Basic Magnetism

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Basic Magnetism

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Chapter 4

Basic Magnetism

Objective

An understanding of magnetism is necessary to learn about many electrical

machines. In this section you will learn about the different kinds of magnets, and

how magnetic fields interact with each other. You will also learn how the different

properties of materials affect the magnetic fields created by these magnets.

Overview

Electromagnetic machines are the workhorses of industry and commerce. Several

machines that use the principles of electromagnetism include the electromagnetic

relay, the electric motor, the electric generator, and the electric transformer.

Relays open and close circuits with an electromagnetic switch. Electric motors

convert electrical energy to mechanical energy in the form of torque and a rotating

shaft. Electric generators are the opposite of motors. They convert mechanical

energy into electrical energy. Transformers change the voltage and current in an

electrical system. High voltages from transmission lines are changed to usable low

voltages. All of these machines use magnetism to perform their various functions.

112

Basic Magnetism My Notes and Calculations

Fundamentals

Magnetism

Magnetism is a term used to describe the forces exerted by a magnetic field.

Understanding magnetism is critical to understanding electricity. Magnets produce

electric currents and electric currents produce magnetic forces.

Permanent magnets do not require current to maintain their magnetic force. The

three most common types of permanent magnets are the horseshoe, bar, and

compass needle. Electromagnets are made by passing a current through a coil of

wire to produce a magnetic field.

Magnetic Fields

A magnetic field is the region

of space around a magnet

where the influence of

magnetic forces can be seen.

Even though magnetic fields

are invisible, the effects of

magnetic fields can be seen.

114

Basic Magnetism My Notes and Calculations

When a sheet of paper is placed on a magnet and iron filings are loosely scattered

over it, the filings will arrange themselves along the invisible magnetic field.

Although the paper representation here shows a plane surface, magnetic fields take

up the whole volume of space around the magnet.

arrange themselves on the magnetic field lines

Magnetic fields are represented graphically as lines (see Figure 4.3). The closer the

magnetic field lines, the stronger the magnetic field.

Magnetic fields produced by electromagnets work the same as fields from

permanent magnets.

Polarity

Every magnet has two polesone north pole and one south pole. These are the

points where maximum magnetic attraction occurs.

The magnetic field leaves the north pole and enters the south pole.

When two magnets are brought together, the magnetic fields around them interact.

Like poles repel each other, while unlike poles are attracted to each other.

116

Basic Magnetism My Notes and Calculations

Magnetic Materials

Magnetic permeability is the term used to express the ability of material to attract

magnetic fields. High permeability materials, such as iron, attract magnetic fields

readily. Low permeability materials, such as paper, do not attract magnetic fields.

We categorize permeability into three classes: ferromagnetic materials, diamagnetic

materials, and paramagnetic materials.

Ferromagnetic

Ferromagnetic materials attract magnetic fields readily and are in the high

permeability classification. Some examples of ferromagnetic materials include

iron, cobalt, and nickel.

When these materials pass through a magnetic field, the field is attracted to them.

Magnetic iron is manufactured for the purpose of high permeability. It is a special

type of iron used in motors, generators, and transformers.

118

Basic Magnetism My Notes and Calculations

Para / Diamagnetic

Paramagnetic and diamagnetic materials do not attract magnetic fields and have low

permeability. Examples of paramagnetic and diamagnetic materials would include

aluminum, platinum, chromium, oxygen, gold, silver, and copper. Moving these

materials through a magnetic field will not cause significant distortion to the field.

Both copper and aluminum are used in magnetic machines because they conduct

current readily but will not distort the magnetic field.

Right-Hand Rules

Wire

A magnetic field will always exist around a wire that carries a current. The strength

of the field is greatest next to the wire and gets progressively weaker as the distance

from the wire increases.

If you wrap the fingers of your right hand around the wire pointing the thumb in

the direction of the current, your fingers will show the direction of the magnetic

field around the wire.

