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Within the Circle of Ancient Ideas and Virtues Studies in Honour of Professor Maria Dzielska edited by Kamilla Twardowska Maciej Salamon Sławomir Sprawski Michał Stachura Stanisław Turlej Krakow 2014 .

W. W. Les intailles magiques gréco­‍‑égyptiennes. 1986. Annotated Bibliography (1928–1994). between the first and the third centuries AD. Histoire critique du gnosticisme (Paris. It is assumed that a considerable number of those gems derive from Alexandria and can be securely dated to the 1st–3rd centuries AD. 3379–3684. 1828). which beside their classical elements evince also some clearly identifiable oriental in‑ fluences (Egyptian. 1928–1941.1 Another group consists of the so­‍‑called magical gems (previous‑ ly referred to as the Gnostic gems) which have attracted the attention of scholars for about two­‍‑three decades.  Brashear. 1887) and C. and 2nd edition: Stuttgart. K. Syriac and Iranian). 2 The pioneering works of J. The ιαεω­‍‑palindrome I n the contemporary research on the processes taking place at the turn of antiquity. Gemmen im Ägyptischen Museum der Staatlichen Museen Preussischer Kul‑ turbesitz Berlin­‍‑Charlottenburg (Mainz am Rhein.2 This category of gems is a very important class of objects. the re‑ cent years have seen a systematic cataloguing of numerous collections. paperback edition 1996). Within the Circle of Ancient Ideas and Virtues Studies in Honour of Professor Maria Dzielska Joachim Śliwa Kraków From the world of gnostic spells. vol. Mira et Magica. Preisendanz. Bibliothèque nationale. which admittedly were the subject of several foundational works. “The Greek Magical Papyri: an Introduction and Survey. among them the 1 Cf. Die griechischen Zauberpapyri. Coptic. H. Philipp. Papyri Graecae Magicae. . Der‑ chain. there is a range of sources that go al‑ most unnoticed and deserve further consideration. A. Matter have to be mentioned in the first place. 1986). H. Apart from attempts to publish works that sum up some broader aspects. 1973–1974) (further: PMG). 1995). 1950). Texts (Chicago. Betz. P.D. King. Aramaic. I.” (in:) ANRW II. 1964). Cabinet des médailles et antiques (Paris.B. Delatte. One category of such sources is formed by the so­‍‑called magical papyri. Studies in Magical Amulets chiefly Graeco­‍‑Egyptian (Ann Arbor and London. and 2nd edition 1992. The Gnostics and their Remains (London. Including the Demotic Spells. The Greek Magical Papyri in Translation. 1–3 (Leipzig. vol. pp. 18:5 (Berlin and New York.  Bon‑ ner. Hebrew. later developed by C.

2004) [general problems] and Parte II. 485. but at times there may be no connection whatsoever.5 Particularly the latter signs. The magical formulae clearly derive from various oriental cults.226 Joachim Śliwa most important in this field — the British Museum collection.2. The next stage consists of establishing the connections between the text and iconographic elements. 2008) [gems from Italian collections]. 345–352. See his review of Delatte. 2001). pp.II (Rome. The formulae. Bolletino di Numismatica. Egyptian Scarabs and Magical Gems from the Collection of Constantine Schmidt­‍‑Ciążyński (Warszawa and Kraków. Cf.6 It happens that such later added inscriptions are in some way connected with the image on the front. Monografia 8. and gems. chiefly intended for the illiterate. Chnoubis. Some texts lack any discernible meaning and resemble gibberish or counting­‍‑out rhymes. No. are hard to decipher. “Gemma magiczna z formułą CΤΟΧΒΑΘΛΗ z kolekcji Konstantego Schmidta­‍‑Ciążyńskiego (1818–1889). the decoration of gems on the obverse is directly linked with the text inscribed on the reverse. 