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230, an erotic spell

Jordan, D R
Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies; Summer 1999; 40, 2; ProQuest
pg. 159

P.Duk.inv. 230, an Erotic Spell

D. R. Jordan

G REEK TEXTS from Egypt housed in the

Special Collections Department of the Perkins Library of
Duke University is an unpublished erotic spell, which I
present here. 1 It is inscribed on a lead tablet and is meant to
bring a woman to a man.
From antiquity we have, on papyrus, pottery, gemstones, and
thin tablets of lead, some forty other inscribed "working" erotic

lHere I would thank John F. Oates and the Rare Book, Manuscript, and
Special Collections Library of Duke University for permission to publish the
tablet and Jaime Curbera and the anonymous referee for good advice about its
personal names. The following are cited in abbreviated form:
"Brashear 1992 = W. M. Brashear, "Ein neues Zauberensemble in Miinchen,"
Studien zur alt-iigyptischen Kultur 19: 79-109
Brashear 1995 = W. M. Brashear, "The Greek Magical Papyri, an Introduction
and Survey: Annotated Bibliography (1928-1994)," ANRW II 18.5: 3380-
DTAud = A. Audollent, Defixionum tabellae quotquot innotuerunt (Paris 1904)
GMPT = H. D. Betz, ed., The Greek Magical Papyri in Translation I (Chicago
Moraux 1960 = P. Moraux, Une defixion judicia ire au Musee d'Istanbul (=
MemAcadBelg 54.2)
NGCT = D. R. Jordan, "New Greek Curse Tablets (1985-2000)," GRBS 41
(2000) 5-37
Preisendanz 1935 = K. Preisendanz, "Nekydaimon," RE 16: 2240-2266
SGD = D. R. Jordan, "A Survey of Greek Defixiones not included in the Special
Corpora," GRBS 26 (1985) 151-197
Suppl.Mag. = R. W. Daniel and F. Maltomini, Supplementum Magicum (= Pap.
Colon. 16.1-2 [1990-92])
Winkler 1990 = J. J. Winkler, The Constraints of Desire (New York/London)
Winkler 1991 = J. J. Winkler, "The Constraints of Eros," in C. A. Faraone and
D. Obbink, edd., Magika hiera (New York/Oxford) 214-243
I completed the present manuscript before I could see L. LiDonnici, "Burning
for It: Erotic Spe1ls for Fever and Compulsion in the Ancient Mediterranean
World," GRBS 39 (1998) 63-98, or C. A. Faraone, Ancient Greek Love Magic
(Cambridge [Mass.] 1999), to which I refer the reader for further analysis of
such spells as this.

Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies 40 (1999) 159-170

2001 GRBS


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spells in Greek or Latin,2 as well as dozens of recipes for such in

Greek papyrus formularies, each intended to make its victim
lust after the would-be beneficiary for whom it was written.
Like all ancient magic, they are the means to an end; when this
last is made explicit in the extant erotic spells, it is usually,
perhaps contra exspectationem, not the sexual gratification of the
beneficiary but something else. 3 "Make Aplonous love me," we
read on a lead tablet from Roman Egypt (Suppl.Mag. 39), " ... so
that ... she'll give me whatever I say." Another (42): "Drive
Gorgonia ... , drive, torment her body night and day, force her to
rush forth from any place and any house, loving Sophia, she,
surrendered like a slave, giving herself and all her possessions to
her." In another (54), with the phrase "melt his flesh, his sinews,
limbs, soul, so that he cannot be an opponent of (uv'ttos I..9EtV)
Ionikos or see or hear anything bad against me (i.e. Ionikos},"
the intended victim is presumably a magistrate of some kind or
a potential litigant whose good opinion Ionikos needs; to that
end Ionikos attempts to attract his sexual desire: "take control
of (or: bewitch) the qnAta of Annianos for Ionikos by means of
fProS' (J'topy~, indissoluble [e.g. ciy(btll]."4 So too in the papyrus
formularies, e.g. PGM IV 1806-1810 "turn her soul to me, so

