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maia gonaSvili

lia Todua

moqalaqe da
ekonomika
damxmare saxelmZRvanelo
IX-XI klaselebisaTvis

ISBN 978-9941-25-048-4

9 789941 250484
maia gonaSvili, lia Todua

moqalaqe
da
ekonomika
damxmare saxelmZRvanelo
IX-XI klasi

pirveli gamocema

Tbilisi 2016
Zvirfaso moswavleebo!

wigni moqalaqe da ekonomika gankuTvnilia IX-XI klasis moswavleTaTvis.


misi gamoyeneba SesaZlebelia damxmare saxelmZRvanelod (magaliTad, samoqa-
laqo ganaTlebis kursisTvis). wigni Sedgeba ori nawilisgan: Teoriuli saxel-
mZRvanelo da savarjiSoebis rveuli (gamocemulia calke).
am wignSi axleburad aris ganxiluli samoqalaqo ganaTlebis ekonomi-
kuri nawili. wigni dagexmarebaT ukeT gaigoT is ekonomikuri sakiTxebi, ro-
melic moqalaqeebs yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi gvxvdeba, gaiazroT Tqveni adgi-
li qveynis ekonomikaSi da miiRoT ukeTesi, TqvenTvis sasargeblo ekonomikuri
gadawyvetilebebi.

teqnikuri redaqtori
kaxaber rusiZe

kompiuteruli uzrunvelyofa
daviT kutubiZe

publikacia momzadda evrokavSiris mier dafinansebuli proeqtis evrokav-


SirTan asocirebis xelSekrulebis zegavlena qarTvel momxmareblebze da maTi
cnobierebis amaRleba (Raising Awareness of Local Actors on the Implications of the As-
sociation Agreement for Georgian Consumers) farglebSi. proeqts axorcielebs saqa-
rTvelos strategiuli kvlevebisa da ganviTarebis centri.
publikacia ar gamoxatavs evrokavSiris pozicias.

saavtoro uflebebi daculia da ekuTvnis saqarTvelos strategiuli


kvlevebisa da ganviTarebis centrs. publikacia xelmisawvdomia veb-gverdze
www.momxmarebeli.ge. arakomerciuli mizniT misi beWdva, gamocema da gamrav-
leba daiSveba Tavisuflad.
maia gonaSvili, lia Todua; Tbilisi, 2016.

ISBN 978-9941-25-048-4

gamomcemloba `meridiani~, Tbilisi, al. yazbegis gamz., #47.


2 30-96-14; 2 14-77-11. E-mail: meridiani777@gmail.com
sarCevi

1. ekonomika da adamianebi ................................................................ 5

2. vaWroba da bazari .......................................................................... 11

3. konkurencia ..................................................................................... 19

4. sabazro Cavardnebi ....................................................................... 26

5. sakuTreba ......................................................................................... 35

6. qonebrivi urTierTobebi ............................................................ 43

7. saerTaSoriso vaWroba ................................................................. 51

8. saxelmwifos roli ......................................................................... 59

logikuri sqemebi ................................................................................... 68

ZiriTadi terminebi da ganmartebiTi leqsikoni ....................... 75

gamoyenebuli literatura ................................................................. 79

3
gamoyenebuli simboloebis ganmartebebi

Teoriuli masala

iciT Tu ara, rom...

ekonomikuri praqtikumi

daskvna

4
ekonomika da
Tavi I
adamianebi
Tema 1. moqalaqeebis
ekonomikuri interesi

ra aris ekonomika?
ZiriTadi terminebi/
cnebebi: yovel dRe gvesmis sityva ekonomika da xSirad
gvsmenia kiTxva _ ra kavSiri aqvs qveynis ekonomikas
TiToeuli adamianis keTildReobasTan? an ra aris
adamianis ekonomikuri mizani?
ekonomika _ adamianebi zogjer fiqroben, rom ekonomika
mxolod mewarmeebis, bankirebis da maTi momij-
nave profesiebis mqone xalxis interesis saga-
SezRuduloba da nia, _ ambobda cnobili avstrieli ekonomisti,
arCevani ludvig fon mizesi, _ Tumca es ase ar aris, eko-
nomika exeba yvelas da yvelafers. ekonomika sa-
adamianis zogadoebis fundamentur problemebs swavlobs
ekonomikuri da warmodgena masze yvela moqalaqes unda hqon-
interesi des.

saqoneli ludvig hainrix edler fon mizesi


(germ. Ludwig Heinrich Edler von Mises) avs-
trieli ekonomisti, filosofosi, isto-
rikosi, sociologi da klasikuri libera-
sargeblianoba lizmis momxre, 1881-1973 ww.

ekonomika Seiswavlis, Tu rogor viRebT gadaw-


yvetilebebs samyaroSi, sadac resursebi SezRudulia.

ekonomika _ esaa mecniereba,


romelic Seiswavlis, Tu rogor
davakmayofiloT adamianTa SeuzRudavi
moTxovnilebebi SezRuduli
resursebis pirobebSi.

5
moqalaqe da ekonomika. maia gonaSvili, lia Todua

adamianebs, arsebobisTvis, aucileblad gvWirdeba sakvebi, tansacmeli da


TavSesafari. Tanamedrove adamianisTvis aseve aucilebelia mkurnaloba, ga-
naTleba, eleqtroenergiiT momarageba, sacxovreblis gaTboba, ganaTeba, sufTa
wyliT uzrunvelyofa, sakomunikacio saSualebebi da sxva. Tumca, Cveni sur-
vilebi mxolod aucilebeli cxovrebiseuli sagnebiT Tu masalebiT ar Semoi-
fargleba. Cveni survilebi da moTxovnilebebi usazRvroa, Cven yovelTvis
gvinda meti: ukeTesi garToba, ukeTesi dasveneba, ukeTesi mobiluri telefoni,
axali kompiuteri da sxva nivTebi, raTa cxovreba ufro komfortuli da sasia-
movno gavxadoT.

SeuzRudavi SezRuduli
moTxovnilebebi resursebi

arCevani

SezRuduli
moTxovna

6
Tavi I. ekonomika da adamianebi

samwuxarod, Cveni resursebi SezRudulia. Cven


moTxovnileba
arasodes gvaqvs sakmarisi resursi raTa SeviZinoT
aris adamianis
yvelaferi is, rac gvsurs. Cven vdgavarT arCevanis wi-
saqmianobis
naSe, Tu raze mivmarToT Cveni SezRuduli resursebi.
ZiriTadi
magaliTad: axali kompiuteri SeviZinoT Tu Zveli Se-
mamoZravebeli
vakeToT, axali mobiluri telefoni viyidoT Tu ara,
Zala; raimes
didi manqana SeviZinoT Tu patara, bina daviqiravoT
ukmarisoba,
Tu sakuTari saxli SeviZinoT da a. S.
romelic SeiZleba
dakmayofildes resursebis SezRudulobis gamo adamianebi arCev-
saqonlis/ anis winaSe dganan: romeli moTxovnilebis, survilis
momsaxurebis dasakmayofileblad gamoiyenon es resursebi. vinaidan
moxmarebiT. Cven ar SegviZlia gvqondes yvelaferi, rac gvinda,
iZulebuli varT gavakeToT arCevani. amisTvis unda
miviRoT gadawyvetileba, Tu romeli survili gan-
saqoneli SeiZleba vaxorcieloT da romeli _ davTmoT. arCevani niSnavs
iyos xiluli gadawyvetilebas arsebuli alternativebidan erT-er-
da uxilavi. Tis sasargeblod. SezRuduli resursebis gamo erTi
produqti nivTis arCeva yovelTvis iwvevs romelime sxva nivTze
(xiluli), romelic uaris Tqmas.
gankuTvnilia
magram ris mixedviT vakeTebT am arCevans?
bazarze gasayidad
an gasacvlelad- nebismieri adamianis ekonomikuri mizani aris
aris saqoneli, maqsimaluri sargeblis miReba. amitom yvela adami-
xolo ani cdilobs is saqoneli SeiZinos, romelsac misTvis
momsaxureba meti sargeblianoba gaaCnia. Tumca, vinaidan resursebi
(uxilavi SezRudulia, arCeva gviwevs mxolod im saqonlidan,
produqti) _ romelsac Cveni resursebi gaswvdeba.
esaa saqmianoba,
romelsac saqonlis sargeblianoba (Utility) niSnavs mis unars,
sTavazobs erTi daakmayofilos adamianis esa Tu is moTxovnileba.
adamiani meores. sargeblianoba subieqturi maxasiaTebelia: erTsa da
imave saqonels sxvadasxva adamianisTvis sxvadasxva
sargeblianoba gaaCnia.

sargeblianoba
_ saqonlis an
momsaxurebis
unari, daakmayo-
filos
momxmareblis
esa Tu is
moTxovnileba.

7
moqalaqe da ekonomika. maia gonaSvili, lia Todua

yvela adamiani cdilobs airCios is saqoneli, romelic misTvis meti sargeb-


lis momtania. ingliseli filosofosi, sociologi da iuristi ieremia (jeremi)
bentami (Jeremy Bentham) Tvlida, rom adamianebis mizania tkivilis, gancdebis
Semcireba da kmayofilebis, bednierebis gazrda. Sesabamisad, adamianisTvis esa
Tu is saqoneli miT metad sargebliania, rac metad zrdis is mis kmayofilebas
da amcirebs tkivils da gancdebs. ra Tqma unda, es maxasiaTebeli adamianis
gemovnebaze, Sexedulebebze, janmrTelobaze, asakze da kidev bevr sxva gare-
moebaze aris damokidebuli. amitom erTsa da imave saqonels sxvadasxva adami-
anisTvis gansxvavebuli kmayofileba moaqvs, anu gansxvavebuli sargeblianoba
gaaCnia.

ieremia (jeremi) bentami


(Jeremy Bentham) _ ingliseli
filosofosi, sociologi da
iuristi (1748-1832 ww.).

sargeblianobas axasiaTebs rigi Taviseburebebi:

sargeblianobas ar gaaCnia fizikuri an materialuri saxe, radgan is mxo-


lod momxmarebelTa cnobierebaSi arsebobs;

sargeblianoba yovelTvis ar aris sasargeblo. magaliTad, sigaretis mo-


weva an zedmeti alkoholuri sasmelis miReba organizmis janmrTelo-
bisTvis sazianoa, magram maT SeiZleba sargeblianobis maRali xarisxi
hqondes mwevelisTvis an loTisTvis.

sargeblianoba yovelTvis ar aris sasiamovno. magaliTad, samedicino


procedurebi, ineqcia, mware wamlebi sasiamovno srulebiT ar aris, ma-
gram avadmyofisTvis maT sargeblianobis Zalze maRali xarisxi gaaCniaT.

gaviTvaliswinoT: sargeblianoba da kmayofileba erTi da igive ar aris.


roca momxmarebeli ama Tu im nivTis SeZenaze fiqrobs, maSin mas aqvs warmod-
gena sakuTar gonebaSi am produqtze da am produqtis sargeblianobaze, magram
rodesac is am nivTs SeiZens an moixmars, mxolod amis Semdeg SegviZlia visau-
broT kmayofilebaze. amitom xSirad amboben, rom sargeblianoba _ mosalod-
neli kmayofilebaa, xolo kmayofileba _ ganxorcielebuli sargeblianobaa.

***
resursebis SezRuduloba mxolod individualuri adamianebis problema ar
aris. igive problema dgas qveynebis winaSec. nebismier qveyanas (Tundac Zalian
mdidars) ar aqvs sakmarisi resursi imisTvis, rom awarmoos yvela produqti
(manqanebi, saxlebi, tansacmeli da a. S.) da uzrunvelyos yvela momsaxureba
(sazogadoebrivi transporti, ganaTleba, erovnuli Tavdacva, gasarTobi
RonisZiebebi da a. S.), rac am qveyanaSi mcxovreb adamianebs surT. amitom yve-
la qveyana mudmivad dgas rTuli arCevanis winaSe: ra awarmoos, rogor (ra
resursebis gamoyenebiT) da visTvis.

8
Tavi I. ekonomika da adamianebi

iciT Tu ara, rom...

reklama
xelovneba daumizno TavSi da moartya safuleSi.
vens pakardi, amerikeli publicisti
adamianebi erTmaneTisagan asakiT, SemosavlebiT, ganaTlebis doniTa da ge-
movnebiT gansxvavdebian. maT mier ama Tu im produqtis arCevanze gavlenas
axdens kulturuli, socialuri, pirovnuli da fsiqologiuri maxasiaTeblebi.
zogjer adamians Tavad uWirs axsna, Tu ratom miiRo gadawyvetileba ama Tu im
nivTis SeZenis Taobaze.
adamianTa mier ama Tu im saqonlis arCevans xSirad reklama ganapirobebs.

reklama laTinuri sityvaa (reclamo) da niSnavs yvirils/wamoyvirebas.


reklamiT mewarme cdilobs adamianebi Tavisi saqonliT daainteresos. am
mizniT gamoiyeneba sxvadasxva saSualebebi: televizia, radio, Jurnalebi,
filmebi, interneti, bilbordebi da ase gansajeT, ubralo yvirilic ki.
iTvleba, rom zepiri reklama monaTmflobelur periodSi warmoiSva.
rodesac bazarze gasayidad mona gamohyavdaT, aucilebeli iyo misi Rirse-
bebis daxasiaTeba (mag.: mas orive yuriT SesaniSnavad esmis, TvalebiT kar-
gad xedavs, mas aqvs ori xeli da ori fexi, romlebic kargad darbian...).
Cvenamde moRweuli erT-erTi pirveli sareklamo gancxadeba egvipturi pa-
pirusia da swored gasayidi monis daxasiaTebas exeba.
sxvadasxva sareklamo gancxadebebs Zveli saber-
ZneTi da romic icnobda. pirveli sagazeTo sarekla-
mo gancxadeba xeliT dawerili romauli gazeTi iyo
(CTA UZNU _ yoveldRiuri ambebi). pirveli beWduri
reklama gamoqveynda 1473 wels inglisSi. pirveli
satelevizio reklama eTerSi gavida aSS-Si, 1941
wlis 1 ivliss: es iyo saaTebis mwarmoebeli kompania Bulo-
va-s reklama, romelsac beisbolis matCis Cvenebisas, Ses-
venebis dros uSvebdnen.1993 wels koka-kolam pirvelad
Seqmna sareklamo gmiri _ polaruli TeTri daTvi.
saqarTveloSi pirveli telereklama 1950 wlis bolos
gavida _ es xilis jemis reklama iyo.

reklama erTis mxriv informaciis wyaroa _ is gvawvdis informacias ama


Tu im saqonlis arsebobis Sesaxeb, misi Tvisebebis Sesaxeb, gvixsnis, Tu rogor
SeiZleba gamoviyenoT es saqoneli Cveni moTxovnilebebis dasakmayofileblad.
Tumca es informacia xSirad Zalzed mikerZoebuli da gazviadebulia. xSirad

9
moqalaqe da ekonomika. maia gonaSvili, lia Todua

gansxvaveba reklamirebul produqtsa da sxva, konkurent produqtebs Soris


gacilebiT mcirea, vidre amas reklama warmoaCens.
reklamis kidev erTi arasasiamovno Tviseba imaSi mdgomareobs, rom sxvadasx-
va asociaciebis saSualebiT _ sasiamovno melodiis, iolad dasamaxsovrebeli
frazebis, mimzidveli gmirebis gamoyenebiT _ igi Cvens emociebze zemoqmedebas
cdilobs, rac xSirad xels gviSlis mowodebuli informacia racionalurad
gaviazroT. reklama faqtiurad ayalibebs Cvens gemovnebas, qmnis Cvengan ama
Tu im saqonlis momxmarebels. reklamis specialistebs isic ki gamokvleuli
aqvT, Tu rogor moqmedebs adamianTa ganwyobaze ama Tu im bgeraTa SeTanxmeba
sareklamo sloganSi, asoebis zoma da forma, ferTa gama da Sexameba. yovelive
es konkretuli saqonlisadmi Cveni dadebiTi damokidebulebis Camosayalibe-
blad gamoiyeneba.
Tu gsurT, saqoneli racionalurad airCioT, nu miendobiT mxolod reklam-
as. ama Tu im saqonlis gamosadegobis gasarkvevad dResdReobiT yvelaze kargi
saSualeba internetia. nu daizarebT, gamoyaviT dro imisTvis, rom SeiswavloT
ras amboben am produqciaze sxvadasxva momxmareblebi. gaxsovdeT, rom maTi
mosazrebebi mcdaric SeiZleba iyos. zogjer saqonlis uaryofiTi Sefaseba
konkurentebis mier dakveTili, antireklamis xrikia. miuxedavad amisa, es aris
informacia imis Taobaze, Tu raSi SeiZleba iyos produqtis susti mxareebi, mis
ra Tvisebebs unda miaqcioT yuradReba. gamoiyeneT es informacia produqtis
arCevisas _ saguldagulod gamokiTxeT maRaziis konsultants produqtis am
saeWvo Tvisebebis Taobaze. saRad gaaanalizeT mTeli miRebuli informacia da
maT safuZvelze gaakeTeT arCevani.

daskvna

resursebi SezRudulia;
moTxovnileba SeuzRudavia;
adamianebi arCevanis winaSe dganan;
SezRuduli resursebi da SeuzRudavi moTxovnilebebi aiZulebs adami-
anebs gansazRvron _ Tu rogor ganawildes arasakmarisi resursebi.
adamianis ekonomikuri interesi aris maqsimaluri sargeblis miReba.
sargebliani saqoneli yovelTvis ar aris sasargeblo an sasiamovno.
erTsa da imave saqonels sxvadasxva adamianisTvis gansxvavebuli sarge-
beli moaqvs.

ekonomikuri praqtikumi
ixile moswavlis rveuli

10
vaWroba da
Tavi II
bazari
Tema 2. ratom vaWroben
adamianebi?

TiToeuli Tqvengani albaT dafiqrebulxarT: ra


ZiriTadi terminebi/ ubiZgebs adamianebs vaWrobisken, ratom vaWroben isi-
cnebebi: ni? ra sargebeli moaqvs vaWrobas da jobia Tu ara
vaWroba ubralo ganawilebas?

vaWroba vaWroba orive mxarisTvis momgebiania.

vaWroba _ es aris produqtis / momsaxurebis nebay-


oflobiTi gacvla. adamianebi vaWrobaSi monawileobas
bazari Rebuloben, vinaidan TiToeuli maTgani, am saqmiano-
bidan mogebas/sargebels elodeba. Tu romelime mxare
fiqrobs an varaudobs, rom vaWrobidan sargebels ver
miiRebs, vaWroba Sewydeba.
moTxovna
vaWrobisas TiToeuli monawile cdilobs, gasces
is, rac misTvis naklebad faseulia, naklebad sarge-
bliania, da miiRos is, rac misTvis metad faseulia.
miwodeba anu, orive mxare cdilobs misTvis naklebad sarge-
bliani produqti gacvalos iseTSi, romlis sarge-
blianoba misTvis metia. rogorc wesi, vaWrobisas Cven
gavcemT imas, rac zedmeti gvaqvs da viZenT imas, rac
sabazro
gvaklia. aseTi gacvlis Sedegad saqoneli gadainacv-
wonasworoba
lebs imis xelSi, visac igi metad sWirdeba, visTvisac
igi ufro sargebliania. monawileebis kmayofileba
racionaluri (saqonlis ganxorcielebuli sargeblianoba) ki gaiz-
arCevani rdeba.

konkretuli saqonlis yidva-gayidviT dainterese-


bul pirTa erTobliobas am saqonlis bazars eZaxian.
bazarze rogorc wesi bevri myidveli da gamyidvelia.
bazris TiToeuli monawile cdilobs rac SeiZleba
naklebi gasces da meti miiRos. amitom, Tuki bazar-
ze produqts gamyidvlebi sxvadasxva fasad yidian,
myidvelebi cdiloben produqti im gamyidvelisagan
SeiZinon, vinc ufro iafad yidis. Tavis mxriv gamyid-
vlebi, imisTvis rom meti mogeba miiRon, dainterese-
bulni arian, rac SeiZleba Zvirad gayidon saqoneli.

11
moqalaqe da ekonomika. maia gonaSvili, lia Todua

bazari
gamyidvlebi myidvelebi
cdiloben cdiloben
gayidon
iyidon saqoneli
saqoneli rac
SeiZleba rac SeiZleba
Zvirad iafad

Cveulebriv, myidvelebic da gamyidvlebic Ta-


bazari _ es visuflad irCeven, Tu visgan iyidon an vis mihy-
aris adgili, idon produqti. aseT SemTxvevaSi, produqtis saba-
sadac xdeba zro fass bazarze gamotanili produqtis raodenoba
momxmarebelsa gansazRvravs. ufro zustad ki _ Sefardeba gasayidi
da mwarmoebels produqtis raodenobasa da masze moTxovnas Soris.
Soris produqtis/ moTxovna aris myidvelTa survili da SesaZle-
momsaxurebis bloba SeiZinon saqoneli garkveul fasad. es survili
gacvla. da SesaZlebloba fasis ukuproporciulia. anu, rac
ufro dabalia gasayidi fasi, miT met adamians aqvs
am saqonlis SeZenis survili da SesaZlebloba, Sesa-
moTxovna _ es bamisad, moTxovna saqonelze maRalia. saqonlis fasis
aris momxmareblis zrdasTan erTad ki survilis da SesaZleblobis mqone
survili da myidvelTa ricxvi klebulobs da moTxovna mcirdeba.
SesaZlebloba Tumca arc gasayidi produqciis raodenobaa mud-
SeiZinos produqti mivi. isic Tavis mxriv damokidebulia produqtis ga-
an momsaxureoba sayid fasze. bazrisTvis miwodebuli produqciis ra-
garkveul fasad. odenoba gasayidi fasis proporciulia: rac ufro
iafad iyideba bazarze produqti, miT naklebia gamy-
idvelis mogeba da amitom nakleb mewarmes/mimwodeb-
miwodeba _ es els aqvs survili da SesaZlebloba es produqti awar-
aris mwarmoeblis moos da gayidos. anu, rac naklebia saqonlis gasayidi
survili da fasi, miT naklebia am produqtis miwodeba bazrisTvis.
SesaZlebloba da piriqiT: rac maRalia saqonlis gasayidi fasi, miT
gayidos produqti metia misi gamyidvelis mogeba da amitom met mewarmes/
an momsaxureba mimwodebels aqvs survili da SesaZlebloba es saqone-
garkveul fasad. li gayidos. Sesabamisad, miwodebac izrdeba.
Tavisufal bazarze saqonlis gasayid fass Tavad
gamyidvlebi adgenen. maT SeuZliaT Tavis saqonelSi
nebismieri fasi moiTxovon. Tumca, Tuki Zalze maRal
fass daadgenen, am saqonlis yidvis saSualeba Zalze
cota myidvels eqneba da saqonlis nawili ar gaiyide-
ba. imisTvis, rom saqoneli srulad gayidon, mewarmee-
bma gasayidi fasi unda Seamciron. amgvarad saqonlis
SeZenis SesaZlebloba met momxmarebels gauCndeba da
meti saqoneli gaiyideba.