117.2. Bolletino di Numismatica.A. so that it was intelligible only to those in the know. 305. More often than not. Derchain. Band II Tafeln und Indices (London. (in:) Gnomon 41 (1969). apart from their general purpose of protection from evil. Some texts that appear on such gems are blatantly meant to give an impression of a foreign or mysterious language.7 retrograde writing or palindromes. Cat. maliciously referred to them as “Botokuden­‍‑Philologie”! 6 Cf. 106 („sprone il favore”) and Michel. eadem. such as Anguipedes. Les intailles. Other methods were also used to encrypt the writing. 2004). 4 The initiator and chief executor of this project is Attilio Mastrocinque. Monografia 8. Zu Bildern und Zauberformeln auf geschnittenen Steinen der Antike und Neuzeit (Ber‑ lin. often served other more specific pur‑ poses: some were intended to heal diseases. lamellae. and so on. hearts. . Among them are acrostics. and finished by Simone Michel. also Mas‑ trocinque. See also the recent international project coordinated by the Museum of Fine Arts in Budapest “The Campbell Bonner Magical Gems Database. J. A distinguished philologist. Another important feature was to assign letters. 7 A  good example is among others ΝΙΧΑΡΟΠΛΕΞ. Band I Text. 3 The project was initiated by Morton Smith (1915–1991). Parte I. but we also know of other cases where a gem is accom‑ panied with a text dating to two or even three centuries later. 1989). in accordance with the existing systems. Die Magischen Gemmen. Also. to their proper numerical values. written on the magical papyri. Visual arrangement of letters has to be mentioned as well: the letters were often placed in groups that formed wings. Ouroboros or Pantheos. were hardly appreciated by scholars. Ulrich von Wilamowitz­‍‑Moellendorf (1848–1931). deciphered by A. p. Sylloge I. Cf. p. logoi and characteres that appear on the gems. See her Die Magischen Gemmen im Britischen Museum. bunch of grapes etc. idem. Śliwa. others were to help with love affairs. Die Magischen Gemmen. they often referred to some concepts deriving from Gnostic circles.3 An effort has also been made to study this subject in a systematic way together with the cataloguing of other collections within the programme “Sylloge Gemmarum Gnosticarum.” 5 We need to underline that studies on texts of this sort. even though they were written almost exclusively with Greek characters. Akephalos. p.”4 A particularly important challenge of research on such a vast body of source mate‑ rial is to identify and understand the voces magicae.I (Rome. Sylloge Gemmarum Gnos‑ ticarum. Essays in Honour of Józef Korpanty). Barb as πλῆξον χάριν/“sporne Gunst an!”. anagrams.” Classica Cracoviensia 14 (2011) (Studies of Greek and Ro‑ man Literature and Culture.

op. Among a few dozen of known palindromes we will discuss below several notable examples in order to discuss the problems connected with the Ιαεω­‍‑palindrome.. letter ni. Sylloge I. 10 A. Cat. p. pp. 11 Tardieu.” (in:) R. 14 Bonner. 133–139. at times it seems as if there was no chance for a positive result and a broadly accepted agreement among scholars.12 Ablanathanalba­‍‑palindrome has thirteen characters (αβλαναθαναλβα). p. cit. § 54. but it has to be emphasized that in general the palindromes oc‑ cur rarely and the contexts in which they occur does not allow for drawing more spe‑ 8 Cf. Aberamentho­‍‑palindromic logos is one of the longer texts and comprises thirty­ ‍‑nine letters..13 It is assumed that this palindrome is a Hebrew acronym: atta barouch leolam Adonai + Nathan and Alba. Thoth. op. This palindrome oc‑ curs both in Greek magical papyri9 and on gems. 208. although greatly complicat‑ ed. s. was also a camouflage of sorts). “Aberamentho.From the world of gnostic spells. Br. cit.14 The examples above are obviously only a few of known palindrome texts. cit. see also Mastrocinque. Tübingen. stands for nineteen (ν). Only on the basis of its written form can we discern that the form of palindrome was used (a continuous circular record. 