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Nutrition Vol. 1 No.

1 2003 Technical Update

PIC USA Nutrient Specifications


Introduction
This publication provides a summary of nutrient recommendations
for PIC pigs. Recommendations are based on published and
internal research with commercial PIC products. The NRC
publication (1998) serves as the basis for certain information.
Concepts and the basis for recommendations are discussed in greater
detail in other Technical Updates.

Contents

A. Dietary Energy

B. Formulating to an Ideal Amino Acid Pattern

C. Camborough Gilt Product Development Specifications


Daily Gain, Weight and Back Fat Targets.
Nutrient Specification Table for Gilt Development.

D. Camborough Sow Product Specifications


Sow Feeding Milestones
Daily Nutrient Needs and Diet Specifications: Gestation
Energy and Lysine Needs for Gestation Weight Gain
Daily Nutrient Needs and Diet Specifications: Lactation
Feeding to Recover Body Reserves
Estimating Farm-Specific Lactation Lysine Needs
Lactation Intake Guide.

E. Boar Stud Specifications


Minimum Feeding Levels
Growth Rates of Boars Fed to PIC Intake Standards
Diet Specifications for Stud Boars

F. Nursery Diet Specifications


Diet Specifications for a 3-4 Phase Nursery Program
Example of a Feeding Program and Feed Budget
Matching Lysine Need to Different Growth Phases

G. Grow-Finish Specifications
Diet Specifications for Optimum Lean Deposition: Gilts
Diet Specifications for Optimum Lean Deposition: Castrates
Adjusting Lysine-Calorie Specifications to Lean Content
Diet Specifications for Poor or No Lean Payment Markets
Matching Lysine Need to Different Growth Phases

H. Vitamin and Trace Mineral Addition:


Commercial
Parent Nucleus, Daughter Nucleus and multiplication
I. References

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A. Dietary Energy

Energy levels are expressed as Metabolizable Energy (ME) in this guide because it is the system most
commonly used in North and South America. The ME and Digestible Energy (DE) system is adequate for
describing available energy for simple diets (Corn-Soy) or for diets of young pigs. However, the Net
Energy (NE) system is a more accurate method of measuring the available energy when a more diverse set
of ingredients is used, including by-products for sows and finishing pigs. NE is in routine use by several
feed companies for this reason. Other groups have modified ME values for certain ingredients (eg., soya,
wheat midds) to reflect the effect of protein and fiber content on the ME/NE relationships. This guide
specifies energy as NRC ME, based on a simple diet type that is defined for each phase of production.
Nutrition specialists can then adapt the specified Lysine:ME relationships to suit their own system. Any
adjustments to dietary ME to take account of hot environmental temperature or when added fat is used in
the diet to improve feed efficiency, will require adjustment to the dietary lysine level to keep the
Lysine:ME ratio constant.

B. Formulating to an Ideal Amino Acid Pattern

To obtain optimum performance, all essential amino acids must meet or exceed the amino acid requirement
for that particular type and level of production..
The NRC (1998) has defined the ideal balance of amino acids for each phase of production. This serves
as the basis for PIC recommendations. The amino acid levels are normally expressed in relation to the
level of lysine, since this is most likely to be the first limiting in the diet. Feed ingredients have different
amino acid digestibility coefficients. therefore, when formulating diets that are more complex than Corn-
Soy, it is recommended that true ileal digestible values are used in the formulation process

This guide specifies the l lysine requirement as a total value (shown as a T), which is satisfactory for Corn-
Soy formulations and also gives the true ileal digestible lysine (shown as a D), for more complex diets.
The pattern of amino acids is different for these methods as compared to the apparent ileal digestible
system. The suggested ratio of dietary amino acids for each phase is shown in Table B1. (NRC, 1998).

Table B. I. Amino Acid Balance for Formulations based on Total or True Ileal Digestible
Amino Acid Values.a,b

Gestationc Lactationd Boar Grow-Finish


Amino Acid Gilt Herd Stud 6-110 lb 110-175 lb 175-265 lb

Lysine 100 100 100 100 100 100 100


Methionine 28 28 26 27 27 27 27
Met + Cystine 66 70 49 70 57 59 60
Threonine 74 80 62 83 62 65 65
Tryptophan 20 19 19 20 18 18 19
Valine 68 68 86 67 68 68 68
Isoleucine 58 59 56 58 55 56 56
a
Lysine set equal to 100% and other amino acids expressed as a percent of Lysine.
b
Ratios are appropriate IF applied to Total amino acids (Corn-Soy based) or True Ileal Digestible amino acids
which is suggested for more complex diets.
c
Assumption: Gilt 275 lb body weight (bw) at breeding and 75 lbs net maternal gain to post- farrowing
Sow 385 lbs bw at breeding and 35 lbs net maternal gain to post-farrowing
d
Assumption: 430 lb bw post-farrowing, 22 lb maternal lactation weight loss and 4.85-5.5lb/day ( 2200-2500
g/day) litter growth.

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Table B. 2. Amino Acid Balance for Formulations based on APPARENT Ileal Digestible
Amino Acid Values.a

Gestation Lactation Boar Grow-Finish


Amino Acid Gilt Herd Herd Stud 6-110 lb 110-175 lb 175-265 lb

Lysine 100 100 100 100 100 100 100


Methionine 29 29 26 27 27 28 28
Met + Cystine 67 71 49 70 57 59 62
Threonine 71 76 59 83 60 61 64
Tryptophan 18 19 18 20 16 16 16
Valine 69 67 85 67 67 67 68
Isoleucine 58 60 56 58 55 55 55
a
Formulation on the basis of APPARENT Ileal Digestible Amino Acids. Footnotes a,c and in Table 1 also apply
to Table 2.