12
Tavi II. vaWroba da bazari

SesaZlebelia isec moxdes, rom gamyidvelebma saqonels Tavidan Zalze dab-


ali fasi daadon. aseT SemTxvevaSi saqonlis yidvis survili da SesaZleblo-
ba Zalian bevr myidvels eqneba. SeiZleba maT mier moTxovnilma raodenobam
bazarze arsebuli saqonlis raodenobas gadaaWarbos kidec. roca saqonelze
moTxovna aWarbebs miwodebas, warmoiqmneba saqonlis nakleboba, deficiti, rac
aris signali gamyidvelebisTvis, rom maT SeuZliaT gasayidi fasi gazardon da
meti mogeba miiRon. rogorc wesi, isini asec iqcevian da saqonlis fass zrdian.
fasis zrdasTan erTad ki mcirdeba im momxmareblebis raodenoba, romelTac am
saqonlis yidvis survili da SesaZlebloba (moTxovna) aqvT.
sabolood, fasis, moTxovnis da miwodebis cvlis Sedegad, bazarze damyard-
eba mdgomareoba, roca saqonlis miwodebuli da moTxovnili raodenoba erT-
maneTs gautoldeba. am mdgomareobas ewodeba sabazro wonasworoba. saqonlis
Sesabamis fass ki _ wonasworuli fasi. es aris produqciis iseTi gasayidi fasi,
rodesac gamyidvlebs zustad imdeni saqonlis gayidvis survili da SesaZle-
bloba aqvT, ramdenis SeZenis survili da SesaZleblobac myidvelebs gaaCniaT.

adam smiti (Adam Smith, 1723-1790 ww.) _ Sotlandieli politikuri


ekonomisti da filosofosi. misi yvelaze cnobili naSromia kvleva
erebis simdidris bunebisa da mizezebis Taobaze, sadac aRwerilia,
Tu rogor marTavs saqonlis fasebs bazris uxilavi xeli.

ganvixiloT sabazro wonasworobis miRwevis magaliTi forToxlis bazarze:


(simartivisaTvis davuSvaT, rom bazarze yoveli gamyidveli 1 kilogram
forToxals yidis da yoveli myidveli agreTve erT kilograms yidulobs)

forToxlis bazarze moTxovna-miwodebis cxrili

cxrilidan Cans, rom rodesac forToxlis fasi 10 TeTria, misi yidvis survili
da SesaZlebloba 26 momxmarebels aqvs, Tumca am fasad forToxlis gayidva
arc erT mewarmes ar surs. fasis matebasTan erTad matulobs misi gayidvis

13
moqalaqe da ekonomika. maia gonaSvili, lia Todua

msurveli mewarmeebis ricxvi, Tumca klebulobs im momxmareblebis raodenoba,


romelTac produqtis SeZena SeuZliaT. roca forToxlis gasayidi fasi 1 lars
aRwevs, misi gayidvis msurveli mewarmeebis ricxvi 26-s aRwevs, Tumca misi yidva
mxolod 2 momxmarebels SeuZlia. rogorc cxrilidan Cans, wonasworoba am ba-
zarze myardeba maSin, rodesac forToxlis fasi 60 TeTria _ am dros gamy-
idvelebis da myidvelebis raodenoba (da aseve gayiduli da nayidi forToxlis
raodenoba) erTmaneTs utoldeba.
moTxovnisa da miwodebis mrudebs naxazze Tu avagebT, maTi gadakveTis
wertilis koordinatebi iqneba wonasworuli fasi (0,60) da wonasworuli ra-
odenoba
de (10).

fasis cvla raodenobis cvlas iwvevs:


fasis gazrdisas moTxovnis raodenoba fasis gazrdisas miwodebis raodenoba
mcirdeba. izrdeba.

damatebiTi ganmartebiTi sqemebi ixileT wignis boloSi, 68-74 gverdebze.

14
Tavi II. vaWroba da bazari

kargisa yidva Zvirad sjobs _ zed gamoReba sarfisa.


(qarTuli xalxuri andaza)

roca bazris wonasworobaze vmsjelobdiT, Cven vgulisxmobdiT, rom


bazris monawileebi Tavis gadawyvetilebebs racionalurad iReben. magali-
Tad, mobiluri telefonis SeZenisas, myidveli arkvevs sxvadasxva modelis
telefonis fass, fers, zomas, programul SesaZleblobebs, prestiJulo-
bas, komfortulobas da yvela am maxasiaTeblis awon-dawonvis Semdeg iRebs
gadawyvetilebas, romeli modelis telefoni iyidos.
realurad adamianebi aseTi racionalurebi ar varT. xSirad Cven
gadawyvetilebebs iracionalurad, emociebis zegavlenis qveS viRebT. ro-
gorc irkveva, gansakuTrebiT xSiria emociuri gadawyvetilebebi kosme-
tikis SeZenisas, maSin rodesac magaliTad instrumentebs adamiani ufro
racionalurad irCevs. adamianis arCevanis gonivrulobas amcirebs aCqare-
ba, drois ukmarisoba. rodesac momxmarebeli igebs, rom misTvis sasurvel
produqtze mcire droiT fasdakleba gamocxadda, is cdilobs produqti
rac SeiZleba swrafad SeiZinos da mis xelT arsebul sxva SesaZleblobebs
aRar ukvirdeba.
masaCusetsis teqnologiuri universitetis profesorma, den arie-
lim (Dan Ariely) yuradReba adamianTa mier produqtis arCevis kidev erT
saintereso aspeqtze gaamaxvila: CvenTvis mniSvnelovania ara mxolod is
produqti, romelsac viZenT, aramde agreTve is alternativebi, romelzec
uars vambobT. saqme imaSia, rom xSirad, momxmarebeli, produqtis garkveul
maxasiaTeblebs sxva, msgavs produqtebTan Sedarebis gziT afasebs. mox-
erxebul marketologs SeuZlia momxmareblis es midrekileba Tavis sa-
sargeblod gamoiyenos.

den arieli (Dan Ariely, 1967 w.) _ amerikeli mecnieri, amJamad


moRvaweobs diukis universitetSi (q. daremi, Crd. karolinis
Stati), fsiqologiis da bihevioruli ekonomikis profesori;
retrospeqtuli kvlevebis centris damfuZnebeli.

momxmarebelTa arCevanis amgvari manipulirebis sademonstraciod den


arielim aseTi eqsperimenti Caatara: man Tavis studentebs SesTavaza, Jur-
nal ekonomistis (Economist) saitze ganTavsebuli Semdegi sami SeTavazebi-
dan aerCiaT erT-erTi:
1. Jurnalis eleqtronuli gamocemis gamowera, fasi: 59$;
2. Jurnalis nabeWdi versiis gamowera, fasi: 125$;
3. Jurnalis eleqtronuli da nabeWdi versiis gamowera, fasi: 125$.

15
moqalaqe da ekonomika. maia gonaSvili, lia Todua

studentebis raodenoba,
SeTavazeba
romelTac SeTavazeba airCies
1. Jurnalis eleqtronuli gamoce-
16
mis gamowera, fasi: 59$;
2. Jurnalis nabeWdi versiis
0
gamowera, fasi: 125$;
3. Jurnalis eleqtronuli da nabe-
84
Wdi versiis gamowera, fasi: 125$.

rogorc xedavT, studentebis umravlesobisTvis yvelaze mimzidvelia


SeTavazebis mesame varianti. SeTavazebis meore variantiT ki arc erTi stu-
denti ar dainteresda.
eqsperimentis meore etapze den arielim SeTavazeba odnav Secvala: nabe-
Wdi Jurnalis gamoweris SesaZlebloba (romelic wina etapze arc erT stu-
dents ar aurCevia) SeTavazebidan saerTod amoiRo da studentebs arCevanis
gakeTeba darCenil or variants Soris sTxova. amjerad studentebis arCev-
ani ase gadanawilda:

studentebis raodenoba, romelTac


SeTavazeba
SeTavazeba airCies
1. Jurnalis eleqtronuli gamoce-
68
mis gamowera, fasi: 59$;
2.
3. Jurnalis eleqtronuli da nabe-
32
Wdi versiis gamowera, fasi: 125$.

rogorc xedavT, amjerad studentebis umravlesobam SeTavazebis pirve-


li varianti airCia. ram gamoiwvia aseTi sxvaoba? erTi SexedviT, xom Sedegi
igive unda yofiliyo, rac pirvel SemTxvevaSi _ pirveli da mesame SeTavaze-
bebi xom ar Secvlila? SeTavazebebis pakets ubralod moSorda is varianti,
romelic aravis moswonda. ratom moaxdina aman zegavlena Sedegze?
saqme imaSia, rom SeTavazebis mesame varianti mimzidvelad gamoiyure-
boda swored im meore variantTan (romelsac xSirad satyuaras uwode-
ben) SedarebiT, romelic aravin airCia. rogorc ki satyuara gaqra, mesame
variantma mimzidveloba dakarga da momxmarebelTa umravlesobam SeTavaze-
bis pirvel variants mianiWa upiratesoba.
magaliTi aRebulia den arielis wignidan: `mosalodneli iracionaloba: faruli Zalebi,
romelic Cvens gadawyvetilebebs gansazRvravs (Predictably Irrational: The Hidden Forces That
Shape Our Decisions, 2010).

16
Tavi II. vaWroba da bazari

iciT Tu ara, rom...

samarTliani vaWroba
miuxedavad imisa, rom vaWroba nebayoflobiTi urTierTobaa da misgan orive
mxare mogebuli rCeba, es mogeba Tanabari SeiZleba ar iyos. erT mxares SeiZle-
ba miaCndes, rom meore mxaris mogeba usamarTlod maRalia. aseT SemTxvevaSi is
vaWrobis sxva, alternatiul gzebs eZebs.
amis magaliTia moZraoba samarTliani vaWroba (FAIR TRADE), romelic ex-
mareba ganviTarebadi qveynebis fermerebs, Tavisi nawarmi ufro samarTlian
fasSi gayidon. amisTvis moZraoba ubiZgebs fermerebs Seqmnan kooperativebi da
Tavad, Suamavali firmebis gareSe, gaitanon Tavisi nawarmi im qveynebSi, sadac
maTze moTxovnaa. es exeba iseT produqtebs, rogoricaa: xalxuri rewvis xelna-
keTi nawarmi (wnuli nivTebi, juTis qsovili da sxva), yava, kakao, bamba, banani,
Saqari, Tafli da sxva.
samarTliani vaWrobis moZraoba 1946 wlidan daiwyo da Tavdapirvelad
misi saSualebiT ganviTarebul qveynebSi Sesuli nawarmi sxvadasxva eklesieb-
Si, an periodulad mowyobil bazrobebze iyideboda. 1969 wels niderland-
ebSi Seiqmna pirveli mcire specializebuli maRazia, romelic mxolod am tipis
saqonliT vaWrobda. 1988 wlidan ki daiwyo maTi gayidva Cveulebriv super-
marketebSi, sadac momxmareblebs am produqciis garCeva specialuri savaWro
niSnis saSualebiT SeeZloT.
dResdReobiT samarTliani vaWrobis moZraoba sakmaod
popularulia. misi saSualebiT gavrcelebuli produqtebi
50-ze met qveyanaSi iyideba da 100-ze met asortiments (sx-
vadasxva tipis saqonels) moicavs. xSirad es produqtebi
ufro Zviric ki Rirs (daaxloebiT 10 centiT), vidre imave
supermarketSi ganTavsebuli sxva msgavsi produqti. gaT-
viTcnobierebuli momxmarebeli ixdis Fairtrade produqtSi
ufro maRal fass, vinaidan icis, rom am fasnamats moZraoba
`samarTliani
ganviTarebadi qveynebis fermerebis cxovrebis da muSao-
vaWrobis~
bis pirobebis gaumjobesebisTvis iyenebs. amitom es fasna- niSani
mati aRiqmeba, rogorc momxmareblis solidarobis niSani
produqtis mwarmoebeli wvrili fermerebisadmi.
Tumca samarTliani vaWrobis moZraobas kritikosebic bevri hyavs. isini
yuradRebas moZraobis naklovanebebze amaxvileben. vinaidan moZraobaSi CarTul
fermerebs garantirebuli aqvT fasi, romelsac isini Tavis nawarmSi miiReben,
fermerebi bunebrivad cdiloben meti produqcia awarmoon, rac bazarze si-
Warbes warmoqmnis da saboloo produqcias aiafebs. ase rom, TandaTan, fermer-
ebis Semosavlebi klebulobs. garda amisa, produqciis marketingi (sertifici-
reba FAIRTRADE niSnis misaniWeblad, momxmareblis ganaTleba imisTvis, rom man

17
moqalaqe da ekonomika. maia gonaSvili, lia Todua

icodes, Tu ras niSnavs es niSani, reklama) sakmaod Zviri jdeba da produqciis


gadamuSavebis da transportirebis xarjebsac Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, fermers
saboloo produqtis fasis mxolod 8-10% ergeba.

daskvna

vaWroba orive mxarisTvis momgebiania.


bazarze gamyidvlebi cdiloben saqoneli rac SeiZleba Zvirad gayidon,
myidvelebi ki cdiloben rac SeiZleba iafad iyidon.
sabazro wonasworobisas miwodebuli da moTxovnili saqonlis raode-
noba erTmaneTs utoldeba.
sabazro fass gansazRvravs wonasworoba miwodebasa da moTxovnas Soris.
momxmareblebi gadawyvetilebas yovelTvis racionalurad ar iReben.

ekonomikuri praqtikumi
ixile moswavlis rveuli

18
konkurencia
Tavi III

Tema 3. ra saWiroa
konkurencia?

wina TavSi Cven ganvixileT forToxlis bazari


ZiriTadi terminebi/ im SemTxvevisTvis, roca gamyidvelTa/mimwodebel-
cnebebi: Ta ricxvi didia. rogor fiqrobT, ra moxdeba, Tuki
maTi ricxvi Semcirdeba? aseT SemTxvevaSi maT iolad
SeeZlebaT moilaparakon erTmaneTSi da produqts is
konkurencia fasi daadginon, rac surT. magaliTad, me-13 gverdze
ganxilul magaliTSi, Tu romelime oTxi gamyidveli
erTmaneTSi SeTanxmda da raime xerxebiT sxva gamyidv-
lebi bazridan gaaZeva, maT SeuZliaT forToxali ara
karteli 60 TeTrad, aramed 90 TeTrad gayidon. xolo Tu mx-
olod 2 gamyidveli darCeba bazarze, maSin forToxa-
li 1 larad gaiyideba.
monopolia ra Tqma unda es mdgomareoba momxmareblebisTvis
sazianoa: siZviris gamo zogi momxmarebeli produqts
veRar SeiZens, xolo maT, vinc SeiZens, imaze metis
gadaxda mouwevT, vidre Ria, Tavisufal bazarze mou-
oligopolia
wevdaT. es cudia ekonomikisTvisac: naklebi produq-
cia iwarmoeba da moixmareba. da aseTi mdgomareoba
dominirebuli cudia mTlianad sazogadoebisTvisac: naklebi iqneba
mdgomareoba miRebuli produqtiT adamianebis moTxovnilebebis
dakmayofilebis done.

imisTvis, rom es ar moxdes, bazarze rac SeiZleba


sabazro meti gamyidveli unda iyos (da bazarze axali firmebis
Zalaufleba
Sesvla ioli unda iyos). aseT SemTxvevaSi gamyidvlebi
erTmaneTTan Sejibris, dapirispirebis mdgomareobaSi
bunebrivi arian. yvela cdilobs momxmarebeli Tavisken miizidos
monopolia _ raTa TviTon meti saqoneli gayidos da meti mogeba
darCes. amisTvis mewarme iZulebulia Seamciros fasi,
gazardos xarisxi, SesTavazos momxmarebels ukeTesi
saxelmwifo momsaxureba. es mdgomareoba cxadia momgebiania momx-
daxmareba mareblisTvis _ is iRebs met, ufro mravalferovan,
ukeTesi xarisxis da ufro iaf produqts. amavdrou-
lad es momgebiania ekonomikisTvisac (meti iwarmoeba,
sajaro meti iyideba, meti moixmareba) da sazogadoebisTvisac
Sesyidvebi
(meti adamianis moTxovnilebebi dakmayofildeba).

19
moqalaqe da ekonomika. maia gonaSvili, lia Todua

amdenad, sazogadoebiTvis sasargebloa, rom ba-


zarze bevri mewarme iyos da isini erTmaneTs ejibre-
bodnen. am mdgomareobas konkurencia ewodeba. sity-
va konkurencia laTinuri warmoSobisaa da niSnavs
karteli _ Serkinebas, dapirispirebas, brZolas metoqeebs
SeTanxmeba Soris upiratesobis mosapoveblad. imisTvis, rom am
ramodenime mudmiv brZolas gauZlos, mewarme mudmivad zrunavs
mewarmes Soris gaweuli xarjebis Semcirebaze, resursebis racional-
saqonlis urad gamoyenebaze, warmoebis efeqturobis zrdasa da
gasayid fasze an axali teqnologiebis danergvaze. es xels uwyobs te-
pirobebze. qnikur progress, sawarmoo Zalebis ganviTarebas, rac
sazogadoebisTvis Zalian sasargebloa, magram Tavad
mewarmeebisTvis cxadia mudmivi problema da Tavsa-
monopolia _ texia. amitom gasakviri ar aris, rom mewarmeebi xSir-
firma, romelic ad cdiloben dauZvren am problemebs Tavis konkuren-
garkveuli tebTan SeTanxmebis gziT.
tipis saqonlis
erTaderTi gamyidvelTa/mewarmeTa SeTanxmebas produqciis
mimwodebelia gasayid fasze an sxva pirobebze karteli ewodeba.
bazarze. rogorc zemoT vnaxeT, karteluri SeTanxmeba gansa-
kuTrebiT saSiSia maSin, rodesac bazarze cota gamy-
idvelia. aseT bazars oligopolias eZaxian. es sityva
oligopolia _ berZnulidan modis, oligos () niSnavs cota,
mdgomareoba, xolo polia () batonoba. anu, oligopolia
rodesac bazarze ramdenime firmis batonobaa. xolo Tu bazarze mxo-
saqonlis mxolod lod erTi gamyidvelia, am mdgomareobas monopolia
ramdenime hqvia (berZnulad mono () erTs niSnavs).
mimwodebelia.
monopoliuri bazris damaxasiaTebelia sxva kom-
paniis am bazarze Sesvlis SeuZlebloba. amis mizezi
sabazro SeiZleba magaliTad is iyos, rom monopolisti flobs
Zalaufleba _ am saqonlis warmoebisTvis saWiro resursebis Ziri-
erTi an ramdenime Tad nawils, an mas gaaCnia mTavrobis mier miniWebuli
firmis unari, eqskluziuri ufleba am saqonlis warmoebaze. magali-
zemoqmedeba Tad ganvixiloT farmaceftuli bazari: firma, romel-
iqonios saqonlis mac axali wamali gamoigona, flobs patents (gamo-
sabazro fasze.
gonebis gamoyenebis ocwlian uflebas), romelic mas
am wamlis mimarT monopoliur mdgomareobaSi ayenebs
_ sanam patenti moqmedebs, sxva firmebs am wamlis
warmoebis ufleba ar aqvT. Tumca, rodesac patents
vada gauva, am wamlis damzadeba ukve nebismier farma-
ceftul kompanias SeeZleba, bazari monopoliuridan
konkurentulad gadaiqceva da wamali momxmareblisT-
visac gaiafdeba.

20
Tavi III. konkurencia

monopoliebis ganviTarebis kidev erTi mizezia


bazarze sawarmoebis bunebrivi miswrafeba gamsxvilebisken.
dominirebuli rogorc wesi, msxvil sawarmos saqonlis erTeulis
mdgomareoba warmoeba ufro iafi ujdeba, vidre wvrils. amitom
ukavia kompanias, xarjebis ekonomia ubiZgebs sawarmoebs gamsxvildnen
romelic da gaerTiandnen. msxvili sawarmo bazarze bunebrivad
mniSvnelovan ikavebs dominantur (gabatonebul) mdgomareobas: vi-
sabazro wils naidan bazars saqonlis did nawils is awvdis (rogorc
flobs (bazarze amboben, mniSvnelovan sabazro wils flobs), mas aqvs
arsebuli SesaZlebloba Tavis survilisamebr Secvalos saqon-
saqonlis did
lis sabazro fasi. magaliTad, Tuki aseTi sawarmo
nawils igi awvdis)
ucbad Seamcirebs saqonlis miwodebas bazrisTvis, ba-
da romlis
zarze saqonlis raodenoba sagrZnoblad Semcirdeba
ekonomikur
da saqonlis sabazro fasi aiwevs. Tuki piriqiT, domi-
gadawyvetilebebze
nanti firma ucbad gamoyris didi odenobiT saqonels
konkurentebi
gasayidad, bazarze saqonlis siWarbe warmoiqmneba da
arsebiT gavlenas
fasi daecema. sxva, mcire moTamaSeeebs sabazro fasze
ver axdenen.
aseTi zemoqmedebis unari ar gaaCniaT _ isini xom ba-
zarze arsebuli saqonlis raodenobis mxolod mcire
saxelmwifo nawils uzrunvelyofen da am raodenobis gazrda an
Sesyidva _ Semcireba bazars ar etyoba.
saqonlis an
sabazro fasze zemoqmedebis unari dominantma
momsaxurebis
kompaniam SeiZleba konkurentebis winaaRmdeg, Tavisi
SeZena, romelic
sabazro Zalauflebis gasazrdelad gamoiyenos: saqon-
finansdeba
lis uecari, moklevadiani gaiafebiT mas SeuZlia Se-
saxelmwifo
darebiT susti konkurentebi gaakotros. TviTon ki
biujetiT.
am moklevadian zarals SemdgomSi, meti momxmareb-
lis gadmobirebiT da saqonlis gaZvirebiT ainazRau-
rebs. aseTi moqmedeba kompaniis sabazro Zalauflebis
borotad gamoyenebad miiCneva.

21
moqalaqe da ekonomika. maia gonaSvili, lia Todua

konkurenciisgan Tavis daRwevis kidev erTi saSu-


alebaa saqonlis diferencireba. es aris marketingis
(vaWrobis) strategia, rodesac mewarme cdilobs misi
saqoneli warmoaCinos, rogorc unikaluri, sxvebis-
gan srulebiT gansxvavebuli, raTa momxmarebelma igi
sxva produqts arc ki Seadaros. magaliTisTvis aviRoT
gamagrilebeli sasmelebi koka-kola da pepsi-kola.
orive produqtis mwarmoeblebi cdiloben dagvarw-
munon (reklamiT, produqtis garegnuli gaformebiT),
rom es ori, sruliad gansxvavebuli produqtia. bevr
SemTxvevaSi reklama warmatebas aRwevs _ TiToeul am
sasmels Tavisi fanebi hyavs, romlebic meore sasmels
arc ki ekarebian. arada sasmelebi imdenad msgavsia, rom Tuki Tqven maT erT-
nair WiqebSi CaasxamT, SesaZloa erTmaneTisgan verc ki ganasxvavoT.

