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EduCentre MONTHLY Education PULLOUT - FEBRUARY 2017

Education is not the learning of facts,

but the training of the mind to think.
Albert Einstein
German-born theoretical physicist,


Total number of engineers in Myanmar: 316,144 .

Total number of students graduated from Yangon Technical University (from 1927 to 2014): 25,025
(PhD degree holders 527, Masters degree holders 2556, Postgraduate diploma holders 1041, Bachelor degree holders 20,901)
Total number of private engineering universities and colleges in Myanmar: 6 (Source: Myanmar Engineering Council, May 2016)

Myanmar needs to produce talented engineers to build basic infrastructures and its technology base. Photo: Staff

Good engineers in great demand

Even with elementary education, an engineering career is not a distant dream. Its still
possible to build one without stepping into a university.
Tazar Bhone Myint For students who have completed are 33 THSs in Myanmar, each school exam as an external student school final examination. Company
their 8th Standard schooling admitting about 90 students every and pursue their studies at other executives and businessmen keep

S a developing country, (elementary education) in Myanmar, year. universities like others. an eye on those who are good
engineering and technical theres a way to become an engineer Technical high schools under Once admitted to a THS, a student enough to attend these institutions,
skills are indispensable by joining a technical high school the Ministry of Education are now has to undergo a two-year course which means that upon graduating,
to Myanmar, and what it needs (THS). If a student completes the open for new student enrollment there to be admitted to a GTI/GTC, they have an easy time securing
to achieve democratically and two-year course at a THS with high for the 2016-17 academic year. and then to become a GTU graduate their ideal job.
economically. The country needs grades, they can move forward and, These schools are located in Putao, in engineering. Past governments opened 27
to produce talented engineers to depending on what courses one Myitkyina, Bhamo, Hkamti, Mindat, In 1990, the Rangoon Institute of GTUs and one Myanmar Aerospace
build basic infrastructures and its takes, join a government technical Kalay, Monywa, Pakokku, Lashio, Technology or RIT (established in Engineering University in different
technology base. institute (GTI) or a government Panglong, Taunggyi, Kengtung, 1963) became the Yangon Institute states and regions. Yangon Region
For someone to pursue an technical college (GTC) managed Meiktila, Loikaw, Nay Pyi Taw, of Technology (YIT). Under the GTUs are in Thanlyin, Hlaing
engineering career in Myanmar, by a government technological Magwe, Pyay, Taungoo, Sittwe, supervision of YIT, the Mandalay Tharyar, Htantabin and Hmawbi
there are options to attend either university (GTU). Hinthada, Maubin, Pathein, Hpa-an, Institute of Technology (MIT) and entry requirements for them
government technical institutes or If high school students wish to Mawlamyine, Dawei, Myeik, Pinya, opened in 1991. Then in 1998, the are higher than those in other
diploma courses offered locally by join a GTU directly, they are required Myingyan, Chaung-U, Ywama, Let institutes were renamed the Yangon states and regions. With the
overseas-based institutions. to get a minimum of 360-445 marks Khoke Kone, Tiddim and Mandalay. Technological University (YTU) and many technology universities
Theres a lot more to do (depending on a specific GTU) in THS students can also enjoy a Mandalay Technological University in the country, there are indeed
in expanding our countrys total for all subjects in the final high monthly stipend of K30,000. After (MTU) respectively. opportunities for the many students
infrastructure, like roads, bridges, school examination. Those who graduating with a certificate from The YTU and MTU were who aspire to be engineers.
airports and dockyards. So, we not obtain 340-380 marks (depending a THS, one can apply for a job in designated as Centers of Excellence Even those who fail to obtain
only need engineers, we also need on benchmarks designated by each either the public or private sector. in 2012. Students can attend the necessary high school grades
them to be skilful and qualified, state or region) in total can join Whether a student passes or fails these universities only if they get have other means of turning their
said Tin Latt, a member of the a GTI/GTC opened under a GTU their second year exam at THS, they distinctions and high marks (516 for dreams into reality. They can still
Myanmar Engineering Society. in some states and regions. There can still sit for the ordinary high YTU and 493 for MTU) in their high enroll in courses offered by private


international institutions and get a Bachelor of Engineering, Masters in

diploma in, for example, a United Engineering and Doctorate degrees.
Kingdom-linked engineering course According to veteran engineers,
or a Japan-Myanmar GTI. Later on, fresh graduates from technological
they can continue their studies universities are not paid well. For
abroad to become an engineer. higher salaries, they have to pursue
According to a May 2016 listing further relevant studies and gain
by the Myanmar Engineering experience.
Council, the private engineering They have a degree. But they
universities and colleges in have to study more and attend other
Myanmar are California Unitec training. An engineering degree
Institute of Engineering, Chindwin would pay you at most a salary of
College, Victoria University College, K200,000. Only when one learns
STI Myanmar University, Myanmar more, one will get a suitable salary,
Noble College and UMG College. said Moe Gyo, an experienced
The diplomas these private construction engineer.
institutions offer are recognised Opportunities await the future
in other countries. Therefore, generation of engineers because a
students can continue their studies developing country like Myanmar
abroad and acquire a bachelors needs qualified engineers for nation
in engineering degree, said Naing building.
Min Khant, a second year student According to entrepreneur Hla
at California Unitec Institute of Maung Shwe, Only when the Chindwin College students at a barcamp. Opportunities await the future generation of engineers. Photo: Staff
Engineering in Yangon. country starts developing, engineers
Although private engineering will get a suitable pay. Many
universities and colleges charge
sizeable fees, many still enroll due
Myanmar engineers are working
abroad because the country cannot
Top engineering universities in the world
to the international recognition and fulfil their desire with attractive job
the access to job opportunities such opportunities. This is a long-term 1. Stanford University, US 7. Princeton University, US
qualifications offer. But students issue that we have to solve. 2. California Institute of Technology, US 8. ETH Zurich (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology),
have to be aware that if they intend Nevertheless, with Myanmars 3. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, US Switzerland
to return to work here, such degrees economy on a roll and infrastructure 4. University of Cambridge, UK 9. Imperial College London, UK
must be recognised by the Myanmar development being critical to its 5. University of California, Berkeley, US 10. Carnegie Mellon University, US
government. growth, talented engineers will 6. University of Oxford, UK (Source: Times Higher Education)
Undergraduate programs always be in demand.
offered at GTUs and other private Translation by Zaw Nyunt
engineering institutions include
courses in architecture, civil
engineering, mechanical, electrical
power, electronics, mechatronics,
chemical, textile, mining, petroleum,
metallurgical and information
Some of the technology
universities are linked with
institutions abroad. The YTU, for
example, has collaborations with
universities in Germany, Finland,
Australia, South Korea, Japan, China,
Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand,
Cambodia, Indonesia and with
selected ASEAN institutions.
Once a student successfully
completes a two-year GTI/GTC
program, a diploma is given. To get
an engineering degree from a GTU,
a student needs to study for six
years. The same applies for those
who directly attend a GTU after high
Engineering degrees granted in
Myanmar are the Associateship of
Government Technical Institute (AGTI)
diploma, Bachelor of Technology,