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C. Camborough Gilt Development Specifications.

Correct gilt nutrition during development has a significant impact on the lifetime performance of the
breeding female.
Gilt development and management begins in the early stages of a gilts life and ends when the gilt
completes her first lactation.

Growing gilts (From birth to first service)

A nutritional program is recommended that optimizes lean growth up to first service.


The recommended targets for growth and body composition for the developing gilt are set out below.
o Birth to first service average daily gain(ADG) of 1.4 to 1.45 pounds/day
o Achieve a body weight of 280 300 pounds at first service (210-240 days of age)
o Target P2 back fat of 0.65-0.75 inch (16-18 mm) at 1st service 0.55inch minimum (14
mm )
Nutrient requirements for development are found in Table C1
o The requirements are designed to meet nutrient demands for adequate protein growth
and fat deposition and are not designed to maximize ADG, as would be the goal of a
commercial feeding programforgrow-finish pigs.
o Gilt development dietary energy recommendations are 5-6 % lower than typical
commercial finishing diets.
o If actual growth rates exceed the target, reduce the energy concentration in the diet
with fiber sourcesto slow the growth rate. Only implement this energy dilution
concept after 140 lb live weight and ensure that the Lysine: ME ratio is maintained.
Vitamin and trace mineral requirements are higher than those for commercial finishing pigs in order to
prepare the gilt for her reproductive function (See Vitamin and trace mineral addition rates for \Genetic
Nucleus and Multiplication.)
Trace mineral recommendations specify that Chromium should be added to
developing gilt, gestation, and lactation diets. Current literature supports
the use of Chromium in most commercial situations

For further information relating to the nutrition management of the developing gilt, please refer to
the Camborough 22 and Camborough 23 user guide and product manual published by PIC.

Table C. 1: PIC USA Nutrient Specifications for Gilt Development


NRC ME kcal/lb 1560 1560 1490 1490 1490 1490
c
Total Lysine % 1.56 1.45 1.24 0.96 0.88 0.72
c
Digestible Lysine % 1.42 1.32 1.11 0.85 0.79 0.60
c
T Lysine:NRC ME g/Mcal 4.55 4.22 3.78 2.93 2.68 2.20
Calcium % 0.88 0.80 0.78 0.70 0.70 0.70
T Phosphorus % 0.73 0.70 0.65 0.63 0.63 0.63
Av Phosphorus % 0.47 0.42 0.36 0.35 0.35 0.35
b
Amounts are expressed as the concentration in the complete diet.
c
Lysine levels are provided as the basis for normal lean:fat ratios (T=total, D=digestible) Calcium and
phosphorus are the nutrients most related to proper bone development.
See Vitamin and trace mineral addition rates for Genetic Nucleus & Multiplication for all vitamin and trace
mineral recommendations.

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D. Camborough Sow Specifications

Sow feeding is a phase feeding system, based on different diets and feed quantities according to the stage of
reproduction. (Table D.1.) Feeding involves a gestation diet and 1or2 lactation diets. A gilt lactation diet is
recommended for start-up herds. If it is possible to separate gilts from sows in the farrowing room and feed
a gilt lactation diet to the gilts only, this has been shown to be very beneficial in minimizing body weight
and tissue loss in the first lactation period. The pregnant sow feeding program requires feeding the proper
amount of diet to meet her energy needs expressed in kcals/day and then matching the other nutrient levels
in the diet to the amount fed, so that all other daily nutrient needs are met in g/day. The minimum amount
of energy and nutrient requirements is provided in Table D. 2. These amounts are determined by the net
maternal growth that needs to be achieved as shown in Table D. 3. Lactation is a physiologically
demanding process and all gilts and sows should be fed to meet their individual daily appetites to maximize
nutrient intake. Feeding to reclaim body reserves during the next gestation is also important.(Table D. 5.).

Table D.1. Sow Feeding Program.


Stage of Reproduction Amount, lba Feed Type
b
Pre-breeding gilt Full-feed (pre-breed flush) Gestation
Gestation to 5 days post-breed
Gilts 4.0 4.5 Gestation
Sows 4.0 5.0 Gestation
Very thin sows 6.5 7.0 Gestation
Gestation: 5 to 90daycs Per body condition score Gestation
Gestation: 90 to113daysd 6.0 7.0 Gestation
Pre-farrow 2-4 days 4.5 5.5 Lactation
Lactation: 1-2 days Post-farrow Slight Restriction Lactation
Lactation: 3 days to weaning Full-feed Lactation
Weaning through breeding Full-feed Gestation*

a
Assumes the NRC ME 1465 Kcal /lb for gestation and NRC ME 1485 Kcal /lb for lactation diets.
b
Feed level from delivery to pre-breed flush (10-14 days) depends on gilt entry weight. Consider full-feed if <250
lb bw (114 kg) or limit feed to about 5.0 lb/day (2.3 kg) if > 250 lb at delivery.
c
Minimum feed levels to reclaim body fat reserves are shown in Table D. 5. Objective is to reclaim body reserves
(fat, protein, bone minerals) by 60 days of gestation.
d
Average gestation length, 116 days.
Where possible gestation diets should be fed 2-3 times per day. Alternatively gestation should be substituted with
a lactation diet, especially where low feed intakes are experienced.

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Daily Nutrient Needs and Diet Specifications for Gestation

Nutrient specifications for gestation are presented in Table D.2. Energy and lysine needs are based on
suggested levels for growth in Table D. 3. Gilt specifications can be used when restocking units.
Specifications for whole herds are a compromise between needs for gilts and older sows. Gilts are
challenged to a greater extent during lactation than sows. Feed gilts 4.5-5.0 lb/day until day 90 of gestation
as this will allow for significant growth to prepare for the rigor of first lactation.