Tu firma axerxebs daarwmunos momxmarebeli, rom misi produqtis msgavsi


saqoneli bazarze ar arsebobs, igi am saqonlis mimarT faqtiurad monopolisti
xdeba da misi produqciis fass ukve bazris wonasworoba ki ar gansazRvravs,
aramed im momxmarebelTa raodenoba da Semsyidvelunarianoba, romelTa darw-
muneba man moaxerxa.

bazris struqtura

monopolisturi srulyofili
maxasiaTeblebi monopolia oligopolia
konkurencia konkurencia

firmaTa
erTi ramdenime bevri bevri
raodenoba

mniSvnelovani/
fasebze gavlenis
fasis didi SezRuduli ar aqvT
unari
ganmsazRvrelia

sruli/
Sesvlis
SeuZlebelia didi ar arsebobs ar arsebobs
barierebi
Sesvla

produqti/ identuri/
unikaluri msgavsi difernecirebuli
momsaxureba msgavsi

22
Tavi III. konkurencia

momxmareblisTvis yvelaze momgebiania bazari, sadac bevri myidveli da


bevri gamyidvelia, sadac axali gamyidvlebi Tavisuflad Sedian da gasayidi
saqonelic erTmaneTTan Sedarebadia. aseT bazars srulfasovan konkurentul
bazars uwodeben. aseT bazarze saqonlis fass mxolod saqonlis moTxovna-mi-
wodebis Tanafardoba aregulirebs. aseT SemTxvevaSi amboben, rom fass bazari
adgens.

srulfasovan konkurentul
bazarze
fass bazari adgens.

zog SemTxvevaSi saqoneli/momsaxureba iseTi xasiaTis aris, rom misi momx-


mareblebisTvis miwodeba erTi, monopoluri firmis mier sazogadoebas ufro
iafi ujdeba, vidre konkurentuli bazris saSualebiT daujdeboda. aseTia
magaliTad momxmareblebisTvis eleqtroenergiis, bunebrivi airis, sasmeli
wylis miwodeba. TiToeuli es momsaxureba saWiroebs specialuri gayvanilo-
bis qsels, romelic TiToeuli momxmareblis binaSia Seyvanili. im SemTxvevaSi,
Tuki TiToeuli am momsaxurebis mimwodebeli ramdenime iqneboda, maSin saWiro
gaxdeboda am qselebis dublireba (gameoreba), rac sazogadoebas Zalze Zviri
daujdeboda. amitom aseTi momsaxurebebi praqtikulad yovelTvis erTi kompa-
niis mier xorcieldeba da am kompanias bunebrivi monopolia ewodeba.

jon Sermani (John Sherman,1823-1900 ww.) _ amerikeli poli-


tikosi, aSS-s 35-e saxelmwifo ministri da 32-e finansTa mi-
nistri. igi agreTve iyo senatori (aSS-s sakanonmdeblo organos
zeda palatis wevri), sadac xelmZRvanelobda respublikelTa
fraqcias.

sabazro konkurenciis dacvis pirveli sakanonmdeblo aqti amerikis SeerTe-


bulma Statebma miiRo, 1890 wels. misi iniciatori iyo senatori jon Sermani,
da am kanons dRemde Sermanis aqti hqvia.
dResdReobiT saerTaSorisod aRiarebulia, rom rogorc momxmarebelTa
keTildReobisTvis, aseve zogadi ekonomikis sijansaRisa da ganviTarebisTvis
aucilebelia bazris dacva iseT biznes-saqmianobebisgan, romlebic konkuren-
cias zRudavs. 1980 wlis 5 dekembers gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciam
daamtkica konkurenciis SemzRudavi biznes-saqmianobis kontrolis principebi,
romelic qveynebis umravlesobam aRiara. amJamad konkurenciis dacvis kanon-
mdebloba 111 qveyanaSi moqmedebs. maT Sorisaa saqarTveloc.

23
moqalaqe da ekonomika. maia gonaSvili, lia Todua

konkurenciis dacvis kanonmdebloba pirvel rigSi krZalavs kartelebs, anu


SeTanxmebebs mewarmeebs Soris saqonlis raodenobis, gasayidi fasis an momxmare-
belTa erTmaneTSi gadanawilebis Taobaze. konkurenciis Semaferxebel saqmi-
anobad miCneulia agreTve mewarmeTa erToblivi qmedeba romelime konkuren-
tis dasustebis an bazridan gagdebis mizniT. magaliTad, SeTanxmebuli uari am
kompaniisgan raimes SeZenaze an misTvis raimes miwodebaze (boikoti), kompaniis
wvdomis SezRudva (SeTanxmebulad) raime mniSvnelovan resursze da sxva. gansa-
kuTrebuli yuradReba eqceva kartelur SeTanxmebebs im mewarmeTa Soris, rom-
lebic (erToblivad) bazris sakmaod did wils (10-15 %-ze mets) akontroleben.
miuxedavad imisa, rom konkurenciis dacvis kanonmdeblobas xSirad moixse-
nieben, rogorc antimonopolur kanonmdeblobas, sinamdvileSi igi monopo-
liebs ar krZalavs. kanonmdebloba krZalavs mxolod monopoliebis xelT arse-
buli sabazro Zalauflebis (dominanturi mdgomareobis) borotad gamoyenebas.
anu iTxovs, rom monopoliam Tavisi sabazro Zalaufleba konkurentebis Casa-
Zirad ar gamoiyenos.
saqarTveloSi konkurentunariani garemos damcveli saxelmwifo organoa
konkurenciis saagento. yvelas SeuZlia mimarTos konkurenciis saagentos
gancxadebiT da acnobos garemoebebi, romelic misi azriT konkurenciis dar-
Rvevis faqtebze miuTiTebs. miRebuli, an sakuTari iniciativiT mopovebuli
informaciis safuZvelze saagento iwyebs saqmis gamokvlevas. mas ufleba aqvs
gamoiTxovos misTvis saWiro informacia nebismieri pirisgan, agreTve gamoiZ-
axos nebismieri piri Cvenebis misacemad. Tuki saagentom aRmoaCina kompaniebis
mier konkurenciis SezRudvis faqtebi, mas ufleba aqvs am saqmianobaSi monawile
kompaniebi daajarimos. jarimebi sakmaod maRalia da SeiZleba aTobiT an asobiT
milion lars aRwevdes (jarimis maqsimaluri zoma kompaniis wliuri brunvis
5-10 procentia). Tu kompanias surs jarima Seamciros an Tavidan aicilos, man
unda iTanamSromlos konkurenciis saagentosTan (saqmis mokvlevis stadiaze)
da nebayoflobiT miawodos damatebiTi informacia konkurenciis darRvevis
Taobaze.

kompiuteruli programebis bazarze umsxviles kompanias korpo-


racia maikrosofti (Microsoft Corporation) warmoadgens. bunebrivia, is
xSirad eqceva konkurenciis damcveli organoebis yuradRebis cen-
trSi. dominanturi mdgomareobis borotad gamoyenebis gamo evroko-
misiam is ramdenjerme daajarima: 2004 wels _ 497 mln evroTi, 2006
wels _ 280 mln evroTi, xolo 2008 wels _ 899 mln evroTi.

konkurenciis darRvevis kidev erTi formaa saxelmwifo daxmarebebi. erTi


mewarmisTvis gaweuli finansuri daxmareba cxadia mis konkurentebs araTanabar
pirobebSi ayenebs. amitom aseTi daxmarebebi ikrZaleba. daiSveba mxolod dax-
marebebi mTlianad ekonomikuri seqtorisTvis, romelic raime problemebs gan-
icdis (magaliTad, miwis xvnis vauCerebi yvela glexis da mcire fermerisTvis),
an yvela mewarmisTvis romelime regionSi (magaliTad, sagadasaxado SeRavaTebi
yvela mewarmisTvis, romelic maRalmTian dasaxlebebSia daregistrirebuli).
agreTve daiSveba daxmarebebi individualuri adamianebisTvis (socialuri dax-

24
Tavi III. konkurencia

marebebi), daxmareba garemos dacvisaTvis an stiqiuri movlenebiT miyenebuli


zianis aRmosafxvrelad.

mewarmisTvis saxelmwifo daxmareba SeiZleba SeniRbuli iyos saxelmwifos


mier am mewarmisgan raime saqonlis an momsaxurebis Sesyidvis saxiT. imisaTvis,
rom es ar moxdes, dadgenilia saxelmwifo Sesyidvebis wesebi, romlis mixed-
viT saxelmwifo Sesyidvebi unda warmoebdes gamWvirvaled da maTSi monawileo-
bis saSualeba yvela dainteresebul mewarmes Tanabrad unda hqondes. saqarT-
veloSi informacia saxelmwifos mier raime saqonlis/momsaxurebis Sesyidvis
ganzraxvis Taobaze qveyndeba saxelmwifo Sesyidvebis saagentos veb-gverdze
(http://procurement.gov.ge/). tenderi (konkursi) am momsaxurebis/saqonlis miwo-
debis msurvelTa Soris agreTve Riad, eleqtronulad (internetis saSualebiT)
imarTeba da informacia gamarjvebuli firmis, misi SeTavazebis da mis mier
moTxovnili Tanxis Taobaze yvelasaTvis Riaa.

daskvna

konkurentulia bazari, sadac bevri myidveli da bevri gamyidvelia.


konkurentul bazarze saqonlis fass moTxovna-miwodebis Sefardeba
gansazRvravs.
jansaRi konkurencia stimuls aZlevs da xels uwyobs sazogadoebis gan-
viTarebas.
bazarze dominirebuli mdgomareobis mqone kompanias SeuZlia Tavisi mo-
qmedebebiT saqonlis sabazro fasis aweva an daweva gamoiwvios.
saqonlis diferencireba konkurenciisgan Tavis daRwevis mizniT xdeba.
mewarmeebs Soris karteluri SeTanxmebebi ikrZaleba.
ikrZaleba ara monopolia, aramed mis mier Zalauflebis borotad gamoy-
eneba.
saxelmwifos daxmareba individualuri mewarmisTvis ikrZaleba.
saqarTveloSi konkurencias icavs konkurenciis saagento.

ekonomikuri praqtikumi
ixile moswavlis rveuli

25
sabazro Cavardnebi
Tavi IV

Tema 4. sabazro Cavardnebi


da bazris regulireba

wina TavebSi Cven visaubreT Tavisufali, konkuren-


ZiriTadi terminebi/ tuli bazris upiratesobebze. Cven vnaxeT, rom Tavi-
cnebebi: sufal bazarze mewarmes ar sWirdeba miTiTeba, Tu ra
saqoneli awarmoos, ra raodenobiT da ra fasad gayi-
dos _ bazris uxilavi xeli Tavad agvarebs saqon-
sabazro Cavardna lis deficitis an siWarbis problemas da Tavad ad-
gens saqonlis iseT fass, rom moTxovna da miwodeba
gawonaswordes. am situaciebSi mTavrobis yvelaze
gonivruli qmedebaa ar-Careva. amitom Tavisufali ba-
garegani efeqti zris aRsaniSnavad xSirad iyeneben frangul frazas
Laissez-faire (transkripcia: `lese-feR~), rac niSnavs
miuSvi, ar Caerio.
informaciis
asimetria magram bazari jadoqari ar aris, mas yvelaferi
ar SeuZlia. samwuxarod arsebobs iseTi situaciebi,
romelsac bazari TavisiT, Carevis gareSe ver um-
bazris klavdeba. am situaciebs sabazro Cavardnebi ewodeba
regulireba (inglisurad: market failure, bazris marcxi).

problemebi, romelsac bazari damoukideblad


produqciis ver ereva moicavs iseT sakiTxebs, rogoricaa mzar-
usafrTxoeba di qonebrivi uTanasworoba sazogadoebaSi, siRaribe,
umuSevroba, bavSvTa Sroma, ganaTlebis da jandacvis
arasakmarisi uzrunvelyofa da sxva. am wignSi Cven de-
bazris
talurad ganvixilavT mxolod ori tipis sabazro Ca-
zedamxedvelobis
vardnas: garegan efeqtebs da informaciis asimetrias.
samsaxuri

jon stuart mili (John Stuart Mill) _


ingliseli politikuri ekonomisti da
filosofosi, 1806-1873 ww. igi laissez-fai-
re-is mimdevari iyo, magram imavdroulad
akritikebda mzard qonebriv uTa-
nasworobas da miaCnda, rom saxelmwif-
om unda miiRos zomebi calkeul sferoebSi situaciis
gamosasworeblad, magaliTad ganaTlebasa da siRaribis
daZlevis sferoSi.

26
Tavi IV. sabazro Cavardnebi

jon meinard keinsi (John Maynard


Keynes) _ ingliseli ekonomisti, 1883-
1946 ww. keinsi meoce saukunis erT-er-
Ti yvelaze gamoCenili ekonomistia. man
daasabuTa, rom ekonomikuri procesebis
saxelmwifos mier gonivruli marTva au-
cilebelia.

garegani efeqti ewodeba romelime saqmianobis gav-


lenas gareSe pirebze, romelic am saqmianobis arc
garegani efeqti uSualo monawileni arian da arc misi produqciis
_ piris qmedebis mimRebni. magaliTad, qarxana, romelic plastmasis
gavlena sxva, nivTebs amzadebs, amave dros SeiZleba abinZurebdes
gareSe pirebis mdinares, rac azaralebs meTevzeebs, romelic am mdi-
keTildReobaze. nareSi Tevzs iWeren da axlomaxlo soflebis bavSvebs,
romelTaTvisac mdinare sayvareli sabanao adgilia.
Tumca qarxnis produqciis momxmareblebi am zarals
sabazro Cavardna _ ver grZnoben. igi produqciis fasSi ar aisaxeba. sa-
situacia, rodesac bazro Zalebi arc mewarmes da arc misi produqciis
bazari resursebis momxmareblebs am zaralis Semcirebisken ar ubiZgeben.
efeqturi
ganawilebas ver igive SeiZleba iTqvas, magaliTad, avtomobilebze:
axerxebs. maT moaqvT didi sargebloba adamianebisTvis, romelic
gadahyavT, magram amave dros abinZureben haers, rom-
liTac Cven yvela vsunTqavT, rac Cvens janmrTelo-
informaciis bas zians ayenebs. Tumca es ziani arc avtomobilis da
asimetria arc mgzavrobis fasSi ar aisaxeba. Sesabamisad sabazro
_ situacia, stimulebi, romelic ubiZgebda avtomobilebis da-
rodesac garigebis mamzadeblebs, myidvelebs, an mgzavrebs, haeris dabi-
erTi mxare met nZureba Seamciron, ar arsebobs.
informacias
flobs, vidre imisaTvis, rom uaryofiTi garegani efeqtebisgan
meore. garemo da Cveni janmrTeloba davicvaT, aucilebelia
xelisuflebis Careva: rogorc qarxanas, aseve avto-
mobilebs uwesdeba wesebi da normebi, raTa garemo ar
daabinZuron, da iqmneba saxelmwifo organoebi, rom-
lebic am wesebis da normebis dacvas akontroleben.
saqarTveloSi am funqcias garemos dacvis saministro
asrulebs.

garegani efeqtebis Semcirebis kidev erTi gzaa


im produqciis xelovnuri gaZvireba, romelic gare-
gan efeqts iwvevs. ase, magaliTad, zog qveyanaSi saa-
vtomobilo sawvavi sagangebod ibegreba maRali ga-
dasaxadebiT, raTa Zvirma sawvavma ubiZgos adamianebs
naklebad isargeblon kerZo avtomobilebiT da gamoiy-
enon sazogadoebrivi transporti an velosipedi.

27
moqalaqe da ekonomika. maia gonaSvili, lia Todua

garegani efeqtebi dadebiTic SeiZleba iyos. magaliTad, Tqven Tu


gripis acras gaikeTebT, es sasargeblo iqneba ara marto TqvenTvis, aramed
Tqvens garSemo myofi adamianebisTvisac _ radgan mcirdeba riski, rom
Tqven maT grips gadasdebT. agreTve, magaliTad, lamazi saxli, romelic
Tqvens maxloblad aSenda, sargeblis momtania ara mxolod misi macxovre-
blisTvis, aramed TqvenTvisac, vinaidan ubani ufro mimzidveli gaxda da
Tqveni saxlis fasma moimata.

garegani efeqti SeiZleba gaaCndes saqonlis ara marto warmoeba/moxmare-


bas, aramed agreTve mis realizaciasac. magaliTad, saqonlis SefuTva icavs
gasayid saqonels dazianebisgan, iZleva saqonlis gaformebis saSualebas, rac
mas momxmareblisTvis ufro mimzidvels xdis. Tumca saqonlis SeZenis Semdeg
mTeli es SesafuTi masala nagavSi xvdeba, rac zrdis datvirTvas nagvis gatanis
Tu gadamuSaveba-gauvnebelyofis samsaxurebze, sabolood ki _ im nagavsayre-
lis garemoze, sadac narCenebi xvdeba.

iseT qveynebSi, sadac momxmarebels saqonlis didi


arCevani aqvs da pasuxismgeblobis grZnobac gaaCnia, bev-
ri momxmarebeli erideba saqonels, romlis warmoeba, re-
alizacia an moxmareba garemos zians ayenebs da cdilobs
SeiZinos is nawarmi, romelic garemosadmi megobrulia.
aseTi produqtebis gamosarCevad iyeneben ekomarkebs _
specialur niSnebs produqtis etiketze an SefuTvaze. aq
mogvyavs ekomarka (Ecolabel), romelic evrokavSirSi gamoiy-
eneba. mis misaRebad saqonlis mwar-
moebelma maqsimalurad unda Seamciros rogorc sawar-
mos, iseve produqtis uaryofiTi zemoqmedeba garemoze:
ar daabinZuros haeri, wyali, minimalurad warmoqmnas
narCenebi, SeZlebisdagvarad Seamciros mavne qimikatebis
gamoyeneba, gamoiyenos iseTi tara da SesafuTi masala,
romelic reciklirebadia (SesaZlebelia misi gadamuSaveba
da xelaxla gamoyeneba) an bio-degradirebadia (garemoSi
moxvedrisas iolad iSleba). produqciis da momsaxurebis
es niSani aRniSnavs,
CamonaTvali, romelsac evrokavSiris ekomarka gaaCnia,
rom SesafuTi masala
xelmisawvdomia internetSi, misamarTze http://ec.europa.eu/ reciklirebadia
ecat/.

28
Tavi IV. sabazro Cavardnebi

saxelis gatexvas Tavis gatexva jobso.


qarTuli xalxuri andaza.

bazris kidev erT Cavardnas warmoadgens bazris moTamaSeebs xelT arse-


buli informaciis asimetria, uTanabroba.

rogorc wesi, gasayidi saqonlis Tvisebebis Taobaze meti informacia gaaC-


nia gamyidvels, vidre myidvels. es informacia exeba saqonlis rogorc dadeb-
iT mxareebs, ise mis naklovanebebs. magram gamyidvels unda, rac SeiZleba meti
saqoneli gayidos da rac SeiZleba Zvirad! amitom is ar aris dainteresebuli
miawodos myidvels informacia saqonlis naklovanebebis an masTan dakavSire-
buli riskebis Taobaze. piriqiT, sabazro Zalebi ubiZgebs gamidvels damalos
aseTi informacia. Tumca es mdgomareoba didxans ver gagrZeldeba: mas Semdeg,
rac am saqonels ramodenime momxmarebeli SeiZens da aRmoaCens, rom saqonels
nakli aqvs, informacia amis Sesaxeb gavrceldeba da momxmareblebi am saqonels
ubralod aRar SeiZenen.

asimetriul informacias 1970-2000


wlebSi ikvlevda sami amerikeli ekono-
misti: jorj akerlofi (George Akerlof),
jozef stiglici (Joseph Stiglitz) da ma-
ikl spensi (Michael Spence). asimetriul
informaciis Teoriis damuSavebisTvis
maT 2001 wels nobelis premia miiRes.
j. akerlofi j. stiglici m. spensi

ra xdeba im SemTxvevaSi, Tuki erTi da imave tipis


saqonlidan mxolod zogierTi aris naklis mqone, sx-
vebi ki _ ara, da SeZenisas maTi garCeva momxmarebels
ar SeuZlia (garegnulad orive tipis saqoneli erT-
nairia)? adre Tu gvian momxmareblebi gaigeben, rom
am saqonlis SemZeni adamianebis nawili kmayofilia,
nawili _ ara. gasagebi gaxdeba, rom Tuki am saqonels
SeiZen, aris riski rom dazaralde. Sesabamisad, momx-
marebelTa TvalSi am saqonlis faseuloba daiklebs
da Semcirdeba Tanxis odenoba, romelsac isini am saq-
onelSi gadaixdidnen. Sesabamisad daiklebs saqonlis
sabazro fasic. Semcirebuli fasis pirobebSi mewarmes
kargi saqonlis gayidva aRar uRirs, amitom is gazrdis
nakliani, cudi saqonlis wils bazarze. es kidev ufro Seamcirebs saqonlis
faseulobas momxmareblebis TvalSi. saqoneli kidev ufro gaiafdeba, amitom
mewarme iZulebuli iqneba misi xarisxi kidev ufro gaauaresos, saqoneli kidev
ufro gaufasurdeba da ase manam, sanam saqonlis bazari srul kolafss (daSlas,
gaqrobas) ar ganicdis.

29
moqalaqe da ekonomika. maia gonaSvili, lia Todua

aRwerili mdgomareobebidan bazari sakuTari ZalebiT ver gamodis. imisT-


vis, rom bazrisadmi (gamyidvelebisadmi) momxmareblis ndoba aRdges, aucile-
belia saxelmwifos mxridan bazarSi Careva da iseTi TamaSis wesebis daweseba,
romelic momxmarebels daarwmunebs, rom misi interesebi daculia.

informaciis asimetria yovelTvis gamyidvelis upiratesobas ar gu-


lisxmobs. zogjer riskebis Sesaxeb informacia myidvels meti aqvs, vidre
gamyidvels. asea magaliTad avtomobilis sadazRvevo polisis SeZenisas _
sadazRvevo agentma ar icis, Tu ramdenad frTxilad atarebs avtomobils
is mZRoli, romelic poliss iZens. amave dros, man icis, rom zogierTi mZR-
oli udieria, da riskebis gaTvlas swored maTi gaTvaliswinebiT axdens. es
aragonivrulad aZvirebs dazRvevas frTxili mZRolisTvis da man polisis
SeZenisgan SeiZleba Tavi Seikavos. Sedegi is aris, rom Tuki avtomobilebis
dazRveva savaldebulo ar aris, mas ZiriTadad riskiani, udieri mZRolebi
iZenen. am garemoebas uaryofiT arCevans (adverse selection) uwodeben.

informacia produqtis Sesaxeb

wina saukunis 50-ian wlebamde, ubralod saRi azri sakmarisi iyo imisTvis,
rom momxmarebels ama Tu im produqciis Semadgenloba, usafrTxoeba, vargi-
sianoba Tu xarisxi damoukideblad Seefasebina. dRes es ukve SeuZlebelia _
bazarze imdeni gansxvavebuli produqtia da maTi damzadebis meTodebi Tu te-
qnologiebi imdenad swrafad icvleba, rom arc erT momxmarebels ar Seswevs
unari yvela samomxmareblo produqtis TvisebebSi gaerkves.

mewarme ki, rogorc wesi, mxolod erT romelime sferoSi aris specialize-
buli da Tavisi an msgavsi nawarmis Tvisebebis Sesaxeb momxmarebelze gacilebiT
meti informacia gaaCnia. mas iolad SeuZlia es informacia momxmareblis Sec-
domaSi Sesayvanad gamoiyenos. saxezea aSkara sainformacio disbalansi (uTanas-
woroba) samomxmareblo saqonlis gamyidvel mewarmesa da myidvel momxmarebels
Soris.

am uTanasworobis aRmosafxvrelad saxelmwifo awesebs im minimaluri in-


formaciis CamonaTvals, romelic mewarmem/gamyidvelma momxmarebels (saqon-
lis SeZenamde) aucileblad unda miawodos. es aris is informacia, rac momx-
marebels sWirdeba, raTa saqonlis swori arCevani gaakeTos. saqarTveloSi es
CamonaTvali kanoniT aris dadgenili da Semdeg informacias moicavs:

yvela tipis saqonelze qarTulad unda iyos miTiTebuli produqtis saxe da


dasaxeleba, misi damamzadeblis safirmo saxelwodeba da misamarTi, agreTve im
qveynis dasaxeleba, sadac damzadebulia produqti. momxmarebels agreTve qarTu-
lad unda miawodon informacia saqonlis ZiriTad samomxmareblo Tvisebebze da
misi usafrTxo gamoyenebis wesebsa da pirobebze. sasursaTo produqtebis SemTx-
vevaSi damatebiT aucilebelia mieTiTos produqtis raodenoba (wona an moculo-
ba), warmoebis TariRi, vargisianobis vada da Semadgenloba (ra produqtebisgan/
ingredientebisgan aris damzadebuli).

