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Ductile failure

Beam will fail by tension of steel when moderate amount of reinforcement is used.

Steel yields suddenly and stretches a large amount, tension cracks become visible and widen

and propagate upward.

Brittle failure

Compression failure of concrete when a large amount of reinforcement is used. Concrete

fails by crushing when strains become so large (0.003 to 0.004). Failure is sudden, an

almost explosive nature and occur with no warning.

BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENTS FOR STRUCTURAL CONCRETE (ACI 318-14) AND COMMENTARY (ACI 318R-14) 341

CODE COMMENTARY

CHAPTER 21STRENGTH REDUCTION FACTORS R21STRENGTH REDUCTION FACTORS

21.1Scope R21.1Scope

21.1.1 This chapter shall apply to the selection of strength R21.1.1 The purposes of strength reduction factors are:

reduction factors used in design, except as permitted by (1) to account for the probability of under-strength members

Chapter 27. due to variations in material strengths and dimensions; (2) to

account for inaccuracies in the design equations; (3) to reflect

the available ductility and required reliability of the member

under the load effects being considered; and (4) to reflect

the importance of the member in the structure (MacGregor

1976; Winter 1979).

21.2Strength reduction factors for structural R21.2Strength reduction factors for structural

concrete members and connections concrete members and connections

21.2.1 Strength reduction factors shall be in accordance R21.2.1 The strength reduction factors in this Code are

with Table 21.2.1, except as modified by 21.2.2, 21.2.3, and compatible with the ASCE/SEI 7 load combinations, which

21.2.4. are the basis for the required factored load combinations in

Chapter 5:

Table 21.2.1Strength reduction factors

Action or structural element Exceptions

(e) Laboratory tests of post-tensioned anchorage zones

Near ends of preten- indicate a wide range of scatter in the results. This obser-

0.65 to vation is addressed with a -factor of 0.85 and by limiting

Moment, axial force, or sioned members where

0.90 in

(a) combined moment and

accordance

strands are not fully the nominal compressive strength of unconfined concrete

axial force developed, shall be in in the general zone to 0.7fci in 25.9.4.5.2, where is

with 21.2.2

accordance with 21.2.3.

defined in 19.2.4. Thus, the effective design strength of

Additional requirements

unconfined concrete is 0.85 0.7fci = 0.6fci in the

are given in 21.2.4 for

(b) Shear 0.75

structures designed to general zone.

resist earthquake effects. (f) Bracket and corbel behavior is predominantly

(c) Torsion 0.75 controlled by shear; therefore, a single value of = 0.75 is

used for all potential modes of failure.

(d) Bearing 0.65

(i) The strength reduction factor for plain concrete

Post-tensioned anchorage

(e)

zones

0.85 members is the same for all potential modes of failure.

Because both the flexural tension strength and shear

(f) Brackets and corbels 0.75

strength for plain concrete depend on the tensile strength

Struts, ties, nodal zones, and

of the concrete, without the reserve strength or ductility

bearing areas designed in

(g)

accordance with strut-and-

0.75 that might otherwise be provided by reinforcement, equal

tie method in Chapter 23 strength reduction factors for moment and shear are

Components of connec- considered to be appropriate.

tions of precast members

21

(h) 0.90

controlled by yielding of

steel elements in tension

(i) Plain concrete elements 0.60

0.45 to

0.75 in

Anchors in concrete

(j) accor-

elements

dance with

Chapter 17

21.2.2 Strength reduction factor for moment, axial force, R21.2.2 The nominal strength of a member that is

or combined moment and axial force shall be in accordance subjected to moment or combined moment and axial force is

with Table 21.2.2. determined for the condition where the strain in the extreme

compression fiber is equal to the assumed strain limit of

21.2.2.1 For deformed reinforcement, ty shall be fy /Es. 0.003. The net tensile strain t is the tensile strain calculated

For Grade 60 deformed reinforcement, it shall be permitted in the extreme tension reinforcement at nominal strength,

to take ty equal to 0.002. exclusive of strains due to prestress, creep, shrinkage, and

temperature. The net tensile strain in the extreme tension

reinforcement is determined from a linear strain distribution

--`,`,,`,,```,`,,``,`,`,,``,`,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

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BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENTS FOR STRUCTURAL CONCRETE (ACI 318-14) AND COMMENTARY (ACI 318R-14) 343

CODE COMMENTARY

Table 21.2.2Strength reduction factor for moment, axial force, or combined moment and axial force

Type of transverse reinforcement

Net tensile stain t Classification Spirals conforming to 25.7.3 ter

t ty Compression-controlled 0.75 (a) 0.65 (b)

( t ty ) ( t ty )

ty < t < 0.005 Transition[1] 0.75 + 0.15 (c) 0.65 + 0.25 (d)

(0.005 ty ) (0.005 ty )

[1]

For sections classified as transition, it shall be permitted to use corresponding to compression-controlled sections.

--`,`,,`,,```,`,,``,`,`,,``,`,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

nonprestressed member.