From founding the College in London in 1619

To opening new campuses in Yangon in August 2017
Deputy Editor-in-Chief: Myo Lwin
Inspiration goes a long way.
Editor: Clovis Santiago
Sub-editor: P Vijian
Dulwich College Yangon is opening purpose-built, state-of-the-art campuses in Pun Hlaing and Star City
Staff writers: Tazar Bhone Myint, in August 2017. We are now accepting applications for students from age 2 to 14 for both campuses.
Lillian Kalish, Ei Shwe Phyu,
Tin Yadanar Tun, Kyi Tha Maung
To find out more please visit our website or contact our admissions team
Photography: Aung Htay Hlaing, on (+95) 09 966 423015 or One College, Many Campuses.
Aung Myin Ye Zaw, Zarni Phyo,

Cover photo: Shutterstock

Cover design: Tin Zaw Htway
Layout design: Khin Zaw

For feedback and enquiries, please contact DETU R





Skills needed for Myanmars Class of 2017

To alleviate some of the postgrad unemployment and existential woes, The Myanmar Times has
compiled a list of some of the skills needed to make your resume stand out to employers as well as
some various continuing education programs and the best resources to find jobs
Lillian Kalish artistic aspects. Many students go
on to the teacher training program

OR most recent graduates to become a YFS instructor and
of high school and college, submit their films to festivals
finding employment and what across Myanmar and abroad. In
ones next steps is a daunting task. addition, the film skills acquired
In Myanmar, where, according to at YFS provide students with a
2014 figures from data analysts at basis to freelance, work on their
Trading Economics, had the highest own projects, and grow Myanmars
rate of unemployment (4 percent) growing media industry.
compared to other Southeast Asian Email country director
countries (2.44pc in Vietnam, 0.83pc Aleksandra Minikiewicz at
in Thailand, 0.3pc in Cambodia), the minkiewicz@yangonfilmschool.
challenge is even greater. org or Production Coordinator,
But it isnt the students fault Wit Hmone Phoo Pwint Thu
overcrowding in classrooms and (Tara) for more info: production@
underfunding in the education
system are hangover issues from Parami Institute Though the
previous governments. official opening is set in 2018,
According to the Asian the Parami Institute has already
Development Banks (ADB) report, gained a lot of buzz. When it
Myanmar: Unlocking the Potential, opens, Parami will be the countrys
the Myanmar government only first liberal arts, four-year
spent an estimated 1.7pc of its GDP residential program. With majors
on education in 2013, compared ranging from philosophy and
to 6.3pc in Vietnam and 5.9pc in literature to computers science
Malaysia. and psychology, Parami will
However, with the countrys provide Myanmar students with
opening after the election of the a world class education as well
National League for Democracy as full and partial scholarships to
government in 2015, the job ensure a diverse class. The school
prospects for recent grads are Even students who have not completed their secondary school can attend a vocational training course. Photo: Staff will also have a small student to
more and more hopeful. As many faculty ratio with one professor for
local and foreign NGOs and aid Depending on the nature of the job every twelve students, providing
organisations help build new if, for example, it involves travel and an intimate and immersive
tertiary education programs to collaboration with Myanmar ethnic educational experience.
provide younger and returning minorities, it is important to attain Until then, recent grads can
students the specialised skills a high level of ethnic languages as attend lecture series and the
necessary to stand out in todays job well. Parami Leadership program a
market, todays graduating students semester-long program with
can follow more varied career paths. Post high school, vocational and coursework and workshops to
According to the ADBs Myanmar: tertiary programs cultivate critical thinking and
Unlocking the Potential report, recent As high school in Myanmar is only public speaking skills for students
graduates in Myanmar need to two years long, students have many starting in January of 2017.
cultivate these following skills: options to continue their education Email or
Flexible knowledge as opposed in more specialised ways. The for
to rote knowledge which is the following is a list of just some of the more info.
standard educational practice in various paths that recent grads and
Myanmar, flexible knowledge means those in the job market can follow. Employment Resources
learning more than just the facts Pre-Collegiate Program (PCP) According to Jemin Popat, the
and the figures but understanding For those drawn to literature, the managing director of
concepts, the whys and hows of sciences, history and philosophy, or mm, the countrys largest online
work want to explore why global politics Official launching of the SMVTI last June in Yangons Bahan township. Photo: Aung Htay Hlaing job recruitment sites, employers
Analytical skills when problem play out a certain way, then the PCP used to rely heavily on print
solving in the office, analytical skills program may be for you. Founded Myanmars teachers are adequately contribution to Myanmars advertising for jobs.
mean not just looking at data but in 2003 as a 16-month program prepared to structure classes, give development and progress. Students Now with widespread access
also at background information for Myanmar nationals who plan out homework, and fairly evaluate can take courses, each lasting six to the internet and new media
(historical context, trends over time, to study abroad for university, the students performance. Once months, in hospitality and tourism, companies popping up left and
etc). PCP program provides academic students have completed their electrical skills and electronics, right, companies rely on social
Critical thinking similarly critical rigour, college counselling services, apprenticeships with their partner facilities management, and media and online advertisement
thinking applies both analytical and a collegiate community to training company and coursework engineering services. The SMVTI will to recruit potential employees.
skills with flexible knowledge to empower Myanmars youth. In at the CVT campus, they will receive produce about 800 graduates ready This is especially true of
observe topics from a vantage point addition, PCP also offers generous a Certificate of Professional Capacity for the workforce over two intakes telecommunications companies
Soft skills the ADB defines soft scholarships to ensure that students to show to employers. a year. like Ooredoo, Telenor, and
skills as better communication and of all backgrounds have a chance to Email for Check out their Facebook page for MPT which advertise widely
interpersonal skills. Basically, having pursue higher education. more details. more details! across social media platforms.
a high level of maturity in the Email if Singapore-Myanmar Vocational Yangon Film School (YFS) Since Often though, with so many
workplace, public speaking skills, interested. Training Institute (SMVTI) A 2005 the Yangon Film School, new job openings, the market
and the ability to handle high stress Center for Vocational Training relatively new program established a Berlin-based non-profit, has becomes oversaturated, salaries
situations with grace are all sought (CVT) Since 2002, this Swiss- by Singapore President Tony Tan on supported and cultivated the become inflated, and companies
after characteristics. run organisation provides a his state visit to Myanmar in 2013, next generation of filmmakers experience high turnover rates.
In addition, new entrants to the three-year college training as the Singapore-Myanmar Vocational and young content creators in Regardless, there are more jobs
workforce must also have sufficient well as secondary school option Training Institute is modelled Myanmar. Students participate in a now than ever before on sites
language skills to communicate for students from grades 5 with after Singapores own Institute of three-year program in which they like
with international business and programs in commerce, cabinet- Technical Education. The SMVTI take five courses and create an and
clients. This means not only having making, metal work, electrical was officially launched by Singapore original film in order to graduate. myanmar-nationals and they can
a high level, professional knowledge training, and hospitality and food Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong on Throughout the three years, help make the job search less
of English, todays lingua franca, service. The CVT also offers courses June 9, 2016, symbolising Singapores students learn both the technical of a headache. Good luck to all
but also of Myanmar language. in teacher training to ensure way of making a meaningful skills involved in film and various jobseekers in 2017!