30
Tavi IV. sabazro Cavardnebi

evrokavSirTan asocirebis SeTanxmebis Sesabamisad, saqarTveloSi male


sursaTis etiketirebis evropuli wesebi dainergeba.
am wesebis mixedviT sursaTze ori sxvadasxva tipis vargisianobis vadis
miTiTeba iqneba gamoyenebuli: Best before (ingl. saukeTesoa aqamde) da
Use by (ingl. gamoiyeneT aqamde).
ra gansxvavebaa maT Soris?
Use by (gamoiyeneT aqamde) vada
daitaneba malfuWebad produqtebze
(xorcproduqtebi, rZis produqte-
bi, kvercxi da kvercxis Semcveli
produqtebi da sxva). am vadis gasvlis
Semdeg sasursaTo produqtis moxmare-
ba usafrTxo aRar aris _ is SeiZleba
gafuWebuli iyos da misma moxmarebam Tqvens janmrTelobas avnos. amitom
daixsomeT: Tu produqtze miTiTebulia Use by TariRi, am TariRis gas-
vlis Semdeg produqtis moxmareba ar SeiZleba! garda amisa, produqtebi,
romelzec Use by TariRia miTiTebuli, rogorc wesi, macivarSi unda Sevi-
naxoT.
yvela danarCen sasursaTo produq-
tze (magaliTad, gamagrilebeli sa-
smelebi, orcxobila, Cai, yava, Saqari
da sxva) daitaneba Best before (sauke-
Tesoa aqamde) vada. am vadis gasvla
ar niSnavs, rom vadis gasvlis Semdeg
produqti saSiSi xdeba janmrTelo-
bisTvis, aramed, igi miuTiTebs, rom am vadamde produqti srulad inar-
Cunebs Tavis xarisxobriv Tvisebebs (suns, gemos, aromats da sxva), amitom
umjobesia igi SefuTvaze mocemul vadamde gamoviyenoT. daixsomeT: Best
before TariRis gasvlis Semdeg produqtis moxmareba SeiZleba, Tumca misi
xarisxi, axal produqtTan SedarebiT, dabalia.

produqciis usafrTxoeba

imisTvis, rom momxmarebeli bazars endos, is darwmunebuli unda iyos, rom


bazarze gasayidad gamotanili saqoneli usafrTxoa. Tumca usafrTxoeba ar
niSnavs, rom saqonels arc erT pirobebSi ar SeuZlia zianis motana. nebismieri
nivTi, Tuki is aramiznobrivad an arasworad iqna gamoyenebuli, SeiZleba zianis
momtani iyos. magaliTad, daniT SeiZleba gaviWraT xeli, CaidanSi aduRebuli
wyliT SeiZleba davimduRroT, boTli SeiZleba dagvivardes, gagvitydes da nam-
sxvrevebma fexi gagviWras da a.S. Tumca es ar niSnavs, rom es nivTebi usafrTxo
ar aris. yvela nivTs gaaCnia misi gonivruli gamoyenebis dauwereli, sazogadod
cnobili wesebi. roca amboben, rom nivTi usafrTxo unda iyos, swored am we-
sebis dacvis gaTvaliswinebiT usafrTxoebas gulisxmoben. anu nivTi usafrTxo

31
moqalaqe da ekonomika. maia gonaSvili, lia Todua

unda iyos misi Cveulebrivi, gonivruli, daniSnulebisamebr gamoyenebisas.

Tu nivTs gamoyenebis rTuli wesebi aqvs, romelic sayovelTaod cnobili ar


aris, mas unda mohyvebodes qarTulenovani instruqcia, sadac es wesebi aRwer-
ilia. Tu aseTi ar arsebobs, gayidvisas gamyidvelma (an maRaziis konsultantma)
myidvels es wesebi guldasmiT unda auxsnas, da Tu saWiroa, Camouweros kidec.

vin unda uzrunvelyos, rom gasayidad gamotanili produqti momxmareb-


lisTvis usafrTxo iyos? pirvel rigSi _ misma mwarmoebelma. mewarme valdebu-
lia darwmundes mis mier warmoebuli produqtis usafrTxoebaSi. saxelmwifo
ki valdebulia akontrolos, bazris zedamxedvelobis samsaxuris saSualebiT,
Tu ramdenad asrulebs yvela mewarme am valdebulebas. samwuxarod dRes saqa-
rTveloSi aseTi samsaxuri ar arsebobs. Sesabamisad, aravin amowmebs, icaven
Tu ara mwarmoeblebi produqciis usafrTxoebis moTxovnebs. gamonakliss war-
moadgens sursaTi _ misi uvneblobis kontroli saqarTveloSi xorcieldeba,
sursaTis erovnuli saagentos mier.

evrokavSirTan asocirebis SeTanxmebis mixedviT saqarTveloSi male amo-


qmeddeba bazris zedamxedvelobis samsaxuri, romelic bazarze ganTavsebuli
sxva samomxmareblo produqciis usafrTxoebasac gaakontrolebs.

xarisxis infrastruqtura

32
Tavi IV. sabazro Cavardnebi

imisTvis, rom Tavisi produqciis usafrTxoeba amtkicos, mewarmes SeuZlia


gamoiyenos standartizacia-sertifikaciis (da maTTan dakavSirebul) orga-
nizaciaTa mTeli sistema, romelsac xarisxis infrastruqtura ewodeba (ixileT
sqema).

rogorc sqemidan Cans, mewarmes SeuZlia daiqiravos e. w. sasertifikacio


organo (kerZo an saxelmwifo organizacia), romelic amowmebs (regularulad,
maT Soris moulodneladac), Seesabameba Tu ara sawarmoo procesi an produq-
cia ama Tu im moTxovnebs. da igi gascems Sesabamisobis serTifikats produqci-
is usafrTxoebis dasamtkiceblad. am serTifikatis sandoobis SemowmebisTvis
yvela qveyanaSi iqmneba e. w. akreditaciis organoebi, romlebic regularulad
(maT Soris moulodnelad) amowmebs sertifikaciis organoebs. akreditaciis
erovnuli organoebi akreditaciis erTian, saerTaSoriso sistemaSi arian Car-
Tuli, sadac regularulad xdeba maTi sandoobis Semowmeba.

mewarmisTvis savaldebuloa mxolod im moTxovnebis dacva, romelsac


mTavroba adgens da amowmebs. am moTxovnebs ewodeba teqnikuri reglamentebi.
isini adgens produqciis usafrTxoebis parametrebs. esa Tu is standarti ki
am moTxovnebis Sesrulebis saSualebaa. magaliTad, savaldebulo teqnikuri
moTxovnaa, rom eleqtrosaqonlis gare korpusze Sexebisas momxmarebels deni
ar artyamdes. is, Tu kerZod rogor ganxorcieldeba es moTxovna, sxvadasxva
standartSi srulebiT gansxvavebulad aris gawerili.

miuxedavad imisa, rom standartis arCevaSi mewame Tavisufalia, ukve ar-


Ceuli standarti man zedmiwevniT unda daicvas. sxvanairad is sertifikats ver
miiRebs.

zogi produqciisTvis (magaliTad, eleqtrosaqoneli,


samSeneblo masalebi, liftebi, sabagiro gzebi, samedi-
cino mowyobilobebi, saTamaSoebi, piroteqnika,) evrokav-
Sirs dadgenili aqvs usafrTxoebis damatebiTi moTxovnebi.
saqonelze, romelic am moTxovnebs akmayofilebs daitaneba
CE niSani. es moTxovnebi TandaTan, etapobrivad qarTul
kanonmdeblobaSic gadmodis.

unda gaviTvaliswinoT, rom rac unda Semowmebuli da sertificirebu-


li iyos sawarmo, iSviaTad, magram mainc moxdeba Secdomebi, ris Sedegadac
produqcias SeiZleba gaaCndes wuni. Tu am wunis Sedegad produqcia Tavis fun-
qcias ver asrulebs (aseT wuns nakli ewodeba), momxmareblis moTxovniT me-
warmem (movaWrem) gayiduli saqoneli unda SeakeTos an gamocvalos. xolo Tuki
wuni exeba produqciis usafrTxoebas da aseTi produqciis gamoyenebis Sedegad
momxmarebeli dazaralda, produqciis mwarmoebeli an importiori valdebulia
es zarali momxmarebels aunazRauros.

33
moqalaqe da ekonomika. maia gonaSvili, lia Todua

daskvna

arsebobs situaciebi, romelsac bazari TavisiT ver umklavdeba. aseT


SemTxvevebSi aucilebelia saxelmwifos Careva.
garegani efeqtebis ganeitraleba SesaZlebelia garemos dacvis wesebiT,
saqonlis dabegvriT an ekomarkirebiT.
informaciis asimetriis gamo momxmarebelma SeiZleba bazrisadmi ndoba
dakargos.
kanoniT dadgenilia, Tu ra informacia unda miewodos momxmarebels, da
ra enaze.
mewarme valdebulia darwmundes, rom mis mier bazarze ganTavsebuli
produqti usafrTxoa. amisTvis mas SeuZlia standartizacia-sertifika-
ciis sistema gamoiyenos.
amJamad saqarTveloSi bazarze ganTavsebuli produqciis usafrTxoebis
zedamxedvelobis samsaxuri ar arsebobs (garda sursaTis uvneblobis
samsaxurisa), Tumca asocirebis SeTanxmebiT gaTvaliswinebulia, rom is
male Seiqmneba.

ekonomikuri praqtikumi
ixile moswavlis rveuli

34
sakuTreba
Tavi V

Tema 5. ra SeiZleba
gvekuTvnodes da ra ara?

ZiriTadi terminebi/
cnebebi: sakuTreba... ganuyofelia adamianis ekonomikisagan
mis sazogadoebriv formaSi.
karl mengeri

sakuTreba dafiqrebulxarT, ratom aravin agdebs Sokola-


dis an nayinis qaRalds saxlSi, maSin, rodesac quCaSi,
sadarbazoSi amas bevri Cveulebirvad akeTebs? an ra-
gamoricxvadoba tom ar gadaSendnen Zroxebi, maSin rodesac bevri ve-
luri mcenare Tu cxoveli gadaSenda an gadaSenebis
pirasaa misuli?
metoqis- am kiTxvebze pasuxi _ sakuTrebaa. adamiani ufrTx-
unarianoba ildeba imas, rac mas ekuTvnis. xolo imas, rac saer-
Toa, aravisia, xSirad ar vzogavT da udierad veqce-
viT.
sazogadoebrivi
saqoneli ras niSnavs sakuTreba?
sakuTreba aris adamianis ufleba damoukideblad,
Tavisi survilis mixedviT gankargos nivTi. es niSnavs,
saerTo resursi
rom nivTis mesakuTre wyvets, Tu vin da rogor moix-
mars nivTs (mesakuTris nebarTvis gareSe sxva pirebs
nivTis gamoyenebis ufleba ar aqvT); mesakuTres
inteleqtualuri
agreTve SeuZlia gayidos an gaaqiravos nivTi, aTxo-
sakuTreba
vos vinmes, an aCuqos; mas SeuZlia es nivTi gadaake-
Tos, daanawevros an sulac gaanadguros (garkveuli
SezRudvebiT, cxadia); nivTis mesakuTres ekuTvnis am
patenti
nivTis nayofic (magaliTad: xeze mosxmuli vaSli, ya-
naSi moyvanili xorbali, qaTmis dadebuli kvercxi da
sxva) da nivTisgan miRebuli sargebelic (gaqiravebu-
sasaqonlo niSani li binis qira, gasesxebuli fulis procenti da a.S).
zog nivTze an resursze sakuTrebis uflebis ganx-
orcieleba SeuZlebelia, usamarTloa an aragonivru-
kontrafaqtura lia. ra SemTxvevaSi xdeba es?
zogi nivTi/momsaxureba iseTia, rom ucxo pirTa
mier misi moxmarebis aRkveTa SeuZlebelia an Zalze
geografiuli rTulia. magaliTad, quCis ganaTebas iyenebs yvela
aRniSvna gamvleli. rTulia moawyo ise, rom quCis lampionma

35
moqalaqe da ekonomika. maia gonaSvili, lia Todua

mxolod mas gaunaTos, vinc am momsaxurebas (ganaTebas)


SeiZens. igive SeiZleba iTqvas esTetikur siamovnebaze,
romelsac qalqis arqite-
qturuli detali (xidi,
moedani) gamvlelebs ani-
Webs. aseve, saxelmwifo
Tavdacva uzrunvelyofs
usafrTxoebas yvela
moqalaqisTvis da sxva.
gamoricxvadoba cxadia, aseT nivTebze
_ saqonlis an momsaxurebaze kerZo
Tviseba, romelic sakuTrebis uflebis ganxorcieleba SeuZlebelia an
gulisxmobs, Zalze rTulia.
rom ucxo piri Tuki ucxo pirTa mier nivTis/momsaxurebis gamo-
SeiZleba avaridoT yenebis aRkveTa SesaZlebelia, amboben rom am nivTs
am saqonlis gamoricxvadobis unari gaaCnia.
moxmarebas.
nivTebi agreTve gansxvavdebian TvisebiT, romelsac
metoqisunarianoba ewodeba. igi damokidebulia imaze,
Tu ramden adamians SeuZlia erTdroulad gamoiyenos
metoqisunarianoba nivTi/momsaxureba da
_ saqonlis amcirebs Tu ara erTi
Tviseba, romelic adamianis mier nivTis/
gulisxmobs, rom momsaxurebis gamoyeneba
erTi pirovnebis sxva adamianebisaTvis mis
mier saqonlis xelmisawvdomobas. mag-
gamoyeneba aliTad, tyeSi an parkSi
amcirebs meore erTdroulad bevri ada-
pirovnebis mier miani SeiZleba iyos ise,
misi gamoyenebis rom am sikeTis gamoy-
SesaZleblobas. enebaSi isini erTmaneTs
xels ar uSlidnen. igive
SeiZleba iTqvas atmos-
feros haeriT sunTqvaze,
radio da teletransla-
ciis miRebaze, zRvaSi
banaobaze, _ yvela am
SemTxvevaSi axali momx-
mareblis damateba ukve
arsebuli momxmare-
blebisTvis xelmisawvdomi resursis raodenobas ar
amcirebs. amitom am nivTis/momsaxurebis momxmareb-
lebs Soris metoqeobas, konkurencias adgili ar aqvs.
Tuki erTi piris mier nivTis/momsaxurebis mox-
mareba amcirebs meore piris mier misi gamoyenebis Ses-
aZleblobas, amboben rom am nivTs metoqisunarianobis
Tviseba gaaCnia.

36
Tavi V. sakuTreba

saqoneli, romelic adamianTa sakuTrebaSia, rogorc wesi, gamoricxvadi da


metoqisunariania. Tu saqonels es Tvisebebi ar gaaCnia, igi saerTo, sazogadoe-
briv moxmarebaSi rCeba.
ganvixiloT amis mizezebi.
rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, sakuTrebis azri imaSia, rom mesakuTres aqvs
saSualeba, ar dauSvas sxva pirebis mier misi nivTis gamoyeneba. gamoricxvadi
saqoneli amis SesaZleblobas iZleva. magaliTad, aseTia: sakvebi produqtebi,
tansacmeli, piradi nivTebi, aveji Cvens saxlSi _ Cven iolad SegviZlia aRvkve-
ToT sxva pirTa mier maTi gamoyeneba. cota ufro rTuladaa saqme, rodesac
Cvens sakuTrebasTan mudmivi Sexeba ar gvaqvs _ magaliTad, Tuki Tqvens ojaxs
ekuTvnis miwis nakveTi, romelic Tqveni saxlidan moSorebiTaa ganTavsebuli.
aseT SemTxvevaSi Cveni sakuTrebis dacvaSi gvexmareba saxelmwifo, sadac inaxeba
dokumentacia imis Taobaze, Tu vis ekuTvnis esa Tu is miwis nakveTi. saqa-
rTvelos sajaro reestris erovnuli saagentos veb-gverdze (https://napr.gov.ge)
xelmisawvdomia rukebi, sadac miwis yvela nakveTis sazRvrebi da am nakveTis
mesakuTre miTiTebulia. sajaro reestrSi inaxeba agreTve informacia miwaze
arsebuli yvela nagebobis da misi mesakuTris Taobaze. uZravi qonebis (miwa,
Senoba) Taobaze sajaro reestrSi daculi dokumentebi maTze piris sakuTrebis
utyuar mtkicebulebad iTvleba.

rac Seexeba metoqisunarianobas, rogorc zemoT vnaxeT, nivTebi/momsaxure-


ba, romelic metoqisunariani ar aris, yvela msurvelisTvis Tanabrad xelmis-
awvdomia. amitom maT SeZenas azri ar aqvs. arc sxvebisgan maT dacvas aqvs azri
_ Tanabrad da Tavisuflad xelmisawvdom resurss aravin wagarTmevT. Sesabam-
isad, aseT nivTze/resursze sakuTrebis uflebas aravin iZens.
sainteresoa SemTxveva, rodesac saqoneli gamoricxvadia, magram ara meto-
qisunariani. aseTia magaliTad wylis, gazis, eleqtroenergiis miwodeba. piris
mier am momsaxurebis miRebis aRkveTa iolia _ Tu momxmarebeli resursebis
miwodebis safasurs ar gadaixdis, mas miwodebas Seuwyveten. Tumca konkuren-

37
moqalaqe da ekonomika. maia gonaSvili, lia Todua

cia resursis momxmareblebs


Soris ar arsebobs _ resur-
si Tanabrad xelmisawvdomia
yvela momxmareblisTvis da
romelime erTis damatebas an
gaTiSvas sxva momxmareblebi
ver grZnoben.

gamoricxvadia ar aris gamoricxvadi

kerZo sakuTreba saerTo resursi

piradi nivTebi mdinareSi daWerili Tevzi


sakvebi
metoqisunariania

bunebrivi monopolia sazogadoebrivi sikeTe


ar aris metoqis-
unariani gazmomarageba quCis ganaTeba
eleqtronergiis mowodeba saxelmwifo Tavdacva

kerZo sakuTrebis uflebas uzrunvelyofs da icavs saxelmwifo. es niSnavs,


rom magaliTad, Tu vinme Cems sakuTrebas xelyofs _ gaafuWebs, daazianebs an
gaanadgurebs mas, an wamarTmevs, moiparavs, an motyuebiT miiTvisebs, _ me maqvs
ufleba moviTxovo am xelyofis Sewyveta da miyenebuli zianis anazRaureba. am
Cemi uflebis dacvaSi sxvadasxva saxelmwifo organoebi mexmareba: policia iW-
ers qurdebs da TaRliTebs, aRkveTavs vandalizms (sxvisi qonebis dazianebas),
sasamarTlo guldasmiT ixilavs moqalaqeTa saCivrebs, gamoaqvs gadawyvetile-
bebi Selaxuli sakuTrebis aRsadgenad, adgens kompensaciis zomas, romelic
dazaralebulma mxarem unda miiRos, da uzrunvelyofs am gadawyvetilebebis
Sesrulebas.
saxelmwifo aseve gankargavs im saerTo resursebs da qonebas, romelic mo-
qalaqeTa kerZo sakuTrebaSi ar aris. aseTebia: tyeebi, saerTo saZovrebi, dac-
uli teritoriebi, zRva da mdinareebi, gzebi, quCebi, skverebi da parkebi da
sxva. maTi gamoyeneba yvela moqalaqes Tanabrad SegviZlia. zog SemTxvevaSi Cven
agreTve gvaqvs saerTo sargeblobis teritoriidan nayofis an resursis mop-
ovebis ufleba (magaliTad, sokos, kenkras an fiCxis mogroveba tyeSi, ankesiT
Tevzaoba mdinareSi an zRvaSi, Zroxis Zoveba saerTo saZovarze), Tumca zog
SemTxvevaSi es akrZalulia (magaliTad dacul teritoriaze), an dakavSirebu-
lia nebarTvis mopovebasTan da garkveuli sazRauris gadaxdasTan (magaliTad:
xe-tyis Wra, soWis girCis mogroveba, wiaRiseulis mopoveba).