120

Basic Magnetism My Notes and Calculations

Coils

You can implement the right hand rule for coils if you wrap your right hand around

a coil with your fingers pointing in the direction of current in the coils, as shown

in Figure 4.9. Your thumb is now pointing to magnetic north.

122

Basic Magnetism My Notes and Calculations

Flux

Density

Magnetic flux relates to the presence of magnetism in a three-dimensional space. It

is represented by the Greek letter phi () and is illustrated with lines that trace the

path, or loop, of the magnetic field. Each flux line is a continuous loop that begins

and ends at the same point.

Flux is measured in units of Weber, abbreviated Wb. One Weber equals one

hundred million lines of flux. It is very difficult to illustrate this many lines, so we

show enough lines to recognize the shape of the path and therefore, the shape of

the field.

1 Wb = 100,000,000 lines of flux

Flux is directional according to polarity. Flux lines come out of the north pole of

a magnet and go into the south pole.

Flux density is shown by placing flux lines close together in high-density areas.

Just as current density is the quantity of amps per area, flux density is the quantity

of flux per area. Mathematically, flux density, abreviated as B, can be calculated

124

Basic Magnetism My Notes and Calculations

by dividing the flux, F, by the cross sectional area through which the lines of flux

pass.

Equation 4.1

F (webers)

B (webers/in 2) =

A (in 2)

Example 4.1

If there are 20 Wb contained in two in2, what is the flux density?

Solution: We simply substitute these values into Equation 4.1.

20

B= = 10 Wb/in 2

2

Answer: 10 Wb/in 2

MMF

The magnetomotive force, MMF, or F, of a magnetic circuit, is the variable that

determines the magnitude of forces in motors and generators. Mathematically it

can be calculated by multiplying the current by the number of turns in a given

coil.

N is the number of turns in a coil. Since the number of turns, N, in an electromagnet

is usually constant, the magnetomotive force, F, may be varied by varying the

current, I.

Magnetomotive force in magnetic circuits is analogous to electromotive force in

electric circuits. MMF will push the flux while EMF will push the current.

Equation 4.2

F (amp turns) = I (amps) x N (turns)

Example 4.2

If an electromagnet with 10 turns of coil is carrying a current of 2 A, what will

be the MMF?

Solution: Substituting these numbers into Equation 4.2, we get

F = 2 x 10 = 20 amp turns

Answer: 20 amp turns

126

Basic Magnetism My Notes and Calculations

Intensity

Flux intensity measures the magnetomotive force distributed over the length of a

coil. It is represented by the letter H and is measured in ampere turns per length.

Mathematically, it is equal to the magnetomotive force, F, divided by the length of

the core, L.

(Equation 4.3)

F (amp turns)

H (amp turns / in) =

l (in)

Remember, the magnetomotive force, F, equals the number of turns of wire, N,

times the current, I. Substituting this into the flux intensity equation, we see that the

magnetic flux intensity equals the number of turns of wire, N, times the current,

I, all divided by the length, l.

Example 4.3

If a coil of an electromagnet carries a current of 4 A, has 10 turns, and the core

length is 4 in, what is the flux intensity?

Solution: First, we must calculate the magnetomotive force. Substituting the

values into Equation 4.2 we get

F = 4 x 10 = 40 amp turns

Now that we have the MMF, we can substitute this value into Equation 4.3 and

divide by length.

40

H= = 10 amp turns/in

4

Answer: 10 amp turns/in

Permeability

Permeability is the ability of a material to attract flux. It is like the conductivity

principle in electric circuits. Permeability, , equals flux density, B, divided by the

magnetic intensity, H.

128

Basic Magnetism Basic Magnetism

Equation 4.4 Magnetic flux relates to the presence of magnetism in a three dimensional

B (webers/in 2) space.

(webers / amp turn in) =

H (amp turns/in) Flux density is the quantity of flux per square inch.

