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Communication (from Latin commnicre, meaning to intentional movements like shaking a hand or winking,
share[1] ) is the act of conveying intended meanings from as well as involuntary, such as sweating.[2] Speech also
one entity or group to another through the use of mutually contains nonverbal elements known as paralanguage, e.g.
understood signs and semiotic rules. rhythm, intonation, tempo, and stress. There may even
be a pheromone component. Research has shown that
The basic steps of communication are:
up to 55% of human communication may occur through
non-verbal facial expressions, and a further 38% through
1. The forming of communicative intent. para-language.[3] It aects communication most at the
2. Message composition. subconscious level and establishes trust. Likewise, writ-
ten texts include nonverbal elements such as handwrit-
3. Message encoding and decoding. ing style, spatial arrangement of words and the use of
emoticons to convey emotion.
4. Transmission of the encoded message as a sequence
of signals using a specic channel or medium. Nonverbal communication demonstrates one of Wazlaw-
icks laws: you cannot not communicate. Once proximity
5. Reception of signals. has formed awareness, living creatures begin interpreting
any signals received.[4] Some of the functions of nonver-
6. Reconstruction of the original message.
bal communication in humans are to complement and il-
7. Interpretation and making sense of the recon- lustrate, to reinforce and emphasize, to replace and sub-
structed message. stitute, to control and regulate, and to contradict the den-
ovative message.
The study of communication can be divided into:

Information theory which studies the quantication, 2 Verbal

storage, and communication of information in gen-
eral; Verbal communication is the spoken conveying of mes-
sage. Human language can be dened as a system
Communication studies which concerns human
of symbols (sometimes known as lexemes) and the
grammars (rules) by which the symbols are manipulated.
Biosemiotics which examines the communication of The word language also refers to common properties of
organisms in general. languages. Language learning normally occurs most in-
tensively during human childhood. Most of the thousands
The channel of communication can be visual, auditory, of human languages use patterns of sound or gesture for
tactile (such as in Braille) and haptic, olfactory, Kinesics, symbols which enable communication with others around
electromagnetic, or biochemical. Human communication them. Languages tend to share certain properties, al-
is unique for its extensive use of abstract language. though there are exceptions. There is no dened line be-
tween a language and a dialect. Constructed languages
such as Esperanto, programming languages, and various
mathematical formalism is not necessarily restricted to
1 Non-verbal the properties shared by human languages.

Main article: Nonverbal communication

3 Written communication and its
Nonverbal communication describes the process of con-
veying meaning in the form of non-word messages. Ex- historical development
amples of nonverbal communication include haptic com-
munication, chronemic communication, gestures, body Over time the forms of and ideas about communication
language, facial expressions, eye contact, and how one have evolved through the continuing progression of tech-
dresses. Nonverbal communication also relates to in- nology. Advances include communications psychology
tent of a message. Examples of intent are voluntary, and media psychology, an emerging eld of study.


