site of Bushes, shrubs, roots 25.00 m2/hr


Lifting turf to be sorted and stacked 2.95 m2/hr

Cutting Down Trees & Roots

Small Trees / Shrubs 14 hrs/each


600 mm - 900 mm Girth 18 hrs/each
900 mm - 1,200 mm Girth 22 hrs/each
1,200 - 1,500 mm Girth 26 hrs/each

Cutting Down Hedges & Roots

Hawthorn - 1.0 m high 0.9 m/hr


- 1.5 m high 0.8 m/hr
- 2.0 m high 0.6 m/hr

Site Clearance

Task / Description Slow Ave Fast Units


Shrubs and Bushes, dig up and removal - 25.0 38.0 m2/hr
Turf, lifting and removal - 2.9 - m2/hr
Trees, small sizes and shrubs - 14.0 - m2/hr
Trees and Shrubs, 500mm - 900mm girth - 18.0 - hrs/no
Trees and Shrubs, 900mm - 1200mm girth - 22.0 - hrs/no
Trees and Shrubs, 1200mm - 1500mm girth - 26.0 - hrs/no
Hedges and Roots, 0.5-1.0m high - 0.9 - m/hr
Hedges and Roots, 1.0-1.5m high - 0.8 - m/hr
Hedges and Roots, 1.5-2.0m high - 0.6 - m/hr
Site Investigation

Task / Description Slow Ave Fast Units


Pre Drilling, Rercussive or Rotary, soft deposits 8.0 10.0 14.0 m/hr
Pre Drilling, Wash Boring, grade V/IV rock 2.5 3.2 3.9 m/hr
Pre Drilling, Triple Tube Sampling, grade V/IV rock 0.4 0.8 0.9 m/hr
Pre Drilling, Rotary, grade III/II rock 0.2 0.5 0.7 m/hr
Pre Drilling, Triple Tube Sampling, grade III/II rock 0.1 0.4 0.7 m/hr

Instrumentation
A typical rate of 3 days per instrument can be used to calculate detailed ground monitoring
scenarios.
EARTHWORKS &
EXCAVATION
WORKS
Basement Excavation
Task / Description Slow Ave Fast Units
Hydraulic Excavator, 0.3m3 bucket, Sand/Soil - Basement by
6.4 8.0 9.4 m3/hr
SensePlus">Works
Hydraulic Excavator, 0.3m3 bucket, Gravel Beds - Basement by
5.5 6.9 8.1 m3/hr
SensePlus">Works
Hydraulic Excavator, 0.3m3 bucket, Clay/Chalk - Basement by
5.2 6.5 7.9 m3/hr
SensePlus">Works
Hydraulic Excavator, 0.3m3 bucket, Hard Ground - Basement by
4.7 5.9 8.2 m3/hr
SensePlus">Works
Hydraulic Excavator, 0.4m3 bucket, Sand/Soil - Basement by
12.6 15.4 18.9 m3/hr
SensePlus">Works
Hydraulic Excavator, 0.4m3 bucket, Gravel Beds - Basement Works 11.7 14.3 16.7 m3/hr
Hydraulic Excavator, 0.4m3 bucket, Clay/Chalk - Basement Works 10.9 13.3 15.6 m3/hr
Hydraulic Excavator, 0.4m3 bucket, Hard Ground - Basement Works 9.7 11.8 14.0 m3/hr
Hydraulic Excavator, 0.5m3 bucket, Sand/Soil - Basement Works 18.2 20.0 23.0 m3/hr
Hydraulic Excavator, 0.5m3 bucket, Gravel Beds - Basement Works 16.5 18.1 20.0 m3/hr
Hydraulic Excavator, 0.5m3 bucket, Clay/Chalk - Basement Works 15.4 16.7 19.3 m3/hr
Hydraulic Excavator, 0.5m3 bucket, Hard Ground - Basement Works 13.3 15.4 17.7 m3/hr

Excavate and Remove

Task / Description Slow Ave Fast Units

Excavate Spoil Heaps to Transport, 0.6m3 bucket, Sand/Soil 14.5 20.0 25.6 m3/hr

Excavate Spoil Heaps to Transport, 0.6m3 bucket, Gravel Beds 15.2 20.4 25.6 m3/hr

Excavate Spoil Heaps to Transport, 0.6m3 bucket, Clay/Chalk 12.3 18.5 23.2 m3/hr

Excavate Spoil Heaps to Transport, 0.6m3 bucket, Boulder Clay 11.2 16.9 21.3 m3/hr

Excavate Spoil Heaps to Transport, 1.1m3 bucket, Sand/Soil 25.4 30.3 35.7 m3/hr

Excavate Spoil Heaps to Transport, 1.1m3 bucket, Gravel Beds 25.6 31.3 37.0 m3/hr
Excavate Spoil Heaps to Transport, 1.1m3 bucket, Clay/Chalk 22.5 27.8 33.3 m3/hr

Excavate Spoil Heaps to Transport, 1.1m3 bucket, Boulder Clay 18.9 24.4 30.3 m3/hr

Load Spoil to Barge, capacity 2,000m3 - 8.0 - hrs

Load Spoil to Barge, capacity 1,500m3 - 6.5 - hrs

Load Spoil to Barge, capacity 1,000m3 - 5.5 - hrs

Spoil conveyor, 600mm belt, 150m/min - 260.0 - m3/hr

Bell Ground Anchors


Task / Description Slow Ave Fast Units
Uncased Anchors, 10m long - 2.0 - no/day
Top Cased Anchors, 15m long - 1.0 - no/day
Anchors stressing - 2.2 - no/day

Bored Piling
Task / Description Slow Ave Fast Units
Cycle Time, 5-20m deep 8.0 4.0 4.0 days/no
Cycle Time, 20-40m deep 10.0 8.0 - days/no
Cycle Time, 40-70m deep 25.0 10.0 - days/no
Cycle Time, 70-90m deep 45.0 25.0 - days/no
Cycle Time, 90-135m deep 60.0 45.0 - days/no
Move piling setup to next location - 2.0 - hrs
Excave shaft by grab, general fill/uppr levels - 3.5 - m/hr
Excave shaft by grab, sand/minor rubble - 2.1 - m/hr
Excave shaft by grab, marinve/aluvium - 2.5 - m/hr
Excave shaft by grab/RCD, CDT - 0.5 - m/hr
Excave shaft by grab/RCD, CDG <150 - 1.5 - m/hr
Excave shaft by RCD, CDG 150-200 - 1.0 - m/hr
Excave shaft by RCD, CDG >200/gravel - 0.5 - m/hr
Excave shaft by RCD/Chisel, corestones - 0.5 - m/hr
Excave Rock Socket by RCD, grade IV/V rock - 0.2 0.3 m/hr
Excave Rock Socket by RCD, grade II/III rock - 0.1 0.2 m/hr
Excave Rock Socket by RCD, tendering rate - 0.1 - m/hr
Add/remove RCD plant - 2.0 - hrs
Add/remove RCD drill string/drill bit - 5.0 - hrs
Remove Obstruction, above water hand hammers - 0.8 - m/hr
Remove Obstruction, below water heavy chisel - 0.5 - m/hr
Concrete Plug, RCD off/tremmie/concrete/cure/RCD on 60.0 53.0 50.0 hrs
Install air lift tremmie tube - 5.0 - hrs
Fabricate reinforcement cages - 2.5 - hs/cage
Install reinforcement cages - 2.0 - hrs/no
Shaft cleaning, air lifting after excavation - 8.0 - hrs
Shaft cleaning, air lifting after cage installed - 2.0 - hrs
Shaft concreting/extract casing 5-70m deep - 12.0 - hrs
Shaft concreting/extract casing 70-95m deep - 14.0 - hrs
Shaft concreting/extract casing 95-135m deep - 48.0 - hrs
Concrete curing prior to remove telescopic casing - 72.0 - hrs
Concrete Testing, Coring Test - 3.2 2.2 m/hr
Concrete Testing, Sonic Logging Test - 2.5 - hrs/no
Concrete Testing, Vibration Test - 6.5 - hrs/no

Bulk Excavation
Task / Description Slow Ave Fast Units
Excavation Bulking Factor, Sand/Soil - 15.0 20.0 %
Excavation Bulking Factor, Gravel - 33.0 - %
Excavation Bulking Factor, Clay/Chalk - 40.0 - %
Excavation Bulking Factor, Boulder Clay - 45.0 - %
Excavation Bulking Factor, Rock - 60.0 - %
Spoil Weight, Rock - 2.5 - Tonnes/m3
Spoil Weight, Concrete - 2.4 - Tonnes/m3
Spoil Weight, Landfill/CDG - 1.9 - Tonnes/m3
Spoil Weight, Sand - 1.8 - Tonnes/m3
Rail Mounted Grab, 2.0m3 bucket 2.4min lift cycle 30.0 48.0 59.0 m3/hr
Crane Mounted Clamshell Grab, 2.0m3 bucket 2.9min lift cycle 25.0 33.0 41.0 m3/hr
Crane Mounted Clamshell Grab, 2.5m3 bucket 2.9min lift cycle 34.0 42.0 52.0 m3/hr
Hydraulic Excavator, 0.3m3 bucket, Sand/Soil 6.9 8.7 10.2 m3/hr
Hydraulic Excavator, 0.4m3 bucket, Sand/Soil 23.4 28.6 33.4 m3/hr
Hydraulic Excavator, 0.5m3 bucket, Sand/Soil 45.5 50.0 58.0 m3/hr
Hydraulic Excavator, 0.3m3 bucket, Gravel Beds 5.6 7.1 8.2 m3/hr
Hydraulic Excavator, 0.4m3 bucket, Gravel Beds 20.5 25.0 29.0 m3/hr
Hydraulic Excavator, 0.5m3 bucket, Gravel Beds 36.8 40.0 46.0 m3/hr
Hydraulic Excavator, 0.3m3 bucket, Clay/Chalk 5.6 7.1 8.3 m3/hr
Hydraulic Excavator, 0.4m3 bucket, Clay/Chalk 20.5 25.0 28.7 m3/hr
Hydraulic Excavator, 0.5m3 bucket, Clay/Chalk 37.0 40.0 46.0 m3/hr
Hydraulic Excavator, 0.3m3 bucket, Hard Ground 4.5 6.1 7.2 m3/hr
Hydraulic Excavator, 0.4m3 bucket, Hard Ground 17.9 22.2 25.0 m3/hr
Hydraulic Excavator, 0.5m3 bucket, Hard Ground 25.7 28.6 32.9 m3/hr

Dewatering
To setup a cofferdam dewatering system, including boring, pump installation and outflow
pipework and drainage tanks etc, typical rates are...
Small 2 hole system, for an overrun tunnel, with a single drilling rig takes about 7 - 10 days to
get up and running.
A larger system, with 10 - 15 holes, for a station type cofferdam will take in the region of 3
weeks with 2 rigs. This can be speeded up with the use of more rigs to reduce the well boring
times.
A typical rate of 2.5 days per pump installation can be used to calculate detailed pumping
arrangements. The water level can be dropped in a "closed cofferdam" within a 6 to 8 hour
period for a 25,000 m2 cofferdam with a 2 m water level reduction. For smaller closed areas it
will take only a few hours at most to reduce the water level by 2.5 - 3 metres.
Recharge System - Average well depth of say 55 m deep, not into rock, 9 wells in 10 days or
1.11 days/no with an additional 4 - 5 days to connect pipework and recharge backup tanks etc.
Dewatering
Task / Description Slow Ave Fast Units
Setup small 2 hole system 10.0 8.0 6.0 days
Setup large 15 hole system - 21.0 - days
Calculate system times per pump - 2.5 - days/pump
Setup Recharge System - 3.5 - days/pump

Cofferdam Works
Soil Mix Wall Three auger machine drilling and mixing cement into three cores. H-piles dropped
into two, then machine moves along by two holes.
An average output was 4 - 5 m/day.

Excavate & Reduce Levels


Excavate By Hand
Trenches (m3/hr)
Depth in Metres-> Ne 1.5 1.5-3.0 3.0-4.5

Sand/Soil lose 0.66 0.45 0.33


Sand/Soil firm 0.57 0.38 0.28
Gravel 0.45 0.31 0.23
Clay/Heavy Soil 0.46 0.31 0.24
Boulder Clay 0.38 0.26 0.19
2 3
Pits or Bases Ne 2 m (m /hr)

Depth in Metres-> Ne 1.5 1.5-3.0 3.0-4.5


Sand/Soil lose 0.5 0.33 -
Sand/Soil firm 0.43 0.29 -
Gravel 0.34 0.23 -
Clay/Heavy Soil 0.35 0.24 -
Boulder Clay 0.28 0.19 -
Hand Transportation of Spoil (m3/hr)

Wheel
0 - 10 m 6.25
10 - 20 m 3.23
20 - 50 m 2.13
Trim Excavation (m3/hr)

Ave Thickness Sand Gravel Clay Boulders


0 - 25 mm 20.00 16.67 20.00 14.29
25 - 50 mm 11.11 8.33 9.09 7.69
50 - 75 mm 7.69 5.88 6.25 5.00
75 - 125 mm 5.56 4.35 4.55 3.70

Reduced Levels (D6 Dozer)


Not Ex .25m - 45m3 per hr
Not Ex 1m - 60m3 per hr
Ex 1m - 75m3 per hr

Excavate & Spread and Level


Small Scale Spread and Level By Hand
Including load and wheel an average of 20 m from tipped heap (m3/hr)

Layers -> n.e.25mm 25-75mm 75.200mm Exc.200mm


Sand/Soil
n.e. 200 m2 1.03 1.03 1.12 1.23
2
exc. 200 m 1.37 1.37 1.49 1.64
Gravel/Shingle
n.e. 200 m2 - 0.86 0.93 1.03
exc. 200 m2 - 1.14 1.23 1.37
Hardcore
n.e. 200 m2 - 0.85 1.02 1.27
2
exc. 200 m - 1.02 1.27 1.69
Spread and Level By Crawler Shovel Rates in (m3/hr)

Machine Bucket-> 0.6m3 0.8m3 1.0m3 1.2m3


Sand/Soil
n.e. 200 m2 18.67 38.46 43.48 52.63
2
exc. 200 m 24.39 50.00 55.56 66.67
Gravel/Shingle
n.e. 200 m2 18.87 38.46 43.48 52.63
2
exc. 200 m 24.39 50.00 55.56 66.67
Hardcore
n.e. 200 m2 15.87 31.25 37.04 43.48
exc. 200 m2 19.23 40.00 47.62 55.56
Clay
n.e. 200 m2 17.24 35.71 43.48 47.62
2
exc. 200 m 22.22 45.45 55.56 62.50

Note:

n.e means "not exceeding"

Excavation Works

1) Excavate & Load


Excavate Spoil Heaps and Load to Transport (m3/hr):
Material 0.6 m3 0.8 m3 1.0 m3 1.2 m3
Sand/Soil 20.0 25.6 30.3 35.7
Gravel 20.4 25.6 31.3 37.0
Clay/Chalk 18.5 23.2 27.8 33.3
Boulder Clay 16.9 21.3 24.4 30.3

Note:
0.6m3, 0.8m3, 1.0m3 and 1.2m3 are excavator bucket capacity.
20.0, 25.6, 30.3 and 35.7 etc are excavation rates in m3 / hr

2) Excavate By Crawler Shovel.


Including excavate and bank/stock pile (m3/hr)
Sand/Soil
Machine Bucket -> 0.8m3 1.0m3 1.2m3
0.6m3
Pushed n.e.20 m 20.00 25.00 30.30 35.71
Pushed 20 - 50 m 13.89 20.41 23.81 27.78
Pushed 50 - 125 m 7.63 12.66 16.67 20.41

Gravel
Pushed n.e. 20 m 20.40 25.64 31.25 37.04
Pushed 20 - 50 m 14.29 20.83 25.00 28.57
Pushed 50 - 100 m 7.69 12.82 17.24 21.28
Clay/Chalk/Heavy Soil

Pushed n.e. 20 m 18.52 23.26 27.78 33.33


Pushed 20 - 50 m 12.66 18.52 21.74 25.64
Pushed 50 - 100 m 6.99 11.63 15.15 18.87
Boulder Clay

Pushed n.e. 20 m 16.95 21.28 24.39 30.30


Pushed 20 - 50 m 11.63 16.95 19.61 23.26
Pushed 50 - 100 m 6.33 10.42 13.70 17.54
3
Including excavate and load to transport (m /hr)

Machine Bucket -> 0.6m3 0.8m3 1.0m3 1.2m3


Sand/Soil 17.86 23.26 27.03 30.30
Gravel 16.67 23.26 27.78 31.25
Chalk/Heavy Soil 14.71 21.74 25.00 29.41
Boulder Clay 13.70 19.61 22.22 27.03

3) Ground Excavation
Ground Excavation Rates (m3/hr):

Ground Type Bucket Bulk Works Basements Trenches Small & Deep
Sand/Soil 0.3m3 8.7 8.0 7.1 8.4>
0.4m3 28.5 15.4 25.0 10.0
0.5m3 50.0 20.0 28.6 13.3
Gravel 0.3m3 7.1 6.9 6.1 4.5
0.4m3 25.9 14.3 22.2 8.7
0.5m3 40.0 18.1 28.6 11.1
Clay/Chalk 0.3m3 7.1 6.5 6.1 4.1
0.4m3 25.0 13.3 22.2 8.3
0.5m3 40.0 16.7 28.6 10.5
V.Difficult 0.3m3 6.1 5.9 5.4 4.1
0.4m3 22.2 11.8 20.0 7.7
0.5m3 28.6 11.8 20.0 6.7

Small or Deep Excavations

Task / Description Slow Ave Fast Units


Hydraulic Excavator, 0.3m3 bucket, Sand/Soil 6.7 8.4 9.9 m3/hr
Hydraulic Excavator, 0.3m3 bucket, Gravel Beds 3.2 4.5 5.0 m3/hr
Hydraulic Excavator, 0.3m3 bucket, Clay/Chalk 3.3 4.1 5.2 m3/hr
Hydraulic Excavator, 0.3m3 bucket, Hard Ground 3.3 4.1 5.2 m3/hr
Hydraulic Excavator, 0.4m3 bucket, Sand/Soil 8.2 10.0 11.7 m3/hr
Hydraulic Excavator, 0.4m3 bucket, Gravel Beds 7.1 8.7 10.2 m3/hr
Hydraulic Excavator, 0.4m3 bucket, Clay/Chalk 6.5 8.3 9.4 m3/hr
Hydraulic Excavator, 0.4m3 bucket, Hard Ground 6.3 7.7 9.1 m3/hr
Hydraulic Excavator, 0.5m3 bucket, Sand/Soil 12.2 13.3 15.4 m3/hr
Hydraulic Excavator, 0.5m3 bucket, Gravel Beds 10.2 11.1 12.9 m3/hr
Hydraulic Excavator, 0.5m3 bucket, Clay/Chalk 9.7 10.5 12.1 m3/hr
Hydraulic Excavator, 0.5m3 bucket, Hard Ground 6.1 6.7 7.7 m3/hr

4) Material Weights
Wagon sizes and tonnage capacities vary and should be taken into consideration.
Rock = 2.5 T/m3
Concrete = 2.4 T/m3
Landfill / CDG = 1.9 T/m3
Sand = 1.8 T/m3

5) Spoil By Barge
Removal / Transportation Of Spoil By Barge:
The size, getting material to the facility, location and movement restrictions of the barge loading
facilities are critical to production. A 2,000 m3 flat bottom barge, could easily be loaded 1.5
times per day, with a planned allowance of 2 no movements per day for example...
1,000 m3 barge, filled in 9.5 hrs = 2 movements/day
1,500 m3 barge, filled in 6.5 hrs = 3.5 movements/day

6) Spoil By Conveyor
Removal / Transportation Of Spoil By Conveyor: The size and location of the conveyor are
critical to production and should be sized according to the most critical peaks in excavation.
There are the following parameters to select...