232. Bonner.). Its full form is as follows: αβεραμενθωουλερθεζαναζεθρελυoωθνεμαρεβα. The Snake­‍‑headed God. Preisendanz. god of rain. 99–100. The author distinguishes two iconographic versions. Palindrom. 202–204. 416. cit. p. op. p. the nature of palindromes (es‑ pecially the longer ones) makes them perfect for writing in a circular or oval decorative field or on circular objects. M. Some of the known palindromes make no sense at all. On gems it is often accompanied with a depiction of Anguipedes. Studies in Gnosticism and Hellenistic Religions Presented to Gilles Quispel on the Occasion of his 65 Birthday (Leiden. pp. 1981). cit. 417–418 is “la doxologie de Jésus dans la langage de la clientèle des magiciens. As mentioned before. Michel. Brashear.. 202. Die Magischen Gemmen. however.. 12 As stated by Tardieu. as long as sixty characters. 24. Die Magischen Gemmen. pp. van den Broek. (in:) RE XVIII (1949). In fact.10 If we take Hebrew as the underlying language of this palindrome. Michel. I. We know of many examples of short palindromes and longer ones. There are several reasons that might ex‑ plain this situation. O sovereign: rain of God. op. of the mighty waters. col. .v. pp. 481. Tardieu. Brashear. From Jewish Magic to Gnosticism (Studien und Texte zu Antike und Christentum. 216–218. K. Mastrocinque. Its peculiarities have been discussed for a long time and its interpretation is still 8 debatable. p. The ιαεω­‍‑palindrome 227 The palindrome is by far one of the most interesting. 9 M. sometimes connected to Ouroboros. Vermaseren (eds. op. there is a large number of such palindromes (and of various length). op. pp. and reading them aloud makes it even more complicated. cit. Nos.” 13 See Michel. The central letter of this palindrome. the following translation is proposed: “Powerful Thoth of the Waters. they have not been studied in greater detail until today. 3577. p. 412–415 discusses thirteen examples. the central letter is theta and stands for seven. 2005).”11 We also need to note that the name Aberamentho in some Gnostic texts stood for Jesus Christ.J. 3577 with literature. Brashear. op. Mus. 3434. cit. 73–74.

139 and further clues and interpretations mentioned there. Cat.v. I. Michel. and in fact it is associated with solar figures on gem amulets”). Mus.19 The first four letters never seemed problematic. the overall meaning is as follows: “Iahweh is the bearer of the secret name.. 159. Delatte. 277. Michel. Cat. PGM. p. Bonner.. Mastrocinque. op.21 Hence. pp. No. pp. 22 Cf.25 15 Brashear. 91.. No. Cat. 141. 304 (in some cases the Ouroboros is also present here). 23 Cf. I. 130. 19 Preisendanz.” Such a long chain of letters is sometimes broken into several horizontal lines (the letters are often randomly divided. here in its full form that consists of fifty­‍‑nine letters: ιαεωβαφρενεμουνοθιλαρικριφιαευεαιφιρκιραλιθονυομεν ερφαβωεαι (the central letter is “υ”). 263). Sylloge I. It is also attested fairly frequently in both magical papyri and gems. 107. 16 Cf. cf. and uterine by Bon‑ ner. PGM. i. 3596. Mus. Cat. 100 (here the text is additionally mirror­‍‑like engraved). Br. 277. 3587 and 3594. but this view is not generally accepted (cf. s. op. 204. 25 Opinions of this kind are based mostly on the gem with a representation of Ares and bound Aphrodite (Delatte. cit. 86 and 203). in the same way as the coiled up snake Ouroboros. Sarapis. Br. No. Cat.16 as well as two shorter palindromes: βηλτεπιαχχαιπετληβ17 and θωζαξαζωθ. Nos. 130. 159. 304. It is the so­‍‑called ιαεω­‍‑palindrome. ḏ. 484.f. op. Bonner. I. op. PGM. op. See also Michel. Cat. cit. 181. 