The progression of written communication can be divided In mass media research and online media research, the
into three information communication revolutions":[5] eort of strategist is that of getting a precise decoding,
avoiding message reactance, that is, message refusal.
1. Written communication rst emerged through the The reaction to a message is referred also in terms of ap-
use of pictographs. The pictograms were made in proach to a message, as follows:
stone, hence written communication was not yet mo-
bile. Pictograms began to develop standardized and In radical reading the audience rejects the mean-
simplied forms. ings, values, and viewpoints built into the text by its
makers. Eect: message refusal.
2. The next step occurred when writing began to ap-
pear on paper, papyrus, clay, wax, and other me- In dominant reading, the audience accepts the
dia with common shared writing systems, leading to meanings, values, and viewpoints built into the text
adaptable alphabets. Communication became mo- by its makers. Eect: message acceptance.
In subordinate reading the audience accepts, by
3. The nal stage is characterized by the trans- and large, the meanings, values, and worldview built
fer of information through controlled waves of into the text by its makers. Eect: obey to the
electromagnetic radiation (i.e., radio, microwave, message.[8]
infrared) and other electronic signals.
Holistic approaches are used by communication cam-
Communication is thus a process by which meaning is paign leaders and communication strategists in order
assigned and conveyed in an attempt to create shared un- to examine all the options, actors and channels that
derstanding. Gregory Bateson called it the replication can generate change in the semiotic landscape, that is,
of tautologies in the universe.[6] This process, which re- change in perceptions, change in credibility, change in
quires a vast repertoire of skills in interpersonal process- the "memetic background, change in the image of move-
ing, listening, observing, speaking, questioning, analyz- ments, of candidates, players and managers as perceived
ing, gestures, and evaluating enables collaboration and by key inuencers that can have a role in generating the
cooperation.[7] desired end-state.
The modern political communication eld is highly in-
4 Business uenced by the framework and practices of information
operations doctrines that derive their nature from strate-
gic and military studies. According to this view, what is
Main article: Business communication really relevant is the concept of acting on the Informa-
tion Environment. The information environment is the
Business communication is used for a wide variety of aggregate of individuals, organizations, and systems that
activities including, but not limited to: strategic com- collect, process, disseminate, or act on information. This
munications planning, media relations, public relations environment consist s of three interrelated dimensions,
(which can include social media, broadcast and written which continuously interact with individuals, organiza-
communications, and more), brand management, reputa- tions, and systems. These dimensions are known as phys-
tion management, speech-writing, customer-client rela- ical, informational, and cognitive.[9]
tions, and internal/employee communications.
Companies with limited resources may choose to engage
in only a few of these activities, while larger organizations 6 Family
may employ a full spectrum of communications. Since it
is dicult to develop such a broad range of skills, com- Family communication is the study of the communication
munications professionals often specialize in one or two perspective in a broadly dened family, with intimacy and
of these areas but usually have at least a working knowl- trusting relationship.[10] The main goal of family commu-
edge of most of them. By far, the most important qual- nication is to understand the interactions of family and the
ications communications professionals can possess are pattern of behaviors of family members in dierent cir-
excellent writing ability, good 'people' skills, and the ca- cumstances. Open and honest communication creates an
pacity to think critically and strategically. atmosphere that allows family members to express their
dierences as well as love and admiration for one another.
It also helps to understand the feelings of one another.
5 Political Family communication study looks at topics such as fam-
ily rules, family roles or family dialectics and how those
Communication is one of the most relevant tools in po- factors could aect the communication between family
litical strategies, including persuasion and propaganda. members. Researchers develop theories to understand

communication behaviors. Family communication study it confusing to know whom to communicate with.
also digs deep into certain time periods of family life such Other examples could be inecient or inappropriate
as marriage, parenthood or divorce and how communica- information systems, a lack of supervision or train-
tion stands in those situations. It is important for family ing, and a lack of clarity in roles and responsibilities
members to understand communication as a trusted way which can lead to sta being uncertain about what
which leads to a well constructed family. is expected of them.

Attitudinal barriers- Attitudinal barriers come

about as a result of problems with sta in an organi-
7 Interpersonal zation. These may be brought about, for example, by
such factors as poor management, lack of consulta-
In simple terms, interpersonal communication is the com- tion with employees, personality conicts which can
munication between one person and another (or others). result in people delaying or refusing to communi-
It is often referred to as face-to-face communication be- cate, the personal attitudes of individual employees
tween two (or more) people. Both verbal and nonverbal which may be due to lack of motivation or dissatis-
communication, or body language, play a part in how one faction at work, brought about by insucient train-
person understands another. In verbal interpersonal com- ing to enable them to carry out particular tasks, or
munication there are two types of messages being sent: a simply resistance to change due to entrenched atti-
content message and a relational message. Content mes- tudes and ideas.
sages are messages about the topic at hand and relational
messages are messages about the relationship itself.[11] Ambiguity of words/phrases- Words sounding the
This means that relational messages come across in how same but having dierent meaning can convey a dif-
one says something and it demonstrates a persons feel- ferent meaning altogether. Hence the communica-
ings, whether positive or negative, towards the individual tor must ensure that the receiver receives the same
they are talking to, indicating not only how they feel about meaning. It is better if such words are avoided by
the topic at hand, but also how they feel about their rela- using alternatives whenever possible.
tionship with the other individual.[11]
Individual linguistic ability- The use of jargon,
dicult or inappropriate words in communication
can prevent the recipients from understanding the
8 Barriers to eectiveness message. Poorly explained or misunderstood mes-
sages can also result in confusion. However, re-
Barriers to eective communication can retard or distort search in communication has shown that confusion
the message and intention of the message being conveyed can lend legitimacy to research when persuasion
which may result in failure of the communication pro- fails.[13][14]
cess or an eect that is undesirable. These include l-
tering, selective perception, information overload, emo- Physiological barriers- These may result from
tions, language, silence, communication apprehension, individuals personal discomfort, causedfor
gender dierences and political correctness[12] exampleby ill health, poor eyesight or hearing
This also includes a lack of expressing knowledge-
appropriate communication, which occurs when a per- Bypassing-These happens when the communica-
son uses ambiguous or complex legal words, medical jar- tors (sender and the receiver) do not attach the same
gon, or descriptions of a situation or environment that is symbolic meanings to their words. It is when the
not understood by the recipient. sender is expressing a thought or a word but the re-
ceiver take it in a dierent meaning. For example-
Physical barriers- Physical barriers are often due ASAP, Rest room
to the nature of the environment. An example of
this is the natural barrier which exists if sta are Technological multi-tasking and absorbency-
located in dierent buildings or on dierent sites. With a rapid increase in technologically-driven com-
Likewise, poor or outdated equipment, particularly munication in the past several decades, individuals
the failure of management to introduce new tech- are increasingly faced with condensed communica-
nology, may also cause problems. Sta shortages tion in the form of e-mail, text, and social updates.
are another factor which frequently causes commu- This has, in turn, led to a notable change in the
nication diculties for an organization. way younger generations communicate and perceive
their own self-ecacy to communicate and connect
System design- System design faults refer to prob- with others. With the ever-constant presence of an-
lems with the structures or systems in place in an other world in ones pocket, individuals are multi-
organization. Examples might include an organiza- tasking both physically and cognitively as constant
tional structure which is unclear and therefore makes reminders of something else happening somewhere