21

extreme tension reinforcement, t.

21.2.3 For sections in pretensioned members where strand R21.2.3 If a critical section along a pretensioned member

is not fully developed, shall be calculated at each section occurs in a region where the strand is not fully developed,

in accordance with Table 21.2.3, where tr is calculated bond slip failure may occur. This mode of failure resembles

using Eq. (21.2.3), db is the debonded length at the end of a brittle shear failure; hence, values for flexure are reduced

the member, fse is the effective stress in the prestressed rein- with respect to a section where all strands are fully devel-

forcement after allowance for all losses, and d is given in oped. For sections between the end of the transfer length

25.4.8.1. and the end of the development length, the value of may

be determined by linear interpolation, as shown in Fig.

f R21.2.3a.

ltr = se db (21.2.3)

3000 Where bonding of one or more strands does not extend to

the end of the member, instead of more rigorous analysis,

may be conservatively taken as 0.75 from the end of the

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348 BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENTS FOR STRUCTURAL CONCRETE (ACI 318-14) AND COMMENTARY (ACI 318R-14)

CODE COMMENTARY

calculating fps for unbonded tendons, as provided in 20.3.2.4,

have been correlated with test results.

22.2.2 Design assumptions for concrete R22.2.2 Design assumptions for concrete

22.2.2.1 Maximum strain at the extreme concrete compres- R22.2.2.1 The maximum concrete compressive strain at

sion fiber shall be assumed equal to 0.003. crushing of the concrete has been observed in tests of various

kinds to vary from 0.003 to higher than 0.008 under special

conditions. However, the strain at which strength of the

member is developed is usually 0.003 to 0.004 for members

of normal proportions, materials, and strength.

22.2.2.2 Tensile strength of concrete shall be neglected in R22.2.2.2 The tensile strength of concrete in flexure

flexural and axial strength calculations. (modulus of rupture) is a more variable property than the

compressive strength and is approximately 10 to 15 percent

of the compressive strength. Tensile strength of concrete

in flexure is conservatively neglected in calculating the

nominal flexural strength. The strength of concrete in

tension, however, is important in evaluating cracking and

deflections at service loads.

22.2.2.3 The relationship between concrete compressive R22.2.2.3 At high strain levels, the stress-strain relation-

stress and strain shall be represented by a rectangular, trap- ship for concrete is nonlinear (stress is not proportional to

ezoidal, parabolic, or other shape that results in prediction strain). As stated in 22.2.2.1, the maximum usable strain is

of strength in substantial agreement with results of compre- set at 0.003 for design.

hensive tests. The actual distribution of concrete compressive stress

within a cross section is complex and usually not known

explicitly. Research has shown that the important proper-

ties of the concrete stress distribution can be approximated

closely using any one of several different assumptions for

the shape of the stress distribution.

22.2.2.4 The equivalent rectangular concrete stress distri- R22.2.2.4 For design, the Code allows the use of an equiv-

bution in accordance with 22.2.2.4.1 through 22.2.2.4.3 alent rectangular compressive stress distribution (stress

satisfies 22.2.2.3. block) to replace the more detailed approximation of the

concrete stress distribution.

22.2.2.4.1 Concrete stress of 0.85fc shall be assumed R22.2.2.4.1 The equivalent rectangular stress distribution

uniformly distributed over an equivalent compression zone does not represent the actual stress distribution in the compres-

bounded by edges of the cross section and a line parallel sion zone at nominal strength, but does provide essentially

to the neutral axis located a distance a from the fiber of the same nominal combined flexural and axial compressive

maximum compressive strain, as calculated by: strength as obtained in tests (Mattock et al. 1961).

a = 1c (22.2.2.4.1)

sive strain to the neutral axis, c, shall be measured perpen-

dicular to the neutral axis.

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22.2.2.4.3 Values of 1 shall be in accordance with Table R22.2.2.4.3 The values for 1 were determined experi-

22.2.2.4.3. mentally. The lower limit of 1 is based on experimental data

from beams constructed with concrete strengths greater than

8000 psi (Leslie et al. 1976; Karr et al. 1978).

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BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENTS FOR STRUCTURAL CONCRETE (ACI 318-14) AND COMMENTARY (ACI 318R-14) 349

CODE COMMENTARY

Table 22.2.2.4.3Values of 1 for equivalent rect-

angular concrete stress distribution

fc, psi 1

2500 fc 4000 0.85 (a)

0.05( f c 4000)

4000 < fc < 8000 0.85 (b)

1000

--`,`,,`,,```,`,,``,`,`,,``,`,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

fc 8000 0.65 (c)

compressive forces shall conform to 20.2.1.

ticity for deformed reinforcement shall be idealized in accor-

dance with 20.2.2.1 and 20.2.2.2.

forcement conforming to 20.3.1, stress at nominal flexural

strength, fps, shall be calculated in accordance with 20.3.2.3.

forcement conforming to 20.3.1, fps shall be calculated in

accordance with 20.3.2.4.

is less than d, the design strand stress shall not exceed the

value given in 25.4.8.3, as modified by 25.4.8.1(b).

