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Trusted Extensions Administrator's

Procedures

Part No: E2721910


January 2013
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130204@25097
Contents

Preface ...................................................................................................................................................17

1 Trusted Extensions Administration Concepts ................................................................................ 23


Trusted Extensions Software and the Oracle Solaris OS ................................................................. 23
Similarities Between Trusted Extensions and the Oracle Solaris OS ..................................... 23
Differences Between Trusted Extensions and the Oracle Solaris OS ..................................... 24
Multiheaded Systems and the Trusted Extensions Desktop ................................................... 25
Basic Concepts of Trusted Extensions .............................................................................................. 26
Trusted Extensions Protections ................................................................................................. 26
Trusted Extensions and Access Control .................................................................................... 27
Roles and Trusted Extensions .................................................................................................... 28
Labels in Trusted Extensions Software ...................................................................................... 28

2 Trusted Extensions Administration Tools ........................................................................................ 33


Administration Tools for Trusted Extensions ................................................................................. 33
txzonemgr Script ................................................................................................................................. 35
Trusted CDE Actions .......................................................................................................................... 35
Device Allocation Manager ................................................................................................................ 36
Solaris Management Console Tools .................................................................................................. 38
Trusted Extensions Tools in the Solaris Management Console ............................................. 39
Client-Server Communication With the Solaris Management Console .............................. 41
Solaris Management Console Documentation ........................................................................ 42
Label Builder in Trusted Extensions ................................................................................................. 43
Command Line Tools in Trusted Extensions .................................................................................. 44
Remote Administration in Trusted Extensions ............................................................................... 46

3
Contents

3 Getting Started as a Trusted Extensions Administrator (Tasks) .................................................. 47


What's New in Trusted Extensions ................................................................................................... 47
Security Requirements When Administering Trusted Extensions ............................................... 48
Role Creation in Trusted Extensions ......................................................................................... 49
Role Assumption in Trusted Extensions ................................................................................... 49
Getting Started as a Trusted Extensions Administrator (Task Map) ............................................ 49
How to Enter the Global Zone in Trusted Extensions ............................................................. 50
How to Exit the Global Zone in Trusted Extensions ............................................................... 52
How to Administer the Local System With the Solaris Management Console .................... 52
How to Start CDE Administrative Actions in Trusted Extensions ........................................ 53
How to Edit Administrative Files in Trusted Extensions ........................................................ 54

4 Security Requirements on a Trusted Extensions System (Overview) ......................................... 57


Configurable Oracle Solaris Security Features ................................................................................. 57
Trusted Extensions Interfaces for Configuring Security Features ......................................... 57
Extension of Oracle Solaris Security Mechanisms by Trusted Extensions ........................... 58
Trusted Extensions Security Features ........................................................................................ 58
Security Requirements Enforcement ................................................................................................ 58
Users and Security Requirements .............................................................................................. 59
Email Usage .................................................................................................................................. 59
Password Enforcement ................................................................................................................ 59
Information Protection ............................................................................................................... 60
Password Protection .................................................................................................................... 61
Group Administration ................................................................................................................ 61
User Deletion Practices ............................................................................................................... 61
Rules When Changing the Level of Security for Data ..................................................................... 61
sel_config File ............................................................................................................................ 63
Customization of Solaris Trusted Extensions (CDE) ..................................................................... 64
Front Panel Customization ......................................................................................................... 64
Workspace Menu Customization .............................................................................................. 64

5 Administering Security Requirements in Trusted Extensions (Tasks) ....................................... 67


Common Tasks in Trusted Extensions (Task Map) ....................................................................... 67
How to Assign the Editor of Your Choice as the Trusted Editor ............................................ 68
How to Change the Password for root ...................................................................................... 69

4 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


Contents

How to Regain Control of the Desktop's Current Focus ......................................................... 70


How to Obtain the Hexadecimal Equivalent for a Label ......................................................... 71
How to Obtain a Readable Label From Its Hexadecimal Form .............................................. 72
How to Change Security Defaults in System Files .................................................................... 73