Max excavation per hour 185 m3/hr


Assume belt size 600 mm
Assume conveyor trough angle 20 degrees
From the above you read off specific parameters from the suppliers table...

Recommended belt speed 150 m/min


Angle of repose for dry sand 35 degrees
Angle of surcharge 20 degrees
You must then read off, from the manufacturers tables the conveyor capacity...

Cross-sectional area of load 0.02979 m2


At a speed of 150 m/min gives 268 m3/hr
Assume a bulking factor for excavated sane = 15%, and assume 50 minutes work per hour to
allow for blockages and maintenance etc...
268 x 85% x 50/60 = 190 so therefore capacity of conveyor = 190 m3 per hour = OK.
Hong Kong Airport Express Station conveyor was capable of 11,500 m3/week.

Ground Compaction
1) Compact & Consolidate
Compact & Consolidate using Vibratory Roller or compactor.
Sand 31.25 m2/hr
Soil 58.82 m2/hr
Clay 55.56 m2/hr
Hardcore 38.46 m2/hr
Ash 57.85 m2/hr
2) Deep Compaction
Essentially required in order to reduce expected ground settlement and to protect underground
utilities / structures etc.
Deep compaction by 350 mm dia Vibroflot, 3 m centres in sand.
Working on 12 hour basis, a vibroflot will achieve an output of 3-4,000 m3/shift (5,000 m3/day
has been achieved in an extended shift).
Ground Compaction

Task / Description Slow Ave Fast Units


Deep Vibroflot, 3m centres 330.0 380.0 465.0 m3/hr
Vibro-Roller, Sand 28.5 31.2 45.2 m2/hr
Vibro-Roller, Soil - 58.8 - m2/hr
Vibro-Roller, Clay - 55.6 - m2/hr
Vibro-Roller, Hardcore - 38.4 - m2/hr
Vibro-Roller, Ash - 57.8 - m2/hr

3) Hand Fill & Compact


Loose from side of excavation, including compaction (m3/hr)...

Material Ne 100m 100-200mm 200-300mm exc 300m


Loose Sand/Soil 0.85 1.02 1.28 1.69
Clay/Heavy Chalk 0.77 0.92 1.16 1.56
Hoging 0.81 0.97 1.20 1.61
Hardcode 0.71 0.84 1.06 1.41

Spread & Leveling


Spread and Level
Task / Description Slow Ave Fast Units

Crawler Shovel, 0.8m3 bucket, Sand/Soil, pushed 5-50m to stockpile 13.9 20.4 25.0 m3/hr

Crawler Shovel, 0.8m3 bucket, Sand/Soil, pushed 50-120m to


7.6 9.5 12.6 m3/hr
stockpile

Crawler Shovel, 0.8m3 bucket, Gravel, pushed 5-50m to stockpile 14.2 20.4 25.6 m3/hr
Crawler Shovel, 0.8m3 bucket, Gravel, pushed 50-120m to stockpile 7.6 10.2 12.8 m3/hr

Crawler Shovel, 0.8m3 bucket, Clay/Chalk, pushed 5-50m to


12.7 18.4 23.2 m3/hr
stockpile

Crawler Shovel, 0.8m3 bucket, Clay/Chalk, pushed 50-120m to


6.9 8.9 11.6 m3/hr
stockpile

Crawler Shovel, 0.8m3 bucket, Boulder Clay, pushed 5-50m to


11.6 16.9 21.3 m3/hr
stockpile

Crawler Shovel, 0.8m3 bucket, Boulder Clay, pushed 50-120m to


6.3 8.2 10.4 m3/hr
stockpile

Crawler Shovel, 1.2m3 bucket, Sand/Soil, pushed 5-50m to stockpile 23.8 28.5 35.7 m3/hr

Crawler Shovel, 1.2m3 bucket, Sand/Soil, pushed 50-120m to


16.7 18.5 20.4 m3/hr
stockpile

Crawler Shovel, 1.2m3 bucket, Gravel, pushed 5-50m to stockpile 25.0 32.0 37.0 m3/hr

Crawler Shovel, 1.2m3 bucket, Gravel, pushed 50-120m to stockpile 17.2 19.3 21.2 m3/hr

Crawler Shovel, 1.2m3 bucket, Clay/Chalk, pushed 5-50m to


21.7 27.5 33.3 m3/hr
stockpile

Crawler Shovel, 1.2m3 bucket, Clay/Chalk, pushed 50-120m to


15.1 16.9 18.8 m3/hr
stockpile

Crawler Shovel, 1.2m3 bucket, Boulder Clay, pushed 5-50m to


19.6 24.5 30.3 m3/hr
stockpile

Crawler Shovel, 1.2m3 bucket, Boulder Clay, pushed 50-120m to


13.7 15.9 17.5 m3/hr
stockpile

Crawler Shovel, 0.6m3 bucket, 50-200m2, Sand/Soil 18.6 28.5 38.5 m3/hr

Crawler Shovel, 0.6m3 bucket, over 200m2, Sand/Soil 24.4 37.2 50.0 m3/hr

Crawler Shovel, 0.6m3 bucket, 50-200m2, Gravel 18.9 28.6 38.4 m3/hr

Crawler Shovel, 0.6m3 bucket, over 200m2, Gravel 24.2 37.2 50.0 m3/hr

Crawler Shovel, 0.6m3 bucket, 50-200m2, Hardcore 15.8 23.5 31.2 m3/hr
Crawler Shovel, 0.6m3 bucket, over 200m2, Hardcore 19.2 29.6 40.0 m3/hr

Crawler Shovel, 0.6m3 bucket, 50-200m2, Boulder Clay 17.2 26.4 35.7 m3/hr

Crawler Shovel, 0.6m3 bucket, over 200m2, Boulder Clay 22.2 33.8 45.4 m3/hr

Crawler Shovel, 1.2m3 bucket, 50-200m2, Sand/Soil 43.5 48.0 52.6 m3/hr

Crawler Shovel, 1.2m3 bucket, over 200m2, Sand/Soil 55.5 61.1 66.7 m3/hr

Crawler Shovel, 1.2m3 bucket, 50-200m2, Gravel 43.8 48.3 52.9 m3/hr

Crawler Shovel, 1.2m3 bucket, over 200m2, Gravel 55.5 61.1 66.7 m3/hr

Crawler Shovel, 1.2m3 bucket, 50-200m2, Hardcore 37.1 40.3 43.5 m3/hr

Crawler Shovel, 1.2m3 bucket, over 200m2, Hardcore 47.6 51.6 55.6 m3/hr

Crawler Shovel, 1.2m3 bucket, 50-200m2, Boulder Clay 43.8 45.7 47.6 m3/hr

Crawler Shovel, 1.2m3 bucket, over 200m2, Boulder Clay 55.6 59.1 62.5 m3/hr

Steel Strutting
Task / Description Slow Ave Fast Units
Horizontal heavy duty strutting - 2.0 - days/no
Diagonal heavy duty strutting - 6.0 - days/no

Trench Excavations
Task / Description Slow Ave Fast Units
Hydraulic Excavator, 0.3m3 bucket, Sand/Soil 5.6 7.1 8.2 m3/hr
Hydraulic Excavator, 0.3m3 bucket, Gravel Beds 4.8 6.1 7.3 m3/hr
Hydraulic Excavator, 0.3m3 bucket, Clay/Chalk 4.8 6.1 7.1 m3/hr
Hydraulic Excavator, 0.3m3 bucket, Hard Ground 9.7 5.4 6.4 m3/hr
Hydraulic Excavator, 0.4m3 bucket, Sand/Soil 20.5 25.0 29.2 m3/hr
Hydraulic Excavator, 0.4m3 bucket, Gravel Beds 18.2 22.2 26.0 m3/hr
Hydraulic Excavator, 0.4m3 bucket, Clay/Chalk 18.2 22.2 26.0 m3/hr
Hydraulic Excavator, 0.4m3 bucket, Hard Ground 17.0 20.0 23.4 m3/hr
Hydraulic Excavator, 0.5m3 bucket, Sand/Soil 26.0 28.6 33.1 m3/hr
Hydraulic Excavator, 0.5m3 bucket, Gravel Beds 26.3 28.6 33.2 m3/hr
Hydraulic Excavator, 0.5m3 bucket, Clay/Chalk 26.3 28.6 33.2 m3/hr
Hydraulic Excavator, 0.5m3 bucket, Hard Ground 22.7 25.0 28.8 m3/hr
Excavate and Board Trench, 0.5-1.5m deep, < 2.0m wide 3.3 4.5 6.8 m2/hr
Excavate and Board Trench, 1.5-3.0m deep, < 2.0m wide 3.0 4.2 6.5 m2/hr
Excavate and Board Trench, 3.0-4.5m deep, < 2.0m wide 2.7 4.0 6.0 m2/hr
Excavate and Board Trench, 0.5-1.5m deep, > 2.0m wide 6.6 7.1 8.8 m2/hr
Excavate and Board Trench, 1.5-3.0m deep, > 2.0m wide 6.2 6.7 9.2 m2/hr
Excavate and Board Trench, 3.0-4.5m deep, > 2.0m wide 5.8 6.2 10.5 m2/hr
FOUNDATION
WORKS
Barrette Piles
Task / Description Slow Ave Fast Units
Rule of Thumb, overall rate by Mill 0.5 1.1 1.2 hrs/no
Fabricate reinforcement cages - 4.0 - hrs/cage
Concreting barrette panels 40.0 50.0 55.0 m3/hr
Trimming top of barrette panels - 2.4 - days/no
Concrete Testing, Coring Test 4.0 3.5 2.0 days/no
Concrete Testing, Sonic Logging Test - 0.7 - days/no

Bored Piling
Pre-Drilling - Site Investigation
Pre-boring will be carried out at each location to ascertain the target founding level.
Rotary rig drilling operations incorporate the use of a steel core that is used when a core sample
is required. Another type of boreing is called Wash Bore or Percussive Bore which simply
means that a bore is flushed out and is used when no soil sample is required. Typical rates
are...

Type of Strata Plant Used Rate (m/hr)


Top soft deposits of site fill Percussive / Rotary 10.00
Grade V/IV rock deposits Wash Boring 3.15
Triple Tube Sampling 0.75
Grade III/II rock deposits Rotary 0.50
Triple Tube Sampling 0.50

With a standard rig, working a 12 hour shift, a typical output rate of 66 hrs/hole/rig is possible.
As-Built Information. On Central Reclamation, Contract UA11/91, borehole drilling completed
with the following results...
1. Average depth of 61.15 m, total depth of 428 m
2. Average rock socket depth of 4.65 m
3. The durations ranged from 4 to 8 days
4. Average of 5.85 days, total duration of 41 days.
The Target Founding level
This is defined as the required socket into the bedrock, which is defined as moderately
decomposed rock grade III or better with a core recovery greater than 85% (allowable bearing
capacity of 5 mPa). The continuity of the founding rock is demonstrated by continuing the pre-
bored hole a maximum of 5 METERs or 3 times the pile diameter, whichever is the greater.
The cores are logged, stored and photographed and submitted together with proposed founding
levels for approval.
Setting Out
Before starting excavation at the pile position the following steps are taken:
Survey and record the existing ground level at the pile position
Setout the pile location from the reference points and in order to monitor the position of the steel
casing, control pins are usually established at two orthogonal positions, offset from the centre of
the pile.
Pile Tolerances
In the case of out of position casings, adjustment can be made to keep the vertical alignment and
plan position within the limits of no more than 75 mm off-centre on plan position and not
deviating by more than 1:75 from the vertical axis.
Pile Excavation / Casings
The shaft of the pile is excavated within a temporary steel casing with an outside diameter of say
approximately 200 - 300 mm greater than the pile diameter. The casing is used mainly in areas
of unstable ground and are driven using hydraulic casing oscillator attached to a crawler crane or
a casing vibrator.
Shaft excavation is carried out using a single or double hammer grab supported by crawler
crane. The steel casing toe is kept in front of the excavation level until it is 0.5 METERs above
the pile cut-of level. The pile shaft is often flooded with bentonite or water and excavation
proceeds to the top of the CDG.
Excavation then proceeds by reverse circulation drilling (RCD) using large diameter drilling
heads with special rock cutters and flushing by air lift. Bentonite or water levels are always
maintained above the ground water level to ensure stability of the shaft.
Calculation Of Bored Pile Construction / Excavation Time
Piling times can be reduced by the use of service cranes for reinforcement and concreting
activities.
An additional extended shift would often be required for certain piles, as would RCD down-
time.
Forecast construction times can be derived by using output rates (hours per item)...

Operation Element Details Hours

Add or Remove Reverse Circluation Drill Plant (RCD) incl drill bit 2 hrs
(incl assembly of drill
Add or Remove RCD drill bit 5 hrs
string)

(incl drill string &


RCD bell-out bit 5 hrs
stabilisers)

Installation Airlift tremmie tube 5 hrs

Reinforcement cages (time for joining each cage) 2 hrs

Cleaning Time Initial airlift cleaning (after finishing excavation) 8 hrs

Final airlift cleaning (after fixing steel cage) 2 hrs

Concreting Incl extract casing ( < 70 m deep) 12 hrs

( > 70 and < 95 m deep) 14 hrs

( > 95 and < 135 m deep) 48 hrs

Only required prior to removal of telescopic


Curing Time 72 hrs
casings

Cycle Time Move piling setup to next location 2 hrs

Shaft Rate
Strata Plant Used
Excavation (m/hr)

General Fill (upper ground levels) Grab 3.50 m/hr

Sand, Minor Rubble Grab 2.10 m/hr

Marine / Alluvium Deposits Grab 2.50 m/hr

CDG < 150 RCD/Grab 1.50 m/hr


CDG > 150 < 200 RCD 1.00 m/hr

CDG > 200, Compacted Gravel RCD 0.50 m/hr

CDT RCD / Grab 0.50 m/hr

Corestones RCD / Chisel 0.50 m/hr

Rock Socket - Grade IV/V RCD 0.25 m/hr

Rock Socket - Grade II/III RCD 0.125 m/hr

Rock Socket - (Tendering Rate) RCD 0.10 m/hr

Forecast excavation or cycle times can then be derived by analysing ground conditions. Site
investigation will provide the depths / types of strata which can then be matched to production
output rates (see above).
Note - A piles diameter has negligible effect on production time and as such is ignored.
Example - For a pile founding on rock at 60 m deep...
(a) Calculate Allowance For Plant Time / Other Elements (hrs)....

Element Hours

Set up RCD 5.0

Excavate Time See Below

Remove RCD (including drill bit, string and stabilisers) 5.0

Setup / Remove Airlift Tremmie Tube 5.0

Initial Post-Excavation Airlifting 5.0

Place reinforcement (5 No cages @ 12m = 5 x 2 hrs) 10.0

Setup / Remove Airlift Tremmie Tube 5.0


Final Post-Reinforcement Airlifting 2.0

Concrete and remove casing 12.0

Move to next location 2.0

Calculate Total Construction / Plant Time 52.0 hrs

(b) Calculate Allowance For Excavation Time (hrs)...

Depth of Strata (m) Type of Rock Production Rate (m/hr) Plant Used Time (Hrs)

0 20 Sand/minor rubble 2.00 Grab 10.0

20 - 35 CDG less than 150 1.50 RCD/Grab 10.0

35 - 47 CDG more than 150 1.00 RCD 12.0

47 - 57 CDG > 200/corestones 0.50 RCD 20.0

57 - 60 Rock socket 0.20 RCD 15.0

(c) Calculate Total Pile Excavation Time = 67.0 hrs


(d) Overall Pile Time

Construction / Plant Time (b above) 52.0 hrs

Excavation Time (d above) 67.0 hrs

OVERALL CYCLE TIME (b + d) 119 hrs

(With 12 hr shifts) (b + d) 9.9 days


Bored Pile Construction As-Builts
General Rule of Thumb Pile Times (days)...

Depth (m) => <20 <40 <70 <90 <135

Days Per Pile 4.0* 8.0 10.0 25.0 45.0

Note - due to the required plant assembly and operation times, 4 days is the minimum possible
pile construction time for any situation.
Methods For Overcoming Obstructions
If the obstruction is shallow (ie 0 to 2.5 m below ground level) a backhoe-breaker will be used to
form a suitable hole.
Where the obstructions are located at greater depths an oversized temporary casing is driven by
the oscillator to the top of the obstruction.
If the obstruction is above water level a hand operated air hammer is used, a typical rate of = 0.8
m/hr
If below water level a down the hole hammer or heavy chisel supported by crawler crane will be
used, a typical rate of = 0.5 m/hr
If a concrete plug is required to provide a well formed shaft wall when an obstruction or
excessive overbreak or fault is encountered...

Element Hours
Remove RCD 5 hrs
Install Tremie Concrete Tube 5 hrs
Place Concrete Plug 2 hrs
Cure Concrete 36 hrs
Replace RCD and drill string 5 hrs
TOTAL TIME LOSS 53 hrs (2.2 days or 4.4 shifts)

Cleaning of Pile Base


The hole of the pile shaft is cleaned using an airlift until the water becomes clean or negligible
particles in suspension is discharged.
Reinforcement Cages
Cages are constructed in suitable sections, usually in the order of 12 m long, complete with sonic
tubes and coring tubes.
Fabrication, 12 m long cage with 6 no fixers...

