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# Basic Magnetism My Notes and Calculations

Chapter 4

Basic Magnetism
Objective
An understanding of magnetism is necessary to learn about many electrical
machines. In this section you will learn about the different kinds of magnets, and
how magnetic fields interact with each other. You will also learn how the different
properties of materials affect the magnetic fields created by these magnets.
Overview
Electromagnetic machines are the workhorses of industry and commerce. Several
machines that use the principles of electromagnetism include the electromagnetic
relay, the electric motor, the electric generator, and the electric transformer.

## Figure 4.1 Various components that use electromagnetic principles

Relays open and close circuits with an electromagnetic switch. Electric motors
convert electrical energy to mechanical energy in the form of torque and a rotating
shaft. Electric generators are the opposite of motors. They convert mechanical
energy into electrical energy. Transformers change the voltage and current in an
electrical system. High voltages from transmission lines are changed to usable low
voltages. All of these machines use magnetism to perform their various functions.

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Fundamentals
Magnetism
Magnetism is a term used to describe the forces exerted by a magnetic field.
Understanding magnetism is critical to understanding electricity. Magnets produce
electric currents and electric currents produce magnetic forces.

## A magnet can be classified as a permanent magnet or as an electromagnet.

Permanent magnets do not require current to maintain their magnetic force. The
three most common types of permanent magnets are the horseshoe, bar, and
compass needle. Electromagnets are made by passing a current through a coil of
wire to produce a magnetic field.
Magnetic Fields
A magnetic field is the region
of space around a magnet
where the influence of
magnetic forces can be seen.
Even though magnetic fields
are invisible, the effects of
magnetic fields can be seen.

## Figure 4.3 Magnetic field lines around a magnet

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When a sheet of paper is placed on a magnet and iron filings are loosely scattered
over it, the filings will arrange themselves along the invisible magnetic field.
Although the paper representation here shows a plane surface, magnetic fields take
up the whole volume of space around the magnet.

## Figure 4.4 Iron filings brought into close proximity of a magnet

arrange themselves on the magnetic field lines

Magnetic fields are represented graphically as lines (see Figure 4.3). The closer the
magnetic field lines, the stronger the magnetic field.
Magnetic fields produced by electromagnets work the same as fields from
permanent magnets.
Polarity
Every magnet has two polesone north pole and one south pole. These are the
points where maximum magnetic attraction occurs.
The magnetic field leaves the north pole and enters the south pole.
When two magnets are brought together, the magnetic fields around them interact.
Like poles repel each other, while unlike poles are attracted to each other.

## Figure 4.5 Magnetic field lines leaving the north pole

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Magnetic Materials
Magnetic permeability is the term used to express the ability of material to attract
magnetic fields. High permeability materials, such as iron, attract magnetic fields
readily. Low permeability materials, such as paper, do not attract magnetic fields.
We categorize permeability into three classes: ferromagnetic materials, diamagnetic
materials, and paramagnetic materials.
Ferromagnetic
Ferromagnetic materials attract magnetic fields readily and are in the high
permeability classification. Some examples of ferromagnetic materials include
iron, cobalt, and nickel.

## Figure 4.6 A piece of iron readily attracts a magnetic field

When these materials pass through a magnetic field, the field is attracted to them.
Magnetic iron is manufactured for the purpose of high permeability. It is a special
type of iron used in motors, generators, and transformers.

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Para / Diamagnetic
Paramagnetic and diamagnetic materials do not attract magnetic fields and have low
permeability. Examples of paramagnetic and diamagnetic materials would include
aluminum, platinum, chromium, oxygen, gold, silver, and copper. Moving these
materials through a magnetic field will not cause significant distortion to the field.

## Figure 4.7 Aluminum reacting to a magnetic field

Both copper and aluminum are used in magnetic machines because they conduct
current readily but will not distort the magnetic field.
Right-Hand Rules
Wire
A magnetic field will always exist around a wire that carries a current. The strength
of the field is greatest next to the wire and gets progressively weaker as the distance
from the wire increases.
If you wrap the fingers of your right hand around the wire pointing the thumb in
the direction of the current, your fingers will show the direction of the magnetic
field around the wire.