Mag. 40,43-45, P.Monac. inv. AS 6792 (Brashear 1992). Pottery: Suppl.Mag.
51 (a pot containing 49 and 50). Gemstones: Lesbos, C. Bonner, Studies in MagI-
cal Amulets chiefly Graeco-Egyptian (= U. Mich. Stud. Hum. Ser. 49 [1950])
118-119; unknown provenance: 116-117. Lead: Egypt, Suppl.Mag. 37-39,
41-42, 46-50, 54 (= SGD 151-153, 155-156, 158-161, NGCT 93); Tunisia,
DT Aud 227, 230-231, 264-271, 304; Germany, 100; Lebanon, unpublished
(one); unknown provenance, unpublished (one). All are of Roman imperial date
and all are in Greek except DTAud 100, 227, 231, 264-271, and 304. Here I do
not list spells intended merely to break up erotic relationships, e.g. PGM LXVI,
01-2, SEG 35.219-221 (= SGD 30-32, Athens, IIIp).
3Winklef (1990: 91-93, 1991: 228-230) apparently fails to notice this when
depicting the "typical" user of these spells as the lover in his tortured sexual
4Using my own reading (see "Magica ~raeca parvula," ZPE 100 [1994]
321-335, at 323), Ep]om, m:op[rn, a]OtUAu[t<O] rather than the ltp]Wtt<HOV,
[a]OtaAu['tro~] of Suppl.Mag. 5 4 . 3 8 . ' .

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that she will love me (cptAf1), desire me (Ep~), give me what she
has in her hands."5
A few erotic spells that are inscribed for men specify that
sexual intercourse is what the women who are their targets shall
desire (e.g. PGM XIXa, Suppl.Mag. 38,45, Brashear 1992). Inter-
course with the woman is presumably envisaged in all these
erotic spells to benefit men, but only three mention sexual desire
on the part of the man himself.6 Of one, PGM XVIIa, the
motivation is also economic gain: "Drive (her) to me ... until .. .
she comes desiring me, her hands full, with generous soul ... ,
performing those things that befit women with men, and serving
my desire (E1tteu~Lia) and hers unstintingly and ungrudgingly"
(16-22). The others, XIc with its "make me, so-and-so, attain
intercourse" (7-9) and the spell presented here, are rare in that
their motivation is explicitly and apparently primarily male
sexual gratification.
The tablet, its letter-forms suggesting IVP, is almost wholly
intact, with only a few areas missing from the left- and right-
hand sides. In its upper central part is a simple drawing of
Seth-Typhon with his head that of an ass but with otherwise
more or less human features? He is wearing a tunic-we see its

5Presumably this is the import also of PGM VII 909-910 Ewe; EAeo\Jcra (for
EAen) 1tpOe; EIlE ... 1tA"pO!popo\Jcra, "until she comes to me ... , paying up in full" vel
sim., but the last word in the Greek is attested in less specific senses.
6The restorations of [1l0t Kat KataO"crov tr,]v Oetv', llv Oetva, [de;] I tOY
E1t' Ep[Wtt autf1e; t"KOllevo]v at PGM VII 985-986, in instructions for an
uyroytllOV, may be doubted. In addition, I know of no ancient erotic spell that
alludes to sexual desire on the part of a female beneficiary. A recipe in the
Demotic part of the bilingual formulary PGM LXI (IIIp) is no exception. The
translation of J. H. Johnson (GMPT 289) runs: "Spell of giving praise [and]
love in Nubian: 'SYMYTH KESYTH HRBABA BRASAKHS LAT, son of (?) NAPH, son of
(?) BAKHA.' Say these; put gum on your hand; and kiss your shoulder twice, and
go before the man whom you desire." Prof. Johnson tells me (per epistt.) that the
Demotic for "whom you desire" is no more than "whom you seek" and has no
sexual connotations. She also writes that the "you" of the spell is masculine. If
it had been feminine, the beneficiary would necessarily have been a woman, but
that it is masculine leaves his or her gender ambiguous. So too with the word
translated here as "the man."
7For references to representations of Seth-Typhon as ass-head see Moraux
1960: 19-22, esp. 19 n.3.