145. cit. Michel. Bonner. cit.22 On other gems. it is formed into a circle. W. 122 and 432. pp. op. 62 (p. with thirty characters (or twenty eight in another version).. Michel. XIV.e. 15. Ganschinietz. 192 and Cat. 195. . 443–444 and 196 (1934). Brashear. Mus. the lion of Re [lies] secure in his shrine. No.. 190. Chnoubis or Pan‑ theos. Brashear. 23 and further materials mentioned there. cit. cit. Cat.23 The most common figures that appear in the context of this palindrome are the so‑ lar deities. and for many reasons at that. Die Magischen Gem‑ men. Fr. Michel. p. p. Derchain.20 The remaining letters (βαφρενεμουν οθιλαρι κριφι) cor‑ respond to the Egyptian phrase f3j. Br. which is commonly ac‑ cepted. Schmidt. 24 C. op.. 9999). which makes distinguishing the palindrome even more difficult). p. We often find depictions of Isis with Harpocrates. The palindromes of this sort. Br. 513.f-rn-jmn ᶜ­ḏ mr. op. a more precise Greek rendition of the Hebrew tetragrammaton (Ιαω was much more frequent). I. col. Mus. 17 Cf. op. 141–142. cit. Preisen‑ danz. Nos. op.15 αναχαβραχαχτωχαθαχωτχαχαρβαχανα (with thirty­‍‑one characters. cit. Bonner. pp. 130 and n. for they stand for the word Ιαεω/Iahweh.. 177–178. to give some example. 24.18 Among all the known logoi magici one in particular should be given pride of place. 204). Delatte. 20 As established by R. Michel. cit. p.Rᶜ (m-)-k3r. Iao. cit. Nos. op. it con‑ tains the meaningful sequence of letters: χαβραχ. Derchain. written on the edge. 21 We owe this to the acute sense of observation of K. 3587.. pp. cit. Mus. Derchain. 91.. published in his review of K. pp. 3578 (considered chtonic by Preisendanz. Nos. 145. Nos. 141 and 204 (“[the ιαεω­‍‑palindrome] is treated as a formula appropriate to address the sun. Cat. 509. 484.228 Joachim Śliwa cific conclusions. op. 18 Bonner. pp.. 33. cit. (in:) RE IX (1914). I. Br.. in the Göttingische Gelehrte Anzeigen 193 (1931). 700–701.. p. 330).24 Some researchers believe that these objects might have served as love charms. I. are as follows: αεμειναεβαρωθερρεθωραβεανιεμεα. 330. Die Magischen Gemmen. 15. p.

4:17) . Іαεω — palindrome written around some other voces magicae a — written on a Greek papyrus from the Brit‑ ish Museum collection (Preisendanz. pl. op. PGM. III: 6) b — engraved on the surface of a prehistoric stone hatchet (“thunder­‍‑stone”) from a divin‑ atory kit found in Pergamon (Wünsch. pl.. The ιαεω­‍‑palindrome 229 1. cit.From the world of gnostic spells.

 Gordon. 507–513 and J. vol. Illife. 26).” Archiv für Religionswissenschaft 17 (1914). Romae.33 According to Mastrocinque. and as such were intended to confer special authority upon the process of consultation. the tri‑ angular plaque with a threefold Hekate was the most important element of the whole kit. 203–207. Schuchhardt. pp.B. and more specifically theurgic end — 26 Discovered during the German excavations in Pergamon in the second half of the 19th century (cf. “Das ‘Zaubergerät’ aus Pergamon.” JRA 15 (2002). Objects of this sort.” pp. pp. 28 One of them had a drilled hole for hanging. See J. Panorama der antiken Metro‑ pole (Berlin. pp. “Die Arbeiten zu Pergamon 1886–1898.28 Several elements of a similar divinatory kit were dis‑ covered in the Syrian city of Apamea. Cook. which was divided into four concentric zones. “Zum Pergamenischen Zaubergerät. Wünsch. p. Cf. two rectangular bronze plaques and two bronze rings (all objects were inscribed with magical signs). most often from the Neolithic period.” pp. ibidem. 33 Mastrocinque. 27 The set also consisted of a  large bronze nail. 188–198. 32 A similar disc. “The divinatory kit from Pergamon and Greek magic in late antiquity.H. The entire unique set was given to the museum in Berlin. 