6 Users, Rights, and Roles in Trusted Extensions (Overview) ......................................................... 75


User Security Features in Trusted Extensions ................................................................................. 75
Administrator Responsibilities for Users ......................................................................................... 76
System Administrator Responsibilities for Users .................................................................... 76
Security Administrator Responsibilities for Users ................................................................... 76
Decisions to Make Before Creating Users in Trusted Extensions ................................................. 77
Default User Security Attributes in Trusted Extensions ................................................................. 77
label_encodings File Defaults .................................................................................................. 77
policy.conf File Defaults in Trusted Extensions ................................................................... 78
Configurable User Attributes in Trusted Extensions ...................................................................... 78
Security Attributes That Must Be Assigned to Users ...................................................................... 79
Security Attribute Assignment to Users in Trusted Extensions ............................................. 80
.copy_files and .link_files Files ......................................................................................... 81

7 Managing Users, Rights, and Roles in Trusted Extensions (Tasks) ..............................................83


Customizing the User Environment for Security (Task Map) ....................................................... 83
How to Modify Default User Label Attributes .......................................................................... 84
How to Modify policy.conf Defaults ...................................................................................... 84
How to Configure Startup Files for Users in Trusted Extensions .......................................... 86
How to Log In to a Failsafe Session in Trusted Extensions ..................................................... 88
Managing Users and Rights With the Solaris Management Console (Task Map) ...................... 89
How to Modify a User's Label Range in the Solaris Management Console ........................... 89
How to Create a Rights Profile for Convenient Authorizations ............................................. 90
How to Restrict a User's Set of Privileges .................................................................................. 92
How to Prevent Account Locking for Users ............................................................................. 94
How to Enable a User to Change the Security Level of Data ................................................... 95
How to Delete a User Account From a Trusted Extensions System ...................................... 95
Handling Other Tasks in the Solaris Management Console (Task Map) ..................................... 96

5
Contents

8 Remote Administration in Trusted Extensions (Tasks) ................................................................. 99


Secure Remote Administration in Trusted Extensions .................................................................. 99
Methods for Administering Remote Systems in Trusted Extensions ......................................... 100
Remote Login by a Role in Trusted Extensions ............................................................................. 101
Remote Role-Based Administration From Unlabeled Hosts ................................................ 101
Remote Login Management in Trusted Extensions .............................................................. 101
Administering Trusted Extensions Remotely (Task Map) ........................................................... 102
How to Log In Remotely From the Command Line in Trusted Extensions ....................... 103
How to Remotely Administer Trusted Extensions With dtappsession ............................ 103
How to Remotely Administer Systems by Using the Solaris Management Console From a
Trusted Extensions System ....................................................................................................... 105
How to Remotely Administer Systems by Using the Solaris Management Console From an
Unlabeled System ....................................................................................................................... 106
How to Enable Specific Users to Log In Remotely to the Global Zone in Trusted
Extensions ................................................................................................................................... 108
How to Use Xvnc to Remotely Access a Trusted Extensions System ................................... 109

9 Trusted Extensions and LDAP (Overview) ..................................................................................... 111


Using a Naming Service in Trusted Extensions ............................................................................. 111
Non-Networked Trusted Extensions Systems ........................................................................ 112
Trusted Extensions LDAP Databases ...................................................................................... 112
Using the LDAP Naming Service in Trusted Extensions .............................................................. 113

10 Managing Zones in Trusted Extensions (Tasks) ............................................................................ 115


Zones in Trusted Extensions ............................................................................................................ 115
Zones and IP Addresses in Trusted Extensions ...................................................................... 116
Zones and Multilevel Ports ....................................................................................................... 117
Zones and ICMP in Trusted Extensions ................................................................................. 118
Global Zone Processes and Labeled Zones ..................................................................................... 118
Zone Administration Utilities in Trusted Extensions .................................................................. 119
Managing Zones (Task Map) ........................................................................................................... 120
How to Display Ready or Running Zones ............................................................................... 121
How to Display the Labels of Mounted Files .......................................................................... 122
How to Loopback Mount a File That Is Usually Not Visible in a Labeled Zone ................. 123
How to Disable the Mounting of Lower-Level Files .............................................................. 124

6 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


Contents

How to Share a ZFS Dataset From a Labeled Zone ................................................................ 125


How to Enable Files to be Relabeled From a Labeled Zone ................................................... 128
How to Configure a Multilevel Port for NFSv3 Over udp ...................................................... 129
How to Create a Multilevel Port for a Zone ............................................................................. 130