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fringe in the area of his thighs-and is holding in his proper right

hand a whip (?) and in his left a staff (?). Above the latter are
two squarish drawings possibly of beribboned flags or plaques.
At his proper right are traces of (A) three columns of magical
words, and to the right of his staff are traces of (B) a fourth and
(C) a fifth. Beneath his feet is (D) a stylized drawing of a tabula
ansata inscribed with a series of vowels (imperfect). The main
text (E) of the spell itself occupies an area at the right of and
beneath the drawings. This general arrangement, a figure flanked
by letters in columns, is prescribed, at the beginning of the large
scroll of formulae at Oslo (P.Oslo 11 = PGM XXXVI: IVP), in four
recipes for writing spells. The figure in the third is a chicken-
headed anthropoid with an up-raised whip in his proper right
hand and a small human dangling from his left. There are two
columns of letters on each side of the anthropoid, the outer read-
ing IWEPP1l8 IW1t<XKEPP1l8 I IWPOAXOO'1l8 IW<X1tof..l\jf, the inner Lll 8
L1l8 L1l8 I B<XK BP<XK BP<XK; beneath his feet is a plaque with the
vocable APEPP<Xf..lEV8ou. The text that accompanies the figure is
an erotic spell (aywyf)):
77 EASE, TU<j>wv (, E1tt 'tTtv u1t'ttav 1tUAllv KaSTlJ,H:vOs,
78 ImEp~llS Im1taKEp~llS Im~aAxocrllS Ima1tOIl'V
79 ImcrEcrEvpm Im~tlla't IaKoull~lUt A~EppallEvSm
80 OuAEpSE~: ~vc;t~ ESpeAuomS Mellape~a 1:OU LllS' Ws u-
81 IlEts KalwSe Kat 1tupoucrSe, ou'tms Kat 'h 'Vux~, 'h KapOta
82 'tTls OEtVa. ~s 'tEKEV 'h OEtVa, Ems a.v ASn <j>tAoucra EIlE 'tOY OEtVa
83 Kat tTtV SllAUKltV au'tTls <j>ucrtv 'tn apcrEVtK111l0U KOA.A.~crn.
84 "HOll i)Oll, 'taXD taxu.
Come, Typhon sitting at the upper gate, 16ERBETH 16PAKERBETH
THEX, lord ETHRELYOOTH MEMAREBA of Seth: as you burn and are
in flames, so too the soul, the heart of so-and-so, whom so-and-so
bore, until she comes loving me, so-and-so, and glues her female
organ to my male. At once, at once, quickly, quickly! (transl.

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D. R. JORDAN 163

The loerbeth logos and other phrases figure in the Duke spell,
which must, as careless mistakes show, have been copied from
a formulary, no doubt from one like that at Oslo.8 In the
translation below, I print its only personalized parts, the proper
names, in italics.

P.Duk.inv.230 H. 0.104, W. 0.075 m. IVP

A. At the left of the figure, in columns:

1 [ca 4? ]AAOSuO]([~]
2 l1~~r ]pe[i11.2]OU~t[~]
3 [~]a~e~eSU~ffi~Ve~ap
B. At the rigl:t of his staff, in a column:
4 Iaffi[ill..J].l1(H[~]
C. In a column farther to the right:
5 Iffi Iffi aJmax.3-4] ...
D. Within the tabula ansata:
6 aelltOUOtllVaVVV
E. At the right of and beneath the designs:
7 'E~OPKi~ffi (Jat,
8 Oat~ffiV, Ka'ta
9 'tou ~qaAou
10 Scou EpllKtO"l1-
11 q>ST) Apapa-
12 (Drawing) xapapa Ht-

8Eitrem on P.Oslo I 1 (p.31): "It was said to have come originally from
Batn-Harit [in the Fayum]. We may raise the question whether there was here,
or in some neighbouring town, a 'factory' for producing such magical papyri."
Of this type there was at least one other formUlary, represented by PGM LVIII,
a fragmentary leaf from a fourth-century codex with magical recipes, its hand
very 1ike-to my eye perhaps identical to-that of the Oslo scrol[ One side of
the leaf preserves part of a drawing, evidently as crudely done as those at Oslo,
of some shaggy creature 0. Schawe, Die Universitiitsbibliothek Gieflen. Eine
kleine Fiihrung [Giessen 1962-63] 20). The other side has instructions for
inscribing a lead curse tablet. The text of DTAud 188 (vidi) in fact follows that
or a similar recipe, which probablYI like several in the Oslo scroll, originally
included drawings of the magical charakteres, for such cover the back of the
extant tablet.

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D. R. J.

-+--t-~I~~ ~t
.00 .01 .02 .0 3 .04 .05 ffi .