Table D. 2. Recommendations for Gestating PIC Gilts and Sows

Gestation Gestation
Nutrient Unit Gilt Herd Nutrient Unit Gilt Herd
Net maternal wt. lb 75 45 NRC MEb Kcal/lb 1465 1465
Gain a
P2 fat at farrow mm 16-20 16-20 C. Protein % 14.0 13.5
Av. feed intake lb/day 4.5 4.9 C. Fiber % 4.5 4.5
Kg 2.14 2.25
NRC ME Kcal/da Calcium % 0.95 0.90
y 6886 7179
T Lysine g/day 12.3 12.0 T Phosphorus % 0.80 0.75
D Lysine g/day 10.2 10.0 Av Phosphorus % 0.43 0.40
Calcium g/day 19.4 20.0 Salt % 0.45 0.45
T Phosphorus g/day 16.3 16.7 T Lysinec % 0.60 0.54
Av Phosphorus g/day 8.8 8.9 D Lysine % 0.50 0.45
90 days to farrow T Methionine % 0.17 0.15
Feed intake lb/day 6.2 6.2 T Met+Cystine % 0.41 0.38
NRC ME Kcal/da 9156 9156 T Threonine % 0.46 0.43
y
T Lysine g/day 17 15.3 T Tryptophan % 0.12 0.11
D Lysine g/day 14.2 12.7 T. Isoleucine % 0.35 0.32
a
Net tissue growth by the sow declines with each parity. See Table D. 3..for suggested weight gains and feed levels.
b
NRC ME is based on a Corn-Soy diet with 15% wheat middlings.
c
T = total, D. = true illeal digestible. Formulate to either T or D, but not both.

Daily energy and lysine levels in Table D. 2 are minimums and assume proper body condition. Estimates
of nutrient requirement are driven by the amount needed for suggested net maternal weight gain by parity.
(Table D. 3.). Larger females require more energy for maintenance, but this increase is off-set by declining
net maternal weight gain.

Table D. 3. Energy and Lysine Needs for Gestation Maternal Weight Gain
Body Weight at Suggested Net Feed Intake, NRC ME T Lysine
Mating, lb. LITTER NO. Gain, lb lb/day Kcal/day g/day
280 1st 75 4.75 6959 11.6
330 2nd 55 5.0 7325 12.25
385 3rd 45 5.0 7325 12.25
420 4th 35 5.0 7325 12.25
440 5th 35 4.75 6959 11.6
450 6th 30 4.75 6959 11.6
460 7th 20 4.5 6593 11.0

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a
Computed using the 1998 NRC gestation model. Assumes NRC ME 1465 Kcal /lb , 12 fetuses and sow back fat
loss of 2mm maximum. D Lysine estimated by 0.83 * T Lysine. Adjust feed level to recover body condition as
shown in Table D. 5.

Daily Nutrient Needs and Diet Specifications for Lactation

Nutrient specifications for lactation are presented in Table D. 4. Daily NRC ME intake is the multiple of
the expected daily feed intake (based ona 10,000 sow herd) and the NRC ME content of a Corn-Soy diet.
The level of lysine for gilts is based on PIC USA research to optimize second litter-size (20 d lactation).
Table D. 6 was used to estimate Lysine needs for sows only. Two lactation diets are recommended when
stocking units and should be a consideration when designing new units. A single herd diet will increase
the potential loss of body protein in gilts, which may result in a second litter-size dip or plateau.

Table D. 4. Recommendations for Lactating PIC Gilts and Sows

Lactation Lactation
Nutrient Unit Gilt Herd Nutrient Unit Gilt Herd
Net lactation wt. lb 30 25 NRC ME c Kcal/lb 1500 1500
loss
Lactation fat mm 2 2 C. Protein % 19.0 18.5
loss, max.
Litter growth lb/day 4.95 5.28 C. Fiber % 2 to 5 2 to 5
g/day 2250 2400
Av Feed Intake/ lb/day 11.0 12.5
day*
Kg/day 5.0 5.68 Calcium % 0.95 0.90
NRC ME a Kcal/da 16500 18750 T Phosphorus % 0.80 0.75
y
T Lysine b g/day 65 60 Av Phosphorus % 0.43 0.40
D Lysine g/day 54 49 Salt % 0.50 0.50
Calcium g/day 47 51 T Lysine % 1.25 1.05
T Phosphorus g/day 40 43 D Lysine % 1.08 0.87
Av Phosphorus g/day 21 23 T Methionine % 0.34 0.27
Salt g/day 25 28 T Met + Cystine % 0.64 0.51
T Threonine % 0.81 0.65
T Tryptophan % 0.25 0.20
T Valine % 1.06 0.90
T Isoleucine % 0.73 0.59

a
Assumes feed at about 85-90% energy balance with litter growth rates shown and 20 d lactation (1998 NRC
model).
b
The 60 g lysine/day average assumes that the sow feed intake is near adequate at 12.5 lb/day and that the gilt feed
intake is adequate at 11 lb/day for optimum second litter size.
c
NRC ME is based on the energy value of a Corn-Soy diet.
* Average feed intake over the suckling period and is not the maximum intake achieved within the period

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Table D. 5. Minimum Feed Levels in Gestation to Recover Body Reservesa
Sow Body Condition Av P2 Fat P2 Fat Needed by day Minimum Daily Feed Intake,
Weight Score Depth 60. to achieve P2 Fat Endpoint at
60 days
Lb mm Mm lb
400 1 8 11 8 7.5
2 12 15 4 6.2
3 16 18 0 5.0
a
Computed using NRC (1998) gestation model. Assumed that 2.0 kg of fat deposition = 1 mm backfat and that the
gestation diet had NRC ME of 1465 Kcal /lb.