Fabricate 1 cage 2.5 hrs


Total cages required 5 no
Overall Fabrication Time 12.5 hours

Steel Stanchion Fabrication and Installation


Stanchions are usually fabricated off-site and delivered in sections. Prior to installation the
sections are welded together to form the complete stanchion. Stanchion sizes are usually in the
region of 525 mm x 525 mm.
With an average length of say 28 m, the welding time would be around 5 days and are tested by
an ultrasonic weld test and an MPI test.
After the installation of the reinforcing cage in to the shaft the stanchion will be lifted until it
hangs vertical. It is then lowered into the excavation and clamped into position.
Concreting
Pile concreting is carried out under water by "tremie" techniques maintaining the water or
bentonite head inside the casing at or above existing ground water level. The tremie tube
(250mm) is withdrawn as concreting proceeds ensuring a minimum concrete head of 2 METERs
above the top of the tremie tube.
Sequence Of Piling
The sequence of construction of piles is chosen in such a manner that no damage can be caused
to nearby piles still under construction or recently concreted (i.e. less than 3 days).
On a 12 METER grid, a normal layout would mean say having two non-worked on piles between
each open excavation in the longitudinal direction (ie a 36 METER spacing) thus allowing room
for the crane etc and a lesser spacing of every other pile being worked on (ie a 24 METER
spacing).
Pile Testing
The workability of concrete is tested on site by measuring the slump and temperature of
concreting at the time of discharge into the pile shaft. Laboratory tests are carried out in order to
check the strength of the placed concrete. A number of test cubes are made and tested at 7 and
28 days.
Coring Test - Certain piles selected by the Engineer will be cored their full depth. The depth of
cores into the base material (rock) will usually be at least 600 mm. Cores are placed in correct
order and relative position in core boxes which clearly mark the depths of cores. The cores are
usually photographed and submitted to the Engineer. The testing of the coring will provide
additional information about the quality of the concrete as well as the condition of the interface
between concrete and rock.
Sonic Logging Test - In order to test the quality of the concrete as well as the integrity of the
pile in its overall length and pile toe condition sonic core testing is used. Sonic tubes are
installed with the reinforcement cage in order to allow the lowering of the signal transmitter and
signal receiver probe down the bottom of the pile. These tubes are sealed at the bottom.
Vibration Tests - This test determines the pile length and shape and the overall pile concrete
quality. This is a specialist test
Contiguous Piling
Principles of Construction Often known as "Colcrete" piling, which is a type of trade name.
Usually replaced by diaphragm walling methods.
Essentially typical bored piles, or down-the-hold bored piles, are constructed with a spacing such
that each pile is virtually touching the next. These are constructed on a hit-and-miss basis.
After a suitable length of these piles are in place (often 9 piles or so) a smaller drilling rig
follows on behind placing the "colcrete" piles. A small diameter shaft, often 100 mm or so, is
drilled on the external face of the pile wall close to the interaction between the two main piles.
This excavated pile is fitted with a grout tube and backfilled with gravel. The pile is then grouted
and forms a seal between the adjacent piles. This type of pile wall can be constructed with either
a standard reinforcement cage or a "H" pile.
Info below achieved on project in Bermonsey, London - Sept 2010
1 rig, 600dia contig piles, 12-15m deep, 12No per day (average), 15No per day (max)
Rule of thumb based on Hit 1, Miss 3 = 8.5l/m day per rig.
Labor: 1 Rig driver, 1 banks man, 1 conc. pump operative, 3 x steel fixers, 1 x 360 driver
Plant: 1x rig, 1x mini 360 exc, 1x 6m3 mixer, 1x pump, -
Deliveries: 4 - 5No 6m3 wagons per rig per day (av 2m3 per pile)
Mobilization: 1 day (Allow for 2 days)
Next trade - Excavate and blind around piles (for ring beam) - start 7 elapsed days after last
piles in the run are complete (4 working and 7 elapsed days after piling start based on Hit 1 miss
3 method and 12No/d). 34 linear meters released for Ground worker to start.
All piles 600mm in dia. No smaller piles or grout tubes used as described in the post by technical
development. The face of the basement wall will be faced with a single skin of block work at a
later date (non critical).
Method: Hit 1, Miss 3

Driven Piles
West Piling (P.C. Shells), Rate of 100 m/day,
Balken Piling (Solid P.C. Pile), Rate of 120 - 135 m/day
H-Piling, Rate of 200 - 500 m/day
Ground Anchors
1) Multiple Bell Ground Anchors
Multiple Bell Ground Anchors Often used in London Clay.
Uncased, 10 m long 2.0 no/day
Top Cased type, 15 m long 1.0 no/day
Anchor Stressing 2.0 no/day

2) Removable Ground Anchors


Removable Ground Anchors Recent innovation of "removable" ground anchor system. Steel
cables are doubles up and threaded over a roller at the anchor end. Once de-stressed, they can be
pulled out. 1 rig can achieve...
Drill 30 m shaft 7.0 hrs
Install strands/setup anchor 6.0 hrs
Grout in strands 2.0 hrs
Stressing can be done 4 - 7 days after grouting.
Usually at 3 m horizontal centers and can only be worked on with 5 - 6 m spacings. So a hit and
miss method must be adopted, giving a significant program constraint.

Grouting
Vertical Grout Curtain
Application of grout curtain. A typical rate of 6.20 hrs/m run.

Hand Dug Caissons


Principles of Construction
This type of "pile wall" is typical employed in areas where headroom or proximity to buildings
restricts the use of large diameter bored pile drilling rigs, or where the wall is to be located very
close to an existing structure.
These are very time consuming and in allot of areas no-longer allowed as an acceptable safe
construction method.
Stringent air monitoring and safety issues are adhered to during the construction of the
caisson. An electric chain block and hoist structure is maintained at the pile head for access and
egress of both materials and operatives.
Site Investigation / Advanced works
Advanced grouting is often carried out around the group of caissons in order to reduce water
inflow into the caisson area and provide adequate safety factor against base heave
frailer. Grouting of the area will also restrict ground settlement due to changes in the water table
during caisson construction.
A 75 mm diameter grout hole is drilled to 2 m below the specified toe of the caisson. On
completion of drilling, a 40 mm inside diameter PVC, Tube-a-Manchette (T-A-M) grout tube
will be installed to the bottom of the grout hole.
The tube is usually perforated at 300 mm intervals with each perforation being covered by a
tightly fitting rubber sleeve to act as one way valves. The grout hole is often backfilled with
gravel and then pumped with grout to the specified pressures etc.. After each stage of grouting
the T-A-M will be flushed with water to allow future grouting as necessary.
The slightly conical excavation core is carried out by hand and a formwork erected and concrete
placed in the void between the excavation and the internal formwork. Excavation down to the
next level then begins.
Excavation of Caissons
All excavation is carried out with air tools and shovels etc. Material is loaded into a 0.2 m3
drum skip. Hand excavation to a depth not exceeding 1 meter.
Fix a suitably braced 3 segmented tapered shutter, fix reinforcement and pour concrete to fill all
voids between the external face of the lining and the earth face. This operation is undertaken
continuously until the founding level is reached.
Steel Reinforcement
Reinforcement is placed either in prefabricated cages or directly erected in side the bores,
depending on headroom and caisson access conditions.
In some instances a steel "H" beam is installed in place of a reinforcement cage.
Concreting
Concrete is cast in place in one continuous operation using the tremmie pipe method, up to cut-
off level. The concrete is generally not vibrated.
As-Built Examples
Perimeter wall caissons, 800 mm diameter, excavated to a depth of 26 METERs (HK Central
Subway).
Excavation Time 18 - 24 days
Excavation to Concreting Time 26 - 35 days
Difficult ground of sea wall or ground obstructions can easily increase the overall construction
time to 50 or 150 days.
Mini Piling
Mini Pile Construction
Small diameter piles quickly driven into position, with suitable concrete pile cap.

Diameter Depth Hrs per pile m/hr depth


235 mm 35 m 40 hrs/no 0.87 m/hr

Secant Piling
Principles Of Construction
Often known as "Benoto" piling, which is a type of trade name. Usually replaced by diaphragm
walling methods.
Essentially typical bored piles, or down-the hold type bored piles, are constructed with a spacing
slightly smaller than the chosen diameter of the piles. Once a suitable length of piling has been
completed, the "holes" are filled with a similar bored pile which intersects and "bites" into the
two previously constructed piles.
Usuall these piles are strengthened with a steel "H" pile, rather than the typical reinforcement
cages used in standard bored piling.
As-Built Examples
Large diameter circular secant pile cofferdam.
Structure consisting of 1,200 mm diameter secant piles to a depth of 20 which then stepped into
900 mm contiguous piles for a further 20 m depth. Each pile was probed to 10 m depth in
advance. A total of 255 number piles were constructed.
The "cofferdam" had a 1.4 m deep concrete base slab with a concrete lining to the walls.
An intermediate concrete roof slab was placed to form an underground box structure.
Overall construction time 12 weeks (Heathrow Express).

Secant Piling
Task / Description Slow Ave Fast Units
Construct 30m dia cofferdam, 255 piles/concrete base - 12.0 - wks
Sheet Piling
Sheet Piling On reclamation, sand fill, sheet piling by crane and drop hammer, vibro hammer or
diesel hammer.
A rate of 20 - 25 No/day to 20 to 35 m deep.
1 no = 0.4 m wide on plan and 6 m long.
Therefore 8 - 10 m/day per rig is achievable.
On more difficult areas, such as through existing ground or a sea wall for example.
A rate of 10 - 12 No/day to 20 m deep.
Therefore 4 - 6 m/day per rig is achievable.
For more shallow sheet pile walls
Driven by - Pilemaster 60.0 m/day
Driven by - Automatic Drop Hammer 32.0 m/day
Steel for piles is usually readily available and a two week lead in is often all that is required.
Sheet Piling

Task / Description Slow Ave Fast Units


Vibro/Drop Hammer, 10m deep Sand - 55.0 60.0 m/day
Vibro/Drop Hammer, 35m deep Sand 3.5 32.0 10.5 m/day

Strutting
To install simple horizontal heavy duty strutting, a typical rate of 2 days per strut/gang is
reasonable.
To install diagonal slab/roof cross-brace strutting, a typical rate of 6 days per strut/gang is
reasonable.
To remove these struts, allow a rate of 3.5 days per strut.

Slabs - Plain Slab Soffits

Hight of Slab Soffit --> 0 - 3.5 m 3.5 - 5.0 m


Plan Area Fix Strike Fix Strike

ne 5.0 m2 1.92 3.03 1.61 2.13


5.0 - 7.5 m2 2.22 3.13 1.85 2.56
7.5 - 10.0 m2 2.44 3.57 2.04 3.03
2
10.0 - 15.0 m 2.63 4.00 2.17 3.45
15.0 - 20.0 m2 2.78 4.35 2.33 3.57
20.0 - 30.0 m2 2.94 4.76 2.50 4.00
2
30.0 - 40.0 m 3.13 5.00 2.63 4.17
2
exc 40.0 m 3.23 5.26 2.70 4.55

Slurry Mix Wall


Slurry mix wall (for noise restrictions/obstructions) grab excavation to full depth, fill with
cement or bentonite mix, drop and hold sheet piles in place.
Excavation 1 panel (4.5 m long on plan) with grab and crane.
Excavate 1 panel in 2 days + 1 day bentonite and sheet pile, giving a rate of 1 - 1.5 m/day.
Therefore, once started 2 - 2.25 m/day is expected.
Slurry Mix Walls

Task / Description Slow Ave Fast Units


Crane grab, cement/bentonite and sheet piles 1.8 2.5 3.4 m/day

Soil Mix Walls


Task / Description Slow Ave Fast Units
Three Auger Drill, cement and cure 3.8 4.5 6.4 m/day

Underpinning
Concrete Pinning - During underpinning operations a cycle of every 4th or 5th pin being
constructed concurrently is adopted.
Rate of 1.2 m/day, i.e. 1 number support pin per day
Underpinning...

Task / Description Slow Ave Fast Units


Concrete Pinning, 4th or 5th pin cycles - 1.2 2.2 m/day
Brickwork Pinning, 1.0 brick thick - 0.4 0.7 m2/hr
Brickwork Pinning, 1.5 brick thick 0.1 0.3 - m2/hr
Brickwork Pinning, 2.0 brick thick - 0.2 - m2/hr
Wedge and Pin Method, 102mm wall - 0.8 - m/hr
Wedge and Pin Method, 215mm wall - 0.7 - m/hr
Wedge and Pin Method, 317mm wall - 0.5 - m/hr
BUILDING FRAMEWORKS
Curtain Walling
Curtain Walling rate
Assume 30m2 per week for general curtain walling

Task / Description Slow Ave Fast Units


Vertical Glazed Lights, 6m x 2.5m - 14.5 - m2/day
Vertical Glazed Walls, large scale - 70.0 - m2/day
Clerestory Frame/Glazing, 3m x 4m - 28.0 - m2/day
Oriel Window Frame/Glazing, 4m x 2m - 35.0 - m2/day
Glazed Curtain Wall, First Fix - 1.2 - m2/hr
Glazed Curtain Wall, Second Fix - 1.1 - m2/hr
High Quality Glazed Curtain Walling - 25.0 - m2/day

Holding Down Bolts Stanchion Bases


Stanchion.

Bolt Numbers --> 4 No 6 No 8 No


Item
Make Softwood 0.50 0.70 0.93
Framework
Fix Bolts / Framework 1.32 1.54 1.73
Strike Framework 0.38 0.44 0.49

Metal Frameworks-Roof Structure


Structural Steel Structures
For medium sized applications with a single crane and fixing gang.
A typical rate 3.4 - 4.6 tonnes/day.
Structural steel for glazed wall, made of 18 no "bow string" strusses 25 m tall, cross braced and
wired together, consisting of 69 tonnes of steelwork. Erection in 6 weeks.
Erection Rate 1.65 tonnes/day
Structural steelwork for curved building roof, 18 number curved complex trussess and cross
pearliness etc. Consisting of 500 tonnes of steel. Initially programmed for 14 weeks site
installation period.
All Rates in Weeks...

GA drawings 0- 6

Shop Drawings 4 - 13

Buildings Dept 14 - 17
Approval

Shop Fabrication 18 - 30

Corrosion Protection 22 - 32

Site Pre-Assembly 32 - 34

Erection Time 35 - 38 (24 hr working)

Erection Rate 8.95 tonnes/day


Structural steelwork for glazed wall and atria over, 4 number bow string trusses in wall and in
roof. Consisting of 7.5 tonnes of steelwork. Erection in 6.5 weeks.
Erection Rate 0.23 tons/day

Timber Frameworks
1) Roof Structure
Usually carried out with a minimum of a 2 man gang, sometimes with an additional labourer.
For a typical semi-detached house structure or similar..

Roof Trusses 1.28 no/hr

Wall Plates 2.76 m/hr


Rafters 1.17 m/hr

Ceiling Joists 32.10 m/hr

2) Timber frame superstructure


Timber framing rates for hospital of 3173m2 GIFA
Assuming that the labour is a 4 man squad working an 8 hour day as this would be normal
practice
Wall panels up to 3m in hieght including both external and internal panels ; 30 panels per day
(average panel 3.5m long)
Wall panels over 3m in height including both internal and external panels ; 20 panels per day
(average panel 2.5m long)
Loose floor joists position and fix 175m sq per day
Loose floor joists position, fix & position and fix floor decking 125m sq per day
Floor/roof cassette assumed simple 12 X 2.4m 300m sq per day
Floor/roof cassette complex shape 150 200 m sq per day
Trussed roof erect, brace,sark and felt 100m sq per day (up to 8m span measured at horizontal)
Trussed roof erect, brace,sark and felt 80m sq per day (up to 12m span measured at horizontal)
Hip or valley up to 12m long 1 man a day
Medium dormer window (2.4m wide) 1 man a day
I hope this helps , but please bare in mind that the more complex projects will take longer.
Timber Frames...

Task / Description Slow Ave Fast Units


Roof Trusses - 1.3 - no/hr
Wall Plates - 2.7 - m/hr
Roof Rafters - 1.2 - m/hr
Ceiling Joists - 32.1 - m/hr
Roof Carcass, Common Rafters, under 3m 18.2 20.0 21.7 no/hr
Roof Carcass, Common Rafters, 3-6mm 13.3 16.6 18.2 no/hr
Roof Carcass, Common Rafters, over 6m 14.1 15.6 16.1 no/hr
Roof Carcass, Jack Rafters, under 3m 18.8 20.1 21.7 no/hr
Roof Carcass, Jack Rafters, 3-6mm 10.4 16.1 16.6 no/hr
Roof Carcass, Purlins, under 3m 5.1 5.4 5.8 no/hr
Roof Carcass, Purlins, 3-6mm 4.3 4.8 5.1 no/hr
Roof Carcass, Purlins, over 6m 3.5 4.3 4.6 no/hr
Roof Carcass, Binders, under 3m 5.7 6.6 7.6 no/hr
Roof Carcass, Binders, 3-6mm 2.1 2.3 2.5 no/hr
Roof Carcass, Binders, over 6m 1.3 1.5 1.6 no/hr
Roof Carcass, Hangers, under 3m 8.2 9.0 9.6 no/hr
Roof Carcass, Collars under 3m 7.6 8.0 9.1 no/hr
Roof Carcass, Collars 3-m 6.5 7.4 8.3 no/hr
Roof Carcass, Ridge Boards under 3m 12.0 13.1 15.3 no/hr
Roof Carcass, Cut Rafter Feet to line 142.0 166.0 175.0 no/hr
Roof Soffits, Softwood, nailed - 9.2 - m/hr
Roof Soffits, Softwood, screwed - 3.9 - m/hr
Roof Soffits Asbestos, under 300mm nailed - 9.1 - m/hr
Roof Soffits Asbestos, under 300mm screwed - 3.8 - m/hr
Roof Soffits, Asbestos, over 300mm nailed - 3.5 - m/hr
Roof Soffits, Asbestos, over 300mm screwed - 1.3 - m/hr
Roof Facia Panels, Softwood 5.1 7.2 9.3 m/hr
Roof Facia Panels, Asbestos 1.3 2.5 3.9 m/hr
Roof Facia Panel Studding, nailed 7.3 8.1 9.0 m/hr
Roof Facia Panel Studding, screwed 4.6 5.2 5.8 m/hr
Roof Facia Panel Studding, bolted to beams 5.4 5.9 6.6 m/hr
Roof Works, Fix Herringbone Strutting - 5.1 - m/hr
Roof Works, Fix Firing Strips - 25.0 - m/hr
Roof Works, Fix Drip/Tilt Filleting - 20.5 - m/hr

Tower Cranes
Task / Description Slow Ave Fast Units
Erect and Setup 50m gib - 11.0 7.5 days
Dismantle 50m gib - 10.0 - days
Lifting, Reinforcement Bins and Cages, 1st 15m lift - 3.2 - mins/lift
Lifting, Reinforcement Bins and Cages, above 1st 15m lift - 0.5 - mins/15m
Lifting, Crane Tracking Time - 3.3 - seconds/m
CONCRETE RELATED
WORKS
Formwork
1) Beam Falsework Formwork
Rates include for making, fixing, cleaning and minor repair works etc, rates in m2/hr.
Soffits - On runners and props, including erection of props etc.
Hight of Beam Soffit-- 0 - 3.5 m 3.5 - 5.0 m
->
Width Fix Strike Fix Strike

100 - 200 mm 0.70 1.23 0.58 1.02


200 - 300 mm 0.81 1.39 0.68 1.15
300 - 500 mm 0.93 1.54 0.78 1.28
500 - 750 mm 1.16 1.85 0.96 1.54
exc 750 mm 1.23 2.17 1.03 1.82

Soffits - On runners and props, on previously erected props etc.