11 Managing and Mounting Files in Trusted Extensions (Tasks) .................................................... 133


Sharing and Mounting Files in Trusted Extensions ...................................................................... 133
NFS Mounts in Trusted Extensions ................................................................................................ 133
Sharing Files From a Labeled Zone ................................................................................................. 135
Access to NFS Mounted Directories in Trusted Extensions ........................................................ 135
Home Directory Creation in Trusted Extensions .................................................................. 136
Changes to the Automounter in Trusted Extensions ............................................................ 137
Trusted Extensions Software and NFS Protocol Versions ........................................................... 138
Backing Up, Sharing, and Mounting Labeled Files (Task Map) .................................................. 139
How to Back Up Files in Trusted Extensions .......................................................................... 139
How to Restore Files in Trusted Extensions ........................................................................... 140
How to Share Directories From a Labeled Zone .................................................................... 140
How to NFS Mount Files in a Labeled Zone ........................................................................... 142
How to Troubleshoot Mount Failures in Trusted Extensions .............................................. 146

12 Trusted Networking (Overview) ......................................................................................................149


The Trusted Network ........................................................................................................................ 149
Trusted Extensions Data Packets ............................................................................................. 150
Trusted Network Communications ........................................................................................ 150
Network Configuration Databases in Trusted Extensions ................................................... 152
Network Commands in Trusted Extensions .......................................................................... 152
Trusted Network Security Attributes ...................................................................................... 153
Network Security Attributes in Trusted Extensions ..................................................................... 154
Host Type and Template Name in Security Templates ......................................................... 155
Default Label in Security Templates ........................................................................................ 155
Domain of Interpretation in Security Templates ................................................................... 156
Label Range in Security Templates .......................................................................................... 156
Security Label Set in Security Templates ................................................................................. 156
Trusted Network Fallback Mechanism ........................................................................................... 157
Overview of Routing in Trusted Extensions .................................................................................. 159

7
Contents

Background on Routing ............................................................................................................ 159


Routing Table Entries in Trusted Extensions ......................................................................... 159
Trusted Extensions Accreditation Checks .............................................................................. 160
Administration of Routing in Trusted Extensions ........................................................................ 161
Choosing Routers in Trusted Extensions ............................................................................... 162
Gateways in Trusted Extensions .............................................................................................. 163
Routing Commands in Trusted Extensions ........................................................................... 163

13 Managing Networks in Trusted Extensions (Tasks) ..................................................................... 165


Managing the Trusted Network (Task Map) ................................................................................. 165
Configuring Trusted Network Databases (Task Map) ................................................................. 166
How to Determine If You Need Site-Specific Security Templates ....................................... 167
How to Open the Trusted Networking Tools ......................................................................... 168
How to Construct a Remote Host Template ........................................................................... 168
How to Add Hosts to the System's Known Network .............................................................. 173
How to Assign a Security Template to a Host or a Group of Hosts ...................................... 174
How to Limit the Hosts That Can Be Contacted on the Trusted Network ......................... 175
Configuring Routes and Checking Network Information in Trusted Extensions (Task Map) 179
How to Configure Routes With Security Attributes .............................................................. 179
How to Check the Syntax of Trusted Network Databases ..................................................... 181
How to Compare Trusted Network Database Information With the Kernel Cache ......... 182
How to Synchronize the Kernel Cache With Trusted Network Databases ......................... 183
Troubleshooting the Trusted Network (Task Map) ...................................................................... 185
How to Verify That a Host's Interfaces Are Up ...................................................................... 185
How to Debug the Trusted Extensions Network ................................................................... 186
How to Debug a Client Connection to the LDAP Server ...................................................... 188

14 Multilevel Mail in Trusted Extensions (Overview) ....................................................................... 191


Multilevel Mail Service ...................................................................................................................... 191
Trusted Extensions Mail Features ................................................................................................... 191

15 Managing Labeled Printing (Tasks) ................................................................................................193


Labels, Printers, and Printing ........................................................................................................... 193
Restricting Access to Printers and Print Job Information in Trusted Extensions .............. 194

8 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


Contents

Labeled Printer Output ............................................................................................................. 194