PDuk.inv.230, IVP H. 0.104, W. 0.075 ffi.

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13 <pel1(HKl1P-
14 [f :] <PfP~OYf-
15 r:]v 10}11 10}-
16 fp~l1e 10}-
17 1WKfP-
18 ~l1e 100~oAxoalle 100\jIfvXaV Kal-
19 ~XO}O}X KAo}1ta'tptv I1a'tpaKlvou,
20 &~ov {'tf} 'tllv TfPllOU(v), llv f'tfKfV A1tta,
21 1tpO~ Ejlal, MDUjlO}V, roy f'tfKfV Tat1ttajl,
22 1tUPOUjlEVllV, <PAfYOjlEVl1(V), ~aaavtI~OjlEvll(v)
23 'tllv \jIUXtlV, 'tOY VOUV, 'to yuvatov arojla,
24 (t)<; fAen 1tpO~ f.jlal, MDUjl(t)V, (rov f'tfKfV) Tf7ttajl,
25 Kat KOAAtlan au'tll<; ['t]a. XlAll d<; 'to. XlAll
26 jlou, 'tllv 'tpiXav d~ 'tllv 'tpiXav jlou, 'tllv ya-
27 a'tEpav d~ 'tllv yaa'tEpav jlou, 'to jlfAaVtoV
28 d<; 'to jlfAaVtOV jlou, 0}<; 'tfAfa(t) 'tllv auvouala(v)
29 jlou Kat 'tllV apafVtKtlv jlou <puatv jlf'ta. 'tll~ yuv-
30 atKia~ au'tll~ <puaf(t)~. "HDll, 'taxi> W.

1 A or a, or a 2 a or A 3 eor 0, Aor a corr. from E 14 a or E 18
Icoo/Evxuv: Xco~r. fro~ e
22 ~acra~l~oIlEV~ tab. 28 cruvoucrlii tab.

7 aE 8oatllOV 18-19 Ba'ivxcococox 19 KAE01t<itplOV 21 EIlE, .1tOUIlOV,

ov 24 EIlE, .1tOUIlOV, (ov 25 XElAll bis 26 tptXa bis 26-27 yaatEpa
bis 29-30 yuvaucdw;

E: I adjure you, ghost, by the great god EREKISEPHTHE ARARACHARARA

SETH IL>PSENCHAN BAINCHL>L>CH: Kleopatrion, daughter(?) of Patraki-
nos (?), drive Tereous, whom Apia bore, to me, Didymos, whom
Taipiam bore, burning, inflamed, wracked in her soul, her mind, her
female parts, until she comes to me, Didymos, whom Tepiam bore,
and glues her lips to my lips, hair to my hair, belly to my belly, wee
black to my wee black, until I accomplish my intercourse and my male
nature with her female nature. At once, quickly (twice).

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1-5. These lines, inscribed more shallowly than the rest of the
text, have been difficult to read. I have not succeeded in identi-
fying here any usual logos such as those beside the figures in the
Oslo scroll. In line 4 we have law (Yahweh), with whom the ass-
headed Seth-Typhon was sometimes associated (Moraux 1960:
26-27), followed in line 5 by the Coptic for "ass," tW, a vocable
common in magical texts (Brashear 1995: 3588).
6. Strings of vowels were common in Graeco-Egyptian magic,
the indices in the unpublished third volume of PGM including
over forty examples (for bibliography see D. E. Aune, "lao,"
RLAC 17 [1996] 1-12, at 7). Here, after aElllOU, something
seems to have gone wrong with the order.
7. The text proper opens with an adjuration of a oai/lwv, the
word here no doubt with the sense YEKUOai/lwv, the ghost, dead
before his or her time, into or near whose grave or sarcophagus
the lead tablet would have been placed: see Preisendanz 1935
and, for further bibliography, Brashear 1995: 3468 n.429.
11-14. The palindrome EpllKHHSCPTl Apapaxapapa HcpSHH-
KllpE (here imperfect: EpllKHJllCPSTl A. HtcpSTlatKllP[E]) is frequent
in magical texts in Roman imperial times, the indices of PGM,
DTAud, and Suppl.Mag. revealing 19 examples. Usually the
texts in which it occurs have a Jewish flavor, invoking e.g.
archangels (PGM IV 1797) or the SEOY 'tOY Iapa/la (for IapallA),
who is also called 'tOY SEOY 'tou A~paav Kat 'tOY law (for ('tou)
IaaaK (Kat)?) 'tOY 'tou IaKou (DTAud 271, Hadrumetum), but
its second and third elements occur, rather forcibly fitted, in
hexametric hymns to Apollon-Helios at PGM II 100 (Xa'iPE,
1tUPO~ /lEOEWV apapaxxapa llCPStatKllPE) and Hekate-Selene-
Artemis at IV 2849 (au Of xaou~ /lEOEWY apapaxapapa
llCPStatKllPE). E. Rohde (Psyche 9 II [Berlin 1925] 81 n.2) and inde-
pendently R. Merkelbach ("<I>StaiKTlPE," ZPE 47 [1982] 172),
both articulating II cpS., have interpreted cpStaiKllPE as Greek
(Merkelbach: "Vernichter des Todesloses"), but K. Preisendanz
has argued ("Palindrom," RE 18 [1949] 133-139, at 135) that