Estimating Farm-Specific Lactation Lysine Needs

The farm-specific lysine level for lactation depends on the actual litter growth rate and average lactation
feed intake by sows. The daily lysine requirement is driven strictly by rate of litter growth and this can
vary with health and thermal stress. This needs to be matched with the level of feed consumed. Table D.
6. can be used to derive farm-specific lysine needs. It is appropriate for sows, but not for gilts since a
higher lysine level is needed for gilts to maximize second litter size than is required to support milk
production (see Current Concepts for Feeding Prolific Sows).
Where possible the provision of a gilt lactation diet should be used; where this is not possible top- dressing
with a feed ingredient, such as extruded soybean, is recommended.

Table D. 6. Lactation Lysine Level Varies with Litter Growth and Sow Feed Intake

Litter a Litterb Average Sow Feed Intake, lb/dayd


Growth, Wean T Lysinec,d
lb/day Wt, lb g/day
9 10 11 12 13 14

3.20 100 .85 .75 .70 .60 -- -- 34


3.65 110 1.00 .90 .80 .75 .70 -- 40
4.15 120 1.10 1.00 .90 .85 .80 .70 46
4.60 130 1.25 1.10 1.00 .95 .85 .80 51
5.10 140 -- 1.25 1.15 1.05 .95 .90 57
5.55 150 -- -- 1.25 1.15 1.05 1.00 63
a
Assumes 10 pigs with an average birth weight of 3.3 lb/pig. Litter growth rate (LGR) is calculated as follows: ((Litter-
wean weight (No. pigs nursed x 3.3 lbs/pig)) Lactation length-( (days).
b
Litter wean weight applicable to a 20d lactation. Adjustment factors for different wean ages were suggested by
NSIF, 1987.
c
Calculated from updated Pettigrew equation (PIC Tech Memo 171) and assumes that lysine need is not strictly
related to ME intake. The equation is based on a linear relationship between LGR and lysine need (g/day) to
support milk production.
d
Feed intake assumes NRC ME 1500 Kcal /lb. T.Lysine based on 83% D. Lysine.

PIC USA Lactation Feed Intake Guide

A lactation intake guide was developed from data obtained on a 10,000 sow commercial farm. It is
recommended as a guide and for use in monitoring farm specific lactation feed intake
(See Concepts for Feeding Prolific PIC Sows, for card and guidelines for use.)

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E. Boar Stud Specifications

Energy needs to support target weight gains in boars at stud are shown in Table E1and Figure E1). These
have been calculated and validated in AI studs and proven not to compromise semen volume, sperm
numbers or quality of sperm. (Technical memo 142.)
Very little information exists on which to base nutrient specifications for boars. Those given in
Table E2 are used by PIC USA and shown for reference only. Energy and amino acid levels are
based on limited University research.

Table E1. Minimum Feed Level in Relation to Body Weight of Boars a

Body Weight Body Weight Total Kcal Feed Intake Feed Intake
Lb kg NRC ME/day b lb/day kg/day
< 350 < 159 7200 5.0 2.3
350 159 7920 5.5 2.5
450 205 8640 6.0 2.7
550 250 9360 6.5 3.0
650 295 10440 7.25 3.3
750 341 11160 7.75 3.5

a
Adapted from PIC USA Technical M emo 142. Assumes ambient temperature of 62-65oF.
b
Based on a dietary energy density of NRC ME 1440 Kcal /lb.

Figure E1. Growth Rate of Working Boars Fed


According to PIC USA Minimum Intake Standard in Table 1a

0.7
0.6
Daily Gain, kg/day

0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
PIC327 boars
0
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Age in Months

a
Adapted from PIC USA Technical Memo 142. 1 kg of gain = 2.2 lbs.

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Table E 2. Boar Minimum Diet Specifications a

Nutrient Unit
Diet specifications are based on the
NRC ME Kcal/lb 1440
minimum feed levels shown in Table E1
C. Protein % 16 above. Vitamin and trace mineral levels
C. Fiber % 4.0-6.0 are presented in the final section for all
Linoleic Acid % 1.90 phases of production including the boar
Calcium % 0.85 stud. They are suggested levels only and
T Phosphorusb % 0.75 represent what PIC USA is doing
Av Phosphorusb % 0.40 presently. Almost no public domain
Salt % 0.50 research has been conducted on which to
T Lysineb % 0.75 base vitamin and trace mineral
D Lysineb % 0.62 fortification for optimum output of viable
T Lysine:ME g/Mcal 2.35 sperm.
T Methionine % 0.20
T Met + Cystine % 0.53
T Threonine % 0.62
T Tryptophan % 0.15
a
Amount / lb of complete diet assuming feed level in Table E1.
See Vitamin & trace mineral section for micro nutrient specifications.
b
T = total, Av = available, D = True ileal digestible.

F. Nursery Diet Specifications


Nutrient specifications for nursery pigs are shown in Table F1. A feeding program and budget is illustrated
in Table F 2. Recommendations are applicable to progeny of Camborough sow products (e.g., C-22 and C-
23) x 300-400 series sires. They are based on extensive research information from nutrition companies and
some from published literature. They are also the result of extensive field experience in a commercial
nursery system (54,000 sows). A soybean maximum is suggested for each phase as a starting point for
commercial conditions. Higher levels may result in looseness but should be tested so that a farm-specific
maximum can be set.

Diets must be matched to body weight and the correct amount fed within each phase. Feeding 2 diets
simultaneously within a weaned group is advised through phase 2 for optimum growth and livability.
Typical weight variation at weaning means that feeding to the average pig weight will result in feeding the
diet that matches requirements for only 65-70% of the pigs (Table F2, footnote b). This will result in
increased variation in nursery end weight.