else bombard them. Though perhaps too new of an dierent languages and to have a better understanding of
advancement to yet see long-term eects, this is a dierent culture it is required to have knowledge of lan-
notion currently explored by such gures as Sherry guages of dierent countries.
Turkle.[15] 2) Non verbal communication is a very wide concept and
it includes all the other forms of communication which
Fear of being criticized-This is a major factor that
do not uses written or spoken words. Non verbal com-
prevents good communication. If we exercise sim-
munication takes following forms:
ple practices to improve our communication skill,
we can become eective communicators. For ex-
ample, read an article from the newspaper or collect Paralinguistics are the voice involved in communi-
some news from the television and present it in front cation other than actual language and involves tones,
of the mirror. This will not only boost your con- pitch, vocal cues etc. It also include sounds from
dence, but also improve your language and vocabu- throat and all these are greatly inuenced by cultural
lary. dierences across borders.

Gender barriers- Most communicators whether

Proxemics deals with the concept of space element
aware or not, often have a set agenda. This is very
in communication. Proxemics explains four zones
notable among the dierent genders. For exam-
of spaces namely intimate personal, social and pub-
ple, many women are found to be more critical in
lic. This concept diers with dierent culture as the
addressing conict. Its also been noted that men
permissible space vary in dierent countries.
are more than likely to withdraw from conict when
in comparison to women.[16] This breakdown and
Artifactics studies about the non verbal signals or
comparison not only shows that there are many fac-
tors to communication between two specic gen- communication which emerges from personal ac-
cessories such as dresses or fashion accessories worn
ders, but also room for improvement as well as es-
tablished guidelines for all. and it varies with culture as people of dierent coun-
tries follow dierent dressing codes.

8.1 Cultural aspects Chronemics deal with the time aspects of com-
munication and also include importance given to
Cultural dierences exist within countries the time. some issues explaining this conceptpt
(tribal/regional dierences, dialects etc.), between are pauses, silences and response lag during an
religious groups and in organisations or at an organisa- interaction. This aspect of communication is also
tional level - where companies, teams and units may have inuenced by cultural dierences as it is well known
dierent expectations, norms and idiolects. Families that there is a great dierence in the value given by
and family groups may also experience the eect of dierent cultures to time.
cultural barriers to communication within and between
dierent family members or groups. For example: Kinesics mainly deals with the body languages such
words, colours and symbols have dierent meanings in as postures, gestures, head nods, leg movements etc.
dierent cultures. In most parts of the world, nodding In dierent countries, the same gestures and pos-
your head means agreement, shaking your head means tures are used to convey dierent messages. Some-
no, except in some parts of the world.[17] times even a particular kinesic indicating something
good in a country may have a negative meaning in
Communication to a great extent is inuenced by cul- any other culture.
ture and cultural variables.[18][19][20][21] Understanding
cultural aspects of communication refers to having knowl-
edge of dierent cultures in order to communicate ef- So in order to have an eective communication across
fectively with cross culture people. Cultural aspects of world it is desirable to have a knowledge of cultural vari-
communication are of great relevance in todays world ables eecting communication.
which is now a global village, thanks to globalisation. According to Michael Walsh and Ghil'ad Zuckermann,
Cultural aspects of communication are the cultural dif- Western conversational interaction is typically dyadic,
ferences which inuences communication across borders. between two particular people, where eye contact is im-
Impact of cultural dierences on communication compo- portant and the speaker controls the interaction; and
nents are explained below: contained in a relatively short, dened time frame.
1) Verbal communication refers to form of communica- However, traditional Aboriginal conversational interac-
tion which uses spoken and written words for expressing tion is communal, broadcast to many people, eye con-
and transferring views and ideas. Language is the most tact is not important, the listener controls the interaction;
important tool of verbal communication and it is the area and continuous, spread over a longer, indenite time
where cultural dierence play its role. All countries have frame.[22][23]
9.3 Bacteria quorum sensing 5