38
Tavi V. sakuTreba

inteleqtualuri sakuTreba
sakuTrebis ufleba vrceldeba ara mxolod nivTze, aramed adamianis
nafiqralze, misi Semoqmedebis nayofze. magaliTad: gamogonebaze, literatu-
rul nawarmoebze, naxatze, fotoze. am uflebas inteleqtualuri sakuTrebis
ufleba ewodeba da igi nawarmoebis an gamogonebis avtors ekuTvnis.
inteleqtualuri sakuTrebis ufleba pirvel rigSi icavs
nawarmoebis an gamogonebis avtoris saxels _ mis garda sxva ada-
mianis moxsenieba avtorad dauSvebelia. garda amisa, inteleq-
tualuri sakuTreba gulisxmobs misi mflobelis uflebas,
eqskluziurad (anu mxolod man) miiRos ekonomikuri sargebeli
saavtoro am sakuTrebidan. magaliTad, avtors SeuZlia literaturuli
uflebis niSani
nawarmoebi gamosces wignad, gamogonebis patentis mflobels
SeuZlia gazardos warmoebis efeqturoba Tavisi gamogonebis sa-
SualebiT, awarmoos da gayidos axali produqti, da sxva.
Tumca aseTi uflebebi uvado ar aris. qonebrivi
uflebebi nawarmoebze aqvs mis avtors _ mTeli misi si-
cocxlis ganmavlobaSi da amis Semdeg _ avtoris STamo-
mavlebs, avtoris sikvdilidan 70 wlis ganmavlobaSi. am
vadis gasvlis Semdgom nawarmoebi sazogadoebrivi sa-
kuTreba xdeba _ yvela msurvels SeuZlia misi gamocema
da gayidva (Tumca avtoris saxelis moxsenieba saval-
debuloa). magaliTad 2014 wlis 1 agvistos sazoga-
doebrivi sakuTreba gaxda antuan de sent-egziuperis
nawarmoebebi _ vinaidan avtori 70 wliT adre, 1944
wlis 31 ivliss daiRupa.
rac Seexeba gamogonebas, igi daculia mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tuki mas av-
tori sagangebo organoSi daaregistrirebs da registraciis cnobas, _ patents
aiRebs. patentis mflobelis ekonomikuri uflebebi sakmaod moklea _ gamo-
gonebis SemTxvevaSi esaa 20 weli, xolo e.w. sasargeblo modelis SemTxvevaSi
(magaliTad, fexsacmlis, samkaulis, avtomobilis axali dizaini) _ 8 weli. am
periodis ganmavlobaSi patentis mflobels SeuZlia gasces (gayidos) licenzia
sxva pirebis mier misi patentis gamoyenebaze. aseTi licenziis gareSe sxvisi
patentiT daculi gamogonebis an dizainis gamoyeneba ikrZaleba. Tumca Tu av-
tori Tavis gamogonebas ramodenime wlis ganmavlobaSi arc Tavad iyenebs da
arc sxvebs aZlevs saSualebas (ar yidis, an aragonivrul fasad yidis patentis
gamoyenebis licenzias), saxelmwifos SeuZlia misi gamogonebis gamoyenebis li-
cenzia avtoris daukiTxavad gasces, Tumca avtori am dros gonivrul saz-
Raurs mainc miiRebs.
inteleqtualuri sakuTrebis ufleba agreTve vrceldeba
e.w. sasaqonlo niSnebze. sasaqonlo niSani aris produqtis bren-
duli dasaxeleba an sxva damaxasiaTebeli niSnebi (naxati, ga-
formeba, SefuTva), romliTac ama Tu im produqts gamovarCevT
(Tuki maT produqtis mwarmoebeli daaregistrirebs). magaliTad, registrirebuli
saqarTveloSi daregistrirebuli sasaqonlo niSnebia: Coca-Cola, sasaqonlo niSnis
Fanta (ualkoholo sasmelebi), BIC (samarTeblebi da trikota- aRniSvna

39
moqalaqe da ekonomika. maia gonaSvili, lia Todua

Jis nawarmi), Nivea (parfumeria), Fairy (sarecxi saSualebebi), Stihl (xelsawyoe-


bi), Head&Shoulders (kosmetika da parfiumeria), Toyota (avtomobilebi da maTi
nawilebi) sxva.

saqonels, romelzec unebarTvod datanilia sxvisi sasaqonlo niSani, kon-


trafaqtura ewodeba. samwuxarod, saqarTveloSi xSirad swored aseTi saqoneli
iyideba. amis mizezi is aris, rom saqarTveloSi Semotanili kontrafaqturis
gamovlena (sabaJoSi) jer-jerobiT mxolod dainteresebuli piris (sasaqonlo
niSnis mflobelis) mimarTvis safuZvelze xdeba. xolo Tuki sasaqonlo niSnis
patronma Tavisi niSani saqarTveloSi ar daaregistrira da sabaJos misi dacvis
TxovniT ar mimarTa, am niSnis gamoyenebiT damzadebuli kontrafaqtura qveya-
naSi Seuferxeblad Semodis. Tumca momavalSi es mdgomareoba unda Seicvalos:
saqarTvelos sabaJo kontrafaqturas sakuTari iniciativiTac gamoavlens da
qarTuli bazari gayalbebuli saqonlisgan ukeT daculi iqneba.
inteleqtualuri sakuTrebis saintereso formaa e.w. geografiuli aRniS-
vnebi. es aris sasursaTo produqtis dasaxelebebi, romelTa gamoyeneba mxolod
am produqtis momzadebisTvis dadgenili konkretuli moTxovnebis dacvis Sem-
TxvevaSi aris daSvebuli. geografiuli aRniSvnebiT dadgenili moTxovnebi
gansazRvravs ara mxolod masalas da teqnologias, romliTac produqti unda
damzaddes, aramed agreTve im geografiul areals, sadac unda iyos moyvanili
Sesabamisi nedleuli da sadac unda damzaddes Tavad produqti. rogorc wesi,
es geografiuli areali aris is adgili, sadac produqti pirvelad damzadda,
an odiTganve mzaddeboda da romelic produqts im Tvisebebs (gemos, aromats)
aniWebs, ris gamoc produqti gansakuTrebiT fasdeba.
evrokavSirSi aTasze meti daculi geografiuli aRniSvnaa registrirebu-
li. maTi magaliTia: Rvino Sampani (frangulad: Champagne), yveli rokfori
(frangulad: Roquefort), bra (italiurad: Bra), feta (berZnulad: ) da sxva.
geografiuli aRniSvniT daculi evropuli produqtis etiketze aucileblad
SegxvdebaT am niSnebidan romelime:

40
Tavi V. sakuTreba

saqarTveloSi, dacul geografiul aRniSvnebad daregistrirebulia mTeli


rigi qarTuli Rvinoebi (qinZmarauli, axaSeni, manavi da sxva), mineraluri
wylebi (borjomi, sairme, nabeRlavi da sxva) da qarTuli samzareulosTvis
damaxasiaTebeli ramodenime sasursaTo produqti (magaliTad: sulguni, CurCx-
ela, mawoni, guda da sxva).
inteleqtualur sakuTrebis maregistrirebel organos saqarTveloSi war-
moadgens inteleqtualuri sakuTrebis erovnuli centri saqpatenti. infor-
macia registrirebuli inteleqtualuri sakuTrebis Sesaxeb regularulad
qveyndeba saqpatentis eleqtronul biuletenSi (ix. http://sakpatenti.org.ge).

iciT Tu ara, rom...

personaluri informaciis dacva


albaT xSirad migiRiaT sareklamo eleqtronuli gzavnili an mokle teqs-
turi Setyobineba. SeiZleba gagiCndeT kiTxva, _ saidan gaigo sareklamo kompa-
niam Tqveni telefonis nomeri an eleqtronuli fostis misamarTi?
nebismieri informacia, romelic adamianis identificirebis (vinaobis dad-
genis) saSualebas iZleva, am adamianis personalur monacemebs warmoadgens.
personalur monacems ganekuTvneba, magaliTad, Tqveni saxeli da gvari, piradi
nomeri, sacxovrebeli misamarTi, mobiluri telefonis nomeri, el-fostis misa-
marTi, foto suraTi, TiTis anabeWdi, xelfasi, sabanko informacia, sakredito
baraTis nomeri, informacia janmrTelobis mdgomareobis Sesaxeb da a.S.
es informacia sxvadasxva saxelmwifo uwyebaSi da organizaciaSi inaxeba:
Tqveni saxeli da gvari, piradi nomeri da fotosuraTi Senaxuli aqvs samoqa-
laqo reestris saagentos, sabanko informacia da sakredito baraTis nomeri
icis im bankma, romelSic gaxsnili gaqvT angariSi, Tqveni mobiluri telefo-
nis nomeri cnobilia mobiluri telefonebis kompaniisTvis, romelic gemsax-
urebaT da a.S. garda amisa, Cvens saidentifikacio da sakontaqto monacemebs
xSirad vawvdiT im organizaciebs, sadac vswavlobT, vmuSaobT, romelsac raime
gancxadebiT mivmarTavT. Tumca yvela es organizacia valdebulia Cvens per-
sonalur monacemebs gaufrTxildes, Tu aRar sWirdeba _ gaanadguros, da Cveni
Tanxmobis gareSe ucxo pirebs (maT Soris _ sareklemo kompanias) ar gadasces.

41
moqalaqe da ekonomika. maia gonaSvili, lia Todua

naklebad daculia saxelmwifos Tanamdebobis pirebis personaluri in-


formacia. kerZod, sajaroa Tanamdebobis piris saxeli, gvari, dabadebis
TariRi, misi ojaxis wevrebis vinaoba da informacia ojaxis qonebis Ses-
axeb _ am informacias yvela Tanamdebobis piri yovelwliurad warudgens
sajaro samsaxuris biuros. Tanamdebobis pirTa qonebrivi deklaraciebi
xelmisawvdomia internetSi, misamarTze https://declaration.gov.ge .

maS, saidan igebs sareklamo kompania Cveni el-fostis misamarTs an mobi-


luri telefonis nomers?
pirvel rigSi, Tavad Cvengan. arc Tu iSviaTad, Cven TviTon, daufiqreblad,
sajaros vxdiT Cvens telefons an el-fostis misamarTs _ magaliTad mivu-
TiTebT maT feisbuqis an romelime forumis Ria mimoweraSi. Ria, sajaro in-
formaciis gamoyenebis ufleba ki yvelas aqvs. xSirad Cvens personalur infor-
macias vutovebT maRaziebs, sadac magaliTad eleqtrosaqonels vyidulobT,
mivuTiTebT sxvadasxva veb-gverdebze, sadac vregistrirdebiT. amiT maRazias/
veb-gverdis mflobels ukve SesaZlebloba eZleva sareklamo gancxadebebi Cven
regularulad gvigzavnos.
Tu aRar gsurT sareklamo sms an el-fostis gzavnilebis miReba, moZeb-
neT miRebuli gzavnilis boloSi telefoni, an internet-bmuli, romlis saSu-
alebiTac SesaZlebelia xelmoweris gauqmeba (`Unsubscribe~, `sms off~). Tu aseTi
saSualeba gzavnilSi miTiTebuli ar aris, es kanondarRvevaa. ar daizaroT _
acnobeT aseTi darRvevebis Sesaxeb personalur monacemTa dacvis inspeqtors,
veb-gverdze http://personaldata.ge .

daskvna

arsebobs kerZo da sazogadoebrivi sakuTreba.


kerZo sakuTreba gamoricxvadi da metoqisunariania.
sazogadoebrivi sakuTrebis gamoyenebas saxelmwifo aregulirebs.
saerTo moxmarebis resursi xSirad nadgurdeba, radgan mas aravin ufrTx-
ildeba.
sakuTrebis ufleba inteleqtualur sikeTeebzec vrceldeba.
avtors da gamomgonebls qonebrivi uflebebi inteleqtualur sakuTre-
baze mxolod garkveuli vadiT gaaCnia.

ekonomikuri praqtikumi
ixile moswavlis rveuli

42
qonebrivi
Tavi VI
urTierTobebi
Tema 6. xelSekruleba da
samoqalaqo pasuxismgebloba

albaT SeswrebixarT situacias, roca maRaziaSi


ZiriTadi terminebi/ momxmarebels surs SeZenili nivTis dabruneba, maRaz-
cnebebi: iis menejeri ki amis winaaRmdegia da es xdeba kamaTis,
davis sagani. albaT gagCeniaT kiTxva: romeli mxarea
marTali da romeli mtyuani?
garigeba Cven adre visaubreT, rom vaWroba nebayoflobiTi
urTierTobaa. orive mxare sakuTari neba-surviliT
Sedis am urTierTobaSi _ yidis an yidulobs rames.
xelSekruleba modi davakvirdeT, ras warmoadgens yidva-gayid-
vis procesi? es yvelas bevrjer gvinaxavs: erTi mxare
meores gadascems raime saqonels da sanacvlod iRebs
samoqalaqo misgan Tanxas (an piriqiT _ jer Tanxas iRebs da mere
pasuxismgebloba saqonels gadascems). Tumca es yidva-gayidvis pro-
ceduris mxolod daskvniTi nawilia. mas win uswrebs
urTierTobebis gacilebiT mniSvnelovani nawili _ mx-
zianis areebis molaparakeba da SeTanxmeba SesaZeni saqonlis
anazRaureba da masSi gadasaxdeli fasis Taobaze. am SeTanxmebas
garigeba ewodeba.
momxmareblis garigebebi marto yidva-gayidvas ar exeba. ada-
uflebebi mianebi SeiZleba garigdnen raime nivTis Txovebis,
Cuqebis, fulis sesxebis, binis qiravnobis an sxva
qonebriv sakiTxebze. garigeba SeiZleba iyos zepiri
nakliani an werilobiTi. zog SemTxvevaSi SeTanxmeba usityvoc
produqti ki SeiZleba iyos da mxolod moqmedebaSi gamoixatos
(magaliTad, sazogadoebriv transportSi asvla niS-
navs garigebas imis Taobaze, rom am mgzavrobisTvis
efeqturi dadgenil safasurs gadavixdi. an TviTmomsaxurebis
procenti maRaziaSi saqonlis aReba Tarodan da mitana molares-
Tan niSnavs imas, rom vapireb davdo garigeba am saqon-
lis SeZenis Taobaze).
miuxedavad imisa, rom garigebaSi Sesvla Cveni
nebaa, igives ver vityviT garigebidan gasvlaze an
mis gauqmebaze. Tuki Tqven maRaziaSi nivTi SeiZineT
da Semdeg umizezod misi ukan dabruneba ganizraxeT,
maRazia ar aris valdebuli es Tqveni survili

43
moqalaqe da ekonomika. maia gonaSvili, lia Todua

daakmayofilos. Tumca, Tuki nivTs nakli aRmoaCnda,


Tqven gaqvT ufleba maRazias am naklis gamosworeba, an
nivTis gamocvla mosTxovoT, xolo Tuki maRazias amis
SesaZlebloba ar aqvs, man nivTi ukan unda daibrunos
da Tqven masSi gadaxdili Tanxa aginazRauroT.

gaiTvaliswineT: saqarTveloSi nakliani


saqonlis dabrunebis zogadi wesi ar moqmedebs,
Tuki Tqven maRaziam raime sxva pirobis Semcveli
werilobiTi xelSekruleba dagidoT. amitom yov-
elTvis guldasmiT waikiTxeT is dokumentebi,
razec maRaziaSi, nivTis SeZenisas, xels awerT!

nebismieri garigebis dadeba (miuxedavad imisa,


garigeba _
rogori formisaa garigeba) warmoSobs am garigebis
calmxrivi,
mxareebis uflebebs da valdebulebebs, romelTa
ormxrivi an
darRvevis SemTxvevaSi meore mxares SeuZlia misTvis
mravalmxrivi
miyenebuli zaralis anazRaureba moiTxovos.
nebis gamovlena,
romelic magaliTad, Tuki Tqven maRaziaSi airCieT macivari,
mimarTulia SeuTanxmdiT maRazias, rom mas saxlSi mogitanen, da
samarTlebrivi macivris SeZenis da motanis Tanxac gadaixadeT, maRaz-
urTierTobis ia valdebulia SerCeuli saqoneli SeTanxmebul vadaSi
warmoSobis, mogitanoT. Tu macivari droulad ar mogitanes, Tqven
Secvlis an gaqvT ufleba gadaxdili Tanxis dabruneba moiTxovoT
Sewyvetisaken. da maRazia valdebulia es Tqveni moTxovna Seasru-
los.
amdenad, garigebebi warmoSobs valdebulebebs,
xelSekruleba _ romelTa Seusruleblobis SemTxvevaSi damrRvevi mx-
garigebis erT- are pasuxs agebs. am pasuxismgeblobas samoqalaqo pa-
erTi saxe, romlis suxismgebloba ewodeba. vinaidan garigebebi ZiriTadad
dasadebadac ori qonebriv sakiTxebze ideba, samoqalaqo pasuxismgeblo-
an meti piris bac ZiriTadad qonebrivi xasiaTisaa da qonebis dab-
SeTanxmebaa runebis, SekeTebis, an fuladi kompensaciis gadaxdaSi
saWiro. mdgomareobs. samoqalaqo pasuxismgebloba zogjer
garigebis gareSec SeiZleba dadges _ Tuki Cven un-
eblieT visime qonebas ziani mivayeneT, misi patronis
moTxovnis SemTxvevaSi es ziani unda avanazRauroT.
aRsaniSnavia, rom piris unars, pasuxi agos sxvisTvis
miyenebuli zianisTvis qarTuli kanonmdebloba 10
wlis asakidan cnobs.
Tu mxare samoqalaqo pasuxismgeblobas gaurbis,
meore mxares ufleba aqvs sasamarTlos mimarTos. sa-
samarTlos gadawyvetilebis aRsrulebaSi ki mas ukve
saxelmwifo aRmasrulebeli organoebi daexmareba.

44
Tavi VI. qonebrivi urTierTobebi

garigeba (Rechtsgeschft) germanuli


warmoSobis sityvaa da samarTlebriv
aqts niSnavs. cnebebi garigeba da ne-
bis gamovlena samarTlis sistemis dax-
asiaTebisTvis pirvelad XVIII saukunis
germanelma iuristma, georg arnold
heizem (Georg Arnold Heise, 1778-1851 ww.)
gamoiyena.

xelSekruleba igive garigebaa, romelic or an met


momxmarebeli mxares Soris ideba. amasTan, ar unda warmovidginoT,
_ moqalaqe, rom xelSekruleba yovelTvis beWdiTa da xelmoweriT
romelic iZens dadasturebuli or egzemplarad Sedgenili werilo-
produqts/ biTi dokumentia. xelSekruleba kerZo pirTa nebis-
momsaxurebas mieri SeTanxmebaa, romliTac mxareebs warmoeSobaT
misi piradi (da samoqalaqo uflebebi da valdebulebebi. es SeiZleba
ara komerciuli) iyos rogorc yoveldRiuri wvrilmani xelSekrule-
saWiroebebis bebi (magaliTad, avtobusiT mgzavroba, puris yidva,
dasakmayo- fulis sesxeba, nivTis Txoveba da a.S.), ise rTuli da
fileblad. did finansebTan dakavSirebuli xelSekrulebebi (mag-
aliTad, bankidan sesxis aReba, saxlis SeZena, miwis
ijara, da a.S.).
efeqturi
xelSekruleba ara mxolod adamianebs Soris, ar-
saprocento
amed e.w. iuridiul pirebTanac (firma, organizacia)
ganakveTi _
SeiZleba daidos. xelSekrulebis mxare saxelmwifoc
saprocento ga-
SeiZleba iyos. yvela SemTxvevaSi xelSekrulebis
nakveTi, romlis
monawileTa urTierToba Tanasworuflebianobazea
gamoTvlisas gaT-
dafuZnebuli. orive mxares aqvs uflebebi da valdeb-
valiswinebulia
ulebebi da SeuZlia meore mxares maTi dacva mosTxo-
momxmareblis mier
vos.
gasawevi yvela fi-
nansuri xarji. xelSekruleba keTilsindisierad unda Sesruldes.
keTilsindisiereba aucilebelia garigebis dadebis
drosac. garigeba xom sakuTari nebiT valdebule-
bebis aRebaa! xelSekrulebis orive mxare Segnebulad,
gaazrebulad unda iRebdes am valdebulebebs Tavis
Tavze. maT unda gaaCndeT sakmarisi informacia, dro
da saSualeba, raTa es gadawyvetileba gaiazron. dauS-
vebelia adamianis iZuleba garigebis dasadebad, mo-
tyueba, SecdomaSi Seyvana. es SeiZleba gamoixatos ara
mxolod mcdari informaciis miwodebaSi, aramed, mag-
aliTad, im informaciis dafarvaSi, romlis arsebobis
SemTxvevaSi adamiani am garigebaSi ar Sevidoda. Tuki
garigebis dadebisas adgili hqonda romelime mxaris
iZulebas, ganzrax motyuebas an SecdomaSi Seyvanas,
dazaralebul mxares SeuZlia aseTi garigebis baTi-
lad cnoba moiTxovos.

45
moqalaqe da ekonomika. maia gonaSvili, lia Todua

momxmarebelTa uflebebis dacva

Cven yvela momxmareblebi varT


jon kenedi, aSS-s 35-e prezidenti
1962 wlis 15 marti
es gamoTqma safuZvlad daedo 15 martis dawesebas
momxmarebelTa dacvis saerTaSoriso dRed (aRiniSneba 1983 wlidan).
yidva-gayidvaSi yvela vmonawileobT. zogi _ yidis. yvelani _ vyidulobT.
Cven yvela momxmareblebi varT. momxmarebeli niSnavs moqalaqes, romelic iZens
produqts/momsaxurebas misi an misi ojaxis piradi (ara-komerciuli) saWiroe-
bebisTvis.
1985 wels, gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciis generalur asambleaze,
msoflios 159 qveynis warmomadgenlebma erTxmad miiRes deklaracia imis Tao-
baze, rom momxmareblebs saxelmwifos mxridan gansakuTrebuli dacva sWird-
ebaT. Tumca dRemde, momxmarebelTa uflebebi da maTi dacvis saSualebebi qvey-
nebis mixedviT mniSvnelovnad gansxvavdeba.
samwuxarod, saqarTveloSi dResdReobiT momxmarebelTa uflebebis dacva
Zalze sustad aris warmodgenili. momxmarebelTa interesebis dacvis saxelm-
wifo samsaxuri mxolod sam sferoSi arsebobs:
eleqtroenergiiT, gaziT da wyliT momaragebis sferoSi _ momxmare-
blebis interesebis sazogadoebrivi damcveli (misi veb-gverdia http://pdci.
ge/);
komunikaciebis sferoSi _ momxmareblebis interesebis sazogadoebrivi
damcveli (misi veb-gverdia http://momkhmarebeli.gncc.ge/);
sabanko sferoSi _ saqarTvelos erovnuli bankis momxmarebelTa ufle-
bebis dacvis ganyofileba (misi veb-gverdia http://nbg.gov.ge/cp/)
sxva samomxmareblo sferoebSi momxmarebelTa uflebebis dacvis saxelm-
wifo organoebi ar arsebobs da Tavis interesebis dacva momxmarebels mxolod
sasamarTlosTvis mimarTvis gziT SeuZlia.
evrokavSir-saqarTvelos asocirebis xelSekrulebiT gaTvaliswinebulia,
rom 2019 wels saqarTveloSi unda amoqmeddes momxmarebelTa uflebebis dac-
vis kanonmdebloba, romelic evrokavSiris kanonmdeblobis analogiuri iqneba.
evrokavSiris kanonmdebloba momxmarebelTa
dacvis maRal dones iTvaliswinebs. magaliTad, uz-
runvelyofilia Semdegi moTxovnebis Sesruleba:
mewarme valdebulia momxmarebelTan samar-
Tliani xelSekruleba dados, sadac orive
mxares Tanabari uflebebi da valdebulebebi
eqneba. xelSekrulebis is pirobebi, romelic
momxmarebels araTanabar, wamgebian mdgo-
mareobaSi ayenebs, baTilia. aseTad miiCneva,
magaliTad, Canaweri imis Taobaze, rom mim-

46
Tavi VI. qonebrivi urTierTobebi

wodebels SeuZlia nebismier momentSi, Ta-


visi survilisamebr Sewyvitos an Secvalos
momsaxureba, mniSvnelovnad gazardos misi
fasi, ar gadauxados momxmarebels kompen-
sacia arasrulad miwodebuli saqonlis/
momsaxurebis SemTxvevaSi, ar aanazRau-
ros misi qmedebis/umoqmedebis gamo momx-
mareblis janmrTelobisTvis miyenebuli
ziani da sxva. garda amisa, xelSekrulebis
bundovani/gaugebari pirobebi yovelTvis
momxmareblis sasargeblod ganimarteba.
momxmareblis SecdomaSi Semyvani da
agresiuli vaWrobis xerxebi akrZalulia.
aseTad iTvleba, magaliTad:
saqonlis/momsaxurebis daJinebuli Se-
Tavazeba telefoniT, el-fostiT an sxva
saSualebiT; momxmareblisTvis araswori
informaciis miwodeba saqonlis xelmis-
awvdomobis an fasis Taobaze (amas sxva-
gan ver iSovi, am fasad versad iSovi da
a.S.); momxmareblisTvis araswori warmod-
genis Seqmna saqonlis warmomavlobis an
mwarmoeblis/brendis Taobaze; momxmareblis darwmuneba, rom saqoneli
Tavdeba an rom maRazia ixureba _ Tuki es simarTles ar Seesabameba;
momxmareblis darwmuneba, rom man moigo prizi an raime jildo, roca
sinamdvileSi prizis miReba momxmareblis mier raime Tanxis gaRebas-
Tanaa dakavSirebuli; momxmareblisTvis iseTi saqonlis miwodeba (sxva-
ze damatebiT), romelic mas ar mouTxovia da amisTvis Tanxis moTxovna;
momxmareblis CarTva e.w. `piramidul sqemebSi~, roca mas sTavazoben
kompensacias sqemaSi axali adamianebis mozidvisTvis/CarTvisTvis; momx-
mareblisTvis mcdari STabeWdilebis Seqmna imis Taobaze, rom saqoneli/
momsaxureba sxvam SeiZina da Zalian kmayofilia, da sxva.
momxmarebels unda miawodon zustad is produqti/momsaxureba, rac mas
Sehpirdnen. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi momxmarebels SeuZlia moiTxovos
kompensacia. es exeba magaliTad turistul momsaxurebas _ Tuki real-
uri servisi ar Seesabameboda Sepirebuls.
evrokavSirSi SeZenil grZelvadiani moxmareblis saqonelze kanoniT da-
wesebulia orwliani savaldebulo garantia. Tu momxmareblis mier SeZe-
nil saqonels nakli aRmoaCnda, am vadis ganmavlobaSi is gamyidvelma
maRaziam ufasod unda SeakeTos an gamocvalos. am uflebis gadafarva
momxmarebelTan dadebuli raime xelSekrulebiT SeuZlebelia. gamyidve-
lis an mwarmoeblis mier gacemul sagarantio furcels mxolod damate-
biTi funqcia gaaCnia.
garda amisa, internetSi SeZenil saqonelTan mimarTebaSi, misi miRebidan
14 dRis ganmavlobaSi momxmarebels SeuZlia unaklo saqonelic daubru-