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Table F1. Diet Specifications for a 3-4 Phase Nursery Program.
Nutrient Early Wean Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3
8-12 lb 12-15 lb 15-25 lb 25-50 lb
Growth rate lb/day 0.32 0.46 0.84 1.30
Feed: Gain Ratio 1.05 1.18 1.32 1.58
Feed Intake a lb/day 0.35 0.55 1.10 2.05
NRC ME Kcal/lb 1560 1560 1560 1560
Lactoseb % 20 16 7.5 0
Total Fat % 4 to 6 4 to 6 3 to 6 3 to 6
Protein(max) % 25.5 23.5 23.5 21.5
T Lysinec % 1.70 1.60 1.56 1.45
D Lysinec % 1.55 1.46 1.42 1.32
T Lysine : ME g/Mcal 4.95 4.66 4.54 4.22
T Methionine % 0.46 0.43 0.42 0.39
T Met + Cystine % 0.97 0.91 0.89 0.83
T Threonine % 1.05 0.99 0.97 0.90
T Tryptophan % 0.29 0.27 0.27 0.25
T Valine % 1.16 1.09 1.06 0.99
T Isoleucine % 0.94 0.88 0.86 0.80
Calcium % 0.85-0.95 0.85-0.95 0.80-0.90 0.80-0.90
T Phosphorus % 0.75 0.70 0.70 0.70
Av Phosphorus % 0.55 0.52 0.40 0.40
Av Phos: ME g/Mcal 1.58 1.50 1.16 1.16
Sodium % 0.35-0.85 0.35-0.60 0.25-0.40 0.25-0.40
Chloride % 0.40 0.40 0.36 0.36
Salt % 0.50 0.45 0.45 0.40
Potassium % 0.70 0.70 0.65 0.65
Soybean meald % 15 18 28 28-32
Lysine HCL (max) % 0.25 0.25 0.40 0.40

a
Average feed intake shown is for a 25-50 lb pig assuming pelleted feed. Add 5% for grind and mix diets.
b
Lactose or equivalent sugars. Sucrose can replace 50% Lactose after 5-7 days of feeding to induce appropriate
digestive enzyme secretion.
c
T = Total and D = True ileal digestible. The level of other amino acids were set using the NRC pattern in Table B
1 of the Amino acid pattern section.
d
Suggested levels for commercial production and good to high health. High health pigs can tolerate higher levels of
soybean meal (e.g. 16-25lb,30% ; 25-50lb,32%)

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Feed Budgeting. Providing the proper amount of each diet and avoiding excesses is important to
economics. Feed budgets allow a producer to predict and control feed cost. The budgeted amount should
be verified at the outset by weighing a representative sample of pigs at the time of each diet changeover.
The actual amount fed of each diet should be within 5% of the target.

An example feed budget is shown in Table F2 for three weaning ages. The budgeted amount of feed per
phase is driven by the feed:gain data in Table F1. The percentage of pigs that are expected to be smaller
than the average is also considered (Table F2, footnote b). A change in feed:gain will result if the dietary
energy density is different from that shown in Table F1. This is particularly true for the 25-50 lb phaseand
then the budgeted amount must be changed to reflect the difference.

Table F2. Example Feeding Program and Feed Budgeta,b


WILL WE PUT A FEED BUDGET EXAMPLE IN HERE SOMEWHERE.

Av Wean Age days 14 17 20


Av Wean Wt. lb 10.5 12.0 13.5

Diet Phase: Lb
Early Wean 8-12 1.8 0.5 0
Phase 1 12-15 4.5 4.5 4.5
Phase 2 15-25 12 12 12
Phase 3 25-50 40 40 40

Total Feed Lb 58.3 57.0 56.5


Total Gain Lb 39.5 38.0 36.5
Feed:Gain 1.48 1.50 1.54
a
Budget assumes a 50 lb end weight for nursery pigs and feed:gains as shown in Table F1.
b
Early Wean diet allocation assumes a feed:gain of 1.05 and a population percent by wean weight as follows:

Population Distribution (Average wean weight 12 lb)


9 lb 10 lb 11 lb 12 lb 13 lb 14 lb 15 lb
5% 10% 20% 30% 20% 10% 5%

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Matching Lysine Need to Different Growth Phases

The information shown in Figure F1 is provided to facilitate the nutritionist in adjusting the lysine levels to
feeding phases that are different than those specified in Table F1.

Figure F1

Matching Lysine Need to Different Growth Phases


Lys:ME
Linear (Lys:ME)

5
4.95
4.8
4.66
4.6
4.54
4.4
g Lysine/Mcal ME

4.2 4.22

4 4

3.85
3.8

3.6

3.4

3.2

3
x 8 12 16 24 40 48

y 4.95 4.52 4.22 3.82 3.56 3.48


Body Weight,lbs

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G. Grow-Finish Specifications: Nutrient Levels for Optimum Lean Deposition

Nutrient specifications for grow-finish pigs are in Tables G1 andG2 are for lean growth optimization.
Those in Table G3 are suggested for markets with little or no lean merit payment. Lysine specifications for
phas es other than those shown can be derived from Figure G1. Lysinecalorie ratios are based on
extensive internal research with PIC USA terminal progeny of C-22 females x 300-400 series sires:
Females, 16 mm P2 (19 FOM) and 54% lean; Castrates, 19 mm P2 (22 FOM) and 52.5% lean.
Specifications have been validated in a commercial system (54,000 sows). Performance was determined
under conditions of high health, thermo -neutral environment and with Corn -Soy diets.