Example 4.4 Equation 4.1

(webers)

The core of an electromagnet is made of annealed steel. It has a flux density, B, B (webers/in 2) =

A (in 2)

of 100,000 Wb/in2, and a magnetic intensity, H, of 65 A turns/inch. What is its

permeability? The magnetomotive force, MMF, or F of a magnetic circuit, is the variable that

Solution: Substituting these values into Equation 4.4 we get determines the magnitude of forces in motors and generators.

Equation 4.2

100,000

= = 1538 Wb/(A turn in) F (amp turns) = I (amps) x N (turns)

65

Flux intensity measures the magnetomotive force distributed over the length of

Answer: 1538 Wb/(A turn in) a coil.

Equation 4.3

SUMMARY F (amp turns)

H (amp turns / in) =

Magnetism is a term used to describe the forces exerted by a magnetic field. l (in)

A magnetic field is the region of space around a magnet where the influence of Permeability is the ability of a material to attract flux.

magnetic forces can be observed. Equation 4.4

Every magnet has two poles, one north pole and one south pole. These are the B (webers/in 2)

points where maximum magnetic attraction occurs. (webers / amp turn in) =

H (amp turns/in)

Ferromagnetic materials attract magnetic fields readily and are in the high

permeability classification. FORMULAS

Paramagnetic and diamagnetic materials do not attract magnetic fields and

have low permeability. Flux

The right hand rule for a current carrying wire says that if you wrap the fingers 1 Wb = 100,000,000 lines of flux

of your right hand around the wire pointing the thumb in the direction of the

current, your fingers will show the direction of the magnetic field around the

wire. Flux density

You can implement the right hand rule for coils if you wrap your right hand (webers)

B (webers/in 2) = (webers) = B (Wb / in2) x A (in2)

around a coil with your fingers pointing in the direction of current in the coils. A (in 2)

Your thumb is now pointing to the magnetic north pole.

130 131

Basic Magnetism Basic Magnetism

A (in 2) =

(Wb) QUESTIONS

B (Wb/in2)

Basic Magnetism 6. A _____ material causes distortions to a

magnetic field, as shown here.

1. Magnetism is the term used to describe

Flux intensity the force exerted by a magnetic field.

F (amp turns) a. True

H (amp turns / in) = b. False

l (in)

2. Magnetic fields leave a magnets south

F (amp turns) = H (amp turns / in) x l (in) pole and enter its north pole.

a. True

F (amp turns) b. False

l (in) = a. low-permeability

H (amp turns / in)

3. Magnetic permeability describes how b. high-permeability

well a material conducts electricity. c. paramagnetic

a. True d. Cannot be determined.

Magnetomotive force b. False

7. Based upon the direction of the current

F (amp turns) 4. Ferromagnetic materials do NOT readily in this coil, which end of the magnet is

F (amp turns) = I (amps) x N (turns) I (amps) = its north pole?

N (turns) attract magnetic fields.

a. True

F (amp turns) b. False

N (turns) =

I (amps)

5. Based upon the direction of the

magnetic field around this wire, which

Permeability direction is the current flowing?

B (Wb/in 2)

(Wb / amp turns in) = a. A

H (amp turns/in)

b. B

B (Wb/in 2) = (Wb/amp turns in) x H (amp turns/in)

B (Wb/in 2) Flux

H (amp turns / in) =

(Wb/amp turns in) 8. Flux relates to the presence of a

magnetic field in space.

a. Left

a. True

b. Right

b. False

132 133

Basic Magnetism My Notes and Calculations

What is the flux density?

a. 60 Wb / in2

b. 10 Wb / in2

c. 5 Wb / in2

d. 15 Wb / in2

a coil with 20 turns and a current of

10 A.

a. 2 A turns

b. 200 A turns

c. 20 A turns

d. 10 A turns

material to attract flux.

a. True

b. False

134

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