22.3.1 General

in accordance with the assumptions of 22.2.

provided in conjunction with prestressed reinforcement,

shall be permitted to be considered to contribute to the

tensile force and be included in flexural strength calculations

at a stress equal to fy.

permitted to be considered to contribute to the flexural

strength if a strain compatibility analysis is performed to

calculate stresses in such reinforcement.

22.3.3.1 Provisions of 22.3.3 apply to members constructed R22.3.3.1 The scope of Chapter 22 is intended to include

in separate placements but connected so that all elements composite concrete flexural members. In some cases with

resist loads as a unit. cast-in-place concrete, separate placements of concrete may

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BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENTS FOR STRUCTURAL CONCRETE (ACI 318-14) AND COMMENTARY (ACI 318R-14) 335

CODE COMMENTARY

wetting and drying, including that due to condensation

conditions or direct leakage from exposed top surface, run

off, or similar effects.

Alternative methods of protecting the reinforcement from

weather may be provided if they are equivalent to the addi-

tional concrete cover required by the Code. When approved

by the building official under the provisions of 1.10, rein-

forcement with alternative protection from weather may not

have concrete cover less than the cover required for rein-

forcement not exposed to weather.

Development length provisions given in Chapter 25 are a

function of cover over the reinforcement. To meet require-

ments for development length, it may be necessary to use

cover greater than the minimums specified in 20.6.1.

20.6.1.2 It shall be permitted to consider concrete floor R20.6.1.2 Concrete floor finishes may be considered for

finishes as part of required cover for nonstructural purposes. nonstructural purposes such as cover for reinforcement

and fire protection. Provisions should be made, however,

--`,`,,`,,```,`,,``,`,`,,``,`,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

to ensure that the concrete finish will not spall off, thus

resulting in decreased cover. Furthermore, considerations

for development of reinforcement require minimum mono-

lithic concrete cover in accordance with 20.6.1.3.

20.6.1.3 Specified concrete cover requirements R20.6.1.3 Specified concrete cover requirements

shall have specified concrete cover for reinforcement at least

that given in Table 20.6.1.3.1.

cast-in-place nonprestressed concrete members

Specified

Concrete exposure Member Reinforcement cover, in.

Cast against and

permanently in All All 3

contact with ground

No. 6 through No.

2

20

Exposed to weather 18 bars

or in contact with All No. 5 bar, W31

ground or D31 wire, and 1-1/2

smaller

No. 14 and No. 18

1-1/2

Slabs, joists, bars

and walls No. 11 bar and

Not exposed to 3/4

smaller

weather or in

contact with ground Beams,

Primary reinforce-

columns,

ment, stirrups, ties, 1-1/2

pedestals, and

spirals, and hoops

tension ties

shall have specified concrete cover for reinforcement, ducts,

and end fittings at least that given in Table 20.6.1.3.2.

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Minimum Steel Ratio & Maximum Amount of Reinforcing Steel

4*Fy Fy 2*Fy Fy

Fy Fy Fy Fy

Sample Problem : Determine the minimum and maximum amount of steel in the singly

regular ( not a cantilever) reinforced beam cross section shown below.

Given:

F'c= 25 Mpa d= 460 mm

460

Fy= 400 Mpa b= 300 mm

Solution:

1 = 0.850

b = (F'c*1/Fy)*{510/(600+Fy)} = 0.0271

4*Fy

Hence, min = 0.00350

Example 1-1: Determine the minimum and maximum amount of steel in the singly

reinforced regular beam( not a cantilever) cross section shown below.

Determine the maximum design moment capacity

Given:

F'c= 25 Mpa d= 640 mm

640

Fy= 400 Mpa b= 300 mm

Solution:

4*Fy

min = 1.4/Fy = 0.00350 Min. As= 672 mm2

1 = 0.850

b = (F'c*1/Fy)*{510/(600+Fy)} = 0.0271

a= As*Fy/(0.85*F'c*b)= 233 mm

c= a/1 = 274 mm

Transition = 0.817

Example 1-2: Compute the Design Strength Mn for the Singly-Reinforced cross section

Given:

F'c= 25 Mpa

640

Fy= 400 Mpa

4

As= 3217 mm2 T 32

d= 640 mm 350

b= 350 mm

Solution:

1) Check minimum steel ratio:

1 = 0.85

4*Fy Fy

2) Check ductility : t

a= As*Fy/(0.85*F'c*b)= 173.0 mm

c= a/1 = 204 mm

Example 1-3: Determine whether or not the amount of steel in the beam cross section

shown below (same section as EX1-2) is acceptable according to ACI Code.

Given:

F'c= 25 Mpa

640

Fy= 400 Mpa

4

As= 3217 mm2 T 32

d= 640 mm 350

b= 350 mm

Solution:

1) Actual steel ratio:

1 = 0.85

b = (F'c*1/Fy)*{510/(600+Fy)} = 0.0271

So in this case, you do not need to determine t

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