30 Mastrocinque. 6). pp.” JRA 15 (2002). Balty (ed. 1925). cit. 304–309 (coming from Ephesus). 246–247 and complemented the publication of Wünsch (see n. “the ‘tables’ from Pergamon and Apamea were conceived by their users as diagrammatic representations of the Neoplatonic universe. and Mastrocinque. pp. “The divinatory kit. were greatly valued in the later centuries as the so­‍‑called thunder­‍‑stones (ceraunia). Bilan des recherches archéologiques 1973–1979. 173–187. Mastrocinque. Donnay. 1984). pp. But I think the ‘tables’ may also have been used for a different. 2011). 199–200).32 the surface of the disc is covered with magical signs and characteres.” AJA 35 (1931).29 Drawing on the basis of the Pergamon find. 176 (no. Dziwiza. “The divinatory kit. pp. A.” (in:) Pergamon. Attilio Mastrocinque tried to establish the religious and cultural context for the devices of this sort. 175–176 (no.” (in:) J. 472). Antikes Zaubergerät aus Pergamon ( JdI. inscribed with magical texts and surrounded by the ιαεω­‍‑palindrome. 175–176 and K. “A Neolithic celt with Gnostic inscriptions at Toronto. .27 The three stone elements were meticulous cut out from a prehistoric hatchet. pp. 31 Mastrocinque. a set of such hatchets deposited during the Roman period: A. A  Study in Ancient Religion. Actes du colloque 1980 (Bruxelles. It drew the attention of R. was described by Athanasius Kircher as “Rota divinatoria Ae‑ gyptiorum” (Oedipi Aegyptiaci tomi secundi pars altera. 173–187. pp. each of them further divided into eight smaller parts. The current eval‑ uation and interpretation of the find. Cf. Wünsch. C. op.). II: 1 (Cambridge. 1905). See an excellent publication of R. Gan‑ schinietz. “Another view of the Pergamon divination kit. (in:) A. together with relevant literature.26 Apart from an intriguing triangular device (it consists of a small plaque with a threefold Hekate and a disc mounted on the top vertex of the triangle) the tool kit also included three polished black stones. 239–241 and 542–543.30 In his opinion. Apamée de Syrie. 5).230 Joachim Śliwa One of the most interesting archaeological finds that have to do with the ιαεω­ ‍‑palindrome is the complete tool kit for divinatory practices which was excavated in the city of Pergamon. 29 The discovery made in 1977 during the Belgian excavations in the so­‍‑called Maison du Cerf (the house de‑ stroyed in fire in the 6th century AD). 1653. “Instrument divinatoire d’époque romaine.31 An equally important object was the bronze disc measuring 12 cm in diameter. Zeus. Conze.” p. the rings movement as it spelled out oracular replies could be seen to be directed by the Moirai. “The divinatory kit. If they were used with a  ring suspended from a  point above the ‘table’. Conze. see also R.” Athenische Mitteilungen 24 (1899). can be found in: A. also divided into eight parts. Sechstes Ergänzungsheft) (Berlin.

ibidem.From the world of gnostic spells. 34 Mastrocinque. the three stone amulets must have played a significant role. with the merging (and thriving) traditions of the Hellenistic and Oriental civilizations. p. .”34 In the current state of this debate it is hard to counter this versatile and well­‍‑documented hypothesis with a different explanation. In the category of similar theurgic instruments. for both Pergamon and Apamea at the time belonged to the most important centres of culture. together with the inscribed magical texts surrounded by the palindrome that con‑ sisted of the name Ιαεω/Iahweh and a text deriving from the Egyptian myth and lan‑ guage. It appears that also the places where the objects were found provide some useful context for interpretation of such finds. 183. The ιαεω­‍‑palindrome 231 the evocation of Hekate.