Hight of Beam Soffit- 0 - 3.5 m 3.5 - 5.0 m
-->
Width Fix Strike Fix Strike
100 - 200 mm 0.96 1.69 0.91 1.67
200 - 300 mm 1.11 1.92 1.05 1.82
300 - 500 mm 1.27 2.08 1.20 2.00
500 - 750 mm 1.56 2.50 1.49 2.44
exc 750 mm 1.64 2.86 1.39 2.70

Sides - Strutted from soffit bearers etc.

Hight of Beam Soffit- 0 - 3.5 m 3.5 - 5.0 m


-->
Depth Fix Strike Fix Strike
100 - 200 mm 0.78 1.23 0.74 1.18
200 - 300 mm 0.93 1.39 0.88 1.32
300 - 500 mm 1.06 1.54 1.02 1.47
500 - 750 mm 1.47 2.08 1.39 2.00
exc 750 mm 1.54 2.33 1.47 2.33

Sides - Using clamps and struts etc.

Hight of Beam Soffit- 0 - 3.5 m 3.5 - 5.0 m


-->
Depth Fix Strike Fix Strike
100 - 200 mm 0.91 1.47 0.87 1.39
200 - 300 mm 1.09 1.64 1.04 1.56
300 - 500 mm 1.27 1.82 1.20 1.72

2) Columns Formwork
Rates include for fixing, cleaning and minor repair works etc, rates in m2/hr unless otherwise
stated.

Cross Sectional Area--> Ne 0.2 m2 Exc 0.2 m2


Item Fix Strike Fix Strike
Kickers-Direct to slab (no/hr) 4.00 12.50 2.63 8.33
Kickers-Suspended (no/hr) 2.08 12.50 1.39 8.33

Square Sides-Timber Clamped and Propped

Column Height--- 2-3m 3-4m


>
Item Fix Strike Fix Strike
2
Cross Section 0.00 - 0.05 m 1.35 2.70 1.67 3.57
0.05 - 0.10 m2 1.69 3.45 1.82 3.85
2
0.10 - 0.20 m 1.82 4.00 2.33 4.55
2
0.20 - 0.40 m 2.04 4.55 2.44 5.00
2
exc 0.40 m 2.33 5.26 2.50 5.88
3) Footing formwork

Task Labor (L) - Labor (L) -


Material Material
Activity TASKS - Carpenter Helper Material (M)
(M) (M)
UOM (Mandays) (Mandays)

Footing - MS Wall Form Props -


Shuttering
Footing Shuttering & 0.8 1.5 Panel - 1250 x 2m to 3m
Sqm Oil :
formwork Providing Mandays/10Sqm Mandays/10Sqm 500 : Long : 2
4Ltr/10Sqm
Support 16Nos/10Sqm Nos/Rm

Footing -
Deshuttering 0.48 0.9
Sqm
& insitu Mandays/10Sqm Mandays/10Sqm
Stacking

4) Formwork & Falsework - Ground


Foundation Formwork
Ground Foundation Formwork All formwork rates in m2/hr.
Item Shutter size Fix Strike
2
To Pilecaps 0.75 m 1.64 3.85
2
0.75 - 1.50 m 1.82 4.55
2
1.50 - 2.25 m 2.00 5.00
2.25 - 3.00 m2 2.22 5.56
exc 3.00 m2 2.50 7.14
2
To Foundations 0.75 m 1.72 4.55
2
0.75 - 1.50 m 1.82 4.55
1.50 - 3.00 m2 2.50 6.25
3.00 - 5.00 m2 2.63 6.67
2
To Ground Beams 1.50 m 1.82 4.55
2
1.50 - 3.00 m 2.63 6.67
2
3.00 - 5.00 m 2.70 7.14
5) Formwork
Task / Description Slow Ave Fast Units
Pilecaps, < 0.7m2 0.9 1.6 2.0 m2/hr
Pilecaps, 0.7-2.5m2 1.6 2.0 2.3 m2/hr
Pilecaps, 2.5-3.0m2 2.0 2.3 2.5 m2/hr
Pilecaps, > 3.0m2 2.3 2.5 3.1 m2/hr
Ground Beams, < 0.7m2 1.1 1.7 1.8 m2/hr
Ground Beams, 0.7-1.5m2 1.7 1.8 2.5 m2/hr
Ground Beams, 1.5-3.0m2 1.8 2.5 2.6 m2/hr
Ground Beams, 3.0-5.0m2 2.5 2.6 3.5 m2/hr
Elevated Plain Slab Soffit 0.6 0.8 1.2 m2/hr
Beams, on erected falsework, width 100-200mm 0.9 1.0 1.1 m2/hr
Beams, on erected falsework, width 200-300mm 1.0 1.1 1.3 m2/hr
Beams, on erected falsework, width 300-500mm 1.2 1.3 1.5 m2/hr
Beams, on erected falsework, width 500-750mm 1.5 1.6 1.8 m2/hr
Beams, on erected falsework, width over 750mm 1.4 1.5 1.7 m2/hr
Walls, Construct Kickers 5.3 7.1 10.0 m2/hr
Walls, Fully Framed Formwork/Struts, 1.0-2.0m2 0.9 1.8 1.9 m2/hr
Walls, Fully Framed Formwork/Struts, 2.0-5.0m2 1.0 2.2 2.5 m2/hr
Walls, Fully Framed Formwork/Struts, over 5.0m2 1.2 2.5 2.9 m2/hr
Walls, StoriForm Shutters, 1.0-3.0m2 1.0 1.4 2.0 m2/hr
Walls, StoriForm Shutters, 3.0-5.0m2 1.9 2.3 3.3 m2/hr
Walls, StoriForm Shutters, 5.0-10.0m2 2.3 2.8 3.5 m2/hr
Walls, StoriForm Shutters, 10.0-15.0m2 3.2 4.5 4.0 m2/hr
Walls, StoriForm Shutters, over 15.0m2 3.8 4.8 5.4 m2/hr
Ground Slabs 1.0 1.5 1.8 m2/hr
Columns, Construct Kickers, direct to slab 3.2 4.1 5.4 no/hr
Columns, Construct Kickers, suspended from soffit slab 1.2 2.8 3.2 no/hr
Columns, Square Sides, Timber Clamp/Prop, csa < 0.1m2 1.3 1.6 1.8 m2/hr
Columns, Square Sides, Timber Clamp/Prop, csa 0.1-0.4m2 1.8 2.1 2.4 m2/hr
Columns, Square Sides, Timber Clamp/Prop, csa over 0.4m2 2.0 2.3 2.5 m2/hr
Columns, Square Sides, Steel Forms, 1.5 x 1.5 x 9.0m high 7.9 9.5 10.3 m2/hr
Columns, Square Sides, Steel Forms, 2.0 x 2.0 x 9.0m high 6.9 7.5 8.3 m2/hr
Columns, Square Sides, Steel Forms, 2.0 x 4.0 x 9.0m high 8.5 10.2 12.0 m2/hr
Columns, Round Sides, Sacrificial Plastic Mould, 3.0-4.0m dia 3.5 4.5 6.0 m2/hr
Columns, Round Sides, Steel Mould, 3.0-4.0m dia 5.2 6.5 7.5 m2/hr
Columns, Sloping Column Heads, extra over rate - 2.5 3.5 hrs/no
Staircases, Stair Soffit, Sloping 0.7 0.8 1.0 m2/hr
Staircases, Stair Soffit, Flat Landing 0.8 0.9 1.2 m2/hr
Staircases, Wall Strings 0.4 0.6 - m2/hr
Staircases, Open Strings 0.7 0.8 - m2/hr
Staircases, Riser Boards fixed to strings - 2.5 2.8 m2/hr
Staircases, Risers fixed to Strings - 2.3 2.6 m2/hr
Waffle Flooring, 2.4m grid 1.1 1.4 1.8 m2/hr
Shaft Slip Forming - 300.0 500.0 mm/hr
Table Form, Aluminum System, 400m2 bays 2.1 3.2 3.8 m2/hr
Table Form, H-Frame Steel Falsework, 400m2 bays 1.9 3.0 3.5 m2/hr
Tunnel Forms, Wall and Slab poured as one - 15.6 17.5 m2/hr
Hollorib Decking, lay deck - 43.5 47.5 m2/hr
Hollorib Decking, shear connecting studs - 29.3 31.2 m2/hr
Stop Ends, no perforations 2.8 3.5 4.2 m2/hr
Stop Ends, minor perforations 1.2 1.5 1.9 m2/hr
Stop Ends, dense perforations 0.9 1.1 1.4 m2/hr
Box Outs, 0.01-0.05m2 7.6 8.2 9.1 no/hr
Box Outs, over 0.05m2 3.1 3.9 4.5 no/hr
Dummy Frames, under 3.0m2 4.5 6.2 7.1 no/hr
Dummy Frames, over 3.0m2 3.1 3.7 4.5 no/hr

6) Formwork Re-Use
Typical rate for number of formwork uses before shutter remake. NOTE: This varies significantly depending on care
taken with shutters and programme time available etc.

Walls = 20 uses
Slab Soffits = 10 - 15 uses
Beam & Column Boxes = 30 uses
7) Hollorib Decking
Hollorib Decking

Lay decking = 350 m2/day

Shear Connecting Studs 235 m2 studded per day per gun (4,000 studs/week)

Concrete topping = 4,000 m2/week or 2,000 m2/week incl power floating

8) Raft formwork
Task Labor (L) - Labor (L) -
Material Material
Activity TASKS - Carpenter Helper Material (M)
(M) (M)
UOM (Mandays) (Mandays)

Raft - MS Wall Form Props -


Shuttering
Raft Shuttering & 0.71 1.41 Panel - 1250 x 2m to 3m
Sqm Oil :
formwork Providing Mandays/10Sqm Mandays/10Sqm 500 : Long : 2
4Ltr/10Sqm
Support 16Nos/10Sqm Nos/Rm

Raft -
Deshuttering 0.42 0.84
Sqm
& insitu Mandays/10Sqm Mandays/10Sqm
Stacking

9) Ramp formwork
Labor (L) - Labor (L) -
Task -
Activity TASKS Carpenter Helper Material (M) Material (M) Material (M)
UOM
(Mandays) (Mandays)

Ramp - MS Floor Adjustable Props -


MS Floor
Ramp Shuttering 0.22 0.44 Form Panel - 2.02m to 3.75 m :
Form Panel -
formwor & Sqm Mandays/Sq Mandays/S 750 x 600 - 2Nos/Sqm and
1250 x 500 :
k Providing m qm 13.3Nos/10Sq Shuttering Oil :
6.4Nos/10Sqm
Support m 5Ltr/10Sqm

Ramp - Sqm 0.13 0.26


Deshutter Manday Mandays/Sq
ing & s/Sqm m
Stacking
Appropri
ately at
Same
Location

10) Shades Formwork


Labor (L) - Labor (L) -
Material Material Material
Activity TASKS Task - UOM Carpenter Helper
(M) (M) (M)
(Mandays) (Mandays)

Weather
Shade, MS Floor Adjustable
Chajjas, Form Panel Props - Shuttering
Shades 0.12 0.14
Corbels Sqm - 750 x 600 2.02m to Oil :
Formwork Mandays/Sqm Mandays/Sqm
Shuttering - 3.75 m : 0.3Ltr/Sqm
(Including 2.2Nos/Sqm 2Nos/Sqm
Propping)

Weather
Shade,
Chajjas,
Corbels -
0.07 0.08
Deshuttering Sqm
Mandays/Sqm Mandays/Sqm
& Stacking
Appropriately
at Same
Location
11) Staircase formwork

Task Labor (L) - Labor (L) -


Material Material Material
Activity TASKS - Carpenter Helper
(M) (M) (M)
UOM (Mandays) (Mandays)

Staircase
Adjustable
(Excluding MS Floor
Props - Shuttering
Staircase Spiral Staircase) 0.23 0.46 Form Panel -
Sqm 2.02m to Oil :
formwork - Shuttering & Mandays/Sqm Mandays/Sqm 750 x 600 -
3.75 m : 5Ltr/10Sqm
Providing 2.2Nos/Sqm
2Nos/Sqm
Support

Staircase
(Excluding
Spiral Staircase)
0.14 0.28
- Deshuttering & Sqm
Mandays/Sqm Mandays/Sqm
Stacking
Appropriately at
Same Location

12) Tunnel Forms


Concrete - Tunnel Forms A system of forms which enables walls and slabs to be cast in the same
pour. suited to buildings with large number of identically sized rooms, such as hotels or flats.
Used in conjunction with high speed concrete pumps, pre-formed reinforced cages.
Rates

Setup 14 days
Slab & Walls 125 m2/day (equals 3.5 rooms)
Dismantle 7 days

13) Waffle Flooring


Rate includes for erection of decking and infill beams, cut position & nail plywood ribs, transport position and fix 800
mm x 800 mm waffle forms, clean and oil plywood and adjust to levels (m2/hr). Conservative Erection Rate...

2.4 m grid, ne 3.5 m high soffit = 1.42 m2/hr


3.5 - 5.5 m high soffit = 1.13 m2.hr

Typical composite rate of 18.5 m2/day per 4 man gang. Rate includes decking, waffles and reinforcement fixing.

14) Walls formwork

Task Labor (L) -


Labor (L) - Helper
Activity TASKS - Carpenter Material (M) Material (M)
(Mandays)
UOM (Mandays)

Walls (Any
Thickness),
Including
2.22 MS Wall Form Panel
Buttresses - 2.64
Walls Mandays/10Sqm - 1250 x 500 - 32 Props - 2m to 3m Long :
Shuttering Sqm Mandays/10Sqm(Inc
formwork (Including Both Nos/10Sqm(Including 4Nos/Rm(Including Both Sides
& Providing luding Both Sides)
Sides) Both Sides)
Support -
Up to 3.5m
Height

Walls - 1.32
1.76
Deshuttering Mandays/10Sqm
Sqm Mandays/10Sqm(Inc
& insitu (Including Both
luding Both Sides)
Stacking Sides)

Making Good Concrete


Rates including blowing out, preparations, clean and shutter joints and making a fair faced
finish.

By Hand With Mechanical Sander


Walls 5.56 m2/hr 8.62 m2/hr
Columns 2.80 m2/hr 6.99 m2/hr
Sides and Soffits of Beams 2.80 m2/hr 6.99 m2/hr
Soffits of Slabs 4.21 m2/hr 7.58 m2/hr
Vertical Bolt Holes 16.67 no/hr
Horizontal Bolt Holes 14.49 no/hr
Vertical Shutter Joints 28.57 m/hr
Horizontal Shutter Joints 25.00 m/hr
Rub Down Precast Concrete 16.95 m2/hr

Scabble
Single head brush hammer 0 - 4 mm 30.74 hrs/m2
0 - 8 mm 59.14 hrs/m2
Three head brush hammer 0 - 4 mm 37.14 hrs/m2
0 - 8 mm 71.12 hrs/m2

Mixing Concrete
Mixing By Hand
A typical rate of 0.32 m3/hr of concrete. Compulsory Paddle Mixer Generally with one or two
3.5m3 drums, giving a cycle time of 60 to 80 seconds (m3/Hr).

Mix Time --> 60 secs 80 secs


Single drum plant 210 158
Double drum plant 420 315

Task / Description Slow Ave Fast Units


Concrete Weight, 1m3 - 2.4 - Tonnes
Readymix Lorry, Length - 8.3 - m
Readymix Lorry, Width - 2.5 - m
Readymix Lorry, Height - 3.7 - m
Readymix Lorry, Length - 24.4 - Tonnes
Readymix Lorry, Turning Circle - 16.4 - m
Readymix Lorry, Allowable Access Ramp Gradient - 17.0 20.0 degrees
Mixing Concrete, By Hand - 0.3 - m3/hr
Mixing Concrete, Single Drum Paddle Mixer 158.0 180.0 210.0 m3/hr
Mixing Concrete, Double Drum Paddle Mixer 315.0 370.0 420.0 m3/hr
Mixing Concrete, Single Drum Plant Pan Mixer - 120.0 - m3/hr
Mixing Concrete, Dry Mix Plant - 90.0 - m3/hr

Placement & Finishing

1) Concrete Cycle Times


Blinding Concrete
Placing blinding direct from ready mix truck, rate of 4-5 m2/hr or 0.2-0.3 m3/hr.
Base / Floor Slabs
Concourse slab concrete pour, 36 m x 18 m, concrete volume of 1,500 m3 and 290 tonnes of
reinforcement. Blind 1 day, formwork 2 days, reinforcement 5 days and concrete on day 8. Adit
base slabs, concrete volume of 140 m3. Steel fixing for 4 days and concrete on the 5th day.
Tunnel Sections
Simple cooling water main tunnels, a typical cycle time of 5 days per 8 m sections, or a rate of
0.16 m/hr.
Track Slab
Track slab concrete pour, 36 m x 28 m, concrete volume of 1,050 m3 and 360 tonnes of
reinforcement. Excavate 6 m from one edge 7 days, strut 9 days, final excavation 3 days, pile
chipping 5 days, blind 4 days, reinforcement 5 days and concrete on day 32. On simple pours,
with little formwork, 24 m x 28 m, concrete volume of 1,200 m3 and 220 tonnes of
reinforcement. Blind 3 days, reinforcement 3 days and concrete on day 8.
Wall Slabs
Adit wall construction, concrete volume of 80 m3. Steel fixing for 3 days and concrete on 4th
day.
Roof Slabs
Adit roof slab construction, concrete volume of 80 m3. Steel fixing for 4 - 5 days and concrete
on the 6th day.
Staircases
Standard staircase, concrete volume of 60 - 80 m3. Steel fixing for 4 days, formwork for 3 days
and concrete on the 7 th day. Simple staircase from track slab up to platform edge, a rise of 1.2
m, a typical cycle time of 3 days per flight.
Concrete - Slip Forming
A typical period of 10 - 14 days is required to setup the shutter on the ground and cast the
platform.

Rate of climb of formwork = 200 - 300 mm/hr

Concrete - Table Forms


Fast method of forming walls/slabs with movable shutter. This rate is inclusive of walls and
columns etc.
Rate of 100 - 150 m2/day

2) Concrete Finishing
Concrete Finishing

Task / Description Slow Ave Fast Units


Surface Finishing, Steel Float By Hand 9.2 13.9 25.0 m2/hr
Surface Finishing, Wood Float By Hand 11.7 17.2 29.4 m2/hr
Surface Finishing, Power Float 13.9 20.8 37.0 m2/hr
Surface Finishing, Light Brush on Trowel 55.8 90.1 170.0 m2/hr
Surface Finishing, Brush on Trowel Margin 28.8 48.5 85.0 m2/hr
Surface Finishing, Sprayed By Pump, expose aggregate 65.0 95.0 145.0 m2/hr
Surface Finishing, Wire Brush, expose aggregate 15.0 25.0 30.0 m2/hr
Making Good Walls, prepare, shutter, pour - 5.5 8.6 m2/hr
Making Good Columns, prepare, shutter, pour - 2.8 6.9 m2/hr
Making Good Sides of Beams, prepare, shutter, pour - 2.8 7.0 m2/hr
Making Good Slab Soffits, prepare, shutter, pour - 4.2 5.5 m2/hr
Making Good Bolt Holes, prepare, shutter, pour 14.8 16.8 25.8 no/hr
Making Good Rubdown Precast Concrete, prepare, shutter, pour - 18.0 - m2/hr
Making Good Scabble 3 head brush hammer, prepare, shutter, pour 30.7 59.5 73.8 hrs/m2
3) Concrete Pumping
Large Concrete Pours, lorry pump.
Simple Rule Of Thumb, concretors 0.5 - 1.0 hrs/m3 of concrete, depending on access, pour size
and concrete availability.
Base Slabs etc, 1,200m3 equalling 25 - 35m3/hr per pump, with 3 No pumps and 12 men for 2
shifts of 12 hrs.