Myanmar students in search of quality education

Through its exams, scholarships and education exhibitions, the British Council assists students to enroll
in top-notch UK universities that grant internationally recognised degrees and groom graduates for the
competitive job market

The British Council has been building partnerships between UK and Myanmar universities where academics and others can collaborate in research and teaching. Photos: Supplied

Canada, a growing number of improves quickly. Another scheme is the Also, we help promote
American and probably some Myat Lay Tint added, Another Charles Wallace Trust Fellowship. scholarships offered by UK
European universities where they is the Hornby Educational Trust Its dedicated to mid-career education institutions, especially
conduct degrees through English. Scholarship. Its managed by us professionals seeking an universities, through our digital
Part 1 of this article appeared in You can take that test, if you have but only for specific subjects. This international experience to platform, Education UK at www.
last months EduCentre. the test fee and are 16 and above. is for teachers teaching English as enhance their career skills. Offers This British Council
The content of the test would not be a second language. Its a Masters are for a maximum of three site hosts a comprehensive database
understandable for a younger age. scholarship and given once or months, mostly for professional of scholarships offered by UK
Clovis Santiago Many people who take the test find twice yearly, depending on how development pathways. Currently, universities at all levels. Students
it very challenging. It tests all the many scholarships are allotted for we have agreements with Oxford in Myanmar can access that link

ERHAPS two of the British four skills, including a 20-minute each individual country annually Universitys Department of Politics to know which universities offer
Councils most popular speaking test and interview. or biannually. Candidates from and International Relations and scholarships at what level.
offerings would be its exams I would say that people should Myanmar have won Hornby Cambridge Universitys Centre of British Councils Director
and scholarships programs. do a preparatory course so that scholarships to attend leading South Asian Studies. Cambridge is Education Lynne Heslop said,
Said Myat Lay Tint, the British theyll understand the test and are UK universities to study English expanding this fellowship into the area
Councils Education Programmes prepared for the types of writing language teaching and learning. of urban planning starting this year. Continued on page 6
Manager, The British Council and reading that theyll find in the
administers and owns some test. We do that here in the teaching
scholarships. One of these is the centre. Theres no requirement for
International English Language getting in, but there are certainly
Testing System [IELTS] Scholarship. requirements for getting the sort of
To be eligible for the 2017-18 IELTS score that universities are looking
Scholarship, candidates must for. The scores are called bands
take an IELTS test at the British most universities would expect
Councils test centre from April a band score of 6.5 or 7. Many
2016 and onwards and must have students who enter the exams only
received the band scores of 6 and get about 4 or 4.5, so they come to
above in each component [Reading, us to try and increase their score
Writing, Listening and Speaking]. to reach the level they require for
Applicants must have also received overseas study.
a conditional offer for either The highest band that anybody
undergraduate or postgraduate can get is 9, which is equivalent to
programs for the 2017-18 academic a native speaker level. This is very
year of study. There are two types: high and it is very rare for a non-
the country level IELTS Scholarship native English speaker to achieve
which offers US$2900, and the this. Some Myanmar candidates
regional level that offers up to have reached an incredible 8.5, but
$58,000. Right now, we are coming to go to university, you dont need to
into the third round of IELTS reach this level; 6.5 or 7 will be fine,
scholarships. depending on the requirements of
Ginny Rowlands, British Councils the university. When most people go
Director English, added, IELTS is a to a university abroad, they immerse
global exam thats recognised by themselves into the culture and
universities in Britain, Australia, language and naturally their English
A teacher training session held by the British Council at the Yangon Institute of Technology.