Lysine specifications are presented as grams per Mcal of NRC ME. Formulating diets of growing pigs to
grams of lysine/day can be misleading (discussed in Grow-Finish Technical Update). The dietary energy
level used in the recommendations is NRC ME 1500 Kcal /lb since it approximates to a Corn-Soy diet.
Actual dietary energy levels require a number of considerations that are specific to market and environment
(see Usry et al., 1997). The available phosphorus curve (g Av. P/Mcal NRC ME) is higher than the NRC
for nursery and especially for grow-finish phases because levels have not proven adequate to withstand the
force imposed on bones during stunning in commercial plants (as compared to University Labs).

Table G1. Gilt Specifications a

Phase of Growth, lb
Item 50-70 70-90 90-150 150-210 210-260
Growth rate lb/day 1.63 1.73 1.81 1.94 1.81
Feed Intake lb/day 2.92 3.51 4.24 5.70 5.96
Feed:Gain Ratio 1.78 2.03 2.33 2.94 3.29
NRC ME:Gain Kcal/lb 2965 3120 3815 4500 5060
NRC ME Kcal/lb 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500
T Lysineb % 1.21 1.10 0.96 0.88 0.72
D Lysineb % 1.13 0.97 0.85 0.79 0.64
T Lysine : ME g/Mcal 3.66 3.32 2.90 2.68 2.18
T Methionine % 0.34 0.30 0.26 0.24 0.19
T Met + Cystine % 0.72 0.62 0.56 0.52 0.43
T Threonine % 0.79 0.68 0.62 0.57 0.43
T Tryptophan % 0.22 0.19 0.16 0.15 0.12
T Valine % 0.86 0.75 0.65 0.60 0.49
T Isoleucine % 0.70 0.60 0.54 0.50 0.40
Calcium % 0.90 0.72 0.63 0.61 0.56
TPhosphorus % 0.70 0.62 0.58 0.56 0.51
Av Phosphorus c % 0.40 0.34 0.30 0.28 0.22
Av Phos: ME g/Mcal 1.10 1.03 0.91 0.84 0.67
Added Salt % 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.35 0.30

a
Expected growth and suggested nutrient levels for high health and thermal neutral conditions. Lysine
specifications are based on a series of trials leading to curve validation studies: Technical Memos 160 and 183
and PIC USA Experiment 9611. ME/lb gain is based on Technical Memos 160, 166.
b
T = Total and D = True ileal digestible value. The level of other amino acids were set using the NRC pattern in
Table 1 of the Amino acid pattern section.
c
Av Phosphorus is 0.26% for maximum bone strength at 210-260 lb for the pigs going into multiplication.
The performance differences between sexes are based on the recommendations below and should not be
greater than 0.11 lb/day ADG, 0.06 feed:gain and 3 mm P2. The cost of live weight gain should be
virtually identical with the profit difference being due to lean merit.

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Table G2. Castrate Male Specifications a
Phase of Growth, lb
Item 50-70 70-90 90-150 150-210 210-260
Growth rate lb/day 1.64 1.81 1.87 1.99 1.86
Feed Intake lb/day 3.00 3.76 4.51 6.05 6.32
Feed:Gain Ratio 1.82 2.07 2.40 3.03 3.39
NRC ME:Gain Kcal/lb 2965 3180 3910 4605 5215

NRC ME Kcal/lb 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500


T Lysineb % 1.21 1.10 0.92 0.83 0.69
D Lysineb % 1.13 0.97 0.82 0.73 0.61
T Lysine : ME g/Mcal 3.66 3.32 2.80 2.50 2.09
T Methionine % 0.34 0.30 0.25 0.22 0.19
T Met + Cystine % 0.72 0.62 0.55 0.49 0.41
T Threonine % 0.79 0.68 0.60 0.54 0.45
T Tryptophan % 0.22 0.19 0.16 0.14 0.12
T Valine % 0.86 0.75 0.65 0.60 0.49
T Isoleucine % 0.70 0.60 0.52 0.46 0.39
Calcium % 0.90 0.72 0.69 0.61 0.55
T Phosphorus % 0.70 0.62 0.56 0.54 0.50
Av Phosphorus c % 0.40 0.34 0.28 0.26 0.21
Av Phos: ME g/Mcal 1.10 1.03 0.85 0.79 0.64
Added Salt % 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.35 0.30
a
Lysine specifications are based on a series of trials leading to curve validation studies: Technical Memos 160
and 183 and PIC USA Exp. 9611. ME/lb gain based on Technical Memos 160, 166.
b
T = Total and D = True ileal digestible value. The level of other amino acids were set using the NRC pattern in
TableB1 of the Amino acid pattern section.
c
Av Phosphorus is 0.26% for maximum bone strength at 210-260 lb for the pigs going into multiplication.

Adjusting Lysine-Calorie Specifications to Lean Content: A Guideline

Lysine:ME relationships in Tables G1 and G2 are appropriate for growth rates of 1.62-1.85 lb/day because
the body protein:lipid ratio does not vary enough to justify different specifications. Dietary ME assumes a
Corn-Soy based ration without any fat supplementation. The dietary lysine percentage would need to be
adjusted if > 3% fat is added to keep the Lysine:ME constant. Lysine needs would be less than shown in
situations such as, immune stress, reducing lean deposition (could increase P2 fat depth by 3 mm) and for
commercial products with greater genetic lag (could increase P2 fat by 3 mm). Profit optimization may
also require a lower lysine level even though lean content is compromised. The PIC growth model and
experimental research suggests the following relationship, which is applied to a situation of slow genetic
improvement.

Assume. Lag induced increase in P2 fat depth by 3 mm compared to PIC USA products.