4) OFC Laying
OFC Laying
By Using Concrete/Road Cutter Equipment
Resources
Survey Team of 4 (1 Suveyor , 3 Assistants)
Equipment with Operator and Helper
Cutting Line Marking team ( 2-3 Persons)
OFC cable laying team ( 4 Persons)
Splicing team (2 technicians )
Productivity
if everything is planned properly with adequate overlap of 3-4 days. 400-500m/day can
be achieved.
By using trenching machine
Equipment with Operator and helper
Mini Dozer with operator
OFC Laying laying team (6-8 persons)
Rest resources as per above
Productivity
If everything has planned properly with adequate overlap of 2-3 days. 250-300m/day can be
achieved.

5) Place Concrete
Barrowing Concrete (m3/hr).
Receive concrete from mixer/lorry direct to barrow, wheel to placing position, tip and return.

Distance 0 - 10 m 2.32
10 - 20 m 1.81
20 - 50 m 1.08
As above but including load concrete from deck/tray.

Distance 0 - 10 m 0.99
10 - 20 m 0.87
20 - 50 m 0.66
Extra over to place direct, for dump and shovel in from side, a typical rate of 0.26 hrs/m3.Direct
From Ready Mix Lorry (m3/hr).

Type Ready Mix Via Dumper Via Dumper


Tip Direct Tip Direct Thrown In
Mass Fill 3.12 2.56 1.49
50mm Blinding 1.27 1.06 0.82
Ground Beams ne 0.1 m2 SA 1.52 1.30 1.00
Ground Beams ex 0.1 m2 SA 1.69 1.49 1.16
Pile Caps ne 0.1 m2 SA 1.16 1.06 0.79
Pile Caps ex 0.1 m2 SA 2.56 2.13 7.69
Duct Walls 0.78 0.71 0.52
Stub Columns 0.43 0.39 0.29
Ground Slab ne 155 mm 2.13 1.82 1.22
Ground Slab 150-300 mm 2.33 1.96 1.27
Ground Slab 300-500 mm 2.56 2.13 1.35
Drains, Bed & Cover 0.91 0.85 0.73
By Lorry Mounted Concrete Pump (m3/hr).

Thickness --> 13.5 m3/hr 18 m3/hr

Solid Slabs ne 100 mm 2.17 2.63


100 - 150 mm 2.44 2.94
150 - 200 mm 2.63 3.23
200 - 300 mm 2.86 3.45
300 - 500 mm 3.23 3.85
Coffered Slabs 1.64 1.82
2
Columns 0.5 - 0.10 m 1.59 1.59
2
exc 0.10 m 1.82 1.82
Wall ne 150 mm 1.61 1.89
150 - 225 mm 1.89 2.33
exc 225 mm 2.56 3.23
Independent Beams 1.54 1.54
Stairs and Landings 1.27 1.89
3
By Dumper, From Ready Mix Lorry To Position (m /hr).

Dumper Capacity 0.6 m3 0.8 m3 1.2 m3 1.5 m3 2.3 m3


-->
0 - 20 m 10.41 14.08 18.82 25.00 33.33
20 - 50 m 9.09 12.36 16.39 22.22 29.41
50 - 100 m 7.29 10.41 13.88 18.86 25.00
100 - 250 m 5.78 7.87 10.00 13.51 18.18
250 - 500 m 3.65 4.95 8.33 8.95 12.35
500 - 750 m 2.16 2.92 4.27 5.43 7.87
750 - 1,000 m - - - 3.97 5.78
By Tower/Mobile Crane (m3/hr).

0.4 m Skip 0.6 m Skip 0.8 m Skip


Pile Caps SA ne 2 m2 1.19 1.39 1.61
3
Mass Fill Pours SA 2-5 m 1.75 2.04 2.33
3
ne 10 m 3.70 4.17 4.76
10-25 m3 4.00 4.55 0.84
exc 25 m3 4.35 5.00 5.86
Slabs ne 100 mm 0.90 1.09 1.21
100-150 mm 1.09 1.31 1.47
150-200 mm 1.26 1.53 1.69
200-300 mm 1.26 1.53 1.69
Exc 300 mm 1.38 1.66 1.85
Trough & Coffered Slabs 0.95 1.09 1.21
Structural Topping ne 100 0.90 1.09 1.25
mm
Stairs & Landings 0.64 0.64 0.64
Blinding ne 150 mm 0.88 1.00 1.10
Beams SA 0-0.05 m 0.52 0.58 0.69
SA 0.05-0.1 m 0.58 0.65 0.78
SA ex 0.1 m 0.76 0.85 1.02
Walls ne 100 mm 0.64 0.76 0.88
100-150 mm 0.76 0.92 1.05
150-300 mm 0.95 1.11 1.28
exc 300 mm 1.10 1.28 1.47
2
Columns SA ne 0.05 m 0.43 0.45 0.48
2
SA 0.05-0.1 m 0.48 0.50 0.54
SA ex 0.1 m2 0.51 0.53 0.57

Concrete Placement

Task / Description Slow Ave Fast Units


Placing concrete, lorry based pump 30.0 40.0 50.0 m3/hr
Hollorib Decking, concrete topping 85.0 100.0 120.0 m2/hr
Hollorib Decking, concrete topping, incl PowerFloat 40.0 50.0 70.0 m2/hr
Placing Concrete, By Wheelbarrow over 1-10m 2.1 2.3 2.5 m3/hr
Placing Concrete, By Wheelbarrow over 10-20m 1.5 1.8 2.1 m3/hr
Placing Concrete, By Wheelbarrow over 20-50m 0.8 1.1 1.5 m3/hr
Placing Direct From Readymix Lorry, Mass Fill 2.8 3.1 3.3 m3/hr
Placing Direct From Readymix Lorry, 50mm Blinding - 1.3 1.6 m3/hr
Placing Direct From Readymix Lorry, Ground Beams 1.5 - 1.7 m3/hr
Placing Direct From Readymix Lorry, Pile Caps 1.0 1.5 2.3 m3/hr
Placing Direct From Readymix Lorry, Duct Walls - 0.8 1.1 m3/hr
Placing Direct From Readymix Lorry, Stub Columns - 0.4 0.6 m3/hr
Placing Direct From Readymix Lorry, Ground Slab 2.1 2.3 2.6 m3/hr
Placing Direct From Readymix Lorry,Drains Bed and Cover - 0.9 1.0 m3/hr
Placing From Tower Crane, Pile Caps 1.2 1.4 1.6 m3/hr
Placing From Tower Crane, Mass Fill 4.0 4.5 5.5 m3/hr
Placing From Tower Crane, Slabs under 150mm thick 0.9 1.3 1.7 m3/hr
Placing From Tower Crane, Slabs over 150mm thick 1.2 1.5 1.8 m3/hr
Placing From Tower Crane, Trough/Coffered Slabs 0.9 1.1 1.2 m3/hr
Placing From Tower Crane, Stairs and Landings 0.6 0.7 0.9 m3/hr
Placing From Tower Crane, Blinding 0.8 1.0 1.1 m3/hr
Placing From Tower Crane, Beams under 150mm thick 0.5 0.6 0.8 m3/hr
Placing From Tower Crane, Beams over 150mm thick 0.6 0.8 1.0 m3/hr
Placing From Tower Crane, Walls 0.6 1.1 1.5 m3/hr
Placing From Tower Crane, Columns 0.4 0.5 0.6 m3/hr

Post Tensioning Works


Concrete - Post Tensioning Sequence:
Concrete poured 1st Bay.
After 48 hrs concrete is stressed to initial strength (15 kN takes 1 day).
5 days after initial stressing, concrete is stressed to final strength (30 kN takes 1 day).
Formwork may now be struck and adjacent bay poured.
Post Tensioning

Task / Description Slow Ave Fast Units


Lag for Initial Stress Tensioning after 1st bay cast - 48.0 - hrs
Lag for Final Stress Tensioning after Initial Stress - 120.0 - hrs

Precast Concrete Floor Systems


Plank Elements (crane handled)
Rates given in hours/plank.

Plank Lengths ne 3m 3-6m ex 6m


Activity
Unload/stack at ground level 0.016 0.019 0.022
Unload/stack upper levels 0.021 0.024 0.028
Sling from ground to levels 0.019 0.021 0.025
Place in position from stack 0.120 0.150 0.180
Block Elements Rates given in hours/thousand blocks.
Block Thickness 75-125mm 125-200mm ex 200mm
Activity
Unload pallets/stack on By forklift 0.90 1.02 1.20
ground By Crane 1.20 1.26 1.38
Unload pallets/stack at By forklift 1.50 1.62 1.80
upper levels By Crane 2.34 2.40 2.70
Sling from ground to By forklift 1.44 1.56 1.74
levels By Crane 1.56 1.62 1.80
Place in position from 12.00 13.80 15.00
stacks

Reinforcement
1) Footing Reinforcement

Task L -
L - Helper
Activity TASKS - Barbender/Fitter M M M
(Mandays)
UOM (Mandays)

Foot Rein -
Placing in
Position & Bars -
Binding Cover
Footing Binding - 0.28 0.38 Include
Mt Wire : Blocks -
Reinforcement Using TMT Mandays/0.1Mt Mandays/0.1Mt 5%
5 kg/0.1Mt 10No/0.1Mt
Bars, Mild Wastage
Steel, Tor
Steel

Foot Rein -
Straightening,
Cutting (With
Machine Bars -
Cutting), 0.2 0.28 Include
Mt
bending - Mandays/0.1Mt Mandays/0.1Mt 5%
Using TMT Wastage
Bars, Mild
Steel, Tor
Steel
Foot Rein -
Straightening,
Cutting (With
Manual Bars -
Cutting), 0.29 0.32 Include
Mt
bending - Mandays/0.1Mt Mandays/0.1Mt 5%
Using TMT Wastage
Bars, Mild
Steel, Tor
Steel

2) Reinforcement
Mesh reinforcement - to slabs = 10.5 m2/hr
Mesh reinforcement - to beams/columns = 2.5 m2/hr

Task / Description Slow Ave Fast Units


Slabs/Foundations, steelfixing, 6mm 40.3 38.4 36.5 hrs/tonne
Slabs/Foundations, steelfixing, 8mm 28.2 26.9 25.8 hrs/tonne
Slabs/Foundations, steelfixing, 10mm 22.5 20.6 20.1 hrs/tonne
Slabs/Foundations, steelfixing, 12mm 16.9 16.3 15.4 hrs/tonne
Slabs/Foundations, steelfixing, 16mm 12.0 11.5 10.9 hrs/tonne
Slabs/Foundations, steelfixing, 20mm 9.2 8.6 8.2 hrs/tonne
Slabs/Foundations, steelfixing, 25mm 6.9 6.7 6.5 hrs/tonne
Slabs/Foundations, steelfixing, 32mm 5.7 5.5 5.2 hrs/tonne
Slabs/Foundations, steelfixing, 40mm 5.3 5.1 4.9 hrs/tonne
Slabs/Foundations, steelfixing, 50mm 5.2 4.9 4.6 hrs/tonne
Beams/Columns, steelfixing, 6mm 55.4 52.8 50.6 hrs/tonne
Beams/Columns, steelfixing, 8mm 38.8 37.0 35.1 hrs/tonne
Beams/Columns, steelfixing, 10mm 29.5 28.4 26.9 hrs/tonne
Beams/Columns, steelfixing, 12mm 23.4 22.4 21.9 hrs/tonne
Beams/Columns, steelfixing, 16mm 16.6 15.8 15.1 hrs/tonne
Beams/Columns, steelfixing, 20mm 12.4 11.9 11.3 hrs/tonne
Beams/Columns, steelfixing, 25mm 9.9 9.2 8.7 hrs/tonne
Beams/Columns, steelfixing, 32mm 6.8 6.6 6.2 hrs/tonne
Beams/Columns, steelfixing, 40mm 6.1 5.9 5.6 hrs/tonne
Beams/Columns, steelfixing, 50mm 6.1 5.9 5.6 hrs/tonne
Walls, steelfixing, 6mm 41.2 40.8 39.1 hrs/tonne
Walls, steelfixing, 8mm 29.2 28.6 27.4 hrs/tonne
Walls, steelfixing, 10mm 22.7 22.0 21.2 hrs/tonne
Walls, steelfixing, 12mm 17.6 17.3 16.9 hrs/tonne
Walls, steelfixing, 16mm 12.4 12.2 11.8 hrs/tonne
Walls, steelfixing, 20mm 9.4 9.2 8.7 hrs/tonne
Walls, steelfixing, 25mm 7.4 7.2 7.0 hrs/tonne
Walls, steelfixing, 32mm 7.0 6.8 6.4 hrs/tonne
Walls, steelfixing, 40mm 6.4 6.1 5.9 hrs/tonne
Walls, steelfixing, 50mm 5.3 5.1 4.8 hrs/tonne
Staircases, steelfixing, 6mm 48.9 48.0 45.5 hrs/tonne
Staircases, steelfixing, 8mm 34.4 33.6 31.9 hrs/tonne
Staircases, steelfixing, 10mm 26.6 25.8 24.3 hrs/tonne
Staircases, steelfixing, 12mm 20.9 20.4 19.5 hrs/tonne
Staircases, steelfixing, 16mm 14.6 14.4 13.8 hrs/tonne
Staircases, steelfixing, 20mm 11.3 10.8 10.5 hrs/tonne
Staircases, steelfixing, 25mm 8.6 8.4 8.2 hrs/tonne

3) Reinforcement Ratios
Task / Description Slow Ave Fast Units
%
Pile Cap, Concrete m3 x Ratio = Rebar Tonnes - 14.8 -
ratio
%
Base Slab, Concrete m3 x Ratio = Rebar Tonnes - 13.2 14.1
ratio
%
Suspended Slab, Concrete m3 x Ratio = Rebar Tonnes - 20.6 25.6
ratio
%
Platform Slab, Concrete m3 x Ratio = Rebar Tonnes - 15.6 -
ratio
%
Columns, Concrete m3 x Ratio = Rebar Tonnes 15.8 18.7 28.7
ratio
%
Walls, Concrete m3 x Ratio = Rebar Tonnes 14.7 15.0 -
ratio
4) Staircase Reinforcement

Task L -
L - Helper
Activity TASKS - Barbender/Fitter M M M
(Mandays)
UOM (Mandays)

Staircase Rein
- Placing in
Position & Bars -
Binding Cover
Staircase Binding - 0.32 0.34 Include
Mt Wire : Blocks -
Reinforcement Using TMT Mandays/0.1Mt Mandays/0.1Mt 5%
5 kg/0.1Mt 10No/0.1Mt
Bars, Mild Wastage
Steel, Tor
Steel

Staircase Rein
-
Straightening,
Cutting (With
Bars -
Machine
0.2 0.28 Include
Cutting), Mt
Mandays/0.1Mt Mandays/0.1Mt 5%
bending -
Wastage
Using TMT
Bars, Mild
Steel, Tor
Steel.

Staircase
Rein-
Straightening,
Cutting (With
Bars -
Manual
0.29 0.32 Include
Cutting), Mt
Mandays/0.1Mt Mandays/0.1Mt 5%
bending -
Wastage
Using TMT
Bars, Mild
Steel, Tor
Steel.
5) Walls Reinforcement

Task L -
L - Helper
Activity TASKS - Barbender/Fitter M M M
(Mandays)
UOM (Mandays)

Walls Rein -
Placing in
Position & Bars -
Binding Cover
Walls Binding - 0.41 0.45 Include
Mt Wire : Blocks -
Reinforcement Using TMT Mandays/0.1Mt Mandays/0.1Mt 5%
5 kg/0.1Mt 10No/0.1Mt
Bars, Mild Wastage
Steel, Tor
Steel

Walls Rein -
Straightening,
Cutting (With
Machine Bars -
Cutting), 0.2 0.28 Include
Mt
bending - Mandays/0.1Mt Mandays/0.1Mt 5%
Using TMT Wastage
Bars, Mild
Steel, Tor
Steel.

Walls Rein -
Straightening,
Cutting (With
Manual Bars -
Cutting), 0.39 0.43 Include
Mt
bending - Mandays/0.1Mt Mandays/0.1Mt 5%
Using TMT Wastage
Bars, Mild
Steel, Tor
Steel.