How to take components, provide acceptance

letter from an institution by 30 June

advantage of 2017, fill out IELTS Prize application

form at
ielts-prize/myanmar, email completed

British Council form with copy of IELTS test report to by 6pm,

December 31, 2016
Application date: April 1, 2016 -
February 28, 2017
Scholarship value: Regional prizes
- Grand: First year tuition fee up to
English Examinations US$58,000, Second: $14,600, Third:
Certificate in English Language $7300; Local prizes three, $2900
Teaching to Adults (CELTA) each
Who can apply: those with little/no Contact details: Phones - 01-256290,
previous English language teaching 256291;
experience Email -
How to apply: fill out an application
form at British Councils Customer
The UK, through the British Embassy, offers about ten Chevening scholarships a year. Photo: Aung Htay Hlaing Service Charles Wallace Trust Fellowship
Course fee: K2,500,000 Who can apply: mid-career
Venue: Yangon Teaching Centre/ professionals seeking international
Continued from page 5 are looking for. Our latest piece of research shows offsite locations experience
the quality of education is the most important Contact details: Phone - 01-256290; How to apply: applications for two
I would also like to mention that the UK, for Myanmar students. It doesnt matter where Email - reserved annual fellowships in
through the British Embassy, offers the in the world they go, they look for top quality. political science (Department of
prestigious Chevening scholarships. There Were lucky in the UK because we have many International English Language Politics and International Relations,
are about ten scholarships a year at Masters high ranking universities, and so Myanmar Testing System (IELTS) Oxford University) and modern
level. Professionals or students can find out students often choose the UK. The second Who can apply: aged over 18 (under Burmese history and society (Centre
more through the British Embassy website. thing they are looking for is employability, 18s need to sign consent form) of South Asian Studies, University
The UK offers this scheme in many countries to get good jobs after that degree. And in the How to apply: submit online of Cambridge) -- posted on British
throughout the world, including Myanmar. UK, we have a strong focus on employability registration at http://takeielts. Councils website when open
The British Council promotes this scholarship because universities are very strongly linked; pay exam fee within Application date: usually September/
and encourages people to apply it is very to industries and businesses. So what students two working days after registration at October, March/April
competitive and a great opportunity for young learn is really up to date and they can get good the British Council Study duration: three months
people here. For Chevening, hundred percent jobs afterwards. UK degrees are internationally Registration requirements: bring (maximum)
costs are paid. recognised anywhere in the world. original national registration card/ Scholarship value: 1400 per month
In the UK, the cost of doing an undergraduate Myanmar high school graduates or passport, a copy (used during stipend, UK visa fees, return airfare
degree depends on the type and level of the matriculated students here cannot directly get registration) to the UK
subject. The most expensive are the clinical onto an undergraduate degree in the UK. The Registration hours: 8:30am-3:30pm Contact details: education.enquiries@
courses, like medicine, which can be more than standards and the age levels are different, as (Mondays-Fridays)
35,000 a year; for engineering, its about 16,000- Myanmar is out of sync with other countries Examination fee: K260,000 (subject to
22,000 a year, and for most other subjects, of the world. The matriculates are considered change without prior notice) Scholarships Database
including humanities and social sciences, the equal to the General Certificate of Secondary Venue: 78, Kanna Road (near General Offered by UK universities and
fees are around 15,000-18,000, excluding living Education (GCSE) O level. After that, they Post Office), Kyauktada Township, private sector: http://www.educationuk.
costs. need to either take a two-year A level course Yangon org/global/
Universities also offer individual scholarships. or a foundation program to get entry to UK Contact details: Phones - 01-256290,
Some universities will offer to cover all the fees, universities. 256291, 254658, 370933; What It Costs to Study in the United
and some universities will give discounted fees The British Council also facilitates education Email - Kingdom
for Myanmar students. Most Masters degrees exhibitions annually, bringing in representatives Clinical course (e.g. medicine): over
in the UK are one-year courses. Overall, its from UK universities to help engage with the IELTS for UK Visas and Immigration 35,000 per annum
cheaper than studying for two years, like in students who want to study overseas. They (UKVI) Engineering course (three-four years):
many other countries. The UKs one-year course can give proper counselling and advice to the Who can apply: those requiring IELTS about 16,000-22,000 per annum
is very intensive with no summer holiday break. students how they should be preparing, what (one of the approved Secure English Humanities and social sciences (three
The tuition fee is roughly 12,000-18,000 for IELTS scores they should be aiming for, or what Language Tests for UKVI) test result years): about 15,000-18,000 per
international students. kind of personal statement they should be as part of UKVI application process annum (excluding living costs)
Regarding what Myanmar students are looking writing to get into their dream university. The How to apply: submit online Masters degree (one year): 12,000-
for, Lynne said, The British Council regularly does next one is in March 2017. registration for UKVI, collect 18,000 (for international students)
research on what students need and what they recommendation letter from British MBA (one year): 17,000-35,000 (for
Councils Examinations Department, international students)
pay exam fee within two working
days at Myanma Foreign Trade Bank, On Social Media
present payment slip to the British British Councils Facebook page has
Council 1.5 million Likes.
Examination fee: IELTS for UKVI - 1.6 million Myanmar users visited its
US$262; Life Skills - $197 English learning websites in the past
Venue: specific test location 12 months
authorised by UKVI Learn English: http://learnenglish.
Contact details: Phones - 01-256290,
256291, 254658, 370933; For kids: http://learnenglishkids.
Email -
For teens: http://learnenglishteens.
International English Language For teachers: http://www.
Testing System (IELTS) Prize
Who can apply: permanent residents Myanmar Network, British Councils
from Myanmar -- for undergraduate Myanmar language social networking
or postgraduate study in 2017-18 website, has 68,000 members
academic year Nearly 40,000 Myanmar learners
How to apply: register for IELTS test participated in the free Massive
with the British Council on/after Open Online Courses hosted on UKs
1 April2016, get minimum band FutureLearn platform between April
score of 6 in each of the four test 2015 and March 2016

The British Council facilitates education exhibitions annually, bringing in representatives from UK universities.
Photo: Supplied


Total number of kindergarten teachers trained to teach the new curriculum: 90,000
Total number of KG children across the nation, according to an education consultant: 1,500,000 (approximately) (Source: Myanmar International TV)
School enrolment rate, according to 2011 statistics: around 85%, completion rate: just over 81%.
(Source: The EnglishLanguage Trainingfor Officials (ELTO)program, New Zealand)

Allowing kids to play and learn

While the new KG-12 curriculum encourages critical thinking and creative learning, teachers are also
coming to terms with it and that parents can be part of the challenge
Ei Shwe Phyu taught in Standard 1].
In the past, although children

HE new KG-12 education sys- may be absent from class at other
tem kindergarten through times, classes would be full during
to the 12th Standard imple- revision time as they want to do the
mented by the Department of Basic exercises. Their attendance would
Education came into effect in the also be counted as full. At present,
2016-17 academic year, introduc- full attendance days are very few. At
ing a new curriculum and teaching least one or two kids would always
methods. The new system aims to be absent. As attendance is now
encourage critical, active and crea- calculated monthly, there would
tive thinking. be a reduction in the attendance
The Department of Myanmar percentage.
KG teacher Daw San San Aye.
Education Research Bureau, under Photo: Ei Shwe Phyu On what was taught at KG teachers
the Ministry of Education (MoE), training compared to the past:
began developing the curriculum in to songs and poems with the kids. There were different things. We were
2012 with the intention of upgrading We also need to be monitoring taught the prescribed courses and
Myanmars education level to be on them. The syllabus does not have the best approaches to teach them,
par with international standards. many lessons, though. and also had to act out songs and The new syllabus aims to make children happy at school and become active learners. Photo: Staff
The new KG syllabus is built We introduce kids to painting and poems. Though we were affected by
around six learning areas: colouring, and so its easier to teach the warm weather, we felt happy. At learn lessons, they do it shoddily. have to teach them about that, and we
acquiring a healthy body and them writing. In the past, we had our age, we were a bit tired actively They are not worried whether their didnt know [they knew] about it until
mind, behavioural and emotional to hold each kids hand and help playing games, dancing, singing handwriting is good or not. They we encouraged them to speak up.
development, interaction, keen them out with writing, especially and acting out poetry. Lessons to be just write their lessons fast and On her expectations for those
observation of basic mathematics, those who did not have the chance taught on a daily basis are detailed show them to us. So, we teachers passing KG and will be attending
enjoying and creating art, to attend a pre-school and had to be in teachers guidebooks, and we have have to put extra effort in improving 1st Standard, which will have a
and appreciating the natural taught separately. to make preparations, like looking for these kids. new syllabus in the coming 2017-
environment. Regarding challenges coming teaching aids. We need to take time On comments by some teachers 18 academic year:
Moreover, the following along with the curriculum change: to think about what materials would that the new curriculum makes The KG kids would be ready to
objectives included in the teaching Like always, there are advantages be good for the children based on the kids more active and less bashful attend the 1st Standard as we had
methodology have to be achieved by and disadvantages. Teachers would guidebooks, how to use them and to be to ask questions: already prepared them for it. The
the teachers: be exhausted at the end of the day, creative. We dont need to be worried They are not shy, as we allow them transition would be smooth and
1. To put into practice appropriate as they would have tried different about test preparations anymore. to ask any question they want convenient for them. With the old
teaching methods for the approaches to come up with the best On developments seen in children to. We tell them that if they keep system, some kids would not have
comprehensive development of one. But we are fine with it. One major under the new syllabus as an silent, they wont get any marks and learnt all the words where others
children challenge is less enthusiasm shown academic year comes to a close: encourage them to say anything would have. But now, all of the kids
2. To employ a result-oriented by parents, as they think they do not Under the old system, children had they want to, whether its correct or would have learnt the same. This
method for each learning area have to send their kids to school just to focus more because of the many not. When we talk to them about means all the KG kids are set and
3. To make children better to learn these kinds of lessons. We are lessons we had to teach. Now, there insects, for instance, mosquitoes, ready to go. The new syllabus has
understand the subject matter that trying to make parents understand are only a few lessons and kids are they used to associate them with developed self-reliance in the minds
they are studying the benefits of sending their kids more inclined to play. They enjoy dengue fever and malaria, but now of our kids.
4. To enable children to enjoy regularly to class. In fact, teaching reciting and acting out poems, but they are surprisingly relating them Translation by San Layy,
their daily lessons the class is easier than organising the when they are asked to write or with the Zika virus. We didnt even Emoon and Khine Thazin Han
5. To make children happy at parents.
school and become active learners Personally, I dont see much
6. To have a smooth transition to difference between the new and old
the 1st Standard. syllabus regarding the development
Ninety thousand KG teachers and learning process of the kids. Both
were trained to teach the new curricula are not exactly the same,
curriculum. The Department of no doubt, but the learning result does
Educational Planning and Training, not differ much.
under the MoE, conducted the On the assessment of
training around the country from achievements:
January to May, 2016. According There are daily assessments as to
to Dr Win Aung, an education how much each kid has learnt. We
consultant for the new curriculum, review them in all the six learning
there are approximately 1.5 million areas. We tell parents that we have
KG students nationwide. evaluations every day and persuade
Daw San San Aye, a KG teacher them to send their kids regularly. It is
from Basic Education High School not fully successful, though.
(6) Botahtaung, Yangon, taught the On whether the parents lack of
old KG curriculum for the past nine enthusiasm is related to experts
academic years and has been a warning, when the new curriculum
teacher for 32 years. She shared with was introduced, that the syllabus
The Myanmar Times her observations should not be misjudged just
on the old and new KG syllabuses. because it does not have any tests:
Her opinion on the new Exactly. There are no tests and the
curriculum introduced in the 2016- courses are fewer. Of the 33 letters in
17 academic year: the Myanmar alphabet, eight are left
I like this new curriculum. We dont out at this stage [according to Dr Tun
have to teach lessons to kids right Tint, Myanmar Language Commission
from the beginning of the year. member, these eight letters that are
Teachers may be a bit exhausted based on Pali language would not
playing games, singing and dancing be appropriate in KG but would be