Decrease Lysine:ME specifications in Tables G1andG2 by 8% from 50-160 lb and by 10% from 160-260
lb for each 3 mm increase in fat depth. Set other amino acids to the balance shown in the Ideal amino acid
pattern section (Illustrated in the Grow-Finish Technical Update).

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Diet Specifications for Non Lean Payment Markets

Table G3. Gilt and Castrate Male Specifications.


Phase of Growth, lb
Nutrient 50-90 90-150 150-210 210-260
Growth rate lb/day 1.68 1.90 2.03 1.81

Feed Intake lb/day 3.39 4.85 6.09 6.66


Feed:Gain Ratio 2.02 2.55 3.00 3.68
NRC ME:Gain kcal/lb 3150 3865 4545 5595

NRC ME Kcal/lb 1500 1500 1500 1500


T Lysineb % 1.00 0.84 0.72 0.66
D Lysineb % 0.89 0.75 0.64 0.59
T Lysine : ME g/Mcal 3.03 2.55 2.18 2.00
T Methionine % 0.27 0.23 0.19 0.18
T Met + Cystine % 0.57 0.50 0.42 0.40
T Threonine % 0.62 0.55 0.47 0.43
T Tryptophan % 0.17 0.14 0.12 0.11
T .Valine % 0.68 0.57 0.49 0.45
T Isoleucine % 0.55 0.47 0.40 0.37
Calcium % 0.72 0.63 0.61 0.56
T Phosphorus % 0.62 0.58 0.56 0.51
Av Phosphorus c % 0.34 0.30 0.28 0.22
Av Phos: ME g/Mcal 1.03 0.91 0.84 0.67
Added Salt % 0.40 0.40 0.35 0.30
a
Lysine specifications are based on a series of trials leading to curve validation studies: Technical Memos 160
and 183 and PIC USA Exp. 9611. ME/lb gain based on Technical Memos 160, 166.
b
T = Total and D = True ileal digestible value. The level of other amino acids were set using the NRC pattern in
Table B 1 of the Amino acid pattern section.
c
Av Phosphorus is 0.26% for maximum bone strength at 210-260 lb for pigs going into multiplication.

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Matching Lysine Need to Different Growth Phases

Information in figure is provided to facilitate the nutritionist in adjusting the lysine levels to feeding phases
that are different than those specified in Tables G1andG2 (see also Grow-Finish Technical Update).
Figure G1
Gilts Barrows
40
Matching3.4
3.4
Lysine Needs to Different Growth Phases
60
80
3.8 2.9 2.65
g Lysine/ Mcal ME

100
3.6
120
3.4 2.76 2.45
3.2
140 Gilts x
1603 2.57 2.3 Barrows y
2.8 Poly. (Gilts x)
180
2.6
200
2.4 2.39 2.25
2.2
220
2402 2.2 2.2
40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240
260 2.2
Barrows 3.85 3.32 2.8 2.5 2.09
y
Gilts x 3.85 3.32 2.9 2.68 2.18
Gilts x Barrows y Body Weight, lbs
40 3.85 3.85 40

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H. Vitamin and Trace Mineral Addition Rates: Commerciala,b

PIC USA recommendations were established after extensive comparison with Universities and major
nutrition groups. A systematic allowance was made in relation to the NRC recognizing that their
information is based on studies under nearly ideal conditions.

Table H1 Suggested Specifications: Amount per pound of complete diet.

Nursery Grow-Finish Sow Boar


Nutrient Unit < 12 lbs 12-50 lb 50-150 lbs 150- Ges-Lac Stud
Mkt

Vitamin A IU/lb 5000 4500 3000 2200 4500 5000


Vitamin D IU/lb 800 750 550 450 800 800
Vitamin E IU/lb 38 35 15 10 30 50
Vitamin K mg/lb 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 2.0 2.0
Choline mg/lb 200 150 50 0 300 300
Niacin mg/lb 32 20 12 10 20 20
Riboflavin mg/lb 6 4.5 2.6 2 4.5 4.5
d-Pantothenate mg/lb 18 15 9 6.5 15 15
Vitamin B12 mcg/lb 25 20 12 10 17 17
Folic Acid mcg/lb 475 350 0 0 600 750
d-Biotin mcg/lb 125 70 0 0 100 250
Thiamine mg/lb 1.6 1.5 0 0 1.0 1.0
Pyridoxine mg/lb 3.2 2.0 0 0 1.5 1.5
Vitamin C mg/lb 60 0 0 0 0 400
(stable)

Zinc PPM 150c 130c 120 70 125 125


Iron PPM 200d 175d 80 65 100 100
Manganese PPM 50 45 30 25 50 50
Copper PPM 18c 15c 12 10 15 15
Iodine PPM 0.65 0.55 0.40 0.35 0.35 0.65
Selenium PPM 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30
a
B-Vitamins are supplemented at approximately 3.5 x NRC (1998) for < 12 lbs pigs. Multiples for other groups
are approximately as follows: 12-60 lbs, 3 x NRC.
60-150 lbs, 2.5 x NRC.
150-Mkt, 1.5 x NRC.
Sows tend to be 2.5 x NRC for vitamins in general.
Boars are similar to sows with extra margins set for several micro-nutrients.
Add 2.3 IU of vitamin E/lb of complete diet for each 1% fat above 3% total dietary fat.
b
Pelleting and expanding, decreases vitamin stability by 10-12% and 15-20% respectively. Consult vitamin
manufacturers to verify the extent of loss for each vitamin, so additional fortification can be made as required.
c
Nutritional levels are shown for zinc and zopper. Chemotherapeutic levels of zinc are as follows: < 12 lb 2600
PPM; 12-16 lb., 2200 PPM; 16-22 lb, 1600 PPM. Chemotherapeutic level of copper is 220 PPM for each phase.
Inorganic forms are assumed and sulfate forms for Zinc, Iron, Manganese and Copper are preferred..
d
Supplemental iron are near to NRC levels because of the substantial iron content of di-calcium phosphate and
because high iron intake encourages E.Coli proliferation in the young pig.