PostScript Printing of Security Information ........................................................................... 197
Interoperability of Trusted Extensions With Trusted Solaris 8 Printing ............................ 199
Trusted Extensions Print Interfaces (Reference) ................................................................... 200
Managing Printing in Trusted Extensions (Task Map) ................................................................ 200
Configuring Labeled Printing (Task Map) ..................................................................................... 201
How to Configure a Multilevel Print Server and Its Printers ................................................ 201
How to Configure a Network Printer for Sun Ray Clients .................................................... 203
How to Configure Cascade Printing on a Labeled System .................................................... 206
How to Configure a Zone for Single-Label Printing .............................................................. 209
How to Enable a Trusted Extensions Client to Access a Printer .......................................... 210
How to Configure a Restricted Label Range for a Printer ..................................................... 212
Reducing Printing Restrictions in Trusted Extensions (Task Map) ........................................... 213
How to Remove Labels From Printed Output ........................................................................ 214
How to Assign a Label to an Unlabeled Print Server ............................................................. 214
How to Remove Page Labels From All Print Jobs .................................................................. 215
How to Enable Specific Users to Suppress Page Labels ......................................................... 216
How to Suppress Banner and Trailer Pages for Specific Users ............................................. 216
How to Enable Users to Print PostScript Files in Trusted Extensions ................................. 217

16 Devices in Trusted Extensions (Overview) ..................................................................................... 219


Device Protection With Trusted Extensions Software ................................................................. 219
Device Label Ranges .................................................................................................................. 220
Effects of Label Range on a Device ........................................................................................... 220
Device Access Policies ............................................................................................................... 221
Device-Clean Scripts ................................................................................................................. 221
Device Allocation Manager GUI ..................................................................................................... 221
Enforcement of Device Security in Trusted Extensions ............................................................... 223
Devices in Trusted Extensions (Reference) .................................................................................... 223

17 Managing Devices for Trusted Extensions (Tasks) ....................................................................... 225


Handling Devices in Trusted Extensions (Task Map) .................................................................. 225
Using Devices in Trusted Extensions (Task Map) ........................................................................ 226
Managing Devices in Trusted Extensions (Task Map) ................................................................. 226
How to Configure a Device in Trusted Extensions ................................................................ 227

9
Contents

How to Revoke or Reclaim a Device in Trusted Extensions ................................................. 230


How to Protect Nonallocatable Devices in Trusted Extensions ........................................... 231
How to Configure a Serial Line for Logins .............................................................................. 232
How to Configure an Audio Player Program for Use in Trusted CDE ................................ 233
How to Prevent the File Manager From Displaying After Device Allocation .................... 233
How to Add a Device_Clean Script in Trusted Extensions ................................................... 234
Customizing Device Authorizations in Trusted Extensions (Task Map) ................................... 235
How to Create New Device Authorizations ............................................................................ 235
How to Add Site-Specific Authorizations to a Device in Trusted Extensions .................... 238
How to Assign Device Authorizations .................................................................................... 238

18 Trusted Extensions Auditing (Overview) .......................................................................................241


Trusted Extensions and Auditing .................................................................................................... 241
Audit Management by Role in Trusted Extensions ....................................................................... 242
Role Setup for Audit Administration ....................................................................................... 242
Audit Tasks in Trusted Extensions .......................................................................................... 242
Audit Tasks of the Security Administrator ............................................................................. 243
Audit Tasks of the System Administrator ............................................................................... 243
Trusted Extensions Audit Reference ............................................................................................... 244
Trusted Extensions Audit Classes ............................................................................................ 244
Trusted Extensions Audit Events ............................................................................................. 245
Trusted Extensions Audit Tokens ............................................................................................ 245
Trusted Extensions Audit Policy Options ............................................................................... 250
Extensions to Auditing Commands in Trusted Extensions .................................................. 250

19 Software Management in Trusted Extensions (Tasks) ................................................................ 251


Adding Software to Trusted Extensions ......................................................................................... 251
Oracle Solaris Security Mechanisms for Software .................................................................. 252
Evaluating Software for Security .............................................................................................. 253
Trusted Processes in the Window System ...................................................................................... 254
Adding Trusted CDE Actions ................................................................................................... 255
Managing Software in Trusted Extensions (Tasks) ....................................................................... 256
How to Add a Software Package in Trusted Extensions ........................................................ 256
How to Install a Java Archive File in Trusted Extensions ...................................................... 257

10 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


Contents

A Quick Reference to Trusted Extensions Administration ............................................................. 259