Agriculture: 4 percent annual growth, stable employment; Manufacturing: 10pc annual growth/employment growth from 1.8 to 7.6 million; Tourism & Hospitality:
17pc annual growth/employment growth from 0.5 to 2.3 million; Construction: 8pc annual growth/employment growth from 0.5 to 2.3 million; Energy: 5pc
annual growth/employment growth from 0.1 to 0.3 million; Telecoms: 23pc annual growth/employment growth from near zero to 0.2 million; Financial Services:
23pc annual growth/employment growth from near zero to 0.4 million. (Source: UK Trade & Investment, June 2015)

Made-in-Myanmar jobs
The target is one million jobs urgently needed and the government and private sector need to do
some handholding and be focused if there is to be any headway

Cottage industries need technology to transform into high-growth production centres. Myanmar needs more foreign direct investment to power its manufacturing sector. Photo: EPA
Photo: Aung Htay Hlaing

Vijian Paramasivam in garment production, according modest demographic dividend may administration] into an economic If this trend prevails, he pointed
to the International Labour evaporate, Janet Jackson, UNFPA miracle so people living in out that skilled foreigners will

YANMAR has a Herculean Organisations report last November. Representative for Myanmar said in impoverished areas and in poverty dominate the labour market and
task to achieve in the next The unemployment rate is a statement then. can enjoy the fruits of this political Myanmar workers will lose out and
three years, which is to hovering at about 4pc, which Myanmar could generate a high miracle, said Ye Min Aung, who is have to settle for low wages.
create at least a million new jobs by is considered low compared level of employment for its people also the Managing Director of the He urged multinational
2020 for its young population. to regional figures. However, by encouraging more foreign direct Myanmar Agriculture Public Corp Ltd. corporations, especially
With all the ingredients land, uncertainties gripping the global investment (FDI) and developing He said economic growth is telecommunication companies,
manpower, natural resources and economy, plus local economic trade by plugging into the global currently private sector driven, entering Myanmar to create more
an ideal location in the region conditions, may make it a daunting production network. especially in the area of human jobs for local staff and also provide
Myanmar should be able to create task for the authorities to create With 53.9 million people, a capital development, where training.
enough domestic employment but enough jobs for new job seekers. relatively low-wage labour market, companies spend chunks of their The government should
its current economic model and It is very difficult to create jobs. it is straddled between five fast budget to train new staff, including encourage foreign investors to do
education structure may hinder The global economic trend is not so growing consumer markets, namely university graduates, to fit into the CSR [corporate social responsibility],
its plans. Therefore, some policy positive and China is slowing down. China, India, Cambodia, Laos jobs. form alliances with local schools to
reforms are needed to speed up The government needs to have and Thailand, who are potential We need drastic change. establish institutions.
further job creation in the country, proactive and pragmatic policies, importers of products, from food to Graduates come with outdated According to Ye Min Aung,
say experts. the vice president of the Union of electricity. concepts, curriculums are not up-to- agriculture, oil and gas,
About 31 million of Myanmars Myanmar Federation of Chambers In addition, Myanmars rich date. Universities and colleges need manufacturing and tourism will
population are in the workforce of Commerce and Industries, Ye Min gemstone industry, garment to be more practical and modernise, play a crucial role in creating jobs,
and over 50 percent eke out a living Aung, told The Myanmar Times. production, tourism, and oil and gas and we need more vocational but all the sectors are in need of a
in the agriculture sector alone, the The United Nations Fund for sectors could help generate more training. big push from the government.
nations main employer. Population (UNFPA) predicts one jobs. But the ground reality seems to We need public and private A report released by the Ministry
Over the last decade, the million new jobs would be needed suggest otherwise to some extent. partnership intervention to attract of Hotels and Tourism last year
manufacturing and agriculture over the next four years, and from The country is still suffering employment.Our private sector is revealed about 870,000 people were
sectors have clocked unexpected 2016 to 2030 about 3.7 million jobs from a rudimentary infrastructure still at an infant stage, so we need employed by the industry, and the
momentum to drive its economy, will be required. that could hamper fast economic a government with strong sense number of jobs rose by nearly 50,000
tipped to grow at 6.9pc this year, According to the agencys 2014 growth and electricity scarcity that of business and ideas to drive the between 2013 and 2014.
still better than its more developed Myanmar Population and Housing discourage industries. Big ticket growth, he added. Myanmar has to rely on foreign
ASEAN peers. Its steadfast economic Census Thematic Report on Population investments are yet to reach key Suren Verma, country direct investment, especially in
growth has brought opportunity to Dynamics, announced in early sectors like power and agriculture, representative of the ABE Myanmar labour intensive industries, to
the thousands of youths entering January, Myanmar needs to position especially in remote states, while (Association of Business Executives, contribute to the creation of jobs,
the job market every year. itself to harness a demographic education institutions are not United Kingdom) said the country is the improvement in wages and a
Mainly, these jobs are found in dividend. producing graduates with the skills not ready to create a million jobs in reduction of poverty.
sectors like agriculture, mining, The time to invest in jobs, needed by the labour market, say such a short span of time. It has managed to attract a steady
garments, forestry and fishery, education and skills training is now. observers. Implementing of policies is flow of investment. In the first nine
service and sales, and craft and Without new jobs, young people Our strength is location, we super slow. There is a huge gap months of 2016 FDI stood at US$3.5
many of these jobs fall under the who are unable to find their place are strategically located bordering between what the employers need billion, compared to $4.9 billion
informal sector. in the labour market and in society five nations but they are not fully and the talents produced. There recorded in the same period of
Collectively, the garment, textile may become disillusioned and not optimised. We need stability at the is a mismatch between what 2015, according to the Directorate
and footwear industry employs reach their full potential. borders to encourage border trade. universities produce and what the of Investment and Companies
738,000 workers and slightly more Unless millions of new jobs are We need to turn our political market demands, it is not related, Administration. More, much more, is
than half of that number works created, the prospect of even a miracle [the switch to civilian said Suren. needed.