Walls Rein - 0.47 0.5 Bars -


Stirrups Mt
Mandays/0.1Mt Mandays/0.1Mt Include
Cutting and 5%
Bending Wastage

Bars -
Walls Rein - 0.55 0.57 Include
Mt
Stirrups Teing Mandays/0.1Mt Mandays/0.1Mt 5%
Wastage

Decking
Task / Description Slow Ave Fast Units
Simple Universal Beam Steel Bridge, concrete bridge deck, grano cover - 7.1 - m/day

Fencing Works
Fencing Works

Task / Description Slow Ave Fast Units


Site Hoarding, timber posts, plywood nailed to horizontal rails 1.0 1.2 - m/hr
Post Erection, Timber / Metal, dig, erect, fix 3.3 4.5 - no/hr
Post Erection, Concrete, dig, erect, fix 3.2 4.0 - no/hr
Fence Erection, Chainlink, posts at 1.5m - 4.2 - m/hr
Fence Erection, Chainlink, posts at 2.0m - 4.4 - m/hr
Fence Erection, Chainlink, posts at 3.0m - 5.5 - m/hr
Fence Erection, Chestnut Pailings, posts at 1.5m - 23.8 - m/hr
Fence Erection, Chestnut Pailings, posts at 2.0m - 33.3 - m/hr
Fence Erection, Chestnut Pailings, posts at 3.0m - 41.6 - m/hr
Fence Erection, Barbed Wire, posts at 1.5m - 71.4 - m/hr
Fence Erection, Barbed Wire, posts at 2.0m - 100.0 - m/hr
Fence Erection, Barbed Wire, posts at 3.0m - 125.0 - m/hr
Gate Erection, Chainlink on frame - 4.1 - no/hr
FITOUT & FINISHES
Carpentry & Joinery
Task / Description Slow Ave Fast Units
Formwork to Soffit of Manhole - 1.8 - m2/hr
Formwork to Walls of Manhole 11.2 14.2 20.2 m2/hr
Formwork to Road Edges, straight - 7.7 - m/hr
Formwork to Road Edges, curves - 6.2 - m/hr

Carpentry Carcassing
Task / Description Slow Ave Fast Units
Windows, Timber Frames for Bricklaying 1.1 0.5 0.1 hrs/no
Windows, Drill, Screw & Plug extra over 0.3 0.1 - hrs/no
Door Frames, Softwood, 1.0-3.0m2 - 0.2 - hrs/no
Door Frames, Softwood, 3.0-7.0m2 0.5 0.4 - hrs/no
Door Frames, Softwood, 7.0-10.0m2 1.2 0.8 - hrs/no
Door Frames, Hardwood, 1.0-3.0m2 - 0.3 - hrs/no
Door Frames, Hardwood, 3.0-7.0m2 0.6 0.3 - hrs/no
Door Frames, Hardwood, 7.0-10.0m2 1.4 1.0 - hrs/no
Erect Water Tank Platform - 2.3 - no/hr
Fix Studding For Bath - 0.1 - hrs/m
Cut Access Hatch - 0.3 - no/hr
Floor Joists, under 3m 9.0 9.6 11.6 no/hr
Floor Joists, 3.0-4.5m 6.8 7.2 9.7 no/hr
Floor Joists, 4.5-6.0m 5.5 5.8 7.3 no/hr
Ceiling Joists, under 3m 12.8 14.0 14.7 no/hr
Ceiling Joists, 3.0-4.5m 10.8 12.1 12.6 no/hr
Ceiling Joists, 4.5-6.0m 9.6 10.8 11.1 no/hr
Ceiling Joists, Notch to Beams 20.0 25.0 28.5 no/hr
Ceiling Joists, Pack Joist Ends 20.1 23.8 26.3 no/hr
Ceiling Joists, Nailing Joists together - 23.0 - m/hr
Ceiling Joists, Bolting Joists Together - 12.6 - m/hr
Floor Boards, Butt Jointed - 1.7 - m2/hr
Floor Boards, T&G Boards, under 75mm wide - 3.4 - m2/hr
Floor Boards, T&G Boards, 75-100mm wide - 3.8 - m2/hr
Floor Boards, T&G Boards, 100-125mm wide - 4.2 - m2/hr
Floor Boards, T&G Boards, 125-150mm wide - 5.5 - m2/hr
Plywood Sheeting, Butt Jointed, nailed - 9.1 10.2 m2/hr
Plywood Sheeting, Butt Jointed, screwed - 4.1 4.8 m2/hr
Plywood Sheeting, T&G Jointed, nailed - 8.3 9.1 m2/hr
Plywood Sheeting, T&G Jointed, screwed - 4.0 4.6 m2/hr
Chipboard Sheeting, Butt Jointed, nailed - 10.0 11.5 m2/hr
Chipboard Sheeting, Butt Jointed, screwed - 5.1 5.8 m2/hr
Chipboard Sheeting, T&G Jointed, nailed - 9.3 9.1 m2/hr
Chipboard Sheeting, T&G Jointed, screwed - 5.5 5.9 m2/hr

Carpentry Final Fixing


Task / Description Slow Ave Fast Units
Windows, Softwood, 3.0-7.0m2 0.6 0.4 0.3 hrs/no
Windows, Softwood, 7.0-10.0m2 1.3 0.9 0.6 hrs/no
Windows, Hardwood, 1.0-3.0m2 0.4 0.3 - hrs/no
Windows, Hardwood, 3.0-7.0m2 0.7 0.5 0.4 hrs/no
Windows, Hardwood, 7.0-10.0m2 1.6 1.2 0.7 hrs/no
Windows, Aluminum, 1.0-3.0m2 0.2 0.3 - hrs/no
Windows, Aluminum, 3.0-7.0m2 0.5 0.4 0.3 hrs/no
Windows, Aluminum, 7.0-10.0m2 1.2 0.8 0.5 hrs/no
Windows, Steel, 1.0-3.0m2 0.4 0.3 0.2 hrs/no
Windows, Steel, 3.0-7.0m2 1.2 0.6 0.5 hrs/no
Windows, Steel, 7.0-10.0m2 1.4 1.2 1.0 hrs/no
Window Boards, nailed - 0.3 0.2 hrs/m
Window Boards, screwed - 0.4 0.3 hrs/m
Mouldings, Softwood, Nailed - 6.3 8.5 m/hr
Mouldings, Softwood, Screwed - 4.6 5.6 m/hr
Mouldings, Softwood, Gun Nailed - 8.2 11.1 m/hr
Mouldings, Hardwood, Nailed - 3.3 5.5 m/hr
Mouldings, Hardwood, Screwed - 2.4 3.7 m/hr
Mouldings, Hardwood, Gun Nailed - 8.5 11.3 m/hr
Skirting, Aluminum, Screwed 150-300mm centres - 7.6 - m/hr
Skirting, Aluminum, Screwed 300-450mm centres - 4.5 - m/hr
Skirting, Plastic, Adhesive Fixing - 8.6 - m/hr
Architrave Mouldings 9.5 12.2 18.2 m/hr
Architrave, Fix to Doors - 1.2 - hrs/door
Door Stop Mouldings 10.1 16.9 25.0 m/hr
Glazed Bead Mouldings 15.5 18.6 20.4 m/hr
Hanging Doors, Softwood, Single Pair Butts 1.3 0.9 0.6 hrs/no
Hanging Doors, Hardwood, Single Pair Butts 1.9 1.2 0.9 hrs/no
Cut Mortice to Receive Lock, Softwood - 0.2 - hrs/no
Cut Mortice to Receive Lock, Hardwood - 0.6 - hrs/no
Cut & Fix Formica Bath Panel - 0.4 - hrs/no
Kitchen Cupboards, Floor Units - 0.8 0.6 hrs/no
Kitchen Cupboards, Wall Units - 0.7 0.5 hrs/no
Kitchen Cupboards, Shelf Units - 0.8 0.7 hrs/no
Staircase, pre-made, simple, straight flight 1.9 1.5 1.1 hrs/no
Staircase, pre-made, 2 straight flights, 1 landing 3.7 2.9 2.6 hrs/no
Staircase, pre-made, 2 straight flights, 2 landings - 6.3 - hrs/no
Staircase, Balustrades/Handrails, fix horizontal 1.2 0.6 0.1 hrs/no
Staircase, Balustrades/Handrails, fix raking 0.9 0.5 0.3 hrs/no
Staircase, Cut and Fix Newel to Walls 0.9 - 0.2 hrs/no
Windows, Softwood, 1.0-3.0m2 0.3 0.2 - hrs/no
Raised Flooring, metal system - 0.5 - m2/hr

Ceiling Finishes
Task / Description Slow Ave Fast Units
Suspended Ceilings, office situations - 2.6 3.5 m2/hr
Suspended Ceilings, First Fix - 0.7 - m2/hr
Suspended Ceilings, Second Fix - 1.2 - m2/hr
Asphalt Waterproofing
Asphalt coatings to prepared concrete surfaces, usually undertaken with a 3 man gang.
Horizontal Surfaces = 210 m2/wk
Vertical Surfaces = 85 m2/wk

Bentonite Waterproofing
Sheeting to be installed and covered over immediately in order to prevent drying out, carried out
with a gang of at least 3 people.
Horizontal Surfaces = 25.0 m2/hr
Vertical surfaces = 15.0 m3/hr

Bituminous Waterproofing
Brush applied coatings (tretol etc) to prepared concrete surfaces.
A two coat application = 5.0 m2/hr
A three coat application = 3.5 m2/hr
Sheet materials (bituthene etc) fixed to prepared concrete surfaces.
Horizontal Surfaces = 4.0 m2/hr
Vertical Surfaces = 3.5 m2/hr

Cladding Restoration
Brickwork Restoration = 6.5 m2/day
Stonework Restoration = 20.0 m/day (single course)

Curtain Walling
Typical Curtain Walling = 25.0 m2/day

Doors & Window Installation


Installation
For windows that are not 'built-in' as work proceeds...
Install & Fix - By Area = 2.0 m2/hr
Install & Fix - By Girth = 4.0 m/hr
Mastic Pointing = 6.0 m/hr
Doors and Windows

Task / Description Slow Ave Fast Units


Mastic Pointing to Frames - 9.5 - m/hr
Fix Metal and Timber Windows After Wall Complete - 2.0 - m2/hr
Window Glazing - 1.3 - m2/hr
Window Glazing, Single Glazed Units - 2.0 - m2/hr
Window Glazing, Double Glazed Units - 1.3 - m2/hr

Epoxy Waterproofing
Epoxy based material (eliminator etc), a 2 part mix. It is sprayed on and large areas can be
completed in a short time. Usually carried out in two coats, good ventilation is required.
A one coat application = 75 m2/hr
A two coat application = 38 m2/hr

Facade Cleaning
Water Jetting = 25.0 m2/day
Acid Etching = 9.0 m2/day
Grit Blasting = 12.0 m2/day

Glazing
Glazing to windows, a typical rate of 1.23 m2/hr
Sealed Glazing Units
Single glazed units = 80.0 m2/wk
Double glazed units = 45.0 m2/wk

Floor Finishes
Floor Finishes

Task / Description Slow Ave Fast Units


Granolithic Flooring - 3.1 - m2/hr
Terrazzo Flooring, in-situ - 3.6 - m2/hr
Terrazzo Flooring, pre-cast - 4.6 5.1 m2/hr
Mosaic Tiling, 0.045x0.045m - 1.5 2.2 m2/hr
Clay, quarry Tiles, small areas, much cutting - 0.8 1.1 m2/hr
Clay, quarry Tiles, large areas, little cutting - 2.2 2.8 m2/hr
Raised Floor System - 2.6 - m2/hr
Linolium/Thermo-Plastic Flooring - 3.1 5.0 m2/hr
Thermo-Plastic Floor Tiles - 3.3 5.6 m2/hr
Wood Block Flooring, lay blocks - 1.5 2.1 m2/hr
Wood Block Flooring, sand and polish - 3.1 - m2/hr
Carpeting, Underlay & Gripper - 5.6 6.1 m2/hr
Carpeting, Adhesive Fixing - 3.5 4.2 m2/hr
Carpeting, Fully Fitted - 2.0 2.8 m2/hr
Hardboard Sheeting Coverings, small areas - 3.7 4.1 m2/hr
Hardboard Sheeting Coverings, large areas - 6.6 7.2 m2/hr
Floor Sheeting Coverings, Lay Lino - 9.5 10.5 m2/hr

Carpeting
Underlay & Carpet Gripper 5.58 m2/hr
Carpet adhesive fixing 3.50 m2/hr
Carpet fully fitted 2.05 m2/hr

Floor Sheeting Coverings


Lay lino (or similar) to rooms and corridor floors including measure, match, cut, fit and lay etc

Hardboard underlay small areas 3.7 m2/hr


Hardboard underlay large areas 6.6 m2/hr
Lay lino or similar 9.5 m2/hr
Linoleum, Thermo-Plastic, Cork & Carpet
Tiles
Small complex areas 3.1 m2/hr
Large simple areas 5.0 m2/hr

Kitchen Installations
Installation Sequences
Industrial and Commercial installations usually commence when false ceilings, floorings and
final decorations are substantially complete.
Kitchen Hood Installations are done before false ceiling completion and kitchen equipment is
done after the civil wall&floor finishes.
Installation Periods

Size Of Kitchen Are of Kitchen Installation Time

100 people 50 m2 3 weeks

500 people 150 m2 5 weeks

1,000 people 275 m2 8 weeks

For individual installations...


Ovens, friers and large mixers etc = 1 man day per item
Sinks, bain maries, washers etc = 2 man days per item
Commercial Kitchen

Task / Description Slow Ave Fast Units


Overall Installation for 100 persons or 50m2 - 3.0 - wks
Overall Installation for 500 persons or 150m2 - 5.0 - wks
Overall Installation for 1000 persons or 250m2 - 8.0 - wks
Install Ovens, friers and large mixers etc - 1.0 - mandays
Install Sinks, bain maries and washers etc - 2.0 - mandays
Painting & Decorations
Painting

Task / Description Slow Ave Fast Units


Prepare Walls - 14.2 - m2/hr
Prepare Doors - 12.5 - m2/hr
Prepare Door Frames - 25.0 - m/hr
Burn Off / Heat Strip Paintwork - 1.1 - m2/hr
Internal Timber, 1 coat primer before fixing, generally - 6.7 - m2/hr
Internal Timber, 1 coat primer before fixing, timber lengths - 20.0 - m/hr
Internal Timber, knot, 1 primer, stop, 1 undercoat, 1 gloss - 1.7 2.1 m2/hr
Internal Timber, touchup primer, 1 undercoat, 1 coat gloss - 3.1 3.8 m2/hr
Internal Timber, polyurethane varnish, 2 coats - 3.3 - m2/hr
Internal Timber, polyurethane varnish, 3 coats - 2.2 - m2/hr
Internal Timber, linseed oil to hardwood, 2 coats - 3.6 - m2/hr
External Timber, windows and frames - 2.4 - m2/hr
External Timber, knot, 1 primer, 2 undercoats, 1 coat gloss, - 1.5 - m2/hr
External Timber, touchup primer, 2 undercoats, 1 coat gloss, - 2.0 - m2/hr
External Timber, 2 coats wood preservative - 4.0 - m2/hr
External Timber, 3 coats polyurethane varnish - 2.0 - m2/hr
Internal Walls, 2 coats emulsion to plaster - 8.0 - m2/hr
Internal Walls, 2 coats emulsion to brick/blockwork - 6.0 - m2/hr
Internal Walls, 1 mist, 2 coats emulsion to plaster - 6.0 - m2/hr
Internal Walls, 1 mist, 2 coats emulsion to brick/blockwork - 4.5 - m2/hr
Internal Walls, 1 primer, 1 undercoat, 1 gloss to plaster - 2.3 - m2/hr
Internal Walls, undercoat to door frame - 20.0 - m/hr
Internal Walls, gloss to door frame - 16.5 - m/hr
Internal Walls, undercoat to door - 7.1 - m2/hr
Internal Walls, gloss to door - 6.2 - m2/hr
External Walls, 2 coats sandtex to render/concrete - 2.5 - m2/hr
External Walls, 2 coats sandtex to brick/blockwork - 2.0 - m2/hr
External Walls, 1 sealer, 2 emulsion to render/concrete - 2.0 - m2/hr
External Walls, 1 sealer, 2 emulsion to brick/blockwork - 1.7 - m2/hr
Floors, epoxy paint - 2.9 - m2/hr
Ceilings, emulsion paint, 2 coats - 6.1 - m2/hr
Ceilings, emulsion paint, 3 coats - 5.0 - m2/hr
Ceilings, textured paint - 4.2 - m2/hr
Ceilings, artex finish - 4.1 - m2/hr
Internal Steelwork, 1 primer, 1 undercoat, 1 gloss 1.3 2.4 - m2/hr
External Steelwork, 1 primer, 2 undercoats, 1 gloss 0.9 1.7 - m2/hr
Guttering Steelwork, 1 coat primer, 2 undercoats, 1 gloss - 2.5 - m/hr

Ceilings
Emulsion paint
- 2 coat 6.05 m2/hr
- 3 coats 5.02 m2/hr
Textured paint 4.20 m2/hr
Artex 4.10 m2/hr

Floors
Epoxy floor paint 2.95 m2/hr

Preparatory Works
Strip Existing Wallpapers (3 layers) 5.00 m2/hr
Burn Off/Heat Strip Paintwork 1.00 m2/hr
Chemically Strip Paintwork 1.30 m2/hr
Prepare walls 14.20 m2/hr
Prepare door frame 25.00 m/hr
Prepare door 12.50 m2/hr

Steel Externally
One coat primer, 2 undercoats, 1 gloss 1.70 m2/hr
As above to steel stanchions and beams 0.90 m2/hr
As above to balustrades, railings etc 1.00 m2/hr
As above to gutter and downpipes etc 2.50 m/hr

Steel Internally
One coat primer, 1 undercoat, 1 gloss 2.40 m2/hr
As above to steel stanchions and beams 1.30 m2/hr
As above to balustrades, railings etc 1.40 m2/hr

Timber Internally
(Rates per coat unless stated otherwise)
One coat primer, before fixing generally 6.70 m2/hr
One coat primer, before fixing lengths 20.0 m/hr
Knot, 1 primer, stop, 1 undercoat, 1 gloss 1.75 m2/hr
Touchup primer, 1 undercoat, 1 coat gloss 3.10 m2/hr
Polyurethane varnish - 2 coats 3.30 m2/hr, - 3 coats 2.20 m2/hr
Linseed Oil to Hardwood, 2 coats 3.30 m2/hr

Walls Externally
2 coats sandtex etc
- to render/concrete 2.50 m2/hr
- to brick/blockwork 2.00 m2/hr
1 sealer, 2 emulsion
- to render/concrete 2.00 m2/hr
- to brick/blockwork 1.70 m2/hr
Output 25m2 per man week overall facing brickwork

Walls Internally
2 coats emulsion
- to plaster 8.00 m2/hr
- to brick/blockwork 6.00 m2/hr
1 mist, 2 emulsion
- to plaster 6.00 m2/hr
- to brick/blockwork 4.50 m2/hr
1 primer, 1 undercoat, 1 gloss
- to plaster 2.30 m2/hr
Undercoat
- to door frame 20.00 m/hr
Gloss
- to door frame 16.50 m/hr
Undercoat
- to door 7.14 m2/hr
Gloss
- to door 6.25 m2/hr

Rendering
Task / Description Slow Ave Fast Units
Large Wall Areas, applied in 2 coats - 2.2 2.7 m2/hr
Small Wall Areas, applied in 2 coats - 1.5 1.7 m2/hr
Narrow Widths, applied in 2 coats - 1.2 1.4 m2/hr
Columns and Beams, applied in 2 coats - 1.5 1.7 m2/hr
Staircase and Soffits, applied in 2 coats - 1.4 - m2/hr

Restoration Works
Task / Description Slow Ave Fast Units
Faade Cleaning, Water Jetting - 25.0 - m2/day
Faade Cleaning, Acid Etching - 9.0 - m2/day
Faade Cleaning, Grit Blasting - 12.0 - m2/day
Cladding Restoration, Brickwork - 6.5 - m2/day
Cladding Restoration, Stonework courses - 20.0 - m/day
Soft Landscaping
Soil
Spread topsoil, prepare for turf/seeding = 2.5 m2/hr Spread fertilizer and rake in = 25.0 m2/hr
Planting
Hedges or Shrubs, ne 750 mm high = 4.0 no/hr Hedges or Shrubs, exc 750 m high = 1.5 no/hr
Saplings, ne 3.0 m high = 1.7 hrs/no
Turfing
Typical rate including minor preparations = 135 m2/day
Landscaping

Task / Description Slow Ave Fast Units


Top Soil, spread, level and prepare for turf or seeding - 2.5 - m2/hr
Top Soil, rake in fertilizer for seeding - 25.0 - m2/hr
Planting, Shrubs and Hedges, under 750mm high - 4.0 - no/hr
Planting, Shrubs and Hedges, over 750mm high - 1.5 - no/hr
Planting, Saplings, under 3.0m high - 1.7 - no/hr
Turfing, including for minor preparations - 16.8 - m2/hr

Staircases
Rates include for fixing, cleaning and minor repair works etc, rates in m2/hr .