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— Antiquités africaines ARG — Archiv für Religionsgeschichte BAGB — Bulletin de l’Association Guillaume Budé BCH — Bulletin de correspondance hellénique. AE — Année Épigraphique AHB — Ancient History Bulletin = Revue d’histoire ancienne AHC — Annuarium Historiae Conciliorum AHR — American Historical Review AION — Annali di archeologia e storia antica AJA — American Journal of Archaeology AJAH — American Jurnal of Ancient History AMNG — Die antiken Münzen Nord-Griechenlands AncSoc — Ancient Society ANRW — Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt AntAfr. Within the Circle of Ancient Ideas and Virtues Studies in Honour of Professor Maria Dzielska List of Bibliographical Abbreviations AA — Archäologischer Anzeiger AB — Analecta Bollandiana ACO — Acta Conciliorum Oecumenicorum AÉp. Athènes BE — Bulletin Épigraphique BICS — Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies BJ — Bonner Jahrbücher BMC — British Museum of Coins BMCRR — Coins of the Roman Republic in the British Museum BMGS — Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies BSAA — Bulletin de la Société Royale d’Archéologie d’Alexandrie ByzSlav — Byzantinoslavica ByzZ — Byzantinische Zeitschrift CAH — Cambridge Ancient History .

J. JbÖByz — Jahrbuch der Österreichischen Byzantinistik JR — Journal of Religion . Roman and Byzantine Studies HBE — Histoire du Bas Empire (E.Th. Stein) HJ — Historisches Jahrbuch HZ — Historische Zeitschrift IA — Inscriptiones Aquileiae ICS — Illinois Classical Studies IG — Inscriptiones Graecae IID (ИИД) — Izvestija na Istoričeskoto Družestvo v Sofija IK — Inschriften griechischer Städte aus Kleinasien ILLRP — Inscriptiones Latinae Liberae Rei Publicae ILS — Inscriptiones Latinae selectae JAOS — Journal of the American Oriental Society JbAC.. — Codex Iustinianus C&M — Classica et Mediaevalia ColbyQ — Colby Quarterly CQ — Classical Quarterly CSCO — Corpus Scriptorum Christianorum Orientalium CSEL — Corpus Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum Latinorum CSSH — Comparative Studies in Society and History C. KlP. FGrHist — Die Fragmente der griechischen Historiker GCS — Griechische Christliche Schriftsteller GIBI (ГИБИ) — Gràcki izvori za bàlgarskata istorija (Fontes Graeci Historiae Bulgarice) G&R — Greece and Rome GRBS — Greek. Gesamtedition der antiken griechischen Aristoteles-Kommentare DKP. KP — Der kleine Pauly DOP — Dumbarton Oaks Papers EHR — The English Historical Review EK — Encyklopedia katolicka Eras — Eras Journal FIRA — Fontes Iuris Romani ante-Iustiniani FGH. JbACh — Jahrbuch für Antike und Christentum JECS — Journal of Early Christian Studies JESHO — Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient JHS — Journal of Hellenic Studies JNES — Journal of Near Eastern Studies JÖB.452 List of Bibliographical Abbreviations CCG — Cahiers du Centre Gustave-Glotz CFHB — Corpus Fontium Historiae Byzantinae ChHist — Church History: Studies in Christianity and Culture CIL — Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum CJ — Classical Journal C. — Codex Theodosianus DK — Diels H.

AA — Monumenta Germaniae Historica. Auctores Antiquissimi MH — Museum Helveticum MUSJ — Mélanges de l’Université Saint-Joseph NC — Numismatic Chronicle NP — Der Neue Pauly.P — Der Kleine Pauly LC — Letras Clássicas LIBI (ЛИБИ) — Latinski izvori za bàlgarskata istorija (Fontes Latini Historiae Bulgaricae) LIMC — Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae MEFRA — Mélanges de l’École française de Rome. Kl. Enzyklopädie der Antike NPNF — Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers OC — Oriens Christianus OCA — Orientalia Christiana Analecta OCP — Orientalia Christiana Periodica ODB — The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium OGIS — Orientis Graeci Inscriptiones Selectae PBSR — Papers of the British School of Rome PCPhS — Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society PECS — The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites PG — Patrologia Graeca PHist — Przegląd Historyczny PIR — Prosopographia Imperii Romani PL — Patrologia Latina PLRE — The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire PO — Patrologia Orientalis PP — La parola del passato P&P — Past and Present PSRL — (= Полное собрание русских летописей): Polnoe sobranije russkich letopisej PVL — (=Повесть временных лет): Povest’ vremennych let QS — Quaderni di storia RAC — Rivista di archeologia cristiana RBi — Revue biblique RbK — Reallexikon der byzantinischen Kunst RCCM — Rivista di cultura classica e medioevale RD — Revue historique de droit français et étranger RDAC — Report of the Department of Antiquities of Cyprus RE — Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft REA — Revue des études anciennes . Antiquité MEG — Medioevo greco: Rivista di storia e filologia bizantina MGH. 453 JRA — Journal of Roman Archaeology JRS — Journal of Roman Studies JThS — Journal of Theological Studies KP.