Administrative Interfaces in Trusted Extensions .......................................................................... 259
Oracle Solaris Interfaces Extended by Trusted Extensions .......................................................... 260
Tighter Security Defaults in Trusted Extensions ........................................................................... 261
Limited Options in Trusted Extensions ......................................................................................... 262

B List of Trusted Extensions Man Pages ............................................................................................ 263


Trusted Extensions Man Pages in Alphabetical Order ................................................................. 263
Oracle Solaris Man Pages That Are Modified by Trusted Extensions ......................................... 266

Index ................................................................................................................................................... 269

11
12
Figures

FIGURE 11 Trusted Extensions Multilevel CDE Desktop ........................................................ 27


FIGURE 21 Device Allocation Manager Icon in Trusted CDE ................................................. 37
FIGURE 22 Device Allocation Manager GUI ............................................................................. 37
FIGURE 23 Typical Trusted Extensions Toolbox in the Solaris Management Console ........ 39
FIGURE 24 Computers and Networks Tool Set in the Solaris Management Console ........... 40
FIGURE 25 Solaris Management Console Client Using an LDAP Server to Administer the
Network ...................................................................................................................... 42
FIGURE 26 Solaris Management Console Client Administering Individual Remote Systems
on a Network .............................................................................................................. 42
FIGURE 121 Typical Trusted Extensions Routes and Routing Table Entries ........................ 163
FIGURE 151 Job's Label Printed at the Top and Bottom of a Body Page ................................. 195
FIGURE 152 Typical Banner Page of a Labeled Print Job .......................................................... 196
FIGURE 153 Differences on a Trailer Page .................................................................................. 196
FIGURE 161 Device Allocation Manager Opened by a User .................................................... 222
FIGURE 171 Serial Ports Tool in the Solaris Management Console ........................................ 232
FIGURE 181 Typical Audit Record Structures on a Labeled System ....................................... 244
FIGURE 182 label Token Format ............................................................................................... 246
FIGURE 183 Format for xcolormap, xcursor, xfont, xgc, xpixmap, and xwindow Tokens . 247
FIGURE 184 xproperty Token Format ....................................................................................... 249
FIGURE 185 xselect Token Format ........................................................................................... 249

13
14
Tables

TABLE 11 Examples of Label Relationships ............................................................................. 29


TABLE 21 Trusted Extensions Administrative Tools .............................................................. 34
TABLE 22 Administrative Actions in Trusted CDE, Their Purpose, and Associated Rights
Profiles ........................................................................................................................ 35
TABLE 23 Installation Actions in Trusted CDE, Their Purpose, and Associated Rights
Profiles ........................................................................................................................ 36
TABLE 24 User and Administrative Trusted Extensions Commands .................................. 44
TABLE 25 User and Administrative Commands That Trusted Extensions Modifies ......... 45
TABLE 41 Conditions for Moving Files to a New Label .......................................................... 62
TABLE 42 Conditions for Moving Selections to a New Label ................................................. 62
TABLE 61 Trusted Extensions Security Defaults in policy.conf File ................................. 78
TABLE 62 Security Attributes That Are Assigned After User Creation ................................ 79
TABLE 121 tnrhdb Host Address and Fallback Mechanism Entries ..................................... 158
TABLE 151 Configurable Values in the tsol_separator.ps File ......................................... 197
TABLE 181 X Server Audit Classes ............................................................................................ 244
TABLE 182 Trusted Extensions Audit Tokens ......................................................................... 245
TABLE 191 Constraints on CDE Actions in Trusted Extensions ........................................... 255

15
16
Preface

The Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures guide provides procedures for configuring
Trusted Extensions on the Oracle Solaris operating system (Oracle Solaris OS). This guide also
provides procedures for managing users, zones, devices, and hosts that are labeled with Trusted
Extensions software.

Note This Oracle Solaris release supports systems that use the SPARC and x86 families of
processor architectures. The supported systems appear in the Oracle Solaris OS: Hardware
Compatibility Lists. This document cites any implementation differences between the platform
types.

In this document, these x86 related terms mean the following:


x86 refers to the larger family of 64-bit and 32-bit x86 compatible products.
x64 relates specifically to 64-bit x86 compatible CPUs.
"32-bit x86" points out specific 32-bit information about x86 based systems.