47
moqalaqe da ekonomika. maia gonaSvili, lia Todua

nos gamyidvels (magaliTad, imis gamo, rom


zoma ar moergo, an ubralod gadaifiqra
am saqonlis SeZena).
msgavsi uflebebi aqvs momxmarebels
bankSi aRebul sesxTan mimarTebaSi _
xelSekrulebis xelmoweridan 14 dRis
ganmavlobaSi momxmarebels SeuZlia xel-
Sekruleba gaauqmos ubralod imis gamo,
rom gadaifiqra. cxadia amisTvis man unda
daabrunos aRebuli Tanxa da aanazRauros
bankis mier gaweuli sxva xarjebi.
evrokavSiris yvela qveyanaSi moqmedebs momx-
marebelTa daxmarebis centrebi (European Con-
sumer Centres), sadac momxmarebels ufasod Seu-
Zlia rCeva da daxmareba miiRos. garda amisa,
yvela qveyanaSi funqcionirebs administraciuli
organo, romelic amowmebs, Tu ramdenad icaven
mewarmeebi momxmarebelTa uflebebs. es SeiZleba iyos momxmarebelTa dacvis
ombudsmeni, samsaxuri an mTavrobis mier dafinansebuli sxva organizacia.
momxmarebelTa uflebebis damrRvevi mewarme jarimdeba. evrokavSiris yvela
qveyanaSi moqmedebs agreTve momxmarebelTa uflebebis damcveli arasamTavro-
bo organizaciebi.
evrokavSirSi momxmarebelTa uflebebs da maTi dacvis saSualebebs Segi-
ZliaT detalurad gaecnoT internetSi, misamarTze http://europa.eu/youreurope/citi-
zens/consumers/. axlo momavalSi, etapobrivad, msgavsi dacva qarTvel momxmareb-
elsac eqnebaT.

iciT Tu ara, rom...

albaT TiToeul TqvenTagans SegxvedriaT sabanko reklama, romelic ama


Tu SenaZenisTvis nulprocentian samomxmareblo sesxs gTavazobT. magaliTad,
aseTi:

gsurT waxvideT dasasveneblad, SeiZinoT axali teqnika,


SeiZinoT manqana? ar gaqvT sakmarisi Tanxa?
Tqven SegiZliaT miiRoT samomxmareblo sesxi 0 %-idan.

48
Tavi VI. qonebrivi urTierTobebi

marTla nulprocentiania aseT SemTxvevebSi bankis


mier gacemuli sesxi?
imisTvis, rom am sakiTxSi gaverkveT, unda gavarkvi-
oT, Tu ra aris sesxis procenti.
procentad sesxis xelSekrulebebSi moixsenieba
gadasaxadi, romelic unda gadavuxadoT banks, sesxiT
sargeblobisTvis. bankebi xSirad cdiloben procentad
moixsenion mxolod is Tanxa, romelsac mas sesxis amRebi
yovelTviuri an yovelwliuri periodulobiT uxdis. Tumca realurad, sesxis
amReb momxmarebels SeiZleba mosTxovon bevri sxva gadasaxdelis gadaxda an
xarjis gaweva, romelsac banki procentad ar moixseniebs. es SeiZleba iyos
momsaxurebis sakomisio, Tanxis gatanis an Semotanis an ganaRdebis sakomisio,
dazRvevis xarjebi, qonebis Sefasebis xarjebi, notariusis an raime cnobis
aRebis safasuri da sxva. garda amisa, rodesac sesxis gacema dakavSirebulia
romelime konkretul (bankis mier winaswar SerCeul) mewarmisgan saqonlis/mom-
saxurebis SeZenasTan, rogorc wesi, saqonlis/momsaxurebis fasi misi sesxiT
da sesxis gareSe SeZenis SemTxvevaSi gansxvavdeba (sesxis aRebis SemTxvevaSi
produqti ufro Zvirad iyideba). es gansxvaveba agreTve damatebiTi xarjia,
romelsac sesxis amRebi gaiRebs, Tumca banki mas procentad ar moixseniebs.
amgvarad, roca gaigebT, rom banki nulprocentian sesxs gTavazobT, unda
icodeT, rom nuls udris mxolod e.w. nominaluri procenti _ anu is ga-
dasaxadi, romelsac bankma procenti daarqva. mosalodnelia, rom arsebobs sxva
gadasaxdelebi, romelsac banki procents ar eZaxis, Tumca maTi gadaxdis ga-
reSe Tqven sesxs ver aiRebT.
imisTvis, rom momxmarebeli aseT situaciebSi ukeT gaerkves, saqarTvelos
erovnul banks Semotanili aqvs cneba efeqturi saprocento ganakveTi. mas-
Si Sedis yvela is gadasaxdeli an xarji, romlis gaReba sesxis amRebs uwevs.
efeqturi procenti aris sesxiT sargeblobis realuri Rirebuleba momxmare-
blisTvis. yvela banki valdebulia sesxis gacemisas gamoiangariSos efeqturi
saprocento ganakveTi, acnobos igi momxmarebels da sesxis xelSekrulebaSic
sagangebod miuTiTos.
garda amisa, sesxis gacemis xelSekrulebaSi miTiTebuli unda iyos sesxis
sxva mniSvnelovani pirobebi, rogoricaa procentis gadaxdis da sesxis dafarvis
ganrigi, pirgasamtexlo _ procentis droulad gadauxdelobis, an sesxis naad-
revad dafarvis SemTxvevaSi, gadasaxdeli Tanxis an sxva pirobebis calmxrivad
Secvlis SesaZlebloba da sxva.
samwuxarod momxmareblebi xelSekrulebas iSviaTad kiTxuloben. erT-erT
qarTul bankSi davakvirdiT kreditis (sesxis) amRebi momxmareblebis qcevas.
100 momxmareblidan mxolod erTma moiTxova, rom xelSekruleba misTvis saxl-
Si gaetanebinaT, raTa kargad gacnoboda; kidev orma momxmarebelma gadawyvita
adgilze waekiTxa, Tumca Zalian wvrili Sriftis gamo gadaifiqra; sxva yvela
momxmarebelma xelSekrulebas wakiTxvis gareSe moawera xeli.
momavalSi gaxsovdeT: sesxis aRebisas nu aCqardebiT! guldasmiT gaecaniT
sakredito xelSekrulebas da moiTxoveT gangimarton yvela punqti, romelic

49
moqalaqe da ekonomika. maia gonaSvili, lia Todua

gaugebaria. pretenziebis SemTxvevaSi mimarTeT bankis xelmZRvanelobas an saqa-


rTvelos erovnuli bankis momxmarebelTa uflebebis dacvis ganyofilebas (veb-
gverdi http://nbg.gov.ge/cp/).

daskvna

garigeba SeiZleba iyos zepiri, werilobiTi, an usityvo.


garigeba ar SeiZleba daidos erT-erTi mxaris motyuebis an SecdomaSi
Seyvanis safuZvelze.
xelSekruleba nebayoflobiTi urTierTobaa, romelic valdebulebebs
warmoSobs.
xelSekrulebis orive mxare Tanasworuflebiania.
sesxis aRebisas ar unda iCqaro, yuradRebiT unda gaecno xelSekrulebis
pirobebs. miaqcie yuradReba efeqtur saprocento ganakveTs.
Tu saqonels nakli aqvs, SegiZlia misi SekeTeba an gamocvla moiTxovo _
Tu xelSekrulebiT sawinaaRmdego ar aris gaTvaliswinebuli.
evrokavSirSi momxmarebeli ufro daculia, vidre saqarTveloSi.

ekonomikuri praqtikumi
ixile moswavlis rveuli

50
saerTaSoriso
Tavi VII
vaWroba
Tema 7. saerTaSoriso
vaWroba

dRevandeli qveynebis umetesobis ekonomika Ria


ZiriTadi terminebi/ sistemas warmoadgens da gare vaWrobis gareSe misi ar-
cnebebi: seboba SeuZlebelia. Cven ver warmogvidgenia cxovre-
ba sazRvargareTidan Semotanili iseTi produqciis
gareSe, rogoricaa tansacmeli, navTobi, bunebrivi
absoluturi airi, avtomobilebi, kompiuteruli teqnika, medi-
upiratesoba kamentebi, saojaxo teqnika, filmebi, wignebi da sxv.
saqarTvelodan ki sazRvargareT gadis iseTi poduq-
cia rogoricaa Txili, xili da bostneuli, liTonebi,
alternatiuli
Rvino, citrusebi da sxv.
danaxarji
ratom vaWroben qveynebi? ra ubiZgebs maT amisken?
ratom ar SeiZleba yvelam Tavad awarmoos yvelaferi,
SefardebiTi rac sWirdeba?
upiratesoba
ama Tu im saqonlis warmoebisTvis qveynebs gansx-
vavebuli resursebi gaaCniaT. es exeba rogorc bune-
briv wiaRiseuls an klimatur pirobebs, aseve adami-
proteqcionizmi anur resurss _ Sromisunarian adamianTa raodenobas,
maT codnas, unarebs, survils da mondomebas esa Tu
is samuSao Seasrulon. gansxvavebulia agreTve qyvey-
nebSi droTa ganmavlobaSi dagrovili kapitali _ qa-
rxnebis, danadgarebis, sxvadasxva infrastruqturis
saxiT. gansxvavebulia bunebrivi resursebis gamoy-
enebis efeqturoba da adamianTa Sromis nayofiereba.
am gansxvavebuli pirobebis gamo erTi da imave
saqonlis warmoebisTvis sxvadasxva qveyanaSi sxvadasx-
va xarjis gawevaa saWiro. anu danaxarjebi, romelsac
sxvadasxva qveynebi sweven erTi da imave saqonlis war-
moebisTvis, gansxvavebulia. amitom SeiZleba moxdes
ise, rom raime saqonlis warmoeba erT qveyanaSi bevrad
iafi jdeba (nakleb resursebs moiTxovs), vidre meo-
reSi. aseT SemTxvevaSi amboben, rom qveyanas gaaCnia
absoluturi upiratesoba am produqtis warmoebaSi.
sxva qveynebisaTvis ekonomikurad momgebiania (ufro
iafi ujdebaT) es produqti Tavad ki ar awarmoon,
aramed am qveynidan SeiZinon. amave dros maT Tavis
Zalisxmeva raime sxva produqtis warmoebaze unda mim-
arTon, romelSic upiratesoba maT gaaCniaT.

51
moqalaqe da ekonomika. maia gonaSvili, lia Todua

XVIII saukunis gamoCenili ekonomisti, adam smi-


ti, absolutur upiratesobas Semdegnairad aRwer-
da: yvela gonieri ojaxis ufrosis mTavari prin-
cipia, arasodes ecados saxlSi imis gakeTebas, risi
yidvac ufro iafi dajdeba. TerZi ar cdilobs sa-
kuTari fexsacmlis Sekervas, is fexsacmels mewaR-
absoluturi
isgan yidulobs. mewaRe ar cdilobs tansacmlis
upiratesoba
Sekervas, is TerZs qiraobs. fermeri ar cdilobs
_ mwarmoeblis
fexsacmlis an tansacmlis Sekervas, is amisTvis
unari awarmoos
Sesabamis ostatebs qiraobs. TiToeuli maTgani
produqti
acnobierebs, rom maTTvis umjobesia ise gamoiy-
resursebis
enos Tavisi xeloba, rom garkveuli upiratesoba
naklebi
hqondes mezoblebTan SedarebiT, da iyidos saku-
danaxarjebiT,
Tari nawarmis nawiliT an nawarmis nawilis fasad
vidre sxvebma.
is, risi yidvis survilic eqneba~.

magram ra xdeba im SemTxvevaSi, Tuki qveyanas abso-


alternatiuli
luturi upiratesoba arc erTi produqtis warmoebaSi
danaxarji
ar gaaCnia? man saerTod araferi ar unda awarmoos da
(Opportunity cost) _
yvela saqoneli sxva qveynebisgan unda SeiZinos?
is rasac vTmobT
raime sxvis ara, es ase ar aris.
misaRebad. me-19 saukunis gamoCenilma ekonomistma, devid ri-
kardom, aCvena, rom im SemTxvevaSic ki, roca qveyanaSi
warmoebis efeqturoba dabalia da mas absoluturi
SefardebiTi upiratesoba arc erTi saqonlis warmoebaSi ar gaaC-
upiratesoba _ nia, mainc aqvs azri man garkveuli saqoneli awarmoos
mwarmoeblis da gayidos. saintereso isaa, rom misgan am saqonlis
unari awarmoos SeZena SesaZloa swored im qveynisTvis iyos momge-
produqti naklebi biani, romelsac am saqonlis warmoeba bevrad ufro
alternatiuli efeqturad SeuZlia.
danaxarjebiT,
vidre sxvebma.
devid rikardo (David Ricardo) _
ingliseli politikuri ekonomisti,
proteqcionis- 1772-1823 ww.
tuli politika _
Sida bazris
importisagan ganvixiloT aseTi magaliTi: davuSvaT nino da
dacvis politika. marTa stumrebs elodebian. maT saxli aqvT dasalage-
beli da namcxris gamocxobac undaT rom moaswron.
gogonebidan nino ufro swrafia _ is saxls naxevar
saaTSi alagebs, marTas ki amisTvis erTi saaTi mainc
sWirdeba. Tumca nino agreTve swrafia namcxvris cxo-
baSi _ is namcxvars erT saaTSi acxobs, marTa ki am
saqmes sam saaTs moundeba. anu ninos ukeT gamosdis

52
Tavi VII. saerTaSoriso vaWroba

orive saqme. rogor unda moiqcnen? yvelaferi ninom gaakeTos da marTa ki da-
jdes da daelodos? ara, ra Tqma unda. yvelaze racionaluria, ninom namcxvari
gamoacxos da marTam ki saxli daalagos. ase gogonebi saqmesac male morCebian
da kmayofilebic darCebian, rom orivem imuSava.
ratom miviReT es Sedegi? imitom rom ninos absoluturi upiratesoba mar-
Tas mimarT sxvadasxva saqmianobaSi gansxvavebulia. nino marTaze orjer ufro
swrafia saxlis dalagebaSi, magram samjer ufro swrafia _ namcxvris cxobaSi.
aSkaraa, rom namcxvris cxobaSi ninos SefardebiTi upiratesoba gaaCnia (dal-
agebasTan SedarebiT) da amitom sjobs man swored es saqme akeTos.
rikardom yuradReba miaqcia im garemoebas, rom yoveli nivTis warmoebisas
Cven ara marto vxarjavT masze garkveul resursebs (dros, nedleuls, samuSao
Zalas, manqana-danadgarebs da sxva), aramed agreTve uars vambobT sxva, alter-
natiuli produqtis warmoebaze, romelic imave resursebiT SeiZleboda gve-
warmoebina. produqts, romlis warmoebazec uari vqTviT, alternatiuli danax-
arji ewodeba. da Tuki es alternatiuli danaxarjebi maRalia, maSin jobs Cven
am nivTis warmoeba sxvas davuTmoT. zemoT moyvanil magaliTSi saxlis dalageba
ninos namcxvris cxobis naxevar dros arTmevs, marTas ki _ mxolod mesameds.
anu alternatiuli danaxarjebis TvalsazrisiT saxlis dalageba marTas nakle-
bi ujdeba, vidre ninos. es niSnavs, rom marTas aqvs SefardebiTi upiratesoba
saxlis lagebaSi da ukeTesia es saqme swored man akeTos.
vinaidan msoflioSi uamravi saqoneli iwarmoeba, qveynebi ki daaxloebiT
orasia, yvela qveyanas gaaCnia SefardebiTi upiratesoba ama Tu im saqonelTan
(saqonlis jgufTan) mimarTebaSi. is imas niSnavs, rom yvela qveyanas SeuZlia
gayidos raime saqoneli ise, rom sxva qveynebisTvis momgebiani iyos es saqoneli
Tavad ki ar awarmoon, aramed am qveynisgan iyidon. amiT mogebuli darCeba
orive mxare da mTlianad msoflio ekonomikac _ vinaidan saboloo jamSi meti
saqoneli iwarmoeba da ufro efeqturad, vidre vaWrobis gareSe iwarmoeboda.
amdenad, saerTaSoriso vaWroba sasargebloa yvela qveynisTvis da msoflio
ekonomikisTvis mTlianad. igi agreTve sasargebloa TiToeuli CvenganisTvis,
momxmareblebisTvis, vinaidan saSualeba gveZleva rac SeiZleba iafad SeviZinoT
saqoneli, romlis arCevani TiTqmis SeuzRudavia.

saerTaSoriso vaWrobis ganviTareba da xelSewyoba bevri saerTaSoriso


organizaciis dRis wesrigSia. aseTebia, magaliTad, gaeros konferencia vaW-
robasa da ganviTarebaze (UNCTAD), Savi zRis ekonomikuri TanamSromlobis
organizacia (BSEC) da sxva. Tumca saerTaSoriso vaWrobaze gavlenis Tval-
sazrisiT yvelaze mniSvnelovania msoflio savaWro organizacia (World Trade
Organization, WTO). msoflio savaWro organizacia cdilobs gaaiolos qvey-
nebs Soris vaWroba da daadginos saerTaSoriso vaWrobis erTiani, yvelas-
Tvis misaRebi wesebi. es procesi sakmaod rTuli da xangrZlivi molapara-
kebebis saSualebiT mimdinarebs da yvela saqonelsa Tu momsaxurebasTan
dakavSirebiT SeTanxmeba jer miRweuli ar aris.

53
moqalaqe da ekonomika. maia gonaSvili, lia Todua

miuxedavad imisa, rom gare vaWroba qveynebisTvis sasargebloa, igi dam-


atebiTi Tavistkivilia qveynis mewarmeebisTvis, vinaidan maT nawarms ucxour,
importul saqonelTan konkurencia uwevs. zog sawarmom gazrdil konkurencias
SeiZleba ver gauZlos da daixuros, maT nacvlad ki sxva profilis sawarmoebi
gaixsneba. es iwvevs adamianTa specializaciis cvlilebis saWiroebas, rac maT
droebiT umuSevrobasTan da damatebiT xarjebTan aris dakavSirebuli.

saqonlis importisas saqonlis eqsportisas

ganicdian met konkuren- saqonels yidian ufro did


adgilobrivi
cias. iZulebulni arian bazarze, amitom ezrdebaT
mwarmoeblebi
fasi Seamciron mogeba.

adgilobrivi mogebulni arian: mcirdeba


momxmareblebi fasi, izrdeba arCevani

amitom, adgilobrivi mwarmoeblebis dasacavad zogjer qveynebi sxvadasxva


saSualebas mimarTaven, raTa importuli saqoneli gaaZviron, an misi raode-
noba SezRudon. es SeiZleba ganxorcieldes e.w. tarifebis, anu sabaJo an sxva
gadasaxadebis saSualebiT, romelic importiorma saqonlis Semotanisas unda
gadaixados (Sesabamisad matulobs saqonlis fasi); agreTve qvotebis (saqon-
lis importis raodenobrivi SezRudva) an importis nebarTvebis/licenziebis
dawesebiT. importis Seferxeba/gaZvireba agreTve SesaZlebelia saqonlisaTvis
rTuli (da sxva qveynebisgan gansxvavebuli) teqnikuri moTxovnebis dawesebiT
_ maTi Sesruleba saqonlis mwarmoebels xom damatebiTi xarji ujdeba. Sida
mwarmoeblebis dasaxmareblad mTavrobam agreTve SeiZleba gamoiyenos am mewar-
meebisTvis subsidiebis, saxelmwifo daxmarebebis gamoyofa, an magaliTad, sax-
elmwifo organizaciebisTvis mxolod adgilobrivi saqonlis Sesyidvis daSveba
da sxva. yvela am zomebs saxelmwifos proteqcionistuli politika ewodeba.

vaWrobis barierebi

teqnikuri sabaJo
moTxovnebi tarifebi

adgilobrivi warmoebis kvotebi/


mxardaWera licenziebi

54
Tavi VII. saerTaSoriso vaWroba

proteqcionistuli politika Zalze popularuli iyo XX saukunis pirvel


naxevarSi da mas praqtikulad yvela qveyana mimarTavda. 1947 wlisTvis qveynebis
sabaJo tarifebi saSualod 40%-s Seadgenda. agreTve farTod gamoiyeneboda
importis SezRudva qvotebiT da licenziebiT da Sida warmoebis daxmarebis
sxvadasxva RonisZiebebi.
meore msoflio omis Semdeg, rodesac qveynebis didi nawilis ekonomika
omisgan gacamtverebuli iyo, mosaxleoba _ SimSilis piras idga da gasagebi
iyo, rom situaciis swrafi gamosworeba vaWrobis gafarToebis gareSe SeuZle-
belia, 23 qveyanas Soris daido generaluri SeTanxmeba vaWrobisa da tarifebis
Sesaxeb (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, SemoklebiT GATT, amoqmedda 1948
wlis 1 ianvridan). am SeTanxmebiT daiwyo importis qvotebis gauqmeba, saba-
Jo tarifebis etapobrivi Semcireba da Sida warmoebis mxardaWeris RonisZie-
bebis SezRudva. agreTve aikrZala gansxvavebuli moTxovnebi importirebuli
produqciisTvis (ucxouris diskriminacia) _ dawesda, rom qveyanaSi dadgenili
moTxovnebi Tanabrad unda vrceldebodes rogorc importul, aseve Sida war-
moebis saqonelze.
GATT-SeTanxmebis mier gatarebuli zomebis Sedegad mis wevr-qveynebs Soris
vaWroba Zalian swrafad gaizarda (daaxloebiT 10-jeradi zrda, 40 wlis gan-
mavlobaSi), rasac am vaWrobaSi monawile qveynebis ekonomikis swrafi reabili-
tacia da arnaxuli ganviTareba mohyva, ramac maTi mosaxleobis keTildReobis
gaumjobesebasac Seuwyo xeli. Sesabamisad, gaizarda qveynebis daintereseba am
SeTanxmebaSi monawileobiT. imata GATT-wevrebis ricxma 1994 wlisTvis SeTanx-
mebaSi ukve 128 qveyana monawileobda.

