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There has been an enormous amount of research in recent years in the area
of thermo-chemical conversion of biomass into bio-fuels (bio-oil, bio-char and
bio-gas) through Pyrolysis technology due to its several advantages.

Pyrolysis is a process of thermal decomposition of organic matter by the supply

of heat in the absence of oxygen. The entire process contributes to breakdown
of longer chain molecules into short chain molecules. In general, pyrolysis of
organic substances produces gas and liquid products and leaves a solid residue
richer in carbon content.

The project is mainly aimed at design and fabrication of pyrolysis set up for the
conversion of wood into charcoal. The major components of the system are
reactor, cyclone separator and radiator. In this study it is considered to design
and fabricate the batch reactor for obtaining charcoal from waste wood. The
main purpose is to provide facility in rural areas where the waste wood is
abundant and charcoal is insufficient.

The pyrolysis process is affected by many process parameters such as pressure,

batch size, set temperature, heating rate, reactor design etc.

Design procedure:
Mass of wood in kg=5

Density of wood pallets in kg/m3=156

Volume of reactor= mass/density=0.03205128205 m3

Volume of reactor=area*height
0.03205= r *height

Assume height=40 cm
0.03205= r *(40*10-2)

r=15.97 cm

d=31.9 cm
Cyclone separator:
Let diameter of barrel =15 cm

Height of cyclone

Height of barrel=1.5d=22.5

Height of the cone=2.5d=37.5

Height of the vortex finder=0.5d=7.5

After assemble:

review questions:

Factors to be considered for the selection of type of

pyrolysis process:
Since the slow pyrolysis gives maximum yield of charcoal,we have
selected slow pyrolysis process. This process takes high treatment
temperature and residence time.

Slow pyrolysis:


Heating rate - 80

Reaction time-hours

Pressure -atmospheric or elevated at 1MPa

Medium oxygen free

Liquid -30%

Gas -35%

The percentage yield of charcoal in slow pyrolysis is greater than that of
the fast pyrolysis

Slow pyrolysis-35%

Fast pyrolysis-12%

Applications of the project:

This pyrolysis set up can be employed in rural areas for the production of
charcoal which is useful for household purposes, blacksmith forge, to improve
soil fertility.

Factors considered for the selection of fixed bed

1. Medium or high pressure can be maintained.
2. Simple temperature control.
3. Operating and investment costs are low.
4. Operation mode is continuous.
5. Overall reaction rate related to the volume is high
6. No need of filtration.
7. Multi products can be obtained at low costs.