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Quality Control Lecture #9

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(MANE 4045)

Winter 2015

Lecture #9

With many figures and definitions from Introduction To Statistical Quality Control ,7th Edition by Douglas C. Montgomery

Copyright (c) 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

In the last lecture, we covered Part 3 Basic Methods of Statistical Process

Control and Capability Analysis:

Control Charts for Attributes

Lecture #9

and Capability Analysis:

Process and Measurement System Capability Analysis

Process and Measurement System Capability Analysis

histograms, and probability plots

Understand the difference between process capability and

process potential

Calculate and interpret process capability ratios

Calculate confidence interval on process capability ratios

Process Capability

The variability of critical-to-quality characteristics in the process

is a measure of the uniformity of output. There are two ways to

think of this variability:

Variability at a specified time, instantaneous variability

Variability in a critical-to-quality over time

Upper / Lower Natural Tolerance

UNTL: +3

LNTL: -3

Process Capability Using Histogram

At least 100 or more observations should be available for the

histogram to be moderately stable.

Choose the machines

Select the process operating conditions, such as cutting speeds,

feed rates, and temperatures

Select a representative operator

Carefully monitor the data-collection process, and record the

time order

Example #1

strength of 100 glass containers. The data are shown in the

table. What is the capability of the process?

Example #1 Solution

= 264.06

= 32.02

distribution of bursting strength is approximately normal. Thus,

we can estimate that approximately 99.73% of the bottles

manufactured by this process will burst between 168 and 360

psi.

Advantages of Using Histogram

performance.

It may also immediately show the reason for poor process

performance.

For example, the following figure (a) shows a process with

adequate potential capability, but the process target is poorly

located, whereas (b) shows a process with poor capability

resulting from excess variability.

Probability Plotting

can be used to determine the shape, center, and spread of

the distribution.

It has the advantage that:

It is unnecessary to divide the range of the variable into class

intervals,

It often produces reasonable results for moderately small

samples (which the histogram will not).

Probability Plotting

Use the normal probability plot in a process capability study,

consider the following 20 observations on glass container

bursting strength: 197, 200, 215, 221, 231, 242, 245, 258, 265,

271, 275, 277, 278, 280, 283, 290, 301, 318, 346.

Probability Plotting

The mean of the normal distribution is the fiftieth percentile,

which we may estimate from the figure in the previous slide as

approximately 265 psi, and the standard deviation of the

distribution is the slope of the straight line.

It is convenient to estimate the standard deviation as the

difference between the eighty-fourth and the fiftieth

percentiles. For the strength data shown in previous slide:

= 84th percentile 50th percentile = 298 265 psi = 33 psi

Note , = 265 psi and = 33 psi that and are not far from the

sample average = 264.06 and standard deviation = 32.02.

Probability Plotting

The normal probability plot can be used to estimate process

yields and fallouts

The LSL = 200 psi, around 5% of the containers manufactured

by this process would burst below this limit.

Disadvantages Probability Plot

An obvious disadvantage of probability plotting is that it is not

an objective procedure.

Two analysts arrive to different conclusions.

It is important to select suitable probability distribution to fit

the data.

The following figure presents a normal probability plot of times

to failure (in hours) of a valve in a chemical plant. we can see

that the distribution of failure time is not normal.

Disadvantages Probability Plot

The Appropriate Distribution to Fit the Data

01 04

-./ = -.2 =

02 1/2 022

879/ 7 5

05 = ; = 1,2,3,4

:

of skewness and kurtosis.

Plot the point (-./ , -.2 ) on the

graph. If the plotted point falls

close to a point, line, or region

that corresponds to one of the

distributions in the figure, then

this distribution is a logical choice

to use as a model for the data.

MANE4045 Quality Control Lecture #9 16

Process Capability Ratios

Upper or lower specification only

@ = @D = @E =

6 3 3

almost always unknown and must be replaced by an estimate

. To estimate we typically use either the sample standard

deviation or FG/H2 (when variables control charts are used in

the capability study).

ABC CBC

.@ =

6

Example #2

container bursting-strength. Lower specification limit on

bursting strength=200psi

W L M ,: = 264

, CBC 264 200

.@I = = = 0.67

L M : = 32 3 3(32)

estimated by finding the area to the left of:

PQPRS 2UUR2V4

O= = = 2

T 12

million.

MANE4045 Quality Control Lecture #9 18

Interpretation of the PCR Values

Assumptions for Interpretation of PCR Values

process to manufacture product that meets the

specifications. The ppm quantities in table presented in

previous slide were calculated using the following important

assumptions:

using the PCR values.

MANE4045 Quality Control Lecture #9 20

Interpretation of PCR Values

sided specifications, whereas a PCR of @ = 1.50 for this

process implies a fallout rate of 4 ppm for one-sided

specifications.

Interpretation of PCR Values

centering into account

It is a measure of potential

capability, not actual capability

Process Capability Ratio for an Off-Center Process

@X = min( @D , @E )

ABC , , ABC

@X = min @D , @E = min( @D = , @E =

3 3

62 53 53 38

@X = min( @D = = 1.5, @E = = 2.5) = 1.5

3 2 3 2

Confidence Intervals

[/R\

ABC CBC 2

,8R/ ABC CBC [\2,8R/

@

6 :1 6 :1

[/R\ [\,8R/

,8R/

.@ 2 2

@ .@

:1 :1

Example #2

at ABC = 62 and CBC = 38. A sample of size : = 20 from this

process reveals that the process mean is centered approximately

at the midpoint of the specification interval and that the sample

standard deviation = 1.75. Find a 95% confidence interval on

@.

ABC CBC 62 38

.@ = = = 2.29

6 6(1.75)

[/R\ [\,8R/

2 ,8R/ 2 8.91 32.85

.@ @ .@ 2.29 @ 2.29 1.57 @ 3.01

:1 :1 19 19

Normality and Process Capability Ratio

normal distribution

Luceno introduced:

ABC CBC

@X =

^

6 2W _`

1

`= (ABC + CBC)

2

U.UU/1a , U.bbcVa

ABC CBC

@ (d) =

U.UU/1a U.bbcVa

Normality and Process Capability Ratio

use @X .

However, it is not adequate, as shown, For any fixed value of ,

in the interval from LSL to USL, @X depends inversely on

e, f: @X =1.0

e: @X = @ =1.0

Normality and Process Capability Ratio

ABC CBC

@h =

6i

i2 = W ` 2

=W , 2

+ ,` 2

= 2

+ ,` 2

ABC CBC @

@h = =

6 2 + ,` 2 1 + j2

,`

j=

.@

@h =

1 + k2

`

k=

Process Centering

@X = @h = @, :, = `

@h > 0, lm :: (, `) >

ABC CBC

@h <

6 (, `)

1

@h 1: , ` < (ABC CBC)

6

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