9 Nonhuman growth and development such as the formation of

Marcelia and fruiting bodies. Fungi communicate with
See also: Biocommunication (science), Interspecies their own and related species as well as with non fungal
communication, and Biosemiotics organisms in a great variety of symbiotic interactions, es-
pecially with bacteria, unicellular eukaryote, plants and
insects through biochemicals of biotic origin. The bio-
Every information exchange between living organisms chemicals trigger the fungal organism to react in a spe-
i.e. transmission of signals that involve a living sender cic manner, while if the same chemical molecules are
and receiver can be considered a form of communi- not part of biotic messages, they do not trigger the fungal
cation; and even primitive creatures such as corals are organism to react. This implies that fungal organisms can
competent to communicate. Nonhuman communication dierentiate between molecules taking part in biotic mes-
also include cell signaling, cellular communication, and sages and similar molecules being irrelevant in the situa-
chemical transmissions between primitive organisms like tion. So far ve dierent primary signalling molecules are
bacteria and within the plant and fungal kingdoms. known to coordinate dierent behavioral patterns such as
lamentation, mating, growth, and pathogenicity. Behav-
ioral coordination and production of signaling substances
9.1 Animals
is achieved through interpretation processes that enables
The broad eld of animal communication encompasses the organism to dier between self or non-self, a biotic
most of the issues in ethology. Animal communication indicator, biotic message from similar, related, or non-
can be dened as any behavior of one animal that af- related species, and even lter out noise, i.e. similar
fects the current or future behavior of another animal. molecules without biotic content.[27]
The study of animal communication, called zoo semiotics
(distinguishable from anthroposemiotics, the study of hu-
man communication) has played an important part in the
9.3 Bacteria quorum sensing
development of ethology, sociobiology, and the study of
Communication is not a tool used only by humans, plants
animal cognition. Animal communication, and indeed
and animals, but it is also used by microorganisms like
the understanding of the animal world in general, is a
bacteria. The process is called quorum sensing. Through
rapidly growing eld, and even in the 21st century so
quorum sensing, bacteria are able to sense the density of
far, a great share of prior understanding related to di-
cells, and regulate gene expression accordingly. This can
verse elds such as personal symbolic name use, animal
be seen in both gram positive and gram negative bacte-
emotions, animal culture and learning, and even sexual
ria. This was rst observed by Fuqua et al. in marine
conduct, long thought to be well understood, has been
microorganisms like V. harveyi and V. scheri.[28]
revolutionized. A special eld of animal communication
has been investigated in more detail such as vibrational
10 Models
9.2 Plants and fungi
Main article: Models of communication
The rst major model for communication was intro-
Communication is observed within the plant organism,
i.e. within plant cells and between plant cells, between
plants of the same or related species, and between plants
and non-plant organisms, especially in the root zone.
Plant roots communicate with rhizome bacteria, fungi,
and insects within the soil. These interactions are gov-
erned by syntactic, pragmatic, and semantic rules, and
are possible because of the decentralized nervous sys-
tem of plants. The original meaning of the word neu-
ron in Greek is vegetable ber and recent research has
shown that most of the microorganism plant communica-
tion processes are neuron-like.[25] Plants also communi- Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication
cate via volatiles when exposed to herbivory attack behav-
ior, thus warning neighboring plants.[26] In parallel they
duced by Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver for Bell
produce other volatiles to attract parasites which attack
Laboratories in 1949[29] The original model was designed
these herbivores. In stress situations plants can overwrite
to mirror the functioning of radio and telephone tech-
the genomes they inherited from their parents and revert
nologies. Their initial model consisted of three primary
to that of their grand- or great-grandparents. parts: sender, channel, and receiver. The sender was the
Fungi communicate to coordinate and organize their part of a telephone a person spoke into, the channel was