diagrama: qveynebs Soris vaWrobis (wiTeli mrudi) da qveynebis ekonomikis (Savi mrudi) zrda XX
saukuneSi. (vertikaluri Skala logariTmulia)
wyaaro: https://www.wto.org/

55
moqalaqe da ekonomika. maia gonaSvili, lia Todua

am warmatebis fonze, 1995 wels, GATT-SeTanxmeba gadaizarda WTO-SeTanxme-


baSi, romlis masStabi gacilebiT farToa da moicavs ara mxolod produqcias,
aramed agreTve momsaxurebis sferoebsac. garda amisa, WTO-SeTanxmeba iTval-
iswinebs inteleqtualuri sakuTrebis dacvas, konkurenciis dacvis RonisZie-
bebs, subsidiebis SezRudvas, saxelmwifo Sesyidvebis gamWvirvalobas. etapo-
brivad grZeldeba molaparakebebi sasoflo-sameurneo produqciiT vaWrobis
meti gaxsnilobisa da ganTavisuflebisTvis.
WTO-SeTanxmebiT agreTve dawesda e.w. teqnikuri barierebis _ anu produq-
ciisTvis dadgenili teqnikuri moTxovnebis zRvrebi. gaumarTlebeli teqnikuri
moTxovnebis SemoReba WTO-s wevr qveynebs aekrZalaT. teqnikuri moTxovnebis
dawesebis gamarTlebul, legitimur mizezebad miiCneva: erovnuli usafrTxoeba,
adamianTa janmrTelobis dacva, garemos dacva, momxmarebelTa dacva motyuebi-
sgan an SecdomaSi Seyvanisgan. sxva, gaumarTlebeli mizezebiT dawesebuli Sez-
Rudva proteqcionizmis farul ganxorcielebad miiCneva. dainteresebul mx-
ares (qveyanas) SeuZlia iCivlos WTO-s davaTa ganxilvis organoSi romelime
qveynis mier ama Tu im saqonelze gaumarTlebeli teqnikuri moTxovnebis dawe-
sebisTvis. davaTa ganxilvis organos gadawyvetileba Sesasruleblad saval-
debuloa _ gonivruli vadis ganmavlobaSi qveyanam saqonlisTvis dawesebuli
teqnikuri moTxovnebi WTO-s wesebTan SesabamisobaSi unda moiyvanos.

erT-erTi gaxmaurebuli dava, msoflio savaWro organizaciis far-


glebSi, genetikurad modificirebul organizmebs (gmo, GMO) exeboda.
genmodificirebuli organizmebi (mcenareebi, mikroorganizmebi) SeiZleba
gamoyenebuli iyos sasursaTo produqtebis misaRebad da arsebobs mosaz-
reba, rom aseTi sursaTi SesaZloa adamianTa janmrTelobisTvis saziano
iyos. Tumca es mosazreba saTanado mecnieruli monacemebiT gamyarebuli
jer-jerobiT ar aris. miuxedavad amisa, 1999 wels evrokavSirma gmo-sursa-
Tis importze droebiTi moratoriumi (akrZalva) daawesa. 2003 wels aSS-m,
kanadam da argentinam (gmo-sursaTis mwarmoebeli qveynebi) importis Sez-
Rudvis es zoma WTO-s davaTa ganxilvis organoSi gaasaCivra. mogvianebiT
saCivars SeuerTdnen gmo-sursaTis mwarmoebeli sxva qveynebic: avstralia,
axali zelandia, brazilia, indoeTi da meqsika. 2006 wels WTO-s davaTa
ganxilvis organom daaskvna, rom evrokavSiris mier dawesebuli moratori-
umi gaumarTlebeli teqnikuri SezRudva iyo. Tumca evrokavSirs morato-
riumi 2004 wlidan ukve gauqmebuli hqonda.
amdenad, genmodificirebuli sursaTis importi evrokavSirSi akrZal-
uli ar aris. Tumca savaldebuloa, rom gayidvisas am sursaTs etiketze
miTiTebuli hqondes warwera GMO. analogiuri wesi moqmedebas saqarT-
veloSic _ genmodificirebuli organizmebisgan damzadebul sursaTis etik-
etze savaldebuloa miTiTeba gm. genmodificirebuli mcenareebis daTesva/
dargva an sxvagvarad garemoSi introducireba (Setana) saqarTveloSi akrZa-
lulia.
gaiTvaliswineT: mediaSi da socialur qselebSi Zalze xSirad genetiku-
rad modificirebuli organizmebis Sesaxeb cru da gadaumowmebeli infor-
macia vrceldeba. informaciis gadamowmebis mizniT girCevT gamoiyenoT
gmo-kompasi: www.gmo-compass.org .

56
Tavi VII. saerTaSoriso vaWroba

amJamad msoflio savaWro organizaciaSi gaerTianebulia 184 qveyana. aqedan


162 qveyana srulfasovani wevria (icavs WTO-moTxovnebs, xmis uflebiT monaw-
ileobs SexvedrebSi/molaparakebebSi), xolo 22 qveyanas damkvirveblis statusi
aqvs (ar aqvs xmis ufleba da ar aris valdebuli WTO-moTxovnebi Seasrulos,
Tumca molaparakebebSi monawileobs).

WTO-wevrebi sxvebi WTO-damkvirveblebi

2000 wlis 14 ivnisidan saqarTvelo msoflio savaWro organizaciis srul-


fasovani wevria. 2006 wlidan qveyanam faqtiurad mospo sabaJo barierebi da
mniSvnelovnad Seamcira sabaJo tarifebi. importis maqsimaluri gadasaxadi am-
Jamad 12%-ia. bevri produqciis importze ki nulovani tarifi moqmedebs.
2014 wels, evrokavSirsa da saqarTvelos Soris asocirebis SeTanxmebis far-
glebSi, daido e.w. Rrma da yovlismomcveli Tavisufali vaWrobis SeTanxmeba
(Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreement, SemoklebiT DCFTA) evrokavSirsa da
saqarTvelos Soris. es SeTanxmeba WTO-SeTanxmebis gafarToebas warmoadgens,
da mis farglebSi evrokavSirsa da saqarTvelos Soris vaWroba kidev ufro
Ria da Tavisufali xdeba. Tumca amisTvis aucilebelia saqarTvelos sakanon-
mdeblo da normatiuli bazis mowesrigeba, sursaTis uvneblobis da zogadad
produqciis usafrTxoebis uzrunvelyofa, inteleqtualuri sakuTrebis saTa-
nadod dacva da SeTanxmebaSi gawerili sxva moTxovnebis Sesruleba, romli-
Tac qarTuli kanonmdebloba evrokavSiris kanonmdeblobas dauaxlovdeba. es
cvlilebebi uaxloesi 8-10 wlis ganmavlobaSi unda ganxorciledes. maT Sede-
gad saqarTveloSi Camoyalibdeba evrokavSiris bazris moTxovnebTan Tavsebadi
savaWro sistema, rac sargebels moutans rogorc qarTvel mewarmeebs (maT See-
ZlebaT ufro iolad gaitanon evropaSi Tavisi produqcia), aseve qarTvel momx-
mareblebs (uzrunvelyofili iqneba saqonlis meti arCevani, ukeTesi xarisxi,
momxmarebelTa interesebis ukeTesi gaTvaliswineba/daculoba) da mTlianad
sazogadoebas.

57
moqalaqe da ekonomika. maia gonaSvili, lia Todua

daskvna

gare vaWroba qveynis ekonomikisTvis sasargebloa.


gasayidi saqoneli yvela qveyanas gaaCnia.
saerTaSoriso vaWroba sasargebloa yvela qveynisTvis.
msoflio savaWro organizaciis mizania vaWrobis barierebis moxsna.
Rrma da yovlismomcveli Tavisufali vaWrobis SeTanxmeba saqarT-
velos ekonomikis gaZlierebis gzaa.

ekonomikuri praqtikumi
ixile moswavlis rveuli

58
saxelmwifos
Tavi VIII
roli
Tema 8. saxelmwifo da
ekonomika

am wignSi Cven ZiriTadad sabazro ekonomikaze


ZiriTadi terminebi/ vsaubrobdiT. sabazro ekonomikis safuZvelia mewarme-
cnebebi: Ta Tavisufali gadawyvetileba _ Tu ra awarmoon,
ramdeni da ra fasad gayidon. amis Semdeg ki bazari
wyvets _ anu, imis mixedviT, Tu rogoria am produq-
ekonomikuri tze moTxovna, ramdenad efeqturad awarmoeben igive
sistema produqts konkurentebi, _ produqti an gaiyideba im
fasad, rac mewarmes surs, an ara. yvela SemTxvevaSi
mewarmes mouwevs produqtis fasi da raodenoba baz-
socializmi ris realur mdgomareobas moargos.
magram yvela qveyana sabazro ekonomikas ar
efuZneba. sul raRac 25 wlis win saqarTvelo iyo im
qveynis (sabWoTa kavSiris) nawili, sadac ekonomika
kapitalizmi
sul sxva principze iyo agebuli. sabWoTa kavSirSi
yvela sawarmo saxelmwifos ekuTvnoda; saxelmwifo
wyvetda, TiToeuli sawarmo ras awarmoebda, ramdens
makroekonomikuri awarmoebda, sad miawvdida am nawarms da sad _ ara; sax-
maCveneblebi elmwifo adgenda produqciis gasayid fass, _ nawar-
mis sxva, ufro maRal fasad gayidva spekulantobad
iTvleboda da dasjadi iyo. agreTve dasjadi iyo
mTliani Sida umuSevroba _ yvela adamiani valdebuli iyo sapensio
produqti asakamde (55 weli qalebisTvis, 60 weli kacebisTvis)
emuSava (daojaxebul qalebs hqondaT ufleba diasax-
lisebi yofiliyvnen). bunebrivia, aseTi, faqtiurad
samomxmareblo
iZulebiTi Sromis nayofiereba da misi saSualebiT
kalaTa
warmoebuli produqciis xarisxi Zalze dabali iyo.
amitom yvela cdilobda SeeZina ufro maRalxarisx-
iani ucxouri saqoneli _ fexsacmeli, tansacmeli,
kosmetika, aveji, WurWeli, eleqtrosaqoneli, _ ro-
melic Zalze cota iyo (importic saxelmwifos xelSi
iyo. moqalaqeebs sazRvargareT Tavisuflad gasvla
da raimes SeZena ar SeeZloT). aseT saqonelze iyo
mudmivi rigebi, winaswari Cawerebi, zogjer wlobiT
lodini. am saqonlis Sovna imdenad rTuli iyo, rom
gayidvebi ZiriTadad daxlqveS warmoebda (ase eZaxd-
nen gamyidvelis mier saqonlis uCumrad gayidvas, zed-
met fasad). amave dros sakuTar, sabWoTa warmoebis
analogiur saqonels aravin yidulobda. aSkara iyo,

59
moqalaqe da ekonomika. maia gonaSvili, lia Todua

rom qveyana Tavis resursebs araefeqturad xarjavda


_ awarmoebda imas, rac aravis sWirdeboda da ar (an
ekonomikuri ver) awarmoebda imas, razec moTxovna maRali iyo.
sistema _
ekonomikuri cxadia, aseTi mdgomareoba didxans ver gagrZel-
urTierTobebis deboda. ukve 1980-iani wlebis bolos, sabWoTa kav-
Siris arsebobis dasasruls, daiwyo ekonomikaSi saba-
erToblioba,
zro principebis Semotanis mcdelobebi, xolo 1990-an
romlis
wlebSi, sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Semdeg, yvela war-
meSveobiTac
moqmnili saxelmwifo sabazro ekonomikur sistemaze
xorcieldeba
gadavida.
warmoeba, gacvla
da moxmareba. ekonomikuri sistema ewodeba ekonomikuri urTier-
Tobebis erTobliobas, romlis meSveobiTac xorciel-
deba warmoeba, gacvla da moxmareba. gadawyvetilebis
makroekenomikuri miRebisa da warmoebis organizebis formis mixedviT
maCveneblebi _ ganarCeven sabazro da mbrZaneblur ekonomikur sis-
temebs. sawarmoo saSualebebze sakuTrebis formis
qveynis ekonomikis
mixedviT ki _ kapitalistur (kerZo sakuTreba) da so-
mdgomareobis
cialistur (saxelmwifo sakuTreba) ekonomikur siste-
damaxasiaTebeli
mebs. sabWoTa kavSiri socialistur da mbrZaneblur
statistikuri
ekonomikur sistemas warmoadgenda. dRes ki saqarT-
monacemebi.
velo cdilobs kapitalisturi sabazro ekonomikuri
sistema aagos.

sabazro mbrZaneblur-gegmuri Sereuli


ekonomika ekonomika ekonomika

gadawyvetilebebi mi- ekonomikuri ekonomikuri gada-


iReba adamianis mier, gadawyvetilebis wyvetilebebi xan Tavi-
romelic CarTulia miReba xdeba mTavro- sufalia, xan saxelmwi-
nebayoflobiT gacv- bis mier. fos mier miRebuli.
laSi.
momxmarebeli gansaz- gegmis Semdgenni
Rvravs, Tu ra iqnas wyveten ra awarmoon,
warmoebuli. rogor awarmoon da
visTvis awarmoon.
mwarmoeblebi gansaz- mbrZanebluri
Rvraven rogor awar- gadawyvetilebebi
moon. SeiZleba iyos de-
mokratiuli da avto-
sabazro fasi aris sig-
ritaruli.
nali, romelic gavle-
nas axdens moTxovnasa
da warmoebaze.

60
Tavi VIII. saxelmwifos roli

yvela ekonomikur sistemas Tavisi dadebiTi da


uaryofiTi mxareebi gaaCnia. kapitalisturi qvey-
nebisTvis damaxasiaTebelia adamianTa ekonomikuri
Tavisufleba _ yvela TviTon wyvets, ra awarmoos,
mTliani Sida sad imuSavos, ra SeiZinos da ra fasad. Tumca misT-
produqti vis agreTve damaxasiaTebelia umuSevroba, qonebrivi
_ qveynis uTanasworoba (Zalian mdidrebi da Zalian Raribebi),
teritoriaze erTi ganaTlebis da jandacvis xelmiuwvdomloba SeWirve-
wlis ganmavlobaSi buli fenebisTvis, qveynis finansuri sistemis aram-
warmoebuli dgradoba. socializmi adamianTa ekonomikur Tavisu-
yvela saboloo flebas zRudavs, rasac Sedegad moaqvs maTi interesis
produqtis/ kargva produqciis xarisxisadmi. Tumca amave dros
momsaxurebis socializmi uzrunvelyofs moqalaqeTa met qone-
sabazro briv Tanasworobas, ufaso ganaTlebas, jandacvas,
Rirebuleba. ZiriTadi cxovrebiseuli saWiroebebis dakmayofile-
bas yvelasaTvis.
amitom, realur cxovrebaSi wminda kapitalisturi
an wminda socialisturi qveynebi iSviaTia. dRevandel
samomxmareblo
msoflioSi qveynebis umravlesobas rogorc erTi, is-
kalaTa _
eve meore sistemis elementebi gaaCnia. igive unda vTq-
saqonlis/
vaT sabazro da mbrZaneblur sistemebze _ qveynebis
momsaxurebis
umetesoba am ori sistemis nazavia.
CamonaTvali,
romelsac saSualo
momxmarebeli
moixmars.
makroekonomikuri maCveneblebi

inflacia _ qveynebis ekonomikuri warmatebulobis Sesafase-


fasebis donis blad sxvadasxva ekonomikur maCveneblebs iyeneben _
zrda. maT makroekonomikuri maCveneblebi ewodeba.
yvelaze farTod gamoyenebadi makroekonomikuri
maCvenebelia e.w. mSp (GDP), romelic iSifreba, rogorc
saarsebo minimumi mTliani Sida produqti (Gross domestic product). es aris
erTi wlis ganmavlobaSi qveyanaSi warmoebuli yvela
_ minimalur
produqti da momsaxureba (Sualeduri produqtebi ar
sasursaTo
igulisxmeba, mxolod saboloo), fulad gamoxatule-
kalaTaSi Sesuli
baSi. uxeSad rom vTqvaT, es aris is simdidre, rac
produqtebis
qveyanam wlis ganmavlobaSi Seqmna. ra Tqma unda, aq
sabazro fasis
igulisxmeba ara mxolod saqoneli, romelic maRaz-
mixedviT
iaSi iyideba an momsaxureba, romelic momxmarebels
gaangariSebuli
gauwies, aramed agreTve axali an SekeTebuli gzebi,
maCvenebeli mowesrigebuli wyalgayvaniloba da nagavsayrelebi,
aSenebuli saxlebi da a.S.
saqarTvelos ekonomikur da sxva statistikur
maCveneblebs saqarTvelos statistikuri erovnuli

61
moqalaqe da ekonomika. maia gonaSvili, lia Todua

samsaxuri, saqstati angariSobs. misi monacemebi


regularulad qveyndeba veb-gverdze http://www.geostat.
ge. am monacemebis mixedviT, 2014 wels saqarTvelos
mSp Seadgenda 29 miliard lars, an, dolarze gadaan-
gariSebiT _ 16,5 miliard dolars (dolarze gadaan-
sasursaTo kalaTa gariSeba xdeba 2014 wlis saSualo gacvliTi kursiT).
_ sursaTis bevria es Tu cota?
saxeobebi da
pirvel rigSi, modi sxva qveynebs SevadaroT. saer-
maTi raodenoba,
TaSoriso organizacia msoflio banki yvela qveynis
romelic
makroekonomikur monacemebs agrovebs da aqveynebs
uzrunvelyofs
veb-gverdze http://data.worldbank.org . am monacemebs Tu
adamianis
gadavxedavT, vnaxavT rom 2014 wels yvelaze didi mSp
minimaluri
hqonda amerikis SeerTebul Statebs (17 trilioni aSS
fiziologiuri
dol.) da CineTs (10 trilioni aSS dol.), yvelaze pa-
moTxovnilebebis
tara ki _ tuvalus (38 milioni aSS dol.). anu, aSS-Si
dakmayofilebas. da CineTSi yovelwliurad daaxloebiT aTasjer meti
simdidre iqmneba, vidre saqarTveloSi; tuvaluSi ki
_ daaxloebiT 400-jer naklebi, vidre saqarTveloSi.
Tumca, vinaidan aSS-Si saqarTveloze 80-jer meti ada-
samomxmareblo
miani cxovrobs (aSS-s mosaxleoba 328 milionia), Ci-
fasebis indeqsi
neTSi _ 300-jer meti (CineTis mosaxleoba 1,4 mili-
_ tipiuri
ard adamians Seadgens), tuvaluSi ki _ 400-jer naklebi
momxmarebelis
(tuvalu patara kunZulovani saxelmwifoa, sadac sul
mier SeZenili
aTi aTasamde adamiani cxovrobs), _ rTulia Seafaso,
saqonlisa da
qveynebis es simdidre maT moqalaqeebze rogor nawil-
momsaxurebis deba.
fasebis saSualo
donis maCvenebeli, amis Sesafaseblad SegviZlia gamoviyenoT kidev
sabazo periodTan erTi makroekonomikuri indikatori _ mTliani Sida
SedarebiT. produqti erT sul mosaxleze gadaangariSebiT.
pirvel diagramaze moyvanilia es maCvenebeli ramdenime
qveynisTvis da msofliosTvis saSualod (2014 wlisT-
vis). rogorc diagramidan Cans, erT sul mosaxleze
mTliani Sida produqtis mixedviT aSS da CineTi su-
lac ar arian pirvel adgilze _ maT bevri sxva qveya-
na uswrebs. samwuxarod am maCvenebliT (3,7 aTasi aSS
dol. weliwadSi) saqarTvelo saSualo msoflio dones
(10 aTasi aSS dol. weliwadSi) sakmaod CamorCeba, Tum-
ca wlebis ganmavlobaSi saqarTvelos es maCvenebeli
stabilurad izrdeba (ix. diagrama 2).

62
Tavi VIII. saxelmwifos roli

(aSS dol.)

diagrama 1: ramodenime qveynis realuri mSp erT sul mosaxleze gadaangariSebiT, 2014 w.
(msoflio bankis monacemebi).

(aSS dol.)

diagrama 2: saqarTvelos realuri mSp erT sul mosaxleze, 2000-2014 ww.

63
moqalaqe da ekonomika. maia gonaSvili, lia Todua

Tumca sxvadasxva qveynis mSp-s Sedareba am qveynebSi adamianTa cxovrebis


doneze srul warmodgenas mainc ar gvaZlevs. mogexsenebaT, erTi da imave ra-
odenobis TanxiT sxvadasxva qveyanaSi gansxvavebuli raodenobis produqtebis/
momsaxurebis SeZenaa SesaZlebeli. agreTve gansxvavebulia mosaxleobis Cvevebi
da moTxovnilebebi _ Tu ra tipis saqonels/momsaxurebas aniWeben isini up-
iratesobas. mokled rom vTqvaT, cxovrebis fasi qveynebis mixedviT gansx-
vavdeba.
2014 wlis mdgomareobiT mosaxleobis Semosavlebi saqarTveloSi daaxloe-
biT 12 milion lars Seadgenda. daaxloebiT amdenive iyo xarjebi. es niSnavs,
rom TiToeuli Sinameurneoba (ojaxi) saqarTveloSi TveSi saSualod daaxloe-
biT 1000 lars xarjavda. rogor da raze davxarjeT es Tanxa?
am sakiTxs saqarTvelos statistikuri erovnuli samsaxuri ikvlevs. igi
Seiswavlis, Tu ra saqonels/momsaxurebas moixmars saqarTveloSi saSualo momx-
marebeli da rogoria misi xarjebis struqtura _ anu, Semosavlis ra nawils
xarjavs momxmarebeli sursaTze, transportze, jandacvaze, dasvenebaze da a.S.
qveyanaSi yvelaze xSirad moxmarebadi saqonlisa da momsaxurebis CamonaT-
vals samomxmareblo kalaTa ewodeba. amJamad saqarTveloSi igi 295 tipis saq-
onels da momsaxurebas moicavs. me-3 diagramaze samomxmareblo kalaTis struq-
turaa naCvenebi. diagramidan Cans, rom saqarTveloSi momxmareblebis mTavari
xarjviTi statiebia sursaTi, transporti, jandacva da eleqtroenergiiT da
bunebrivi airiT momarageba.

sxva
kafeebi,
restornebi

ganaTleba
sursaTi
dasveneba,
garToba

kavSir-
gabmuloba

transporti

alkoholi,
Tambaqo

tansacmeli,
janmrTelobis
fexsacmeli
dacva
bina, ganaTeba,
aveji, saojaxo
gaTboba
nivTebi

diagrama 3: samomxmareblo kalaTis struqtura saqarTveloSi (2015 w.)