Percent of children having access to early childhood care and development centres (ECCD): about 22.9pc (Source: Save the Children Myanmar)

Number of pre-school children: pre-primary school 23,632, daycare center 2466

Number of ECCDs: 740 Number of daycare centres: 85 (Source: Myanmar Maternal and Child Welfare Association website)
Annual fees for international pre-schools: range from roughly US$4200 to $11,000 (for pre-school children) and from $13,000 to upward of $25,000 (for high
schoolers) (Source: The Myanmar Times, May 18, 2015)

Children, as thinkers and communicators

Early education that offers all-round experiences and makes learning fun is attracting more children. In this months
EduCentre issue, we highlight how a school in Yangon nurtures pre-schoolers.

Tin Yadanar Tun education from kindergarten to

senior years.

HE early years in a childs life Eton House International Pre-
are a very significant time and School Yangon began operations in
it helps them develop their 2015. The integrated and stimulating
personalities and an understanding program offered at the campus is
of themselves, and the world around inspired by the work undertaken
them. It is also a time when children by colleagues working in world
develop their academic knowledge renowned pre-schools and infant
and skills in numeracy and literacy. toddler centres in Reggio Emilia and
During this period, brain hailed by the Newsweek magazine as
development is the most significant, the best in the world.
as proven by research. It is Early education develops a childs understanding of the An inquiry-based approach is built around research on how children learn best. Eton House schools are highly
therefore critical that the learning world around them. Photos: Supplied regarded for the quality of the
environment, both physical and Mandarin program offered. We have
human, is that of a very high quality purposefully designed and well- childrens curiosity and skills At EHY, we strongly believe in started several innovative Mandarin
and one that offers stimulation and organised environment provides of observation as the basis of a the Image of Child as the first programs, like the primary bilingual
promotes a lifelong love for learning. the children with opportunities for curriculum which aims to build and singularly most important program. Mandarin early childhood
Many pre-schools or daycare growth of their social, language, skills of exploration and discovery, consideration, which incorporates and integrated programs offer a
centres for children were opened at physical and cognitive development. investigation and research, the pedagogy of listening and strong foundation in learning a
the beginning of 2010, and there are Young children develop familiarity collaboration and team membership acknowledging children as second language. The Mandarin
now over 25 international standard with mathematics, science and abilities. competent and capable thinkers integrated bilingual program is
pre-schools in and around Yangon. technology through their daily At Eton House Yangon and communicators. offered with a Mandarin teacher
Located in Mayangone township, interactions. [EHY], children are immersed Through careful planning present in the classroom at all
the Eton House International Myo Sandi Tun Thein said, In in an integrated multi-lingual and implementation of child-led times, Myo Sandi Tun Thein added.
Pre-School caters to children from our pre-schools, we work with an environment, where our English, inquiries, children gain knowledge Education is as much as about
18 months of age to six years old. inquiry-based curriculum, inspired Myanmar and Mandarin teachers about the world around them acquiring the disposition to learn
It offers an environment where by the Reggio Emilia approach [an interact with children in their and develop problem solving and as it is about tangible learning
learning happens in a natural and educational philosophy focused on respective languages. Language physical skills that will support outcomes. We believe we can
relevant context, where learning is pre-school and primary education learning, therefore, takes place them to become independent in support the development of strong,
fun and collaborative and not based and developed after World War II spontaneouslyin a natural everyday tasks. confident individuals, who are
on what the adult wants. by a psychologist, Loris Malaguzzi, environment, which makes it a The Eton House International equipped with the skills, knowledge
Such a foundation helps a child and parents in the villages around meaningful and relevant process, Education Group started its and dispositions to make sense of
to excel in life and in all educational Reggio Emilia in Italy]. This said Myo Sandi Tun Thein. operations in 1995. Headquartered the world around them.
contexts. It prepares them not only approach is based on international Moreover, we also raise healthy in Singapore, the group is a The EHY offers a range of nursery
for primary schooling but also for research on how children learn best children as we encouragehealthy global organisation with over 100 sessions for pre-schoolers:
their whole life, said Myo Sandi Tun and has been designed to integrate eating by exposing and introducing schools in 12 countries and over
Thein, vice principal of the Eton learning across all areas of the them to healthy meals and foods. 10,000 children from 61 different Contact information:
House International Pre-School. curriculum, that is children develop Our classrooms and environment nationalities. Over the last two 48/B, Kan Yeik Thar Street,
The child develops a love for mathematical understanding, as are purposefully designed to decades, the Eton House campuses Mayangone township,Yangon
learning, positive self-concepts, the they cook, like measurements and stimulate the curiosity, learning and have established standards Phone: +951-657225
ability to communicate effectively counting, or work outdoors to use development of young children. of excellence in international
with children and teachers of spatial language as they climb up,
different nationalities as well as over, through or access blocks for
develop academic knowledge and height, measurement and geometry.
logical thinking skills, she said. Teachers are trained in the
Moreover, based on international observation of children engaged in
best practice, the renowned Eton play and work experiences. They
Houses Inquire, Think, Learn access this study of childrens ideas
pedagogy is a holistic and child and interests to determine the
responsive approach that develops a next step in curriculum delivery. As
genuine love for lifelong learning in such, the syllabus is individualised
children. and highly in tune with childrens
Children learn numeracy and ideas and interests. The Eton House
literacy through engaging learning curriculum positions children as
experiences within the inquiry- active participants in their own
based learning approach. The learning. We value and support