Transactional model of communication

Communication major dimensions scheme

Communication code scheme

Interactional Model of Communication

Linear Communication Model

encoder to a destination/ receiver/ decoder. This com-

mon conception of communication simply views com-
munication as a means of sending and receiving infor-
mation. The strengths of this model are simplicity, gen-
erality, and quantiability. Claude Shannon and Warren
Berlos Sender-Message-Channel-Receiver Model of Communi- Weaver structured this model based on the following el-
cation ements:

the telephone itself, and the receiver was the part of the 1. An information source, which produces a message.
phone where one could hear the other person. Shannon
and Weaver also recognized that often there is static that 2. A transmitter, which encodes the message into sig-
interferes with one listening to a telephone conversation, nals
which they deemed noise.
3. A channel, to which signals are adapted for trans-
In a simple model, often referred to as the transmission mission
model or standard view of communication, information
or content (e.g. a message in natural language) is sent in 4. A noise source, which distorts the signal while it
some form (as spoken language) from an emisor/ sender/ propagates through the channel

5. A receiver, which 'decodes (reconstructs) the mes- 3. Syntactic (formal properties of signs and symbols).
sage from the signal.
6. A destination, where the message arrives. Therefore, communication is social interaction where at
least two interacting agents share a common set of signs
and a common set of semiotic rules. This commonly held
Shannon and Weaver argued that there were three levels
rule in some sense ignores autocommunication, including
of problems for communication within this theory.
intrapersonal communication via diaries or self-talk, both
secondary phenomena that followed the primary acquisi-
The technical problem: how accurately can the
tion of communicative competences within social inter-
message be transmitted?
The semantic problem: how precisely is the
In light of these weaknesses, Barnlund (2008) proposed
meaning 'conveyed'?
a transactional model of communication.[33] The basic
The eectiveness problem: how eectively premise of the transactional model of communication is
does the received meaning aect behavior? that individuals are simultaneously engaging in the send-
ing and receiving of messages.
Daniel Chandler[30] critiques the transmission model by
In a slightly more complex form a sender and a receiver
are linked reciprocally. This second attitude of commu-
nication, referred to as the constitutive model or construc-
It assumes communicators are isolated individ-
tionist view, focuses on how an individual communicates
as the determining factor of the way the message will be
No allowance for diering purposes. interpreted. Communication is viewed as a conduit; a
No allowance for diering interpretations. passage in which information travels from one individual
to another and this information becomes separate from
No allowance for unequal power relations.
the communication itself. A particular instance of com-
No allowance for situational contexts. munication is called a speech act. The senders personal
lters and the receivers personal lters may vary depend-
In 1960, David Berlo expanded on Shannon and Weavers ing upon dierent regional traditions, cultures, or gen-
(1949) linear model of communication and created der; which may alter the intended meaning of message
the SMCR Model of Communication.[31] The Sender- contents. In the presence of "communication noise" on
Message-Channel-Receiver Model of communication the transmission channel (air, in this case), reception and
separated the model into clear parts and has been ex- decoding of content may be faulty, and thus the speech
panded upon by other scholars. act may not achieve the desired eect. One problem
Communication is usually described along a few major with this encode-transmit-receive-decode model is that
dimensions: Message (what type of things are commu- the processes of encoding and decoding imply that the
nicated), source / emisor / sender / encoder (by whom), sender and receiver each possess something that functions
form (in which form), channel (through which medium), as a codebook, and that these two code books are, at the
destination / receiver / target / decoder (to whom), and very least, similar if not identical. Although something
Receiver. Wilbur Schram (1954) also indicated that we like code books is implied by the model, they are nowhere
should also examine the impact that a message has (both represented in the model, which creates many conceptual
desired and undesired) on the target of the message.[32] diculties.
Between parties, communication includes acts that conferTheories of coregulation describe communication as a
knowledge and experiences, give advice and commands, creative and dynamic continuous process, rather than
and ask questions. These acts may take many forms, in a discrete exchange of information. Canadian media
one of the various manners of communication. The form scholar Harold Innis had the theory that people use dif-
depends on the abilities of the group communicating. To-ferent types of media to communicate and which one
gether, communication content and form make messages they choose to use will oer dierent possibilities for the
that are sent towards a destination. The target can be one-
shape and durability of society (Wark, McKenzie 1997).
self, another person or being, another entity (such as aHis famous example of this is using ancient Egypt and
corporation or group of beings). looking at the ways they built themselves out of media
Communication can be seen as processes of information with very dierent properties stone and papyrus. Pa-
transmission with three levels of semiotic rules: pyrus is what he called 'Space Binding'. it made possible
the transmission of written orders across space, empires
1. Pragmatic (concerned with the relations between and enables the waging of distant military campaigns and
signs/expressions and their users) colonial administration. The other is stone and 'Time
Binding', through the construction of temples and the
2. Semantic (study of relationships between signs and pyramids can sustain their authority generation to gen-
symbols and what they represent) and eration, through this media they can change and shape

