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Communication process consists of some interrelated steps or parts through which
messages are sent form sender to receiver. The process of communication begins when the
sender wants to transmit a fact, idea, opinion or other information to the receiver and ends with
receivers feedback to the sender. The main components of communication process are sender,
message, channel, receiver and feedback. In the following, some definitions of the
communication process are quoted:


Robert Kreitner defined, Communication process is a chain made up of identifiable

links. The chain includes sender, encoding, message, receiver, decoding, and feedback.

In the opinion of S. K. Kapur, The communication process is the method by which the
sender transfers information and understanding to the receiver.

According to Bovee, Thill and Schatzman, The communication process consists of six
phases linking sender and receiver.

C. B. Mamoria has pointed out the parts of communication process by saying, That
communication process model is making up of seven steps or parts: a. the communication b.
Encoding c. The message and the medium or channel, d. reception by the feceiver e. decoding f.
Action and g. feedback.

What is communication process

*The following diagram represents the communication process

Thus, it is clear that *communication process* is the set of some sequential steps
involved in transferring message as well as feedback. The process requires a sender who
transmits message through a channel to the receiver. Then the receiver decodes the message and
sends back some type of signal or feedback.

Components of Communication Process *Communication Process

The main *components of communication process* are as follows:

1. *Context -* Communication is affected by the context in which it takes place. This context
may be physical, social, chronological or cultural. Every communication proceeds with context.
The sender chooses the message to communicate within a context.

2. *Sender / Encoder -* Sender / Encoder is a person who sends the message. A sender makes
use of symbols (words or graphic or visual aids) to convey the message and produce the
required response. For instance - a training manager conducting training for new batch of
employees. Sender may be an individual or a group or an organization. The views, background,
approach, skills, competencies, and knowledge of the sender have a great impact on the
message. The verbal and non verbal symbols chosen are essential in ascertaining interpretation of
the message by the recipient in the same terms as intended by the sender.

3. *Message -* Message is a key idea that the sender wants to communicate. It is a sign that
elicits the response of recipient. Communication process begins with deciding about the
message to be conveyed. It must be ensured that the main objective of the message is clear.

4. *Medium -* Medium is a means used to exchange / transmit the message. The sender must
choose an appropriate medium for transmitting the message else the message might not be
conveyed to the desired recipients. The choice of appropriate medium of communication is
essential for making the message effective and correctly interpreted by the recipient. This
choice of communication medium varies depending upon the features of communication. For
instance - Written medium is chosen when a message has to be conveyed to a small group of
people, while an oral medium is chosen when spontaneous feedback is required from the
recipient as misunderstandings are cleared then and there.

5. *Recipient / Decoder -* Recipient / Decoder is a person for whom the message is intended /
aimed / targeted. The degree to which the decoder understands the message is dependent upon
various factors such as knowledge of recipient, their responsiveness to the message, and the
reliance of encoder on decoder.

6. *Feedback -* Feedback is the main component of communication process as it permits the

sender to analyze the efficacy of the message. It helps the sender in confirming the correct
interpretation of message by the decoder. Feedback may be verbal (through words) or non-
verbal (in form of smiles, sighs, etc.). It may take written form also in form of memos, reports,

Steps or elements of communication process

The communication process refers to the steps through which communication takes place
between the sender and the receiver. This process starts with conceptualizing an idea or message
by the sender and ends with the feedback from the receiver. In details, communication process
consists of the following eight steps:

1. *Developing idea by the sender*: In the first step, the communicator develops or
conceptualizes an idea to be sent. It is also known as the planning stage since in this stage the
communicator plans the subject matter of communication.

2. *Encoding*: Encoding means converting or translation the idea into a perceivable form that
can be communicated to others.

3. *Developing the message*: After encoding the sender gets a message that can be transmitted
to the receiver. The message can be oral, written, symbolic or nonverbal. For example, when
people talk, speech is the message; when people write a letter, the words and sentences are the
message; when people cries, the crying is the message.