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the epithet would be inappropriate in at least the first of the

two hymns cited here. S. Eitrem (P.Oslo I p.94) considered that
the phrase in the second must have been interpreted as
"destroying death." See Preisendanz's basic treatment of the
vocable (esp. 135-136), in which he summarizes and assesses
speculations as to its sense.
14-19. [?]<pEpcrOYEi[?]V (cr or E) is apparently new, as is
ICo\VEvxav (X corr~ fro~ 8). r'aTj is ~ommon, especially in magical
expressions with clusters of vowels, e.g. PGM IV 1564-1565
laffi taTj tffia at 0 cOv. For discussion of the Ioerbeth logos (here
IffiEp~Tj8 ... Iffi~oAxocr1l8, though usually with more elements, as
at P.Oslo I 1.78-79), characteristically associated with Seth-
Typhon, see Moraux 1960: 19-39. Kal~XffiffiX is a scribal error
for BalvXffiffiffiX, Egyptian b3 n kkw "spirit of darkness" (Bra-
shear 1995: 3581), and is not part of the logos.
19. After Kall~XffiffiX we have a Greek female name and
patronymic, KAffirta'tptv I1a'tpaKlvou. The first has as its initial
element KAO- with the shift [eo] --t [0] as in 8086'tll (Lefebvre,
Rec. inscr. gr.-chret. d'Egypte 795), AffivlOll~ (MAMA VII 982),
etc., and no doubt KAcorta~ On. 19:25, pace W. Bauer, Greek-
English Lexicon of the New Testament, s. V., who assumes this last
to be Semitic); its second is a syncopation of -rta'tptOv. The
canonical spelling would be KAOrta'tptov, the vocative of either
the masculine KAEorta'tplffiv (attested once: O. Wilck. 1434, lIP) or
the feminine diminutive, here new. Unless the patronymic as
spelled here is a deformation of a name like I1a'tptKtav6~, it is
apparently new (I1a'tpalClvll~? I1a'tpaKtVo~?).
Kleopatrion is the ghost addressed in lines 7-8. Although in
magical addresses to the dead these last usually go unnamed
(e.g. Suppl.Mag. 48 J-K 20 vElCuOalllcov, ocr'tt~ rto't' 1:, El-rE apPll~
et'tE %Ata), we do have erotic spells that name them: those from
Egypt roughly contemporary with the Duke tablet are PGM
XXXII and Suppl.Mag. 37, 47; cf. the recipe at PGM IV 2180-
2181, where the nekydaimon is addressed as 0 OElva, the name

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to be supplied. (See Preisendanz 1935: 2249 for ghosts named