Teachers at Eton House are trained in the observation of children engaged in play and work


How virtual reality technology is changing

the way studentslearn
Michael Phillips said they feel restricted because objects utilising the camera on a
Lecturer: Digital Technologies in they cant use their hands for mobile device such as a tablet or
Education, Monash University gestures. However, in increasingly smart phone.
January 11, 2017 sophisticated virtual worlds, avatars In some educational uses of AR,
move and respond in more realistic three-dimensional images, video,

OR many years, schools and ways. Improved graphics cards in audio or text are triggered to
universities have had to computers also allow students to appear by a printed image.
change the way they work and infer more meaning through these The potential of this form of
teach to fit in with technology. conversations. educational technology is beginning
Software like PowerPoint, for to be realised not only in tertiary
example, which has long been In the classroom settings but also in secondary
used as an education tool, wasnt Research is starting to provide schools.
designed for education. Nonetheless, examples of where and when Research shows that although
it has been a staple tool in these technologies may fit into the this type of technology enhanced
education settings, used as a way pedagogical repertoire of teachers. self-directed learning, there are
to present information in template, Studies have reported increased still technological and pedagogical
bite-size formats. student motivation, improved challenges such as slow response
But this isnt always a good thing. collaboration and knowledge times, incompatible softwares and
The use of digital technologies construction and enhanced incompatible environmental settings.
sees some teachers and students classroom practices.
presenting information using In the recent past, students and The future
templates, which means much of teachers were able to access virtual Over the past 18 months, I have
the individual character of teachers worlds only through a desktop or been working on a different
practices can be lost. laptop computer. educational AR application for use
Research shows that software such They are now able to access in the Royal Botanic Gardens in
as PowerPoint can homogenise and A virtual world allows teachers to take students to otherwise impossible locations. Photo: AFP different devices that can be worn Melbourne.
sanitise the way teachers present on the users head, allowing for a This work is grounded in
information to their students. For example, some mathematical 1. Reducing apprehension and more immersive experience. considerations of the technological,
Only more recently are we seeing and scientific worlds allow users to embarrassment, which otherwise The release of relatively low pedagogical and content knowledge
technology being designed and represent abstract topics in ways impede experimentation in cost, virtual reality headsets such (TPACK) requirements of teachers.
utilised specifically for education that would otherwise be difficult or activities like role-playing. as the Oculus Rift and HTC Vive Research of the TPACK concept
contexts, and its changing the way impossible in real life. 2. Allowing students to revisit and now allow teachers to design argues that teachers integrate digital
students learn and understand The use of virtual worlds for repeat lessons multiple times to three-dimensional interactive and technologies most effectively when
things. simulation of medical procedures reinforce key understanding. individual environments for their they consider the ways in which
is well-documented, as it allows 3. Encouraging better social students. different platforms allow them to
Virtual and augmented reality for errors to be made without the interaction between students as they While the technical skills represent content in different ways.
technology catastrophic consequences in real were reacting and sharing a virtual associated with this kind of work This means they can engage their
For a number of years, teachers procedures. world, rather than through email. are beyond the capacities of many students in more comprehensive
have been customising their own One particularly innovative 4. Putting students in control teachers, advances in the way we learning activities.
virtual worlds to enhance the way initiative was conducted in a virtual of their avatar, not the teacher, can program these kinds of tools My work at the Royal Botanic
they represent content. world called Second Life. which meant they could explore mean this is likely to be a real Gardens has been designed
A virtual world is typically The program allows teachers to and interact independently. Unlike option for many teachers in the to use AR technology with a
a multi-user, computer-based design, create and teach in a virtual PowerPoint, where everybody sees near future. particular pedagogical approach
environment in which users world with 100 university students. the same information in the same (constructivism) and to represent
interact with one another through A series of collaborative activities way at the same time, a virtual Augmented reality particular content (environmental
pre-programmed avatars or digital were used to introduce aspects of world allows students to create their One of the most recent forms of sustainability and Aboriginal and
representations of the user. Chinese language and culture to own understanding. technology to enter the educational Torres Straight Islander histories and
These worlds allow teachers students in Australia before they 5. A lack of non-verbal clues, landscape is Augmented Reality (AR). cultures) to students in ways that
to take students to otherwise spent time on exchange in China. including body language, gestures Unlike virtual environments, in would be otherwise difficult to do.
impossible locations. When the effects of this program and facial expressions, has been which the real world is obscured For example, students are
Science, medicine and maths tend were researched, data illustrated cited in studies as negatively and the user is immersed in a fully introduced to the concept of
to be particularly suited to virtual significant improvements in a impacting communication. digital experience, AR overlays the carbon cycle through an AR
environments. number of key areas including: Some students have reportedly digital information on real world overlay of the cycle triggered by the
geometric shape of specific trees.
Looking through a tablet device,
an animated representation of the
carbon cycle appears over the real
world setting in front of the students,
allowing them to grasp a concept
that cant be seen with the naked eye,
heard, touched or smelled.
Once the students have been able
to grasp this abstract content with
the help of the technology, teachers
then have the choice of other digital
or non-digital activities from which
they can choose to have their
students apply this knowledge.
Emerging digital technologies
such as AR are now being
considered in complex, subtle and
thoughtful ways by teachers.
While considering the technology,
pedagogy and content influencing
their choices, teachers are also
considering the contexts in which
they are working.
These considerations are helping
teachers to make choices other than
just PowerPoint when it comes to
the inclusion of technologies in their
teaching practice.


from December 2016 to June

Education in 2017 in Singapore, studying how
companies there manage their
Brief businesses. The objective is to
give talented students a deeper
Ei Shwe Phyu understanding of hands-on work
experience as an intern in a
Myanmar Language celebrated related field and to improve their
Yangon Universitys Department skills.
of Myanmar Language Operational since late last year,
commemorated its diamond SMVTI offers 10 courses lasting
jubilee on December 22-24, six months each in hospitality and
2016 with an opening address tourism, electronic and electrical
by President U Htin Kyaw. The skills, facilities management and
President appreciated the efforts of engineering services.
the department in promoting the
Myanmar language for the past 75 The Burma Alphabet book
years. He also called for preserving reprinted
and simultaneously developing With the objective of making the
the countrys own language and learning of the English language
literature. easier, International Friendship
The founding of the department Group chair Daw Ohnmar Tun has
was in itself historic in the annals republished the book, The Burma
of education in Myanmar. When Alphabet. The original book
Yangon University began as the was written by Lady Wheeler-
University College in 1920, it did Cuffe Charlotte in 1920 and
not have a separate Department was sold then at five rupees a
of Myanmar Language and the copy to raise funds for a new Alternative Education Departments director general Dr Khine Myae at the policy planning workshop. Photo: Aung Myin Ye Zaw
teaching of the language was hospital, the Queen Alexandras
under the Department of Oriental Childrens Hospital in Mandalay.
Studies. Due to strenuous Half of the 1000 reprints
efforts by patriotic teachers, of The Burma Alphabet will be
students and others, a separate donated to the National Library,
Department of Myanmar University Library and mobile
Language was established in libraries. The remaining half will
1941. The department now be sold at US$10 a copy and the
also hosts a number of foreign proceeds will be used to support
students studying the Myanmar the International Friendship
language. Group.