System Type---> Part Framed Fully Framed


Item Fix Strike Fix Strike
Sloping soffit to stairs 0.78 2.33 0.86 2.56
Landing soffit to stairs 0.85 2.56 0.94 2.86
Wall Strings ne 300mm 0.47 1.41 0.47 1.41
deep
Wall Strings ex 300mm 0.53 1.59 0.53 1.59
deep
Open Strings ne 300mm 0.70 2.08 0.70 2.08
deep
Open Strings ex 300mm 0.79 2.38 0.79 2.38
deep
Riser boards fixed to - - 0.84 2.50
strings
Risers fixed to strings and - - 0.76 2.27
braced

Stone Cladding
External Stone Walls Various stone finishes are available...
Polished / Tooled = Highly reflective finish. The full colour and grain of the stone becomes
visible. A poished fiish seals the pores and gives a good weather and chemical protection.
Honed = Very smooth finish without reflections to show the full colour of the stone.
Flamed = Produced by applying a high-temperature flame to the surface ofthe stone. This flame
fractures the surface crystals, leaving a rough textured finish.
Sequence of operations...
Each wall stone is individually numbered to correspond to theshop drawings. The setting out line
is established and metal brackets and sub frame is installed in accordance with the initial setting
out line. Prior to drilling a cover meter is employed to check the cover on the concrete
reinforcement. Each stone is individually supported and restrained.
Typical wall panel size 0.75 m2/stone.
Stones 0.5 m2 and under = 14 no/day
Stones 0.75 m2 and under = 12 no/day
Stones 0.75 - 1.00 m2 = 10 no/day
Flat Stone walls - Simple = 9.0 m2/day
Flat Stone walls - Average = 5.1 m2/day
Flat Stone Walls - V. Complex = 1.8 m2/day
Curved Wall cladding = 8.0 m2/day
Edge Beams/Window edges = 2.3 m2/day
Stone soffits = 4.0 m2/day
A cladding team consists of 1 fixer and 1 mate.

Task / Description Slow Ave Fast Units


Fix 0.5m2 Stones to Metal Support Frame 5.6 7.0 7.8 m2/day
Fix 0.5-0.75m2 Stones to Metal Support Frame 7.2 9.0 10.1 m2/day
Fix 0.75-1.0m2 Stones to Metal Support Frame 6.9 8.7 9.7 m2/day
Fix Complex Stonework to Metal Support Frame - 1.8 - m2/day
Fix Curved Stone Cladding 6.9 8.0 9.2 m2/day
Fix Stone Edge Beams/Window Reveals - 2.3 3.2 m2/day
Fix Stone Soffits - 4.0 - m2/day
Stone Floors 6.9 10.4 12.2 m2/day
Granite Wall Panels, First Fix - 1.3 - m2/hr
Granite Wall Panels, Second Fix - 1.1 - m2/hr

Wall & Ceiling Coverings


Paper Coverings
Wall paper and lining paper = 5.00 m2/hr Vinyl and washable papers = 4.20 m2/hr
Ceiling lining paper = 4.00 m2/hr
Rates in relation to one skilled craftsman and labourer.
Wallpapering...

Task / Description Slow Ave Fast Units


Strip Existing Wallpaper (3 layers) & Prepare Walls - 5.0 - m2/hr
Fix Wallpaper and lining paper - 5.0 - m2/hr
Fix Vinyl and Washable paper - 4.2 - m2/hr
Fix Ceiling Lining Paper - 4.0 - m2/hr

Wall Finishes...

Task / Description Slow Ave Fast Units


Mosaic Tiling, 0.045x0.045m - 1.1 1.5 no/hr

Clay, quarry Tiles, Window Cills, setout and level - 55.5 - m/hr

Clay, quarry Tiles, Window Cills, fix, grout and clean - 1.5 - m2/hr

Ceramic Tiles 150x150mm, Ledges/Upstands 20.4 27.1 32.0 no/hr

Ceramic Tiles 150x150mm, Areas under 1.5m2 per room 0.9 1.0 1.2 m2/hr

Ceramic Tiles 150x150mm, Areas of 1.5-2.5m2 per room 1.4 1.6 1.9 m2/hr

Ceramic Tiles 150x150mm, Areas over 2.5m2 per room 1.5 1.7 2.1 m2/hr

Ceramic Tiles 150x150mm, Extra Over for Cutting - 41.6 - no/hr


Ceramic Tiles 108x108mm, Ledges/Upstands - 62.5 - no/hr

Ceramic Tiles 108x108mm, Areas under 1.5m2 per room 1.0 1.3 1.5 m2/hr

Ceramic Tiles 108x108mm, Areas of 1.5-2.5m2 per room 1.6 1.8 2.1 m2/hr

Ceramic Tiles 108x108mm, Areas over 2.5m2 per room 1.7 1.9 2.2 m2/hr

Ceramic Tiles 108x108mm, Extra Over for Cutting - 125.0 - no/hr

Ceramic Tiles, Grouting Works 2.2 2.5 2.6 m2/hr

Partitioning
Partitioning

Task / Description Slow Ave Fast Units


Timber Studding 5.9 6.2 6.8 m/hr
Metalwork System (MF) Studding 1.6 2.0 2.5 m2/hr
Tape, Joint Sand and Top Coat Plasterboard 1.1 1.5 2.1 m2/hr
Skimming to Plasterboards 5.5 6.1 6.7 m2/hr
5mm Hardboard Paneling, excluding studding time - 3.2 3.6 m2/hr
100mm Pine Paneling, excluding studding time 0.8 1.1 1.4 m2/hr
Quality Hardwood Paneling, excluding studding time 0.3 0.5 0.6 m2/hr
Fix 50mm Rocksil Insulation to cavities - 17.8 20.2 m2/hr
Fix Timber Studding and Paramount Partitions 2.6 3.0 3.4 m2/hr
Fix Timber Studding and Demountable Partitions 0.8 1.1 1.6 m2/hr
Fix Timber Studding and Hills Duraboard Partitions 3.0 3.5 3.9 m2/hr
Fix Timber Studding and Gyproc Laminated Partitions 2.2 2.6 2.9 m2/hr
Stud Partitions, Butt Jointed, nailed 5.9 7.3 9.1 m/hr
Stud Partitions, Butt Jointed, screwed 3.5 4.6 5.8 m/hr
Stud Partitions, T&G Jointed, nailed 2.9 3.6 4.8 m/hr
Stud Partitions, T&G Jointed, screwed 2.1 2.8 3.7 m/hr
Stud Partitions, Fix Sole Plates - 11.1 - m/hr
Stud Partitions, Fix Noggins - 16.6 - m/hr
Stud Partitions, Drill 25-40mm Holes - 28.5 - no/hr
Fix Toilet Partition System, Separation panels - 0.8 - hrs/no
Fix Toilet Partition System, Wall Front Panels - 0.7 - hrs/no
Fix Toilet Partition System, Separation Front Panels - 0.6 - hrs/no
Fix Toilet Partition System, End Front Panels - 0.6 - hrs/no
Fix Toilet Partition System, Hang Door to Panel - 0.4 - hrs/no
Fix Toilet Partition System, Hand Door plugged to wall - 0.6 - hrs/no
Fix Toilet Partition System, Fix Head Rails - 0.1 - hrs/no

Granolithic Flooring

Typically carried out with a gang of 2 layers and a single labourer.


Typical rate of 3.15 m2/hr

Mosaic Tiles

Standard tiles of 0.045 x 0.045 m. A typical rate of 1.55 m2/hr

Terrazzo Flooring

Typically carried out with a gang of 2 layers, 2 labourers and 1 polisher.


In situ flooring 3.60 m2/hr
Precast flooring 4.65 m2/hr

Sand / Cement Floor Screeding

Lay sand and cement floor screeds to accurate levels and finish with steel/wood float. Rate apply to a
gang or 2 labourers and 1 screeder with materials being delivered by hoist and barrow.
Screeding Rates (m2/hr)
Thickness -> 15 to 20mm 4.85
20 to 30mm 4.63
30 to 40mm 4.17
40 to 50mm 3.79 (Ave4.50,BestRate 5.26)
50 to 65mm 3.29
65 to 100mm 3.00

Underground rooms with poor lighting and ventilation, a typical rate of 1.63 m2/hr. This rate achieved
by labour only subcontractors and hence is very slow.

Typical rates for fixing of the floor screed battens, for tamping of screeds etc.
Fix 10.0 m/hr
Strike 20.0 m/hr

Sand / cement 75mm thick


3 man gang - with pump - 120m2 day - when undertaken indoors - not neccessarily watertight
though - say to a traditional masonry build with PCC floor planks above.
3 man gang - with pump - 60m2 day - when undertaken outdoors - to a slab prior to Timber
frame or to a roof slab
3 man gang - with pump - 30m2 day - when undertaken outdoors - as above but between October
and March allowing float for non productive days (low temps or rainfall).
All of the above do not include time for DPM, insulation or underfloor heating. This needs to
be calculated seperately.

Stonework Floors
Sequence of operations...
Expose base slab aggregate, clean, wet slab, apply bonding agent, lay screed topping (50 mm) compact and
cure screed. Once cured, setout lines and levels and lay and tamp stones onto setting bed. Protect area until
cured and maintain protection to prevent traffic damage etc.
Each area should then be grouted after the installation of the paving. Typical floor block panel size 0.5
m2/stone.

Stone floors 10.45 m2/day


Stone staircase tread/risers 8.40 m2/day

. A paving team consists of 1 fixer and 0.5 mate's (1 mate per 2 fixers).

Wood Block Flooring

Parquet and Wood block floor systems

Lay Blocks 1.5 m2/hr


Clean, sand, polish 3.1 m2/hr

Working Platforms
Task / Description Slow Ave Fast Units
m
Metal KwikStage, 5 Boards with 2m lifts 11.1 11.9 12.5
run/hr
m
Metal KwikStage, 5 Boards with 3m lifts 9.1 10.0 10.5
run/hr
m
Metal KwikStage, House Scaffold with 3 lifts 2.8 3.2 3.8
run/hr
m
Metal Tube and Fittings, 5-6 Boards wide 3.2 3.7 4.6
run/hr
Tube and Fitting Platforms, 50-250m3 10.6 12.5 18.5 m3/hr
Tube and Fitting Platforms, 250-1000m3 18.5 22.5 24.5 m3/hr
Tube and Fitting Platforms, over 1000m3 24.5 30.0 33.5 m3/hr
%x
Tube and Fitting Platforms, striking - 200.0 -
erect
Wet Trade Finishes
1) Plasterboard
Task / Description Slow Ave Fast Units
Boarding to Plaster dabs 3.6 4.0 5.5 m2/hr
Boarding to Stud-work/Metal Lathes 4.0 5.0 6.7 m2/hr
Boarding 12mm nailed to studding - 12.5 - m2/hr
Boarding 19mm nailed to studding - 16.5 - m2/hr
Tape, Jointing and Sanding - 0.1 - hrs/m

2) Plastering
Task / Description Slow Ave Fast Units
Browning (undercoat), Internal Walls under 2.5m high 2.2 2.8 3.1 m2/hr
Browning (undercoat), Internal Walls over 2.5m high 2.1 2.6 2.8 m2/hr
Browning (undercoat), Reveals and Columns less than 100mm wide 9.9 10.0 10.1 m2/hr
Browning (undercoat), Reveals and Columns 100-200mm wide 5.2 5.4 6.4 m2/hr
Browning (undercoat), Reveals and Columns 200-300mm wide 3.3 3.6 3.9 m2/hr
Covings - 5.0 - m/hr
Skimming (topcoat), Internal Walls under 2.5m high 6.1 6.7 7.3 m2/hr
Skimming (topcoat), Internal Walls over 2.5m high 5.5 6.1 6.7 m2/hr
Skimming (topcoat), Reveals and Columns less than 100mm wide 12.6 13.8 15.4 m2/hr
Skimming (topcoat), Reveals and Columns 100-200mm wide 7.7 8.3 9.8 m2/hr
Skimming (topcoat), Reveals and Columns 200-300mm wide 4.5 5.0 5.5 m2/hr
Plaster Board to Ceilings 3.2 4.5 5.5 m2/hr
Plastering Ceilings, 1 Bonding, 1 Skimming 1.1 1.7 2.4 m2/hr
Plastering Ceilings, Topcoat Skimming 2.7 3.2 5.4 m2/hr
3) Screeding
Task / Description Slow Ave Fast Units
Sand/Cement Floor Screed, 15-20mm thick - 4.8 5.7 m2/hr
Sand/Cement Floor Screed, 20-30mm thick - 4.6 5.5 m2/hr
Sand/Cement Floor Screed, 30-40mm thick 3.2 4.2 5.3 m2/hr
Sand/Cement Floor Screed, 40-50mm thick 2.0 3.8 5.2 m2/hr
Sand/Cement Floor Screed, 50-65mm thick - 3.3 3.9 m2/hr
Sand/Cement Floor Screed, 65-100mm thick - 3.0 3.6 m2/hr
Fix/Setout Screed Battens - 10.0 - m/hr
MEP WORKS
Define First Fix
Definition of Building Services - First Fix
Environmental Control Systems
This shall include the installation of all ECS equipment such as MCC's, fans and AHU's.
In addition the installation of all primary and secondary ductwork and pipe work systems
(including valves, dampers, access panels, supports, anchors and guides) shall be completed.
Where necessary, due to concealment or other construction restraints, sectional testing shall be
completed.
Electrical Systems
This shall include the installation of all transformers and switchboards.
In addition, the installation of all primary and secondary cable containment and support systems,
such as ladder racks, cable trays, cable trucking and conduits including brackets, anchors and
guides shall be completed.
Plumbing, Drainage and Wet Fire Systems
This shall include the installation of all duty and standby pumps for flushing water system, sump
pumps, potable water system, drencher system, water spray system, sprinkler system, fire
services system, trackside fire fighting system.
In addition, the installation of all primary and secondary pipe runs, whether horizontal or
vertical, with associated valves, supports, anchors and guides.
AFA System
This shall include all primary and secondary cable containment for the AFA system. Where
necessary, due to concealment or other construction restraints, sectional testing shall be
completed.

Define Second Fix


Definition of Building Services - Second Fix
Environmental Control Systems
This shall include the installation of fan coils, EP panels and PLC panels.
In addition, the insulation of all primary and secondary ductwork as well as pipe work systems;
leakage tests for ductwork and pipe work; power and control cabling & wiring including
termination; complete installation of pneumatic system.
Electrical Systems
This shall include the installation of isolators, sockets, lighting, distribution boards,
UPS/CBS/Batteries.
In addition, the installation and testing of all primary, secondary and final circuitry, cabling and
wiring including terminations for isolators, sockets, lighting, transformers, switchboards,
distribution boards, UPS/CBS/Batteries and any other power and control points shall be
completed.
All electrical installation and testing work must comply with the HV and LV Power On Dates.
Plumbing and Drainage and Wet Fire Systems
This shall include the installation of the controls for flushing water system, sump pumps, potable
water system, drencher system, water spray system, sprinkler system, fire services system,
trackside fire fighting system.
In addition, the power and control wiring and cabling including termination shall be completed.
The hydraulic testing of all piping systems for pumps and the associated pipe works shall be
completed.
AFA Fire Systems
This shall include cabling and wiring for AFA system, termination of cabling and wiring to the
AFA panels and the AFA loops complete.
This shall also include the installation of detector base plates.

Escalator Installation
Modular Design Escalators Packages
The escalator trusses are usually delivered in 1.6 m cubes, which include the internal workings
etc. Normally 3 to 4 sections go to make up a standard escalator (an 11 m rise), however sizes
and lengths vary greatly.
Delivery Implications
The largest single element is the nose piece which is approximately 1.8 m wide, 3 m long and 2.5
m high. This section weight 1,500 kg. The other truss sections weight only 1,000 kg at most. The
maximum weight of an entire escalator (10 m rise) is estimated at 15,000 kg. It is usual to being
the escalators in from the top landing and lower the whole truss down into its final position.
Power supply being 415 volt 3 phase hard wired, T&C may be done with temporary supplies.
Typical Project Strategy
Sequence /timing of works:
16 wks = Develop concept design / submit for approval.
12 wks = Prepare preliminary design / submit for approval.
60 wks = Manufacture, test & site delivery, in conjunction with completion of final design.
4 wks = Initial delivery placing and connection of truss sections.
12-16 wks = Install escalators and commission.
12 wks = Test running of escalators.
12 wks = Trial running of escalators / System Operational.
Typical Escalator Installation Sequence Timing of single escalator:
1 wks = Assemble sections and truss position, align, level.
6 wks = Escalator contractor "stop work" period, to allow ABWF contractor to complete
surrounding finishes.
5 wks = Final escalator installation, "Phase B" decking installation and glazing etc.
0 wks = Escalator Power-On required.
2 wks = Test performance "Phase C" prior to escalator Test Running.
2 wks = Full load test "Phase D" of escalator.
1 wks = Final test "Phase E"
1 wks = EMSD Inspection of installation.
1 wks = "Phase F" inspection.
Total installation time being 12 - 14 weeks, excluding the "Stop Work" period during which the
civil finishing works are completed.