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## Figure 4.8 Right hand rule for current in a wire

Coils
You can implement the right hand rule for coils if you wrap your right hand around
a coil with your fingers pointing in the direction of current in the coils, as shown
in Figure 4.9. Your thumb is now pointing to magnetic north.

## Figure 4.9 Right hand rule for a coil of wire

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Flux
Density
Magnetic flux relates to the presence of magnetism in a three-dimensional space. It
is represented by the Greek letter phi () and is illustrated with lines that trace the
path, or loop, of the magnetic field. Each flux line is a continuous loop that begins
and ends at the same point.
Flux is measured in units of Weber, abbreviated Wb. One Weber equals one
hundred million lines of flux. It is very difficult to illustrate this many lines, so we
show enough lines to recognize the shape of the path and therefore, the shape of
the field.
1 Wb = 100,000,000 lines of flux
Flux is directional according to polarity. Flux lines come out of the north pole of
a magnet and go into the south pole.

## Figure 4.10 Flux lines around a magnet

Flux density is shown by placing flux lines close together in high-density areas.
Just as current density is the quantity of amps per area, flux density is the quantity
of flux per area. Mathematically, flux density, abreviated as B, can be calculated

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by dividing the flux, F, by the cross sectional area through which the lines of flux
pass.
Equation 4.1
F (webers)
B (webers/in 2) =
A (in 2)
Example 4.1
If there are 20 Wb contained in two in2, what is the flux density?
Solution: We simply substitute these values into Equation 4.1.
20
B= = 10 Wb/in 2
2
Answer: 10 Wb/in 2
MMF
The magnetomotive force, MMF, or F, of a magnetic circuit, is the variable that
determines the magnitude of forces in motors and generators. Mathematically it
can be calculated by multiplying the current by the number of turns in a given
coil.
N is the number of turns in a coil. Since the number of turns, N, in an electromagnet
is usually constant, the magnetomotive force, F, may be varied by varying the
current, I.
Magnetomotive force in magnetic circuits is analogous to electromotive force in
electric circuits. MMF will push the flux while EMF will push the current.
Equation 4.2
F (amp turns) = I (amps) x N (turns)
Example 4.2
If an electromagnet with 10 turns of coil is carrying a current of 2 A, what will
be the MMF?
Solution: Substituting these numbers into Equation 4.2, we get
F = 2 x 10 = 20 amp turns
Answer: 20 amp turns

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Intensity
Flux intensity measures the magnetomotive force distributed over the length of a
coil. It is represented by the letter H and is measured in ampere turns per length.
Mathematically, it is equal to the magnetomotive force, F, divided by the length of
the core, L.
(Equation 4.3)
F (amp turns)
H (amp turns / in) =
l (in)
Remember, the magnetomotive force, F, equals the number of turns of wire, N,
times the current, I. Substituting this into the flux intensity equation, we see that the
magnetic flux intensity equals the number of turns of wire, N, times the current,
I, all divided by the length, l.
Example 4.3
If a coil of an electromagnet carries a current of 4 A, has 10 turns, and the core
length is 4 in, what is the flux intensity?
Solution: First, we must calculate the magnetomotive force. Substituting the
values into Equation 4.2 we get
F = 4 x 10 = 40 amp turns
Now that we have the MMF, we can substitute this value into Equation 4.3 and
divide by length.
40
H= = 10 amp turns/in
4
Answer: 10 amp turns/in
Permeability
Permeability is the ability of a material to attract flux. It is like the conductivity
principle in electric circuits. Permeability, , equals flux density, B, divided by the
magnetic intensity, H.