4. *Selecting the medium*: Medium is the channel or means of transmitting the message to the
receiver. Once the sender has encoded his into a message, the next step is to select a suitable
medium for transmitting it to the receiver. The medium of communication can be speaking,
writing, signaling, gesturing etc.

5. *Transmission of message*: In this step, the sender actually transmits the message through
chosen medium. In the communication cycle, the tasks of the sender end with the transmission
of the message.

6. *Receiving the message by receiver*: This stage simply involves the reception of senders
message by the receiver. The message can be received in the form of hearing, seeing, feeling and
so on.

7. *Decoding:* Decoding is the receivers interpretation of the senders message. Here the
receiver converts the message into thoughts and tries to analyze and understand it. Effective
communication can occur only when both the sender and the receiver assign the same or similar
meanings to the message.

8. *Feedback*: The final step of communication process is feedback. Feedback means

receivers response to senders message. It increases the effectiveness of communication. It
ensures that the receiver has correctly understood the message. Feedback is the essence of two-
way communication.



*Written communication *includes traditional pen and paper letters and documents,
typed electronic documents, e-mails, text chats, SMS and anything else conveyed through
written symbols such as language. This type of communication is indispensable for formal
business communications and issuing legal instructions.

Communication forms that predominantly use written communication include

handbooks, brochures, contracts, memos, press releases, formal business proposals, and the
like. The effectiveness of written communication depends on the writing style, grammar,
vocabulary, and clarity

Oral Communication

The other form of verbal communication is the spoken word, either face-to-face or
through phone, voice chat, video conferencing or any other medium. Various forms of informal
communications such as the grapevine or informal rumor mill, and formal communications
such as lectures, conferences are forms of oral communication. Oral communication finds use
in discussions and causal and informal conversations. The effectiveness of oral conversations
depends on the clarity of speech, voice modulation, pitch, volume, speed, and even non-verbal
communications such as body language and visual cues.

Verbal communication makes the process of conveying thoughts easier and faster, and it
remains the most successful form of communication. Yet, this makes up only seven percent of
all human communication!

Nonverbal Communication
Nonverbal communication entails communicating by sending and receiving wordless
messages. These messages usually reinforce verbal communication, but they can also convey
thoughts and feelings on their own.

*Physical nonverbal communication,* or body language, includes facial expressions,

eye contact, body posture, gestures such as a wave, pointed finger and the like, overall body
movements, tone of voice, touch, and others.

Facial expressions are the most common among all nonverbal communication. For
instance, a smile or a frown conveys distinct emotions hard to express through verbal
communication. Research estimates that body language, including facial expressions, account
for 55 percent of all communication.


The way something is said, rather than what is actually said, is an important component
of nonverbal communication. This includes voice quality, intonation, pitch, stress, emotion,
tone, and style of speaking, and communicates approval, interest or the lack of it. Research
estimates that tone of the voice accounts for 38 percent of all communications.

Other forms of nonverbal communication usually communicate ones personality.

These include:

o *Aesthetic communication *or creative expressions such as dancing, painting, and the

o *Appearance* or the style of dressing and grooming, which communicates ones


o *Space language* such as paintings and landscapes communicate social status and taste.

o *Symbols *such as religious, status, or ego-building symbols.

Visual Communication

A third type of communication is visual communication through visual aids such as

signs, typography, drawing, graphic design, illustration, color and other electronic resources.

Visual communication with graphs and charts usually reinforces written communication,
and can in many case replace written communication altogether. As the adage goes a picture is
worth a thousand words," such visual communication is more powerful than verbal and
nonverbal communication on many occasions. Technological developments have made
expressing visual communications much easier than before.

A good understanding of the different types of communication an communication styles

can help you know and deal with people better, clear up misunderstandings and
misconceptions, and contribute to the success of the enterprise.


In conclusion, it is important to always remember the importance of communication in an

organization. The methods of communication you choose could in a sense make or break the
management structure of your organization and could also affect your relationship with
customers, if not chosen carefully. It is vital therefore that you spend some time choosing the
right methods to aid you in your management tasks.