communication in their society (Wark, McKenzie 1997). 13 See also

11 Noise Augmentative and alternative communication

In any communication model, noise is interference with Communication rights

the decoding of messages sent over a channel by an en-
Data communication
coder. There are many examples of noise:
Four Cs of 21st century learning
Environmental noise. Noise that physically dis-
Human communication
rupts communication, such as standing next to loud
speakers at a party, or the noise from a construction Inter Mirica
site next to a classroom making it dicult to hear
the professor. Intercultural communication

Physiological-impairment noise. Physical mal- Ishin-denshin

adies that prevent eective communication, such Proactive communications
as actual deafness or blindness preventing messages
from being received as they were intended. Sign system

Semantic noise. Dierent interpretations of the Small talk

meanings of certain words. For example, the word
weed can be interpreted as an undesirable plant in SPEAKING
a yard, or as a euphemism for marijuana. Telecommunication
Syntactical noise. Mistakes in grammar can dis- Telepathy
rupt communication, such as abrupt changes in verb
tense during a sentence. Understanding

Organizational noise. Poorly structured commu- 21st century skills

nication can prevent the receiver from accurate in- Assertion Theory
terpretation. For example, unclear and badly stated
directions can make the receiver even more lost.

Cultural noise. Stereotypical assumptions can 14 References

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Himalaya Publishing House, 9789350516669, p.48 [34] Roy M. Berko, et al., Communicating. 11th ed. (Boston,
[18] Archived copy. Archived from the original on 2013-07- MA: Pearson Education, Inc., 2010) 9-12
18. Retrieved 2012-09-29.
[35] North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Nato Standardization
[19] Agency AAP-6 - Glossary of terms and denitions, p 43.

Important-Components-Of-Cross-Cultural-Communication-595745. 15 Further reading
Innis, Harold. Empire and Communications. Rev.
by Mary Q. Innis; foreword by Marshall McLuhan.
Toronto, Ont.: University of Toronto Press, 1972.
[22] Zuckermann, Ghil'ad; et al. (2015), ENGAGING - A xii, 184 p. N.B.: Here he [i.e. Innis] develops his
Guide to Interacting Respectfully and Reciprocally with theory that the history of empires is determined to
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People, and their Arts a large extent by their means of communication.
Practices and Intellectual Property (PDF), Australian Gov- From the back cover of the books pbk. ed. ISBN
ernment: Indigenous Culture Support, p. 12, retrieved 25 0-8020-6119-2 pbk
June 2016

[23] Walsh, Michael (1997), Cross cultural communication

problems in Aboriginal Australia, Australian National Uni-
versity, North Australia Research Unit, pp. 79, retrieved
25 June 2016

[24] Randall J.A. (2014). Vibrational Communication: Spi-

ders to Kangaroo Rats. In: Witzany, G. (ed). Biocommu-
nication of Animals, Springer, Dordrecht. pp. 103-133.
ISBN 978-94-007-7413-1.

[25] Baluska, F.; Marcuso, Stefano; Volkmann, Dieter (2006).

Communication in plants: neuronal aspects of plant life.
Taylor & Francis US. p. 19. ISBN 3-540-28475-3. ...the
emergence of plant neurobiology as the most recent area
of plant sciences.

[26] Ian T. Baldwin, Jack C. Schultz (1983). Rapid Changes

in Tree Leaf Chemistry Induced by Damage: Evidence for
Communication Between Plants. Science. 221 (4607):
277279. doi:10.1126/science.221.4607.277.

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