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Equation 4.4 Magnetic flux relates to the presence of magnetism in a three dimensional
B (webers/in 2) space.
(webers / amp turn in) =
H (amp turns/in) Flux density is the quantity of flux per square inch.
Example 4.4 Equation 4.1
(webers)
The core of an electromagnet is made of annealed steel. It has a flux density, B, B (webers/in 2) =
A (in 2)
of 100,000 Wb/in2, and a magnetic intensity, H, of 65 A turns/inch. What is its
permeability? The magnetomotive force, MMF, or F of a magnetic circuit, is the variable that
Solution: Substituting these values into Equation 4.4 we get determines the magnitude of forces in motors and generators.
Equation 4.2
100,000
= = 1538 Wb/(A turn in) F (amp turns) = I (amps) x N (turns)
65
Flux intensity measures the magnetomotive force distributed over the length of
Answer: 1538 Wb/(A turn in) a coil.
Equation 4.3
SUMMARY F (amp turns)
H (amp turns / in) =
Magnetism is a term used to describe the forces exerted by a magnetic field. l (in)
A magnetic field is the region of space around a magnet where the influence of Permeability is the ability of a material to attract flux.
magnetic forces can be observed. Equation 4.4
Every magnet has two poles, one north pole and one south pole. These are the B (webers/in 2)
points where maximum magnetic attraction occurs. (webers / amp turn in) =
H (amp turns/in)
Ferromagnetic materials attract magnetic fields readily and are in the high
permeability classification. FORMULAS
Paramagnetic and diamagnetic materials do not attract magnetic fields and
have low permeability. Flux
The right hand rule for a current carrying wire says that if you wrap the fingers 1 Wb = 100,000,000 lines of flux
of your right hand around the wire pointing the thumb in the direction of the
current, your fingers will show the direction of the magnetic field around the
wire. Flux density
You can implement the right hand rule for coils if you wrap your right hand (webers)
B (webers/in 2) = (webers) = B (Wb / in2) x A (in2)
around a coil with your fingers pointing in the direction of current in the coils. A (in 2)
Your thumb is now pointing to the magnetic north pole.

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A (in 2) =
(Wb) QUESTIONS
B (Wb/in2)
Basic Magnetism 6. A _____ material causes distortions to a
magnetic field, as shown here.
1. Magnetism is the term used to describe
Flux intensity the force exerted by a magnetic field.
F (amp turns) a. True
H (amp turns / in) = b. False
l (in)
2. Magnetic fields leave a magnets south
F (amp turns) = H (amp turns / in) x l (in) pole and enter its north pole.
a. True
F (amp turns) b. False
l (in) = a. low-permeability
H (amp turns / in)
3. Magnetic permeability describes how b. high-permeability
well a material conducts electricity. c. paramagnetic
a. True d. Cannot be determined.
Magnetomotive force b. False
7. Based upon the direction of the current
F (amp turns) 4. Ferromagnetic materials do NOT readily in this coil, which end of the magnet is
F (amp turns) = I (amps) x N (turns) I (amps) = its north pole?
N (turns) attract magnetic fields.
a. True
F (amp turns) b. False
N (turns) =
I (amps)
5. Based upon the direction of the
magnetic field around this wire, which
Permeability direction is the current flowing?
B (Wb/in 2)
(Wb / amp turns in) = a. A
H (amp turns/in)
b. B
B (Wb/in 2) = (Wb/amp turns in) x H (amp turns/in)
B (Wb/in 2) Flux
H (amp turns / in) =
(Wb/amp turns in) 8. Flux relates to the presence of a
magnetic field in space.
a. Left
a. True
b. Right
b. False

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## 9. A 2 in2 area contains 30 Wb of flux.

What is the flux density?
a. 60 Wb / in2
b. 10 Wb / in2
c. 5 Wb / in2
d. 15 Wb / in2

## 10. What is the magnetomotive force for

a coil with 20 turns and a current of
10 A.
a. 2 A turns
b. 200 A turns
c. 20 A turns
d. 10 A turns

## 11. Magnetic permeability is the ability of a

material to attract flux.
a. True
b. False

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