on earlier Attic lead curse tablets.) With one other exception,
'OPlwv Lupcmoihoc; at Suppl.Mag. 37.1, their identifications as
preserved are simple personal names without lineage. F. Boll,
the initial editor of this last text, assumed that the scribe knew
the young Horion before the latter died. 9 That scribe and ours
may, though, have merely read the burial markers, which would
have recorded at least name, patronymic, and age at death. If
the name Kleopatrion is in fact feminine, we have our first in-
stance of a female ghost named in a Greek magical text.
20. 'tE is superfluous. No doubt the scribe began to write
TEP110U and then, having decided that he should have used the
Greek article (rather than its Coptic equivalent, T), inserted
'tllv without deleting 'tE. Articles are in fact seldom used before
the names of the intended victims and beneficiaries of magical
spells (of the forty or so other "working" Greek erotic spells
[supra n.2], for example, only ten have articles in this position)
and never before the mother's name in the formula for maternal
lineage. Like ours, one other spell (lead tablet, unpublished)
gives the article before the victim's name but not before the bene-
ficiary'S. As for the woman's name itself, TEP110UC; is attested
elsewhere at least once, at P.Land. V 1652.8 (IvP), where it has
the genitive TEP11ou'toC;. The accusative would be TEP11oU'tu or
Maternal lineage, as here, is found in Greek magic from the
early centuries of our era, although there are Egyptian ante-
cedents from the Middle Kingdom.lO In Greek formularies the
phrase was often abbreviated to I;. ov(i]v 1;., 1;.111;., or even 1;.1;..

9 Ein griechischer Liebeszauber aus Agypten (SBHeid 1910.2).

lOSee D. R. Jordan, "eIL VIII 19525(B).2 QPVVLVA = q(uem) p(eperit)

vulva," Philologus 120 (1976) 127-132; J. B. Curb era, "Maternal Lineage in
Greek Magical Texts," in D. R. Jordan, H. Montgomery, E. Thomassen, edd., The
World of Ancient Magic. Papers from the First International Samson Eitrem
Seminar at the Norwegian Institute at Athens, 4-8 May 1997 (= Papers from the
Norwegian Institute at Athens 4 [Bergen 1999]) 195-204.

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Evidently our scribe had one of these shorter abbreviations in

the model for lines 20, 21, and 24, for in resolving it he has intro-
duced his own spelling into 2t mv for OV (cf. his ~i8ullffiV for
-IlOV), and has neglected to include the phrase linking the two
names in 24.
21. Tal7ttall here and TE1ttall in line 24 are variant spellings of
a female name that occurs elsewhere as Ta1ttaIlO~, Ta1ttffillt~,
TwPtallt~, and Ta1ttEllt~ (see Namenbuch s.vv.).
22-23. If the first word at P G M XIXa 50, [Kat]ollv11v.
1tUPOUIlEV11v. KV'tEt <~a)aavt1~ollv11v, may be restored as
[<PA.EY]OIlv11V, the three participles on the lead tablet occur there
too. The omission in <PA.qOIlEV11(V) is no doubt scribal rather
than phonetic, i.e. <pA.QOIlEV11v ~ <pA.qollvl1 (cf. ~aaavl1~ollvl1
following, auvouatii in line 28) ~ <PA.EYOIlv11.
25-28. The gluing or fastening together of bodily parts finds
parallels in other "working" erotic spells on papyrus (XVIIa
22-23, thighs, bellies, "blacks"; P.Monac. inv. As 6972.50-51
[Brashear 1992], thighs, lips) and lead (Suppl.Mag. 38.12,
thighs, <puaEt~) and in recipes for them (PGM IV 400-404,
heads, lips, bellies, thighs, "blacks"; XXXVI 83, 113-114, 150,
female <puat~ to male; Suppl.Mag. 78 II 7-8, thighs? "blacks"?).
F. Maltomini (Suppl.Mag. 38.12) has collected instances in erotic
poetry, e.g. Archil. fr.189.1 West, Ka1tt yampt yaa'tEpa 1tpoa-
~aA.EtV ll11pou~ 'tE Il11POt~.
28. As far as I know, IlEA.aV has the sense "pubic area" only
in the passages cited above. IlEA.aVlOV here is the first example
of its diminutive.
29. <puat~ in the passages cited in the note on line 25 (see
Winkler 1990: 217-220 for other examples) means "sexual
organ." If 'tEA.Eaffi is to govern both auvouata(v) and <puatv,
however, the latter here probably has its abstract sense.
30. I.e. 11811 11811. 'taxu 'taxu, as in the Oslo text quoted above
and as often found at the ends of spells. The 11811 'taxu Wof the
lead tablet is an unresolved abbreviation from the scribe's for-

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mulary: cf. e.g. PGM XII 143, 396 ~81l W, -ruxu W. For these and
other abbreviations of the phrase in formularies see my "Notes
from Carthage," ZPE 111 (1996) 115-123, at 119.

November, 2000 Athens

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