64
Tavi VIII. saxelmwifos roli

samomxmareblo kalaTa SesaZleblobas iZleva ganisazRvros fasebis cvli-


leba _ inflacia qveyanaSi. tipiuri momxmarebelis mier SeZenili saqonlisa da
momsaxurebis saSualo sabazro fasebis cvlilebas samomxmareblo fasebis ind-
eqsi ewodeba. me-4 diagrama asaxavs saqarTveloSi, bolo wlebis ganmavlobaSi,
samomxmareblo fasebis cvlilebas.
%

diagrama 4: samomxmareblo fasebis indeqsi (inflacia) saqarTveloSi, 2010 wlis saSualo fasebis
mimarT (2010 wlis saSualo fasi =100%)

qveynis ekonomikis kidev erTi mniSvnelovani maCvenebelia siRaribis done,


anu im adamianTa raodenoba, romelTa Semosavlebi saarsebo minimumze nakle-
bia. saarsebo minimumi aris is minimaluri Tanxa, rac aucilebelia adamianis
arsebobisTvis. saqarTveloSi es Tanxa e.w. minimalur sasursaTo kalaTaSi Se-
suli produqtebis sabazro Rirebulebis safuZvelze iangariSeba (sasursaTo
kalaTis saSualo sabazro fasi iyofa 0,7-ze). amJamad saarsebo minimumi saqa-
rTveloSi 162,4 lars Seadgebs (Sromisunariani mamakacisTvis). 2014 wlis mo-
nacemebiT, saarsebo minimumze naklebi Semosavali hqonda da siRaribis zRvars
miRma imyofeboda saqarTvelos mosaxleobis 11,6%, anu naxevar milionze meti
adamiani.

saarsebo minimumi saqarTveloSi (lari TveSi), 2015 weli


Sromisunariani asakis mamakacis saarsebo minimumi 162,4
saSualo momxmareblis saarsebo minimumi 143,9
saSualo ojaxis saarsebo minimumi 272,5
ojaxis tipi
erTsuliani 143,9
orsuliani 230,2
samsuliani 259,0
oTxsuliani 287,7
xuTsuliani 323,7
eqvssuliani da meti 382,7

wyaro: http://www.geostat.ge

65
moqalaqe da ekonomika. maia gonaSvili, lia Todua

minimaluri sasursaTo kalaTis Semadgenloba saqarTveloSi


(dRiuri moxmareba Sromisunariani mamakacisTvis)
xorblis puri 250 gr
xorblis fqvili 70 gr
simindis da sxva fqvili 40 gr
lobio 20 gr
brinji 10 gr
burRuli (mananis, wiwiburas da sxv) 10 gr
makaronis nawarmi 15 gr
Zroxis da xbos xorci 40 gr
Roris xorci 10 gr
Sinauri frinveli 20 gr
Tevzi nedli, gayinuli 40 gr
Zexveuli 10 gr
rZe 150 gr
mawoni 25 gr
xaWo 15 gr
yveli 20 gr
naduRi 5 gr
kvercxi (0,5 cali dReSi) 24 gr
cxoveluri cximi (karaqi, erbo) 12 gr
margarini 7 gr
zeTi mcenareuli 10 gr
Teslovani xili 50 gr
kurkovani xili 50 gr
subtropikuli xili, karalioki 50 gr
sazamTro, nesvi, gogra 50 gr
kakali, Txili, mzesumzira 15 gr
pomidori 50 gr
xaxvi 25 gr
niori 7 gr
badrijani 10 gr
kombosto 40 gr
Warxali 15 gr
stafilo 15 gr
kartofili 150 gr
Saqari 50 gr
murabebi da jemebi 5 gr
sakonditro nawarmi 5 gr
Rvino samamulo 20 gr
marili 8 gr
Cai 2 gr

66
Tavi VIII. saxelmwifos roli

ra Tqma unda es mdgomareoba gamosworebas saWiroebs. amas emsaxureba


saxelmwifo pensiebi da daxmarebebi _ maT qveyanaSi 860 aTasze meti adamiani
iRebs, aqedan 700 aTasamde _ xnovani asakis adamiania. wlis ganmavlobaSi saxelm-
wifos mier gacemuli pensiebis da daxmarebebis jamuri Tanxa 2,5 miliard lars
aRemateba (2014 wlis mdgomareobiT).

daskvna

arsebobs qveynebi, sadac ekonomikas ara bazari, aramed saxelmwifo


dagegmarebis sistema warmarTavs.
wminda sabazro ekonomikis an wminda mbrZanebluri tipis ekonomikuri
sistemis mqone qveynebi iSviaTia. qveynebis umetesobis ekonomika orive
tipis elementebs Seicavs.
qveynis ekonomikis warmatebis sazomad gamoiyeneba am qveyanaSi wlis gan-
mavlobaSi warmoebuli mTliani Sida produqtis sabazro Rirebuleba
(mSp), erT sul mosaxleze gadaangariSebiT.
cxovrebis fasi sxvadasxva qveyanaSi sxvadasxvaa.
samomxmareblo kalaTa qveynis saSualo momxmareblis Cvevebs da Sesa-
Zleblobebs asaxavs.
siRaribis zRvars miRma myof moqalaqeebs da asakovan moqalaqeebs sax-
elmwifo exmareba.

ekonomikuri praqtikumi
ixile moswavlis rveuli

67
moqalaqe da ekonomika. maia gonaSvili, lia Todua

logikuri sqemebi

am TavSi mocemulia struqturul-logikuri sqemebi, romleb-


Sic koncentrirebulia ZiriTadi Teoriuli masala Semdeg sakiTxe-
bze: moTxovna-miwodeba, sabazro wonasworoba, sabazro struq-
turebi, saxelmwifos roli.
swavlebis procesSi aseTi sqemebis gamoyeneba amaRlebs infor-
maciis aRqmas, exmareba miRebuli codnis gamyarebasa da gaanali-
zebaSi.

sqema #1. sabazro struqturis sxvadasxva tipi

diferenci-
bazris firmebis rebuli an firmis gavlena
Sesvlis sirTule magaliTebi
struqtura raodenoba erTgvarovani fasze
produqcia

kartofili, simindi da
srulyofili
bevri homogenuri ioli ar aris sxva sasoflo-sameurneo
konkurencia
produqtebi

brenduli tansacmeli
monopolisturi diferenci- da fexsacmeli,
bevri SedarebiT ioli mcire
konkurencia rebuli gamagrilebeli
sasmelebi

homogenuri avtomobilebi, mobiluri


oligopolia cota an diferenci- rTuli mniSvnelovani operatorebi, internet-
rebuli provaiderebi

mxolod
eleqtrodistribucia,
erTi firmis sruli
monopolia erTi SeuZlebeli gazmomarageba,
produqtia kontroli
wyalgayvaniloba
bazarze

68
logikuri sqemebi

sqema #2. ekonomikis ZiriTadi sakiTxebi

moTxovnilebebi resursebi

arCevani

alternatiuli danaxarjebi

ra? rogor? visTvis?

69
moqalaqe da ekonomika. maia gonaSvili, lia Todua

sqema #3. ekonomikUri sistema

ekonomikuri sistema

sabazro Sereuli

mbrZaneblur-
administraciuli

sabazro mbrZaneblur-gegmuri Sereuli


ekonomika ekonomika ekonomika
gadawyvetilebebi mi- ekonomikuri ekonomikuri gada-
iReba adamianis mier, gadawyvetilebis wyvetilebebi xan Tavi-
romelic CarTulia miReba xdeba mTavro- sufalia, xan saxelmwi-
nebayoflobiT gacv- bis mier. fos mier miRebuli.
laSi.
momxmarebeli gansaz- gegmis Semdgenni
Rvravs, Tu ra iqnas wyveten ra awarmoon,
warmoebuli. rogor awarmoon da
visTvis awarmoon.
mwarmoeblebi gansaz- mbrZanebluri
Rvraven rogor awar- gadawyvetilebebi
moon. SeiZleba iyos de-
mokratiuli da avto-
sabazro fasi aris sig-
ritaruli.
nali, romelic gavle-
nas axdens moTxovnasa
da warmoebaze.

70
logikuri sqemebi

sqema #4. ekonomikuri sistema

vaWrobis barierebi

teqnikuri sabaJo
moTxovnebi tarifebi

adgilobrivi warmoebis kvotebi/


mxardaWera licenziebi

sqema #5. bazris struqtura

bazris struqtura

srulyofili arasrulyofili
konkurencia konkurencia

konkurentuli monopolia monopolisturi


bazrebi konkurencia

oligopolia

71
moqalaqe da ekonomika. maia gonaSvili, lia Todua

sqema#6. moTxovna-miwodeba. sabazro wonasworoba

I. sabazro wonasworoba

moTxovna miwodeba

PD, moTxovnis fasi PD=PE=PS PS, miwodebis fasi

QD, moTxovnis
raodenoba
QD=QE=QS QS, miwodebis
raodenoba

72
logikuri sqemebi

sqema#7. moTxovna-miwodeba. siWarbe

II. siWarbe

moTxovna miwodeba

PD, moTxovnis fasi PD>PE<PS PS, miwodebis fasi

QD, moTxovnis QS, miwodebis


raodenoba QD<QS raodenoba

P > PE, , QD; QS e

73
moqalaqe da ekonomika. maia gonaSvili, lia Todua

sqema#7. moTxovna-miwodeba. deficiti

III. deficiti

moTxovna miwodeba

PD, moTxovnis fasi PD<PE>PS PS, miwodebis fasi

QD, moTxovnis QS, miwodebis


raodenoba QD>QS raodenoba

P < PE, , QD; QS e

74
ZiriTadi terminebi da ganmartebiTi leqsikoni

ZiriTadi terminebi da ganmartebiTi leqsikoni

absoluturi upiratesoba _ mwarmoeblis unari awarmoos produqti sxvaze


naklebi danaxarjebiT.
alternatiuli danaxarji (Opportunity cost) _ is, rac unda davTmoT raime sxvis
misaRebad.
bazari _ konkretuli saqonlis yidva-gayidviT dainteresebul pirTa erTob-
lioba.
bunebrivi monopolia _ iseTi saqonlis miwodeba, romelic gamoricxvadi,
magram ara metoqisunariania.
gamoricxvadoba _ saqonlis Tviseba, romelic gulisxmobs, rom pirovneba
SeiZleba avaridoT am saqonlis moxmarebas.
garegani efeqti _ piris qmedebis gavlena sxva, gareSe pirebis keTildReobaze
(mag. garemos dabinZureba qimiuri qarxnis mier).
garigeba _ calmxrivi, ormxrivi an mravalmxrivi nebis gamovlena, romelic
mimarTulia samarTlebrivi urTierTobis warmoSobis, Secvlis an
Sewyvetisaken.
geografiuli aRniSvna _ sursaTis dasaxeleba, romlis gansakuTrebuli
Tvisebebi an reputacia garkveul geografiul adgilTan aris dakavSirebuli.
deficiti _ situacia, romelic warmoiqmneba, roca saqonelze moTxovnis
raodenoba miwodebis raodenobaze metia, anu roca saqonelis fasi sabazro
wonasworul fasze naklebia.
dominirebuli mdgomareoba _ kompanias bazarze dominirebuli mdgomareoba
ukavia, rodesac is mniSvnelovan sabazro wils flobs (bazarze arsebuli
saqonlis did nawils igi awvdis) da konkurenti kompaniebi mis ekonomikur
gadawyvetilebaze arsebiT gavlenas ver axdenen.
ekonomika _ mecniereba, romelic Seiswavlis, Tu rogor davakmayofiloT
adamianTa SeuzRudavi moTxovnilebebi SezRuduli resursebis pirobebSi.
ekonomikuri efeqtianoba _ ramdenad kargad aris ganawilebuli sawarmoo
resursebi maTi gamoyenebiT miRebuli xarjebisa da sargeblobis Tval-
sazrisiT. resursebis efeqtiurad ganawilebad iTvleba situacia, roca
yvela resursi gamoyenebulia ise, rom maTi sxvagvarad gadanawilebiT/
gamoyenebiT ukeTesi Sedegis miReba SeuZlebeli.
ekonomikuri zrda _ produqciisa da momsaxurebis warmoebis permanentuli
zrda. ekonomikuri zrdis done izomeba mTliani Sida produqtis (mSp) donis
cvlilebiT.
ekonomikuri Tavisufleba _ momxmareblisTvis es niSnavs TviTon gadawyvitos,
rogor daagrovos an daxarjos sakuTari Semosavali, dasaqmebulisTvis _

75
moqalaqe da ekonomika. maia gonaSvili, lia Todua

Seicvalos samuSao, nebismieri adamianisTvis/moqalaqisTvis _ daafuZnos


axali biznesi, gaauqmos Zveli da a.S.
ekonomikuri sistema _ ekonomikuri urTierTobebis erToblioba, romlis
meSveobiT xorcieldeba warmoeba, ganawileba, gacvla da moxmareba.
efeqturi saprocento ganakveTi _ saprocento ganakveTi, romlis gamoTvlisas
gaTvaliswinebulia momxmareblis mier gasawevi yvela finansuri xarji.
vaWroba _ produqtis/momsaxurebis nebayoflobiTi gacvla.
inflacia _ fasebis donis zrda.
informaciis asimetria _ situacia, rodesac garigebis erTi mxare met
informacias flobs, vidre meore.
karteli _ ramdenime kompaniis SeTanxmeba bazarze erToblivad moqmedebisTvis.
kontrafaqtura _ saqoneli, romelzec unebarTvod datanilia sxvisi
sasaqonlo niSani.
makroekonomika _ ekonomikis nawili, romelic Seiswavlis ekonomikis funqci-
onirebas mTeli qveynis masStabiT.
makroekenomikuri maCveneblebi _ qveynis ekonomikis mdgomareobis
damaxasiaTebeli statistikuri monacemebi.
mbrZanebluri ekonomika _ ekonomika, sadac produqciis warmoeba da ganawi-
leba xdeba centralizebuli dagegmvisa da kontrolis gziT.
metoqisunarianoba _ saqonlis Tviseba, romelic gulisxmobs, rom erTi
pirovnebis mier saqonlis gamoyeneba amcirebs meore pirovnebis mier misi
gamoyenebis SesaZleblobas.
mTliani Sida produqti (mSp) _ qveynis teritoriaze drois garkeul periodSi
(Cveulebriv 1 wlis ganmavlobaSi) warmoebuli yvela saboloo produqtis/
momsaxurebis sabazro Rirebuleba.
miwodeba _ mwarmoeblis survili da SesaZlebloba gayidos produqti an
momsaxureba garkveul fasad.
mogeba _ sxvaoba mTlian Semosavalsa da mTlian danaxarjs Soris.
moTxovna _ momxmareblis survili da SesaZlebloba SeiZinos produqti an
momsaxureoba garkveul fasad.
moTxovnileba _ raimes ukmarisoba, romelic SeiZleba dakmayofildes
saqonlis / momsaxurebis moxmarebiT.
momsaxureba _ saqmianoba adamianebis, firmebis an saxelmwifo struqturebis
ekonomikuri saWiroebebis dasakmayofileblad. warmoadgens uxilav
produqts.
momxmarebeli _ adamiani, romlic saqonelsa da momsaxurebas piradi
moTxovnilebis dasakmayofileblad iyenebs.

76
ZiriTadi terminebi da ganmartebiTi leqsikoni

monopolia _ bazari, sadac erTaderTi mimwodebelia.


monopolisturi konkurencia _ bazari, sadac bevri mimwodebelia, magram
produqcia diferencirebulia.
oligopolia _ bazari, sadac mxolod ramdenime mimwodebelia.
patenti _ gamogonebis an sasargeblo modelis registraciis cnoba, romelic
mis mflobels am gamogonebis/modelis gamoyenebis eqskluziur uflebas
aniWebs.
proteqcionistuli politika _ Sida bazris importisagan dacvis poli-
tika, romelic am mizniT iyenebs tarifebs, kvotebs, subsidiebsa da sxva
saSualebebs. misi mizania adgilobrivi warmoebis dacva konkurenciisgan.
procenti _ realuri da finansuri kapitalis garkveuli periodiT gamoye-
nebisaTvis dawesebuli gadasaxadi, romelsac resursebis gamomyenebeli
uxdis resursebis mflobels.
realuri mTliani Sida produqti (realuri mSp)_ mTliani Sida produqti,
romelic gaiangariSeba sabaziso fasebTan mimarTebaSi.
saavtoro ufleba _ avtoris ufleba Tavis nawarmoebze.
saarsebo minimumi _ minimaluri sasursaTo kalaTis mixedviT gaangariSebuli
maCvenebeli.
sabazro ekonomika _ ekonomikuri sistema, romelic damyarebulia kerZo
sakuTrebaze, arCevanis Tavisuflebasa da konkurenciaze.
sabazro Cavardna _ situacia, rodesac bazari resursebis efeqturi
ganawilebas ver axerxebs.
sabazro Zalaufleba _ ekonomikuri agentis (an agentebis mcirericxovani
jgufis) unari, gavlena moaxdinos sabazro fasze.
saerTo resursi _ resursi, romelic metoqisunariania, magram ara gamoricxvadi
(mag. Tevzaoba).
sazogadoebrivi saqoneli _ resursi, romelic arc metoqisunariania da arc
gamoricxvadi (mag. Tavdacva).
samomxmareblo kalaTa _ saqonlis/momsaxurebis CamonaTvali, romelsac
saSualo momxmarebeli moixmars.
samomxmareblo fasebis indeqsi _ tipiuri momxmarebelis mier SeZenili
saqonlisa da momsaxurebis fasebis saSualo donis maCvenebeli, sabazo
periodTan SedarebiT.
sargeblianoba saqonlis an momsaxurebis unari, daakmayofilos momxmareblis
esa Tu is moTxovnileba.
sasaqonlo niSani _ dasaxeleba an simbolo, romelic gamoiyeneba mewarmis
mier, Tavisi saqonlis an momsaxurebis saidentifikaciod.

77
moqalaqe da ekonomika. maia gonaSvili, lia Todua

sasursaTo kalaTa _ sursaTis saxeobebi da maTi raodenoba, romelic


uzrunvelyofs adamianis minimaluri fiziologiuri moTxovnilebebis
dakmayofilebas.
saqoneli/produqti _ xelSesaxebi realuri sagnebi, romlebic akmayofileben
adamianTa ekonomiur moTxovnilebebs. SeiZleba iyos xiluli da uxilavi.
produqti (xiluli), romelic gankuTvnilia bazarze gasayidad an
gasacvlelad _ aris saqoneli, xolo momsaxureba (uxilavi produqti) esaa
saqmianoba, romelsac erTi adamiani meores sTavazobs.
saxelmwifo Sesyidva _ saqonlis, momsaxurebisa da samSeneblo samuSaos
Sesyidva, romelic finansdeba saxelmwifo biujetiT.
siWarbe _ situacia, romelic warmoiqmneba, roca saqonlis mowodebis moculoba
aRemateba masze moTxovnis moculobas, anu roca produqtis fasi sabazro
wonasworobis fasze maRalia.
srulyofili konkurencia _ bazari, sadac bevri mimwodebelia, romlebic
erTgvarovan (msgavs) produqts yidian da bazarze axali mimwodeblebis
Sesvla iolia.
specializacia _ daxelovneba ama Tu im saqmianobaSi.
subsidiebi eqsportze _ saxelwmifos mier gaweuli daxmareba eqsportiori
firmebisaTvis, raTa maT dabal fasebSi gayidon produqcia sazRvargareT.
tarifi (importisas) _ gadasaxadi importirebul saqonelze, romelsac ixdis
importiori.
tradiciuli ekonomika _ ekonomika, romlis drosac warmoebisa da ganawilebis
ekonomikuri sakiTxebis gadaWra emyareba warsulis Cvevebsa da adaT-wesebs.
fasi _ fulis raodenoba, romelsac adamianebi ixdian saqonlisa da momsaxurebis
yidvisas an Rebuloben saqonlisa da momsaxurebis gayidviT.
qvota (importisas) _ produqciis zRvruli raodenoba, romelic daiSveba
qveyanaSi Semosatanad.
SefardebiTi upiratesoba _ mwarmoeblis unari awarmoos produqti naklebi
alternatiuli danaxarjebiT, vidre sxvebma.
SezRuduloba _ mdgomareoba, rodesac adamianis moTxovnileba aWarbebebs re-
sursebis SesaZlo raodenobas.
Semosavali _ gayiduli produqciis raodenobisa da fasis namravli.
wonasworuli fasi an sabazro wonasworobis fasi _ fasi, romlis drosac
moTxovnis raodenoba udris mowodebis raodenobas.
xelSekruleba _ garigebis erT-erTi saxe, romlis dasadebadac ori an meti
piris SeTanxmebaa saWiro.

78
gamoyenebuli literatura

gamoyenebuli literatura
1. giorgiZe naTia, saskolo samoqalaqo klubis saxelmZRvanelo, gzamkvlevi
samoqalaqo iniciativebisTvis, Tbilisi, 2011 w.
2. gobroniZe giorgi, inga Todria, raul agikiani, revaz xoferia, kaxa
wiqariSvili, praqtikuli samarTali, sapilote versia, Tbilisi, 2014 w.
3. evrokavSiris SeTanxmeba Rrma da yovlismomcveli Tavisufali savaWro
sivrcis Sesaxeb da saqarTvelo, ekonomikuri politikis kvlevis centri,
Tbilisi, 2014 w.
4. verulava Tengiz, Targmanebi, ludvig fon mizesi _ `barbarosuli gad-
monaSTis dasacavad: ratom gasvares kapitalizmis mtrebma oqros
standarti. 2012 w.
5. Todua lia, sursaTis regulireba evrokavSirSi, sursaTis etiketireba,
Tbilisi, 2014 w.
6. konkurenciis politika saqarTveloSi, saerTaSoriso gamWvirvaloba _
saqarTvelo, Tbilisi, 2012 w.
7. rafalska maJena, samoqalaqo ganaTleba da ganaTleba adamianis uflebaTa
sferoSi, 2011 w.
8. saqarTvelo-evrokavSiris asocirebis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebis gzamkvlevi,
Tbilisi, 2014 w.
9. saqarTvelos saxelmwifo Sesyidvebis sistema, saerTaSoriso gamWvirvaloba
_ saqarTvelo, Tbilisi, 2013 w.
10. samoqalaqo ganaTlebis pedagogis damxmare saxelmZRvanelo, statiebis
krebuli 3, redaqtor-Semdgeneli Tamar bregvaZe, CTC- ACETT, 2013 w.
11. uilksoni, d. l., kameroni, g. t., sazogadoebasTan urTierToba: strategia
da taqtika, 2011 w.
12. qeSelaSvili ana, Tiko naWyebia, giga paiWaZe, sandro asaTiani video
advokatireba _ aqtiuri moqalaqis saxelmZRvanelo, Tb., 2013 w.
13. SeSeliZe paata, axali ekonomikuri skola, Targmanebi qarTul enaze,
fridrix ogiust fon haieki _ `gza batonymobisaken~; ludvig fon mizesi _
`Tanasworobis da uTanasworobis Sesaxeb~; levelin roqveli _ `amerikuli
klasikuri liberalizmi~; 2010 w.
14. ZlieriSvili zurab, giorgi cercvaZe, irakli robaqiZe, giorgi svanaZe,
laSa cercvaZe, levan janaSia, saxelSekrulebo samarTali, Tb., 2014 w.
15. jandieri gia, Tavisufali biblioTeka, krebuli, VI, Tavisufali moaz-
rovneebi, ant-Trust 2011 w.
16. Geoff Riley, Monopoly Power and Economic Efficiency and Welfare. 2011.

79
maia gonaSvili, lia Todua

moqalaqe da
ekonomika
damxmare saxelmZRvanelo

IX-XI klasi

pirveli gamocema

Tbilisi 2016

daibeWda:
gamomcemloba `meridiani~,
Tbilisi, al. yazbegis gamz., #47.
239-15-22; E-mail: meridiani777@gmail.com
maia gonaSvili
lia Todua

moqalaqe da
ekonomika
damxmare saxelmZRvanelo
IX-XI klaselebisaTvis

ISBN 978-9941-25-048-4

9 789941 250484