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Vitamin and Trace Mineral Addition Rates: Genetic Nucleus and PIC Multiplicationa, b

PIC USA recommendations were established after extensive comparison with University and major
nutrition groups. A systematic allowance was made relative to the NRC
micronutrient recommendations for vitamins D and biotin are contractual for multiplication. Other
micronutrients are recommended minimums. Levels shown assume micronutrient additions and give no
credit for ingredient content.

Table H2 Suggested specifications: Amount per pound of complete diet.

Nursery Grow-Finish Sow Boar


Nutrient Unit < 12 lb 12-50 lb 50-150 lbs 150- Ges-Lac Stud
Mkt

Vitamin A IU/lb 5000 4500 3500 2600 4500 5000


Vitamin D IU/lb 850 800 700 600 800 800
Vitamin E IU/lb 38 35 15 10 30 50
Vitamin K mg/lb 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 2.0 2
Choline mg/lb 200 150 50 50 300 300
Niacin mg/lb 32 20 12 10 20 20
Riboflavin mg/lb 6 4.5 2.5 2 4.5 4.5
d-Pantothenate mg/lb 18 15 9 6.5 15 15
Vitamin B12 mcg/lb 25 20 12 10 17 17
Folic Acid mcg/lb 475 350 340 250 600 750
d-Biotin mcg/lb 150 125 125 125 150 250
Thiamine mg/lb 1.6 1.5 1.0 0.7 1.0 1.0
Pyridoxine mg/lb 3.2 2.0 1.0 0.7 1.5 1.5
Vitamin C mg/lb 60 0 0 0 0 400
(stable)

Zinc PPM 135c 125c 100 70 125 125


Iron PPM 110d 100d 80 65 100 100
Manganese PPM 40 35 20 16 35 35
Copper PPM 18c 15c 12 10 15 15
Iodine PPM 0.65 0.55 0.40 0.35 0.35 0.65
Selenium PPM 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30
Chromium PPM 0.2 0.2
a
M ultiplication vitamin and trace mineral premixes require the addition of greater amounts of Vitamins D and
Biotin in nursery and grow-finish diets as compared to commercial specifications. The addition of folic acid,
thiamine and pyridoxine during the grow-fish phase is suggested as an extra precaution. Addition rates assume an
ME level typical for Corn-Soy diets.
B-Vitamins are supplemented at about 3.5 x NRC (1998) for < 12 lb pigs. Multiples for other groups are
approximately as follows: 12-60 lb, 3 x NRC.
60-150 lb, 2.5 x NRC.
150-Mkt, 1.5 x NRC.
Sows tend to be 2.5 x NRC for vitamins in general.
Boars are similar to sows with extra margins set for several micronutrients.
Add 2.3 IU of Vitamin E / lb of complete diet for each 1% fat above 3% total dietary fat.
b
Pelleting and expanding decrease vitamin stability by 10-12% and 15-20% respectively. Consult vitamin
manufacturers to verify the extent of loss for each vitamin so additional fortification can be made as required.

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c
Nutritional levels are shown for zinc and copper. Chemotherapeutic levels of zinc as follows: < 12 lb 2600 PPM;
12-16 lb., 2200 PPM; 16-22 lb, 1600 PPM. Chemotherapeut ic level for copper is 225 PPM for each phase.
Inorganic forms assumed. Sulfate forms of Zinc, Iron, Manganese and Copper are preferred.
d
Supplemental iron are near to NRC levels because of the substantial iron content of di-calcium phosphate and
because high iron intake encourages E. Coli proliferation in the young pig.

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References

PIC USA Technical Memo 142. 1996. Impact of dietary energy intake on sperm output by PIC 327 and
PIC 427 boars.

PIC USA Technical Memo 160. 1997. Comparison of two dietary lysine standards for growing PIC pigs:
PIC USA vs University of Illinois recommendations.

PIC USA Technical Memo 166. 1997. Response to three lysine regimens by PIC 406 progeny.

PIC USA Technical Memo 171. 1997. Amino acid requirements of the lactating sow: Literature Review.
Adapted and improved from K. Touchette MS Thesis, U.MO.

PIC USA Technical Memo 183. 1997. Dietary lysine curve that optimizes lean growth and profit for PIC
427 progeny.

PIC USA Experiment 9611. Lysine dose response curves for heavy PIC pigs (210-260 lbs) reared in a hot
versus thermo -neutral environment.

PIC USA Nutrition Technical Update. 1999. Concepts for feeding the Grow-Finish PIC pig.

PIC USA Nutrition Technical Update. 1999. Concepts for feeding prolific PIC sows.

Nutrient Requirements of Swine. 1998. National Research Council (10th Edition). National Academy
Press. 2101 Constitution Ave., NW. Washington, D.C. 20418.

Optimizing energy formulation for finishing swine. 1997. J. Usry, R.G. Campbell and D. Burnham. Proc.
Carolina Swine Nutrition Conference, Raleigh NC.

DISCLAIMER. Performance data shown in Nutrient specification tables were obtained in Commercial settings and
under conditions of high health, thermo-neutral temperature and good management. They are not guaranteed
levels of performance. A competent Nutritionist should adapt suggested Nutrient levels to specific conditions.
These concepts are discussed in greater detail in Nutrition Technical Updates for Sows, Nursery pigs and Grow-
Finish pigs.

(Ref : S. Pearce/nutrition update doc/ Nov2002)

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Franklin, KY 42135
www.pic.com/usa
1-800-325-3398

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