Workshop on alternative Dulwich College Yangon

education and lifelong learning accepting students
The Alternative Education Dulwich College Yangon is
Department, under the Ministry of enrolling new students now for
Education, held its first workshop classes that will begin in August.
to establish a policy planning Children aged between 2 and 14
framework for alternative are eligible to apply.
education and lifelong learning The college is a private English
at the MiCasa Hotel in Yangon on school and the first in Myanmar to
December 19-21, 2016. Discussions be linked with the Dulwich College
covered six sectors and relevant in England. It is among a network
professionals in their fields were of Dulwich colleges in Asian
involved. cities such as Shanghai, Beijing,
The department was formed on Suzhou, Seoul, and Singapore, plus
October 1, 2016. The departments a couple of Dulwich college high
director general Dr Khine Myae schools in Suzhou and Zhuhai. The
said a policy can be finalised by two branches of Dulwich College
March 31 after ongoing discussions Yangon are to be found in Star City
at respective states and regions, and Pun Hlaing estates.
and at the national level, are Translation by Kyaw Soe Htet
Students, teachers and parents at the Yangon Region education get-together. Photo: Zarni Phyo
Get-together for 2016-17
academic year
The Yangon Region held its
education get-together event
for the 2016-17 academic year
on January 3 at the No 4 Basic
Education High School in Ahlone
township. More than 230 teachers
and students from the region
received outstanding awards at the
Monthly educational activities
have been held since 1998 in
an effort to upgrade education
in public schools. Among them,
January 3 of every year has been
designated as the annual day for
holding an education get-together
for parents, teachers and students.
The event also aims to increase
coordination between the welfare
service committee and parent-
teacher associations and regional

Students on a six-month
internship in Singapore
Ten outstanding students from the
Singapore-Myanmar Vocational
Training Institute (SMVTI) are on
a six-month internship program


Programming your way into the future HOT

Young IT geeks are fascinated by software engineering, but the learning Skills
process goes beyond books and classrooms in

Application developers
Analyst programmers
Business intelligence analysts
Chief information officers
Cloud computing operators (not available
locally yet)
Communications trade workers
Computer network professionals
Computer games developers
Computer service and repair technicians
Database and systems administrators
Data entry clerks (no specific training
available yet)
Data managers (no specific training
available yet)
Data mining/data warehousing technicians
Enterprise application and integration
E-learning developers
Forensic computer analysts
Helpdesk professionals
Starcraft, a popular online game, being introduced by its developer. Online game developing is one of special software engineering courses. Photo: AFP
Information scientists
Kyi Tha Maung attend a basic course at a training centre or
school. Basic knowledge is needed for self- ICT business and systems analysts

ANY of us have watched with admira- study, and if one is trained systematically, it
ICT managers
tion and been inspired by characters eventually will be a plus at ones workplace.
in tech movies (Lyle in The Italian Job) Once the basic level is completed, ICT support technicians
and TV series (Skye in Agents of S.h.i.e.l.d. or languages that one wishes to use could ICT support and test engineers
Richard Hendricks in Silicon Valley) and how be self-taught through tutorial websites
they achieved their objectives by using the or books, without depending on training ICT trainers
global computing network. centres. IT project managers
On-screen heroics aside, this is a road not There are special courses for those who
easily travelled. Whether one is a high school are interested in becoming Web developers, IT support technicians
leaver wishing to explore what software for instance. Basically, Java, .NET (helps Library technicians
engineering is, or a university degree holder create web applications that run on Windows
wanting to switch to software engineering, a devices) and PHP (scripting language that is Media equipment operators
programming course is necessary. especially suited for web development) are Mobile application developers
Programming, or a software engineering the most popular courses. Books or websites Screenshot of an online tutorial website.
Multimedia specialists and web developers
course, is one of those subjects that would are available for self-study, although
seem to be easy at the beginning but is pretty one should always first complete the For those who wish to write mobile Network professionals (ICT)
challenging throughout in fact, the changes fundamental level at a training centre. applications, specific training classes have
in it are so rapid, there never seems to be an Next, further knowledge and expertise can emerged based on what mobile platform one
end to learning programming. be gained through on-the-job-training. Those has chosen to write (e.g. Android or IOS). One Security specialists (ICT)
Beginners should start with computer basics wishing to seriously pursue further studies would be able to create their own applications
Software and application programmers
to get thorough basic knowledge. Then they can sign for advanced courses. These would after going through a mobile developer training
should choose a programming subject in which be generally termed as software engineering course for a few months and then expanding Systems administrators
they want to specialise. (SE) courses. their knowledge through online information
Technical sales representatives
Computer programming is the process of Although SE courses are offered at some and courses.
developing and implementing various sets of schools only after the basic level is completed, It is better to start studying programming Technicians (gallery, library and museum)
instructions to a computer to enable it to do a there are others, more prominent, that offer at a young age. Today, there are programs Telecommunications technical specialists
certain task. Moreover, different programming both together. It may take from three to designed specially for children. Generally,
languages can be chosen for the process. around six months to complete a SE course online tutorial websites are free of charge. Telecommunications trades workers
Beginners should consider studying C, C++, and the fees can run up to some hundreds of However, usually, when one desires to have Test analysts (ICT)
C# or an appropriate programming language. thousands of kyats. It is advisable to attend certification, fees have to be paid to some
C and C++ are the most popular languages. this course only after learning some skills in online universities. Technical architects orIT systems architects
By learning these languages, one can not only a programming language. If not, even after And finally, for software engineers, the Technical authors
understand programming but also study how finishing this SE course, it can still be difficult learning never stops. Not only do software
a computer system works. C# is similar to Java to practise it. engineers have to practise what they have Virtualisation operators
(a general-purpose computer programming When exploring software engineering, learnt but they also have to be alert to the Web content managers
language) and it is more widely used. trainees should study essential subjects such changes that take place in their field of
Web developers
Although students can study these as advanced database management system or expertise. Do otherwise and you will be left
programming languages in classes or system analysis and design. It would be best behind. Web editors
through online tutorial websites and books, it if books related to these topics are sought and Translation by San Layy and Win Thaw Tar
Windows administrators
would be more appropriate if beginners first studied.