Task / Description Slow Ave Fast Units


Truss type, Overall Installation (excl arch finishes) 14.0 12.0 11.0 wks
Truss type, Manufacture, test and deliver - 60.0 48.0 wks
Truss type, Phase A assemble truss , position/level - 1.0 - wks
Truss type, Stop-Work for surrounding finishes 8.0 6.0 4.0 wks
Truss type, Phase B decking and glazing etc - 5.0 - wks
Truss type, Phase C performance testing - 2.0 - wks
Truss type, Phase D full load testing - 2.0 - wks
Truss type, Phase E final test and inspection - 2.0 - wks

Fiber Cables
There are 4 phases to laying fiber cables - The laying of the duct, the pulling of the fiber cable,
the splicing/terminating of the cable and the testing of the cable.
The production rate for the laying of the duct will be as any similar small diameter pipe and
dependent on the location and linear distance.
The cable pulling phase has less to do with the length of the pull and much more to do with the
number of pulls required - i.e. draw pit to draw pit distance is less important than the number of
times the cable pulling operation is started and stopped. Production is therefore the number of
pulls per day. The installers will generally attempt to install the cable from termination point to
termination point in one day. Depending on the environment, an assumption of one pull a day is
conservative and 2 a day being more optimistic. Crew sizes are small, 3/4 operatives.
The termination is obviously a specialist job and likely to be carried out by different small crew
than the pulling of the cable.
The duration is dependent on the number of fibers in the cable, but an assumption of one day per
location and another day for testing at that location is reasonable

Lift Installation
Sequence of Work
A standard installation sequence for a "conventional hydraulic lift with 2 - 3 storeys and doors
etc.
Handover of lift shaft structure and associated lift machine room.
Deliver all materials to site, 2 weeks.
Hoisting of machine roof equipment, setting out and plumbing, pit channel, car brackets and
guide rails, 10 days.
Hoist in hydraulic arm, piping, lift shaft trunking and conduits etc and wiring of lift shaft, 9 days.
Positioning of motor control room equipment, machine room trunking and conduits and machine
room wiring etc, 13 days.
Install sill angles and architraves etc, landing grouting done by others and landing doors, 9 days.
Partially dismantle lift shaft scaffolding and install pit equipment, 5 days.
Install car frame and platform, car wall panels and ceiling, car door operators and wiring of lift
car, 14 days.
Architectural finishing stop work period, to install external glazing (if any) complete landing
finishes and lift shaft final BS lighting, detectors etc, 12 days.
Lift machine room Power-On required.
Initial tuning and adjustments, 7 days.
Final tuning and adjustments, 7 days.
Submission of Form 5 to EMSD.
Interface testing with other contractors, carried out at later state (coordinated with others),
duration of 6 days.
Final test and commissioning with client and handover, 2 days.
Procurement
Lifts are long lead items - from 12 weeks for a standard lift and considerably longer (1 to 1.5
years) for specially designed installations
Installation Periods
Therefore, the overall duration of the installation, including delivery, architectural finishes, by
others, and Form 5 submission etc...
Rule Of Thumb
Upto 8 storeys = 12 - 16 weeks
Upto 15 storeys = 16 - 24 weeks
More Accurately
2 to 3 storey installation = 3 wks/level
4 storeys and above = 2 wks/level
Test & Commissioning
Rule of thumb, allow 2 weeks plus 1 day per lift per storey.
Lift Installation

Task / Description Slow Ave Fast Units


Hydraulic Lift, Install 2 to 3 storeys - 3.0 - wks/floor
Hydraulic Lift, Install 4 storeys and above - 2.0 - wks/floor
Hydraulic Lift, Testing allow 2 wks plus - 1.0 - day/floor
Standard Lift, Manufacture, test and deliver - 12.0 - wks
Non-Standard Lift, Manufacture, test and deliver 75.0 65.0 52.0 wks

Lift Erection Schedule


Please find below the sequence or erection of a Lift..:

1. Site Survey of Lift Shaft


2. Installation of Rails
3. Installation of Door Frames
4. Installation of Outside Doors, Indicators and push buttons
5. Assembly of Cabin
6. Installation of Motor
7. Main Cable Installation, Connection to BMS if applicable.
8. Testing
9. Complete Installation of Interior Finishes
10. Balancing and Commissioning

These are the basic steps, other requirements will apply per specifications.

Walls Box Sections (Lift Shafts etc)


Rates include for making ,fixing, cleaning and minor repair works etc, rates in m2/hr.

Item Panel Size Fix Strike


2
Using Bolts and Struts 1.0 - 1.5 m 1.22 3.13
(man-handled) 1.5 - 2.0 m2 1.28 3.23
2
2.0 - 3.0 m 1.39 3.45
2
3.0 - 5.0 m 1.54 3.85
"StoriForm" shutters 1.5 - 2.0 m2 1.47 3.85
(man-handled) 2.0 - 3.0 m2 1.49 4.00
2
3.0 - 5.0 m 1.69 4.35
2
5.0 - 10.0 m 1.79 4.55
2
"StoriForm" shutters 1.5 - 2.0 m 1.54 4.35
(crane-assisted) 2.0 - 3.0 m2 1.56 4.76
2
3.0 - 5.0 m 1.72 5.00
2
5.0 - 10.0 m 1.85 5.56
2
10.0 - 15.0 m 2.56 7.14
exc 15.0m2 2.70 7.69

Drainage, Manholes and Gulleys


Manholes and Gulleys

Task / Description Slow Ave Fast Units


Concrete Pre-Cast Manhole Units, 610 x 455 x 51 mm - 1.2 - hrs/no
Concrete Pre-Cast Manhole Units, 990 x 610 x 64 mm - 1.6 - hrs/no
Brickwork Manhole, 1.0 brick engineering - 0.3 - m2/hr
Brickwork Manhole, 1.5 brick engineering - 0.2 - m2/hr
Brickwork Manhole, 2.0 brick engineering - 0.2 - m2/hr
Benching to Manhole, under 0.5m2 - 0.9 - hrs/no
Benching to Manhole, 0.5-0.75m2 - 1.2 - hrs/no
Benching to Manhole, 0.75-1.0m2 - 1.8 - hrs/no
Brickwork Manhole, build in pipes, under 150mm dia - 0.1 - hrs/no
Brickwork Manhole, build in pipes, 150-225mm dia - 0.2 - hrs/no
Brickwork Manhole, build in pipes, over 225mm dia - 0.3 - hrs/no
Brickwork Manhole, build in cast iron covers 0.3 0.6 1.2 hrs/no
Yard Gulleys, 75-150mm dia pipes, bed and level - 2.2 - no/hr
Yard Gulleys, 150-225mm dia pipes, bed and level - 1.8 - no/hr
Yard Gulleys, 225-300mm dia pipes, bed and level - 1.5 - no/hr
Road Gulleys, 600mm deep, bed and level - 1.2 - no/hr
Road Gulleys, 750mm deep, bed and level - 0.8 - no/hr
Road Gulleys, 900mm deep, bed and level - 0.4 - no/hr
Road Gulleys, 1,200mm deep, bed and level - 0.3 - no/hr
Road Gulleys, install gratings - 5.0 - no/hr
PVC Manhole - 15.0 - mins/no

Land Drains

Task / Description Slow Ave Fast Units


Land Drains, Concrete, butt jointed, under 150mm dia, 0-5m run - 11.6 - m/hr
Land Drains, Concrete, butt jointed, under 150mm dia, 5-30m run - 14.1 - m/hr
Land Drains, Concrete, butt jointed, under 150mm dia, over 30m run - 18.8 - m/hr
Land Drains, Concrete, butt jointed, 150-225mm dia, 0-5m run - 8.4 - m/hr
Land Drains, Concrete, butt jointed, 150-225mm dia, 5-30m run - 10.2 - m/hr
Land Drains, Concrete, butt jointed, 150-225mm dia, over 30m run - 11.9 - m/hr
Land Drains, Concrete, butt jointed, 225-300mm dia, 0-5m run - 5.4 - m/hr
Land Drains, Concrete, butt jointed, 225-300mm dia, 5-30m run - 6.5 - m/hr
Land Drains, Concrete, butt jointed, 225-300mm dia, over 30m run - 7.9 - m/hr

Drainage

Task / Description Slow Ave Fast Units


PVC Drainage, 1m pipes, 100-150mm dia, 0-5m run - 5.7 - m/hr
PVC Drainage, 1m pipes, 100-150mm dia, 5-30m run - 8.1 - m/hr
PVC Drainage, 1m pipes, 100-150mm dia, over 30m run - 9.5 - m/hr
PVC Drainage, 3m pipes, 100-150mm dia, 0-5m run - 12.2 - m/hr
PVC Drainage, 3m pipes, 100-150mm dia, 5-30m run - 15.2 - m/hr
PVC Drainage, 3m pipes, 100-150mm dia, over 30m run - 18.2 - m/hr
PVC Drainage, 6m pipes, 100-150mm dia, 0-5m run - 22.2 - m/hr
PVC Drainage, 6m pipes, 100-150mm dia, 5-30m run - 27.7 - m/hr
PVC Drainage, 6m pipes, 100-150mm dia, over 30m run - 33.3 - m/hr
PVC Drainage, 3m pipes, 150-200mm dia, 5-30m run - 10.6 - m/hr
PVC Drainage, 3m pipes, 150-200mm dia, over 30m run - 12.8 - m/hr
PVC Drainage, 6m pipes, 150-200mm dia, 5-30m run - 21.2 - m/hr
PVC Drainage, 6m pipes, 150-200mm dia, over 30m run - 25.6 - m/hr
Stoneware Drainage, Cement/Sand Joints, 75mm dia, 0-5m run - 4.7 - m/hr
Stoneware Drainage, Cement/Sand Joints, 75mm dia, 5-30m run - 5.5 - m/hr
Stoneware Drainage, Cement/Sand Joints, 75mm dia, over 30m run - 6.6 - m/hr
Stoneware Drainage, Cement/Sand Joints, 100mm dia, 0-5m run - 4.4 - m/hr
Stoneware Drainage, Cement/Sand Joints, 100mm dia, 5-30m run - 5.0 - m/hr
Stoneware Drainage, Cement/Sand Joints, 100mm dia, over 30m run - 6.2 - m/hr
Stoneware Drainage, Cement/Sand Joints, 150mm dia, 0-5m run - 3.2 - m/hr
Stoneware Drainage, Cement/Sand Joints, 150mm dia, 5-30m run - 3.8 - m/hr
Stoneware Drainage, Cement/Sand Joints, 150mm dia, over 30m run - 4.5 - m/hr
Stoneware Drainage, Cement/Sand Joints, 225mm dia, 0-5m run - 2.1 - m/hr
Stoneware Drainage, Cement/Sand Joints, 225mm dia, 5-30m run - 2.6 - m/hr
Stoneware Drainage, Cement/Sand Joints, 225mm dia, over 30m run - 3.1 - m/hr
Stoneware Drainage, Cement/Sand Joints, 300mm dia, 0-5m run - 1.4 - m/hr
Stoneware Drainage, Cement/Sand Joints, 300mm dia, 5-30m run - 1.7 - m/hr
Stoneware Drainage, Cement/Sand Joints, 300mm dia, over 30m run - 2.4 - m/hr
Stoneware Drainage, Cement/Sand Joints, over 375mm dia, 0-5m run - 1.1 - m/hr
Stoneware Drainage, Cement/Sand Joints, over 375mm dia, 5-30m run - 1.3 - m/hr
Stoneware Drainage, Cement/Sand Joints, over 375mm dia, over 30m run - 1.6 - m/hr
Stoneware Drainage, Flexible Joints, 75mm dia, 0-5m run - 8.3 - m/hr
Stoneware Drainage, Flexible Joints, 75mm dia, 5-30m run - 10.0 - m/hr
Stoneware Drainage, Flexible Joints, 75mm dia, over 30m run - 12.5 - m/hr
Stoneware Drainage, Flexible Joints, 100mm dia, 0-5m run - 7.7 - m/hr
Stoneware Drainage, Flexible Joints, 100mm dia, 5-30m run - 9.1 - m/hr
Stoneware Drainage, Flexible Joints, 100mm dia, over 30m run - 10.0 - m/hr
Stoneware Drainage, Flexible Joints, 150mm dia, 0-5m run - 5.2 - m/hr
Stoneware Drainage, Flexible Joints, 150mm dia, 5-30m run - 6.2 - m/hr
Stoneware Drainage, Flexible Joints, 150mm dia, over 30m run - 7.7 - m/hr
Stoneware Drainage, Flexible Joints, 225mm dia, 0-5m run - 2.7 - m/hr
Stoneware Drainage, Flexible Joints, 225mm dia, 5-30m run - 3.3 - m/hr
Stoneware Drainage, Flexible Joints, 225mm dia, over 30m run - 4.0 - m/hr
Stoneware Drainage, Flexible Joints, 300mm dia, 0-5m run - 1.7 - m/hr
Stoneware Drainage, Flexible Joints, 300mm dia, 5-30m run - 2.1 - m/hr
Stoneware Drainage, Flexible Joints, 300mm dia, over 30m run - 2.5 - m/hr
Stoneware Drainage, Flexible Joints, over 375mm dia, 0-5m run - 1.4 - m/hr
Stoneware Drainage, Flexible Joints, over 375mm dia, 5-30m run - 1.6 - m/hr
Stoneware Drainage, Flexible Joints, over 375mm dia, over 30m run - 2.1 - m/hr
PVC, Stoneware, Pitch Fibre & Concrete Joints - 2.4 - mins/no
Pitch Fibre Pipes, 75mm dia, 0-5m run - 9.1 - m/hr
Pitch Fibre Pipes, 75mm dia, 5-30m run - 16.6 - m/hr
Pitch Fibre Pipes, 75mm dia, over 30m run - 20.0 - m/hr
Pitch Fibre Pipes, 100mm dia, 0-5m run - 9.1 - m/hr
Pitch Fibre Pipes, 100mm dia, 5-30m run - 16.6 - m/hr
Pitch Fibre Pipes, 100mm dia, over 30m run - 20.0 - m/hr
Pitch Fibre Pipes, 150mm dia, 0-5m run - 6.6 - m/hr
Pitch Fibre Pipes, 150mm dia, 5-30m run - 12.5 - m/hr
Pitch Fibre Pipes, 150mm dia, over 30m run - 14.3 - m/hr
Pitch Fibre Pipes, 200mm dia, 0-5m run - 6.2 - m/hr
Pitch Fibre Pipes, 200mm dia, 5-30m run - 11.1 - m/hr
Pitch Fibre Pipes, 200mm dia, over 30m run - 12.5 - m/hr
Pitch Fibre Pipes, 225mm dia, 0-5m run - 5.8 - m/hr
Pitch Fibre Pipes, 225mm dia, 5-30m run - 10.0 - m/hr
Pitch Fibre Pipes, 225mm dia, over 30m run - 12.1 - m/hr
Hepsleve Rubber Joint System, 75mm dia, 0-5m run - 12.5 - m/hr
Hepsleve Rubber Joint System, 75mm dia, 5-30m run - 14.3 - m/hr
Hepsleve Rubber Joint System, 75mm dia, over 30m run 11.2 16.6 30.1 m/hr
Hepsleve Rubber Joint System, 100mm dia, 0-5m run - 10.0 - m/hr
Hepsleve Rubber Joint System, 100mm dia, 5-30m run - 12.5 - m/hr
Hepsleve Rubber Joint System, 100mm dia, over 30m run - 14.3 - m/hr
Hepsleve Rubber Joint System, 150mm dia, 0-5m run - 7.1 - m/hr
Hepsleve Rubber Joint System, 150mm dia, 5-30m run - 9.1 - m/hr
Hepsleve Rubber Joint System, 150mm dia, over 30m run 8.3 10.0 13.8 m/hr
Hepsleve Rubber Joint System, 225mm dia, 0-5m run - 6.8 - m/hr
Hepsleve Rubber Joint System, 225mm dia, 5-30m run - 4.5 - m/hr
Hepsleve Rubber Joint System, 225mm dia, over 30m run - 5.5 - m/hr
Hepsleve Rubber Joint System, 300mm dia, 0-5m run - 2.5 - m/hr
Hepsleve Rubber Joint System, 300mm dia, 5-30m run - 2.9 - m/hr
Hepsleve Rubber Joint System, 300mm dia, over 30m run - 3.7 - m/hr
Hepsleve Rubber Joint System, over 375mm dia, 0-5m run - 1.9 - m/hr
Hepsleve Rubber Joint System, over 375mm dia, 5-30m run - 2.3 - m/hr
Hepsleve Rubber Joint System, over 375mm dia, over 30m run - 2.7 - m/hr
Concrete Pipes, 1.5m pipes, 375mm dia, 0-5m run - 2.8 - m/hr
Concrete Pipes, 1.5m pipes, 375mm dia, 5-30m run - 3.4 - m/hr
Concrete Pipes, 1.5m pipes, 375mm dia, over 30m run - 3.8 - m/hr
Concrete Pipes, 1.5m pipes, 450mm dia, 0-5m run - 2.7 - m/hr
Concrete Pipes, 1.5m pipes, 450mm dia, 5-30m run - 3.2 - m/hr
Concrete Pipes, 1.5m pipes, 450mm dia, over 30m run - 3.6 - m/hr
Concrete Pipes, 1.5m pipes, 525mm dia, 0-5m run - 2.5 - m/hr
Concrete Pipes, 1.5m pipes, 525mm dia, 5-30m run - 2.9 - m/hr
Concrete Pipes, 1.5m pipes, 525mm dia, over 30m run - 3.4 - m/hr
Concrete Pipes, 1.5m pipes, 600mm dia, 0-5m run - 2.4 - m/hr
Concrete Pipes, 1.5m pipes, 600mm dia, 5-30m run - 2.7 - m/hr
Concrete Pipes, 1.5m pipes, 600mm dia, over 30m run - 3.3 - m/hr
Concrete Pipes, 1.5m pipes, 675mm dia, 0-5m run - 2.2 - m/hr
Concrete Pipes, 1.5m pipes, 675mm dia, 5-30m run - 2.6 - m/hr
Concrete Pipes, 1.5m pipes, 675mm dia, over 30m run - 2.9 - m/hr
Concrete Pipes, 1.5m pipes, 750mm dia, 0-5m run - 1.1 - m/hr
Concrete Pipes, 1.5m pipes, 750mm dia, 5-30m run - 2.4 - m/hr
Concrete Pipes, 1.5m pipes, 750mm dia, over 30m run - 2.5 - m/hr
Concrete Pipes, 1.5m pipes, 1,050mm dia - 2.9 4.2 m/day
Concrete Pipes, 1.5m pipes, 1,500mm dia - 2.5 3.8 m/day
Concrete Pipes, 1.5m pipes, 1,800mm dia - 2.1 2.6 m/day
Concrete Pipes, 2.5m pipes, 375mm dia, 0-5m run - 3.6 - m/hr
Concrete Pipes, 2.5m pipes, 375mm dia, 5-30m run - 4.3 - m/hr
Concrete Pipes, 2.5m pipes, 375mm dia, over 30m run - 5.0 8.0 m/hr
Concrete Pipes, 2.5m pipes, 450mm dia, 0-5m run - 3.4 - m/hr
Concrete Pipes, 2.5m pipes, 450mm dia, 5-30m run - 4.1 - m/hr
Concrete Pipes, 2.5m pipes, 450mm dia, over 30m run - 4.5 9.0 m/hr
Concrete Pipes, 2.5m pipes, 525mm dia, 0-5m run - 3.3 - m/hr
Concrete Pipes, 2.5m pipes, 525mm dia, 5-30m run - 3.8 - m/hr
Concrete Pipes, 2.5m pipes, 525mm dia, over 30m run - 4.1 - m/hr
Concrete Pipes, 2.5m pipes, 600mm dia, 0-5m run - 3.0 - m/hr
Concrete Pipes, 2.5m pipes, 600mm dia, 5-30m run - 3.5 - m/hr
Concrete Pipes, 2.5m pipes, 600mm dia, over 30m run - 4.0 - m/hr
Concrete Pipes, 2.5m pipes, 675mm dia, 0-5m run - 2.8 - m/hr
Concrete Pipes, 2.5m pipes, 675mm dia, 5-30m run - 3.3 - m/hr
Concrete Pipes, 2.5m pipes, 675mm dia, over 30m run - 3.7 - m/hr
Concrete Pipes, 2.5m pipes, 750mm dia, 0-5m run - 2.6 - m/hr
Concrete Pipes, 2.5m pipes, 750mm dia, 5-30m run - 3.1 - m/hr
Concrete Pipes, 2.5m pipes, 750mm dia, over 30m run - 3.6 - m/hr
Lay Shingle Around Pipework, under 150mm dia - 7.0 - m/hr
Lay Shingle Around Pipework, over 150mm dia 4.0 5.5 9.0 m/hr