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Quality Control

(MANE 4045)

Instructor: Dr. Sayyed Ali Hosseini


Winter 2015
Lecture #9

With many figures and definitions from Introduction To Statistical Quality Control ,7th Edition by Douglas C. Montgomery
Copyright (c) 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
In the last lecture, we covered Part 3 Basic Methods of Statistical Process
Control and Capability Analysis:
Control Charts for Attributes

Lecture #9

Today, we will cover Part 3 Basic Methods of Statistical Process Control


and Capability Analysis:
Process and Measurement System Capability Analysis
Process and Measurement System Capability Analysis

Investigate and analyze process capability using control charts,


histograms, and probability plots
Understand the difference between process capability and
process potential
Calculate and interpret process capability ratios
Calculate confidence interval on process capability ratios

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Process Capability

Process capability refers to the uniformity of the process


The variability of critical-to-quality characteristics in the process
is a measure of the uniformity of output. There are two ways to
think of this variability:
Variability at a specified time, instantaneous variability
Variability in a critical-to-quality over time

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Upper / Lower Natural Tolerance

Natural tolerance limits of the process fall at:


UNTL: +3
LNTL: -3

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Process Capability Using Histogram

The histogram can be helpful in estimating process capability.


At least 100 or more observations should be available for the
histogram to be moderately stable.

prior to data collection:


Choose the machines
Select the process operating conditions, such as cutting speeds,
feed rates, and temperatures
Select a representative operator
Carefully monitor the data-collection process, and record the
time order

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Example #1

The following figure presents a histogram of the bursting


strength of 100 glass containers. The data are shown in the
table. What is the capability of the process?

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Example #1 Solution

Analysis of the 100 observations gives:

= 264.06

= 32.02

= 3s = 264.06 3 32.02 psi

Furthermore, the shape of the histogram implies that the


distribution of bursting strength is approximately normal. Thus,
we can estimate that approximately 99.73% of the bottles
manufactured by this process will burst between 168 and 360
psi.

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Advantages of Using Histogram

It gives an immediate, visual impression of process


performance.
It may also immediately show the reason for poor process
performance.
For example, the following figure (a) shows a process with
adequate potential capability, but the process target is poorly
located, whereas (b) shows a process with poor capability
resulting from excess variability.

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Probability Plotting

Probability plotting is an alternative to the histogram that


can be used to determine the shape, center, and spread of
the distribution.
It has the advantage that:
It is unnecessary to divide the range of the variable into class
intervals,
It often produces reasonable results for moderately small
samples (which the histogram will not).

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Probability Plotting
Use the normal probability plot in a process capability study,
consider the following 20 observations on glass container
bursting strength: 197, 200, 215, 221, 231, 242, 245, 258, 265,
271, 275, 277, 278, 280, 283, 290, 301, 318, 346.

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Probability Plotting
The mean of the normal distribution is the fiftieth percentile,
which we may estimate from the figure in the previous slide as
approximately 265 psi, and the standard deviation of the
distribution is the slope of the straight line.
It is convenient to estimate the standard deviation as the
difference between the eighty-fourth and the fiftieth
percentiles. For the strength data shown in previous slide:
= 84th percentile 50th percentile = 298 265 psi = 33 psi

Note , = 265 psi and = 33 psi that and are not far from the
sample average = 264.06 and standard deviation = 32.02.

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Probability Plotting
The normal probability plot can be used to estimate process
yields and fallouts
The LSL = 200 psi, around 5% of the containers manufactured
by this process would burst below this limit.

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Disadvantages Probability Plot
An obvious disadvantage of probability plotting is that it is not
an objective procedure.
Two analysts arrive to different conclusions.
It is important to select suitable probability distribution to fit
the data.
The following figure presents a normal probability plot of times
to failure (in hours) of a valve in a chemical plant. we can see
that the distribution of failure time is not normal.

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Disadvantages Probability Plot

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The Appropriate Distribution to Fit the Data
01 04
-./ = -.2 =
02 1/2 022

879/ 7 5
05 = ; = 1,2,3,4
:

where -/ and -2 are the measures


of skewness and kurtosis.
Plot the point (-./ , -.2 ) on the
graph. If the plotted point falls
close to a point, line, or region
that corresponds to one of the
distributions in the figure, then
this distribution is a logical choice
to use as a model for the data.
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Process Capability Ratios

PCR: Process Capability Ratio


Upper or lower specification only

ABC CBC ABC , , CBC


@ = @D = @E =
6 3 3

In a practical application, the process standard deviation is


almost always unknown and must be replaced by an estimate
. To estimate we typically use either the sample standard
deviation or FG/H2 (when variables control charts are used in
the capability study).
ABC CBC
.@ =
6

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Example #2

Construct a one-sided process capability ratio for the


container bursting-strength. Lower specification limit on
bursting strength=200psi
W L M ,: = 264
, CBC 264 200
.@I = = = 0.67
L M : = 32 3 3(32)

The fraction of defective containers produced by this process is


estimated by finding the area to the left of:
PQPRS 2UUR2V4
O= = = 2
T 12

The fallout is about 2.28%, or 22,800 nonconforming containers per


million.
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Interpretation of the PCR Values

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Assumptions for Interpretation of PCR Values

The process capability ratio is a measure of the ability of the


process to manufacture product that meets the
specifications. The ppm quantities in table presented in
previous slide were calculated using the following important
assumptions:

Violation of these assumptions can lead to big trouble in


using the PCR values.
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Interpretation of PCR Values

For normal distribution, @ = 1.00, means 2700 ppm for two-


sided specifications, whereas a PCR of @ = 1.50 for this
process implies a fallout rate of 4 ppm for one-sided
specifications.

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Interpretation of PCR Values

@ does not take process


centering into account
It is a measure of potential
capability, not actual capability

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Process Capability Ratio for an Off-Center Process

@X takes process centering into account

@X = min( @D , @E )

For the process shown in previous slide part (b):

ABC , , ABC
@X = min @D , @E = min( @D = , @E =
3 3
62 53 53 38
@X = min( @D = = 1.5, @E = = 2.5) = 1.5
3 2 3 2

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Confidence Intervals

Confidence interval on process capability ratios

[/R\
ABC CBC 2
,8R/ ABC CBC [\2,8R/
@
6 :1 6 :1

[/R\ [\,8R/
,8R/
.@ 2 2
@ .@
:1 :1

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Example #2

Suppose that a stable process has upper and lower specifications


at ABC = 62 and CBC = 38. A sample of size : = 20 from this
process reveals that the process mean is centered approximately
at the midpoint of the specification interval and that the sample
standard deviation = 1.75. Find a 95% confidence interval on
@.

ABC CBC 62 38
.@ = = = 2.29
6 6(1.75)

[/R\ [\,8R/
2 ,8R/ 2 8.91 32.85
.@ @ .@ 2.29 @ 2.29 1.57 @ 3.01
:1 :1 19 19

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Normality and Process Capability Ratio

If data is not normal distribution, then transform the data into


normal distribution
Luceno introduced:
ABC CBC
@X =
^
6 2W _`

1
`= (ABC + CBC)
2

U.UU/1a , U.bbcVa

ABC CBC
@ (d) =
U.UU/1a U.bbcVa

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Normality and Process Capability Ratio

When process is not centered between the specification limits,


use @X .
However, it is not adequate, as shown, For any fixed value of ,
in the interval from LSL to USL, @X depends inversely on
e, f: @X =1.0

e: @X = @ =1.0

f: @ = 2.0 > @X =1.0

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Normality and Process Capability Ratio
ABC CBC
@h =
6i

i2 = W ` 2
=W , 2
+ ,` 2
= 2
+ ,` 2

ABC CBC @
@h = =
6 2 + ,` 2 1 + j2

,`
j=

.@

@h =
1 + k2

`
k=

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Process Centering

@X = @h = @, :, = `

@X < 0, M : , > ABC, , , < CBC

@h > 0, lm :: (, `) >

ABC CBC
@h <
6 (, `)

1
@h 1: , ` < (ABC CBC)
6

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