TAPA — Transactions of the American Philological Association ThesCRA — Thesaurus Cultus et Rituum Antiquorum ThZ — Theologische Zeitschrift TIB — Tabula Imperii Byzantini TM — Travaux et mémoires T&MByz — Travaux et mémoires du Centre de recherche d’histoire et civilisation byzantines VChr — Vigiliae Christianae VoxP — Vox Patrum WS — Wiener Studien YClS — Yale Classical Studies ZAC — Zeitschrift für antikes Christentum ZKG — Zeitschrift für Kirchengeschichte ZNTW— Zeitschrift für die Neutestamentliche Wissenschaft und die Kunde der älteren Kirche ZPE — Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik ZRG RA — Zeitschrift der Savigny-Stiftung für Rechtsgeschichte — RA = Romanistische Abteilung.454 List of Bibliographical Abbreviations REAug — Revue des études augustiniennes et patristiques REByz — Revue des études byzantines REG — Revue des études grecques REJ — Revue des études juives REL — Revue des études latines RESE — Revue des études sud-est européennes RGDA — Res Gestae Divi Augusti RHL — Revue d’histoire et de littérature religieuses RhM — Rheinisches Museum für Philologie RIC — Roman Imperial Coinage RÖ — Römisches Österreich: Jahresschrift der Österreichischen Gesellschaft für Archäologie RPC — Roman Provincial Coinage RRC — Roman Republican Coinage RSI — Rivista storica italiana SAAC — Studies in Ancient Art and Civilization SDHI — Studia et Documenta Historiae et Iuris SEG — Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum SHA. HA — Scriptores Historiae Augustae SIG — Sylloge Inscriptionum Graecarum SNG — Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum SRG — Sofiści i retorzy greccy (wyd. KA = Kanonistische Abteilung . P. Janiszewski et alii) TAPhA.

. . . . . . . . . . . Greek Culture and Beyond . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A Land Apart: The Description of Thessaly in the Homeric Catalogue of Ships . The Character of Roman Discourse on Scents from Plautus to Pliny the Elder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Domitia Longina — The Portrait of a Woman in Ancient Sources . . . . . . . Improvised Remarks on Alexander the Great and his Heritage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Bibliography of Maria Dzielska . . . . . . . . . . Key Concepts in the Thought of Leucippus of Miletus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Sleep of Eros in a Funerary Epigram from Tomis (Peek. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 Piotr Berdowski. . . . 175 . . . 117 Marek J. . . . . 97 Tomasz Grabowski. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Sławomir Sprawski. . . . . . . . . 9 Jerzy Danielewicz. . . . . . . . . . . . Pietas Erga Patriam: Ideology and Politics in Rome in the Early First Century BC. . . . . . . 39 Stanisław Stabryła. The Indian Gymnosophists as the Ideal Cynic Philosophers? A Cynic Diatribe in the Geneva Papyrus inv. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Within the Circle of Ancient Ideas and Virtues Studies in Honour of Professor Maria Dzielska CONTENTS Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . The Evidence From Coins and Glandes Inscriptae . . . 17 Krystyna Bartol. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Andrzej Wypustek. . . . . . . . . . 51 Andrzej Iwo Szoka. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Joanna Komorowska. . . . . . The Cult of Arsinoe II in the Foreign Policy of the Ptolemies . . . . . . . Parthians. . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Krzysztof Narecki. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Model Text. . . 31 Dariusz Słapek. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 Agata A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . the Forgotten Founder of Atomism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Griechische Vers-Inschriften no. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271 . . . . . . Culture versus Nature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85 Adam Łukaszewicz. . . . 1942) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . La patientia d’Hadrien et pietas d’Antonin ou les virtutes dans la pratique de l’éloge impérial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mythological Figures and Dead Leaders as Teachers of Public Morals and Traditional Values in Greek Old Comedy . . . . 143 Wojciech Boruch. . . . Aletheia and Doxa in Pseudo-Hippocrates’ Epistolary Novel on Democritus’ Laughter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Tabula Gratulatoria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Kluczek. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Model Reading? The Paradigmatic Character of Proclus’ In Alcibiadem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problématique de la critique littéraire dans les Satires d’Horace . . . . . . . Olbrycht. .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377 Małgorzata B. . . . . . . . . 451 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Connotazione del lemma „physis” in riferimento al mondo creato negli scritti di Gregorio Nazianzeno . . . The Impiety (Impietas) of the Christians? . . Caesar and Caesarism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319 Rafał Kosiński. . . . . . . Leszka. . . . . . . . . Gods of Constantine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Leader of Isaurian Revolt (492–497) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Viam fecei…ponteis…poseivei…forum aedisque poplicas heic fecei. 423 Maciej Salamon. . Schism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 Danuta Okoń. . . . . P. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 Leszek Mrozewicz. . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Religious Affiliations . . . . . . . . . 225 Szymon Olszaniec. . . . . . . . . . . . . Mirosław J. . . . . . Questions choisies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cornelius Anullinus — amicus certus . . . . . . . . . . . . Church Unity. . . . . 185 Maciej Piegdoń. . . . . . 263 Kazimierz Ilski. . . . . . 329 Stanisław Turlej. . . Die „Heiden“ am Rande der Welt — die Kirche und die Überreste des heidnischen Kultus im suewischen Galizien und Lusitanien . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 Sławomir Bralewski. 243 Henryk Kowalski. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Byzantine Performative Turn . . . . . . . . . Romans or Etruscans? . La philosophie pratiquée par les actes — une image du philosophe dans l’Histoire ecclésiastique de Socrate de Constantinople . . . . The Two Prefects of 384 — Symmachus and Praetextatus . . . . . . 297 Kamilla Twardowska. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Numismatic Evidence . Leszka. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A Barbarian as Incarnation of Roman Virtues? Theodoric the Great in Byzantine and Italian Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341 Dimitar Y. . . . . . . . . . . . . . From the World of Gnostic Spells. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hypatia’s Sisters: Female Philosophers in the Fourth and Fifth Centuries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411 Przemysław Marciniak. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Virtutes and Abstract Ideas Propagated by Marcia Otacilia Severa. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275 Norbert Widok. Justinian’s Novela XI — A Historical Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . .456 Contents Katarzyna Balbuza. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Haruspices under the Walls of Toulouse in 439: Huns. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Apollonius of Tyana and the Account of the Death of Oleg. . . . . . . . . . . . Thracians and Bessi in Late Antiquity: Questions of Survival. . . . . . . . . . Constantin Ier et ses successeurs à l’égard des religions traditionnelles et du christianisme. . . . . . . 361 Jan Prostko-Prostyński. . . . . . . . . . . . . 233 Edward Watts. . Dimitrov. . . . . . . . . . . The ιαεω-palindrome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Theodor Mommsen: The Ides of March. . . . . . . . . 399 Teresa Wolińska. . . . . . . . . . . . . 251 Dariusz Spychała. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 Joachim Śliwa. Aemilius Lepidus in Northern Italy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431 Przemysław Wojciechowski. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flavian Municipal Foundations in Dalmatia . . . . . . Longinus of Cardala. Identity. . . Religious Foundations of Empress Athenais Eudocia in Palestine . . . . and Heresy in Late Antiquity . . . . . . . . . . . Why Peter the Iberian Could Not Have Been the Author of the Corpus Dionysiacum . the Ruler of Rus . . . . . . . . . 445 List of Bibliographical Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Political activity of M. . 307 Michał Stachura. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391 Marek Wilczyński. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .