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Flexural Analysis of Singly Reinforced Rectangular Sections

Ductile failure
Beam will fail by tension of steel when moderate amount of reinforcement is used.
Steel yields suddenly and stretches a large amount, tension cracks become visible and widen
and propagate upward.

Brittle failure
Compression failure of concrete when a large amount of reinforcement is used. Concrete
fails by crushing when strains become so large (0.003 to 0.004). Failure is sudden, an
almost explosive nature and occur with no warning.

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BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENTS FOR STRUCTURAL CONCRETE (ACI 318-14) AND COMMENTARY (ACI 318R-14) 341

CODE COMMENTARY
CHAPTER 21STRENGTH REDUCTION FACTORS R21STRENGTH REDUCTION FACTORS

21.1Scope R21.1Scope
21.1.1 This chapter shall apply to the selection of strength R21.1.1 The purposes of strength reduction factors are:
reduction factors used in design, except as permitted by (1) to account for the probability of under-strength members
Chapter 27. due to variations in material strengths and dimensions; (2) to
account for inaccuracies in the design equations; (3) to reflect
the available ductility and required reliability of the member
under the load effects being considered; and (4) to reflect
the importance of the member in the structure (MacGregor
1976; Winter 1979).

21.2Strength reduction factors for structural R21.2Strength reduction factors for structural
concrete members and connections concrete members and connections
21.2.1 Strength reduction factors shall be in accordance R21.2.1 The strength reduction factors in this Code are
with Table 21.2.1, except as modified by 21.2.2, 21.2.3, and compatible with the ASCE/SEI 7 load combinations, which
21.2.4. are the basis for the required factored load combinations in
Chapter 5:
Table 21.2.1Strength reduction factors
Action or structural element Exceptions
(e) Laboratory tests of post-tensioned anchorage zones
Near ends of preten- indicate a wide range of scatter in the results. This obser-
0.65 to vation is addressed with a -factor of 0.85 and by limiting
Moment, axial force, or sioned members where
0.90 in
(a) combined moment and
accordance
strands are not fully the nominal compressive strength of unconfined concrete
axial force developed, shall be in in the general zone to 0.7fci in 25.9.4.5.2, where is
with 21.2.2
accordance with 21.2.3.
defined in 19.2.4. Thus, the effective design strength of
Additional requirements
unconfined concrete is 0.85 0.7fci = 0.6fci in the
are given in 21.2.4 for
(b) Shear 0.75
structures designed to general zone.
resist earthquake effects. (f) Bracket and corbel behavior is predominantly
(c) Torsion 0.75 controlled by shear; therefore, a single value of = 0.75 is
used for all potential modes of failure.
(d) Bearing 0.65
(i) The strength reduction factor for plain concrete
Post-tensioned anchorage
(e)
zones
0.85 members is the same for all potential modes of failure.
Because both the flexural tension strength and shear
(f) Brackets and corbels 0.75
strength for plain concrete depend on the tensile strength
Struts, ties, nodal zones, and
of the concrete, without the reserve strength or ductility
bearing areas designed in
(g)
accordance with strut-and-
0.75 that might otherwise be provided by reinforcement, equal
tie method in Chapter 23 strength reduction factors for moment and shear are
Components of connec- considered to be appropriate.
tions of precast members
21
(h) 0.90
controlled by yielding of
steel elements in tension
(i) Plain concrete elements 0.60
0.45 to
0.75 in
Anchors in concrete
(j) accor-
elements
dance with
Chapter 17

21.2.2 Strength reduction factor for moment, axial force, R21.2.2 The nominal strength of a member that is
or combined moment and axial force shall be in accordance subjected to moment or combined moment and axial force is
with Table 21.2.2. determined for the condition where the strain in the extreme
compression fiber is equal to the assumed strain limit of
21.2.2.1 For deformed reinforcement, ty shall be fy /Es. 0.003. The net tensile strain t is the tensile strain calculated
For Grade 60 deformed reinforcement, it shall be permitted in the extreme tension reinforcement at nominal strength,
to take ty equal to 0.002. exclusive of strains due to prestress, creep, shrinkage, and
temperature. The net tensile strain in the extreme tension
reinforcement is determined from a linear strain distribution
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BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENTS FOR STRUCTURAL CONCRETE (ACI 318-14) AND COMMENTARY (ACI 318R-14) 343

CODE COMMENTARY
Table 21.2.2Strength reduction factor for moment, axial force, or combined moment and axial force

Type of transverse reinforcement
Net tensile stain t Classification Spirals conforming to 25.7.3 ter
t ty Compression-controlled 0.75 (a) 0.65 (b)

( t ty ) ( t ty )
ty < t < 0.005 Transition[1] 0.75 + 0.15 (c) 0.65 + 0.25 (d)
(0.005 ty ) (0.005 ty )

t 0.005 Tension-controlled 0.90 (e) 0.90 (f)


[1]
For sections classified as transition, it shall be permitted to use corresponding to compression-controlled sections.

Fig. R21.2.2aStrain distribution and net tensile strain in a


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nonprestressed member.

21

Fig. R21.2.2bVariation of with net tensile strain in


extreme tension reinforcement, t.

21.2.3 For sections in pretensioned members where strand R21.2.3 If a critical section along a pretensioned member
is not fully developed, shall be calculated at each section occurs in a region where the strand is not fully developed,
in accordance with Table 21.2.3, where tr is calculated bond slip failure may occur. This mode of failure resembles
using Eq. (21.2.3), db is the debonded length at the end of a brittle shear failure; hence, values for flexure are reduced
the member, fse is the effective stress in the prestressed rein- with respect to a section where all strands are fully devel-
forcement after allowance for all losses, and d is given in oped. For sections between the end of the transfer length
25.4.8.1. and the end of the development length, the value of may
be determined by linear interpolation, as shown in Fig.
f R21.2.3a.
ltr = se db (21.2.3)
3000 Where bonding of one or more strands does not extend to
the end of the member, instead of more rigorous analysis,
may be conservatively taken as 0.75 from the end of the

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348 BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENTS FOR STRUCTURAL CONCRETE (ACI 318-14) AND COMMENTARY (ACI 318R-14)

CODE COMMENTARY
calculating fps for unbonded tendons, as provided in 20.3.2.4,
have been correlated with test results.

22.2.2 Design assumptions for concrete R22.2.2 Design assumptions for concrete

22.2.2.1 Maximum strain at the extreme concrete compres- R22.2.2.1 The maximum concrete compressive strain at
sion fiber shall be assumed equal to 0.003. crushing of the concrete has been observed in tests of various
kinds to vary from 0.003 to higher than 0.008 under special
conditions. However, the strain at which strength of the
member is developed is usually 0.003 to 0.004 for members
of normal proportions, materials, and strength.

22.2.2.2 Tensile strength of concrete shall be neglected in R22.2.2.2 The tensile strength of concrete in flexure
flexural and axial strength calculations. (modulus of rupture) is a more variable property than the
compressive strength and is approximately 10 to 15 percent
of the compressive strength. Tensile strength of concrete
in flexure is conservatively neglected in calculating the
nominal flexural strength. The strength of concrete in
tension, however, is important in evaluating cracking and
deflections at service loads.

22.2.2.3 The relationship between concrete compressive R22.2.2.3 At high strain levels, the stress-strain relation-
stress and strain shall be represented by a rectangular, trap- ship for concrete is nonlinear (stress is not proportional to
ezoidal, parabolic, or other shape that results in prediction strain). As stated in 22.2.2.1, the maximum usable strain is
of strength in substantial agreement with results of compre- set at 0.003 for design.
hensive tests. The actual distribution of concrete compressive stress
within a cross section is complex and usually not known
explicitly. Research has shown that the important proper-
ties of the concrete stress distribution can be approximated
closely using any one of several different assumptions for
the shape of the stress distribution.

22.2.2.4 The equivalent rectangular concrete stress distri- R22.2.2.4 For design, the Code allows the use of an equiv-
bution in accordance with 22.2.2.4.1 through 22.2.2.4.3 alent rectangular compressive stress distribution (stress
satisfies 22.2.2.3. block) to replace the more detailed approximation of the
concrete stress distribution.

22.2.2.4.1 Concrete stress of 0.85fc shall be assumed R22.2.2.4.1 The equivalent rectangular stress distribution
uniformly distributed over an equivalent compression zone does not represent the actual stress distribution in the compres-
bounded by edges of the cross section and a line parallel sion zone at nominal strength, but does provide essentially
to the neutral axis located a distance a from the fiber of the same nominal combined flexural and axial compressive
maximum compressive strain, as calculated by: strength as obtained in tests (Mattock et al. 1961).

a = 1c (22.2.2.4.1)

22.2.2.4.2 Distance from the fiber of maximum compres-


sive strain to the neutral axis, c, shall be measured perpen-
dicular to the neutral axis.
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22.2.2.4.3 Values of 1 shall be in accordance with Table R22.2.2.4.3 The values for 1 were determined experi-
22.2.2.4.3. mentally. The lower limit of 1 is based on experimental data
from beams constructed with concrete strengths greater than
8000 psi (Leslie et al. 1976; Karr et al. 1978).

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BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENTS FOR STRUCTURAL CONCRETE (ACI 318-14) AND COMMENTARY (ACI 318R-14) 349

CODE COMMENTARY
Table 22.2.2.4.3Values of 1 for equivalent rect-
angular concrete stress distribution
fc, psi 1
2500 fc 4000 0.85 (a)

0.05( f c 4000)
4000 < fc < 8000 0.85 (b)
1000

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fc 8000 0.65 (c)

22.2.3 Design assumptions for nonprestressed reinforcement

22.2.3.1 Deformed reinforcement used to resist tensile or


compressive forces shall conform to 20.2.1.

22.2.3.2 Stress-strain relationship and modulus of elas-


ticity for deformed reinforcement shall be idealized in accor-
dance with 20.2.2.1 and 20.2.2.2.

22.2.4 Design assumptions for prestressing reinforcement

22.2.4.1 For members with bonded prestressing rein-


forcement conforming to 20.3.1, stress at nominal flexural
strength, fps, shall be calculated in accordance with 20.3.2.3.

22.2.4.2 For members with unbonded prestressing rein-


forcement conforming to 20.3.1, fps shall be calculated in
accordance with 20.3.2.4.

22.2.4.3 If the embedded length of the prestressing strand


is less than d, the design strand stress shall not exceed the
value given in 25.4.8.3, as modified by 25.4.8.1(b).

22.3Flexural strength R22.3Flexural strength


22.3.1 General

22.3.1.1 Nominal flexural strength Mn shall be calculated


in accordance with the assumptions of 22.2.

22.3.2 Prestressed concrete members

22.3.2.1 Deformed reinforcement conforming to 20.2.1, 22


provided in conjunction with prestressed reinforcement,
shall be permitted to be considered to contribute to the
tensile force and be included in flexural strength calculations
at a stress equal to fy.

22.3.2.2 Other nonprestressed reinforcement shall be


permitted to be considered to contribute to the flexural
strength if a strain compatibility analysis is performed to
calculate stresses in such reinforcement.

22.3.3 Composite concrete members R22.3.3 Composite concrete members

22.3.3.1 Provisions of 22.3.3 apply to members constructed R22.3.3.1 The scope of Chapter 22 is intended to include
in separate placements but connected so that all elements composite concrete flexural members. In some cases with
resist loads as a unit. cast-in-place concrete, separate placements of concrete may

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BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENTS FOR STRUCTURAL CONCRETE (ACI 318-14) AND COMMENTARY (ACI 318R-14) 335

CODE COMMENTARY
wetting and drying, including that due to condensation
conditions or direct leakage from exposed top surface, run
off, or similar effects.
Alternative methods of protecting the reinforcement from
weather may be provided if they are equivalent to the addi-
tional concrete cover required by the Code. When approved
by the building official under the provisions of 1.10, rein-
forcement with alternative protection from weather may not
have concrete cover less than the cover required for rein-
forcement not exposed to weather.
Development length provisions given in Chapter 25 are a
function of cover over the reinforcement. To meet require-
ments for development length, it may be necessary to use
cover greater than the minimums specified in 20.6.1.

20.6.1.2 It shall be permitted to consider concrete floor R20.6.1.2 Concrete floor finishes may be considered for
finishes as part of required cover for nonstructural purposes. nonstructural purposes such as cover for reinforcement
and fire protection. Provisions should be made, however,
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to ensure that the concrete finish will not spall off, thus
resulting in decreased cover. Furthermore, considerations
for development of reinforcement require minimum mono-
lithic concrete cover in accordance with 20.6.1.3.

20.6.1.3 Specified concrete cover requirements R20.6.1.3 Specified concrete cover requirements

20.6.1.3.1 Nonprestressed cast-in-place concrete members


shall have specified concrete cover for reinforcement at least
that given in Table 20.6.1.3.1.

Table 20.6.1.3.1Specified concrete cover for


cast-in-place nonprestressed concrete members
Specified
Concrete exposure Member Reinforcement cover, in.
Cast against and
permanently in All All 3
contact with ground
No. 6 through No.
2
20
Exposed to weather 18 bars
or in contact with All No. 5 bar, W31
ground or D31 wire, and 1-1/2
smaller
No. 14 and No. 18
1-1/2
Slabs, joists, bars
and walls No. 11 bar and
Not exposed to 3/4
smaller
weather or in
contact with ground Beams,
Primary reinforce-
columns,
ment, stirrups, ties, 1-1/2
pedestals, and
spirals, and hoops
tension ties

20.6.1.3.2 Cast-in-place prestressed concrete members


shall have specified concrete cover for reinforcement, ducts,
and end fittings at least that given in Table 20.6.1.3.2.

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Minimum Steel Ratio & Maximum Amount of Reinforcing Steel

REGULAR BEAMS CANTILEVERS

SI min = sqrt(F'c) > 1.4 min = sqrt(F'c) > 1.4


4*Fy Fy 2*Fy Fy

USCU min = 3*sqrt(F'c) > 200 min =6*sqrt(F'c) > 200


Fy Fy Fy Fy

ACI - Maximum Steel Ratio : max = [ ( 0.003 + y ) / 0.007 ] * b

when Fy = 400 Mpa y = 0.00200

Then, max = 0.714 * b

Sample Problem : Determine the minimum and maximum amount of steel in the singly
regular ( not a cantilever) reinforced beam cross section shown below.

Given:
F'c= 25 Mpa d= 460 mm
460
Fy= 400 Mpa b= 300 mm

Solution:

1) Maximum allowable steel ratio 300

1 = 0.850

b = (F'c*1/Fy)*{510/(600+Fy)} = 0.0271

Maximum allowable steel ratio (ACI t = 0.004) :

max = [ (0.003 + y) / 0.007 ] * b= 0.01935

Maximum amount area of steel is As max = 2671 mm2

2) Minimum allowable steel ratio

min = sqrt(F'c) = 0.00313 min = 1.4/Fy = 0.00350


4*Fy
Hence, min = 0.00350

Minimum amount area of steel is As min = 483 mm2

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Example 1-1: Determine the minimum and maximum amount of steel in the singly
reinforced regular beam( not a cantilever) cross section shown below.
Determine the maximum design moment capacity

Given:
F'c= 25 Mpa d= 640 mm
640
Fy= 400 Mpa b= 300 mm

Solution:

1) Minimum allowable steel ratio 300

min = sqrt(F'c) = 0.00313 Hence, min = 0.00350


4*Fy
min = 1.4/Fy = 0.00350 Min. As= 672 mm2

2) Maximum allowable steel ratio

1 = 0.850
b = (F'c*1/Fy)*{510/(600+Fy)} = 0.0271

Maximum allowable steel ratio (ACI t = 0.004) :

max = [ (0.003 + y) / 0.007 ] * b= 0.714 b = 0.01935

Max. As= 3716 mm2

3) Maximum design moment capacity

Strain of tensile steel : t

a= As*Fy/(0.85*F'c*b)= 233 mm

c= a/1 = 274 mm

t = 0.003*(d-c)/c = 0.00400 mm/mm Transition

OK - Ductile behavior Beam satisfies ACI requirements

Transition = 0.817

Nominal Moment Capacity Mn :

Mn = As * Fy * d * { 1 - 0.59 * * (Fy/F'c) } = 777 kN.m

Design Moment Capacity Mn : Mn = 635 kN.m

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Example 1-2: Compute the Design Strength Mn for the Singly-Reinforced cross section

Given:
F'c= 25 Mpa
640
Fy= 400 Mpa
4
As= 3217 mm2 T 32

d= 640 mm 350

b= 350 mm

Solution:
1) Check minimum steel ratio:

1 = 0.85

sup = As/(b*d)= 0.01436

min = sqrt(F'c) > 1.4 = 0.00350


4*Fy Fy

sup > min OK

2) Check ductility : t

a= As*Fy/(0.85*F'c*b)= 173.0 mm

c= a/1 = 204 mm

t = 0.003*(d-c)/c = 0.00643 mm/mm Tension controlled

OK - Ductile behavior Beam satisfies ACI requirements

Tension controlled = 0.9 since t 0.005

Nominal Moment Capacity Mn :

Mn = As * Fy * d * { 1 - 0.59 * * (Fy/F'c) } = 712 kN.m

Design Moment Capacity Mn : Mn = 641 kN.m

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Example 1-3: Determine whether or not the amount of steel in the beam cross section
shown below (same section as EX1-2) is acceptable according to ACI Code.

Given:
F'c= 25 Mpa
640
Fy= 400 Mpa
4
As= 3217 mm2 T 32

d= 640 mm 350

b= 350 mm

Solution:
1) Actual steel ratio:

1 = 0.85

sup = As/(b*d)= 0.01436

2) Maximum allowable steel ratio

b = (F'c*1/Fy)*{510/(600+Fy)} = 0.0271

Maximum allowable steel ratio (ACI t = 0.004) :

max = [ (0.003 + y) / 0.007 ] * b= 0.714 b = 0.01935

sup = 0.01436 < max = 0.01935 OK

Note that if sup max this means that t 0.004


So in this case, you do not need to determine t

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