For supported systems, see the Oracle Solaris OS: Hardware Compatibility Lists.

Who Should Use This Guide


This guide is for knowledgeable system administrators and security administrators who are
configuring and administering Trusted Extensions software. The level of trust that is required
by your site security policy, and your level of expertise, determines who can perform the
configuration tasks.

Administrators should be familiar with Oracle Solaris administration. In addition,


administrators should understand the following:
The security features of Trusted Extensions and your site security policy
Basic concepts and procedures for using a host that is configured with Trusted Extensions,
as described in the Trusted Extensions Users Guide
How administrative tasks are divided among roles at your site

17
Preface

How the Trusted Extensions Guides Are Organized


The following table lists the topics that are covered in the Trusted Extensions guides and the
audience for each guide.

Title of Guide Topics Audience

Trusted Extensions Users Guide Describes the basic features of Trusted Extensions. This book End users,
contains a glossary. administrators,
developers

Trusted Extensions Configuration Guide Starting with the Solaris 10 5/08 release, describes how to enable Administrators,
and initially configure Trusted Extensions. Replaces Solaris developers
Trusted Extensions Installation and Configuration for the Solaris
10 11/06 and Solaris 10 8/07 Releases.

Trusted Extensions Administrators Shows how to perform specific administration tasks. Administrators,
Procedures developers

Trusted Extensions Developers Guide Describes how to develop applications with Trusted Extensions. Developers,
administrators

Trusted Extensions Label Administration Provides information about how to specify label components in Administrators
the label encodings file.

Compartmented Mode Workstation Describes the syntax used in the label encodings file. The syntax Administrators
Labeling: Encodings Format enforces the various rules for well-formed labels for a system.

Related System Administration Guides


The following guides contain information that is useful when you prepare for and run Trusted
Extensions software.

Book Title Topics

Oracle Solaris Administration: Basic Administration User accounts and groups, server and client support, shutting
down and booting a system, managing services, and managing
software (packages and patches)

System Administration Guide: Advanced Administration Terminals and modems, system resources (disk quotas,
accounting, and crontabs), system processes, and troubleshooting
Solaris software problems

System Administration Guide: Devices and File Systems Removable media, disks and devices, file systems, and backing up
and restoring data

18 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


Preface

Book Title Topics

Oracle Solaris Administration: IP Services TCP/IP network administration, IPv4 and IPv6 address
administration, DHCP, IPsec, IKE, Solaris IP filter, Mobile IP, IP
network multipathing (IPMP), and IPQoS

System Administration Guide: Naming and Directory Services DNS, NIS, and LDAP naming and directory services, including
(DNS, NIS, and LDAP) transitioning from NIS to LDAP and transitioning from NIS+ to
LDAP

System Administration Guide: Network Services Web cache servers, time-related services, network file systems
(NFS and Autofs), mail, SLP, and PPP

System Administration Guide: Security Services Auditing, device management, file security, BART, Kerberos
services, PAM, Solaris Cryptographic Framework, privileges,
RBAC, SASL, and Solaris Secure Shell

System Administration Guide: Oracle Solaris Containers-Resource Resource management topics projects and tasks, extended
Management and Oracle Solaris Zones accounting, resource controls, fair share scheduler (FSS), physical
memory control using the resource capping daemon (rcapd), and
resource pools; virtualization using Solaris Zones software
partitioning technology and lx branded zones

Oracle Solaris ZFS Administration Guide ZFS storage pool and file system creation and management,
snapshots, clones, backups, using access control lists (ACLs) to
protect ZFS files, using ZFS on a Solaris system with zones
installed, emulated volumes, and troubleshooting and data
recovery

System Administration Guide: Printing Solaris printing topics and tasks, using services, tools, protocols,
and technologies to set up and administer printing services and
printers

Related References
Your site security policy document Describes the security policy and security procedures at
your site

Solaris Common Desktop Environment: Advanced User's and System Administrator's Guide
Describes the Common Desktop Environment (CDE)

The administrator guide for your currently installed operating system Describes how to back
up system files

19
Preface

Related Third-Party Web Site References


Third-party URLs are referenced in this document and provide additional, related information.

Note Oracle is not responsible for the availability of third-party web sites that are mentioned in
this document. Oracle does not endorse and is not responsible or liable for any content,
advertising, products, or other materials that are available on or through such sites or resources.
Oracle will not be responsible or liable for any actual or alleged damage or loss caused or alleged
to be caused by or in connection with the use of or reliance on any such content, goods, or
services that are available on or through such sites or resources.

Access to Oracle Support


Oracle customers have access to electronic support through My Oracle Support. For
information, visit http://www.oracle.com/pls/topic/lookup?ctx=acc&id=info or visit
http://www.oracle.com/pls/topic/lookup?ctx=acc&id=trs if you are hearing impaired.

Typographic Conventions
The following table describes the typographic conventions that are used in this book.

TABLE P1 Typographic Conventions

Typeface Description Example

AaBbCc123 The names of commands, files, and directories, Edit your .login file.
and onscreen computer output
Use ls -a to list all files.
machine_name% you have mail.

AaBbCc123 What you type, contrasted with onscreen machine_name% su


computer output
Password:

aabbcc123 Placeholder: replace with a real name or value The command to remove a file is rm
filename.

AaBbCc123 Book titles, new terms, and terms to be Read Chapter 6 in the User's Guide.
emphasized
A cache is a copy that is stored
locally.
Do not save the file.
Note: Some emphasized items
appear bold online.

20 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


Preface

Shell Prompts in Command Examples


The following table shows UNIX system prompts and superuser prompts for shells that are
included in the Oracle Solaris OS. In command examples, the shell prompt indicates whether
the command should be executed by a regular user or a user with privileges.

TABLE P2 Shell Prompts

Shell Prompt

Bash shell, Korn shell, and Bourne shell $

Bash shell, Korn shell, and Bourne shell for superuser #

C shell machine_name%

C shell for superuser machine_name#

21
22
1
C H A P T E R 1

Trusted Extensions Administration Concepts

This chapter introduces you to administering a system that is configured with Trusted
Extensions software.
Trusted Extensions Software and the Oracle Solaris OS on page 23
Basic Concepts of Trusted Extensions on page 26

Trusted Extensions Software and the Oracle Solaris OS


Trusted Extensions software adds labels to a system that is running the Solaris Operating
System (Oracle Solaris OS). Labels implement mandatory access control (MAC). MAC, along
with discretionary access control (DAC), protects system subjects (processes) and objects
(data). Trusted Extensions software provides interfaces to handle label configuration, label
assignment, and label policy.

Similarities Between Trusted Extensions and the


Oracle Solaris OS
Trusted Extensions software uses rights profiles, roles, auditing, privileges, and other security
features of the Oracle Solaris OS. You can use Oracle Solaris Secure Shell (SSH), BART, the
Oracle Solaris cryptographic framework, IPsec, and IP Filter with Trusted Extensions.
As in the Oracle Solaris OS, users can be limited to using applications that are necessary for
performing their jobs. Other users can be authorized to do more.
As in the Oracle Solaris OS, capabilities that were formerly assigned to superuser are
assigned to separate, discrete roles.
As in the Oracle Solaris OS, privileges protect processes. Zones are also used to separate
processes.
As in the Oracle Solaris OS, events on the system can be audited.

23
Trusted Extensions Software and the Oracle Solaris OS

Trusted Extensions uses the system configuration files of the Oracle Solaris OS, such as
policy.conf and exec_attr.

Differences Between Trusted Extensions and the


Oracle Solaris OS
Trusted Extensions software extends the Oracle Solaris OS. The following list provides an
overview. For a quick reference, see Appendix A, Quick Reference to Trusted Extensions
Administration.
Trusted Extensions controls access to data with special security tags that are called labels.
Labels provide mandatory access control (MAC). MAC protection is in addition to UNIX file
permissions, or discretionary access control (DAC). Labels are directly assigned to users,
zones, devices, windows, and network endpoints. Labels are implicitly assigned to processes,
files, and other system objects.
MAC cannot be overridden by regular users. Trusted Extensions requires regular users to
operate in labeled zones. By default, no users or processes in labeled zones can override
MAC.
As in the Oracle Solaris OS, the ability to override security policy can be assigned to specific
processes or users when MAC can be overridden. For example, users can be authorized to
change the label of a file. Such an action upgrades or downgrades the sensitivity of the
information in that file.
Trusted Extensions adds to existing configuration files and commands. For example,
Trusted Extensions adds audit events, authorizations, privileges, and rights profiles.
Some features that are optional on an Oracle Solaris system are required on a Trusted
Extensions system. For example, zones and roles are required on a system that is configured
with Trusted Extensions.
Some features that are optional on an Oracle Solaris system are recommended on a Trusted
Extensions system. For example, in Trusted Extensions the root user should be turned into
the root role.
Trusted Extensions can change the default behavior of the Oracle Solaris OS. For example,
on a system that is configured with Trusted Extensions, auditing is enabled by default. In
addition, device allocation is required.
Trusted Extensions can narrow the options that are available in the Oracle Solaris OS. For
example, on a system that is configured with Trusted Extensions, the NIS+ naming service is
not supported. Also, in Trusted Extensions, all zones are labeled zones. Unlike the Oracle
Solaris OS, labeled zones must use the same pool of user IDs and group IDs. Additionally, in
Trusted Extensions, labeled zones can share one IP address.
Trusted Extensions provides trusted versions of two desktops. To work in a labeled
environment, desktop users of Trusted Extensions must use one of these desktops:

24 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


Trusted Extensions Software and the Oracle Solaris OS

Solaris Trusted Extensions (CDE) Is the trusted version of Common Desktop


Environment (CDE). The name can be shortened to Trusted CDE.
Solaris Trusted Extensions (JDS) Is the trusted version of Java Desktop System,
Release number. The name can be shortened to Trusted JDS.
Trusted Extensions provides additional graphical user interfaces (GUIs) and command line
interfaces (CLIs). For example, Trusted Extensions provides the Device Allocation Manager
to administer devices. In addition, the updatehome command is used to place startup files in
an regular user's home directory at every label.
Trusted Extensions requires the use of particular GUIs for administration. For example, on
a system that is configured with Trusted Extensions, the Solaris Management Console is
used to administer users, roles, and the network. Similarly, in Trusted CDE, the Admin
Editor is used to edit system files.
Trusted Extensions limits what users can see. For example, a device that cannot be allocated
by a user cannot be seen by that user.
Trusted Extensions limits users' desktop options. For example, users are allowed a limited
time of workstation inactivity before the screen locks.

Multiheaded Systems and the Trusted Extensions


Desktop
When the monitors of a multiheaded Trusted Extensions system are configured horizontally,
the trusted stripe stretches across the monitors. When the monitors are configured vertically,
the trusted stripe appears in the lowest monitor.

When different workspaces are displayed on the monitors of a multiheaded system, Trusted
CDE and Trusted JDS render the trusted stripe differently.
On a Trusted JDS desktop, each monitor displays a trusted stripe.
On a Trusted CDE desktop, one trusted stripe appears on the primary monitor.

Caution If a second trusted stripe appears on a Trusted CDE multiheaded system, the stripe
is not generated by the operating system. You might have an unauthorized program on your
system.

Contact your security administrator immediately. To determine the correct trusted stripe,
see How to Regain Control of the Desktop's Current Focus on page 70.

Chapter 1 Trusted Extensions Administration Concepts 25


Basic Concepts of Trusted Extensions

Basic Concepts of Trusted Extensions


Trusted Extensions software adds labels to an Oracle Solaris system. Labeled desktops and
trusted applications, such as the Label Builder and the Device Allocation Manager, are also
added. The concepts in this section are necessary to understand Trusted Extensions, both for
users and administrators. Users are introduced to these concepts in the Trusted Extensions
Users Guide.

Trusted Extensions Protections


Trusted Extensions software enhances the protection of the Oracle Solaris OS. The Oracle
Solaris OS protects access to the system with user accounts that require passwords. You can
require that passwords be changed regularly, be of a certain length, and so on. Roles require
additional passwords to perform administrative tasks. Additional authentication limits the
damage that can be done by an intruder who guesses the root password, because roles cannot be
used as login accounts. Trusted Extensions software goes further by restricting users and roles
to an approved label range. This label range limits the information that users and roles can
access.

Trusted Extensions software displays the Trusted Path symbol, an unmistakable, tamper-proof
emblem that appears at the left of the trusted stripe. In Trusted CDE, the stripe is at the bottom
of the screen. In Trusted JDS, the stripe is at the top of the screen. The Trusted Path symbol
indicates to users when they are using security-related parts of the system. If this symbol does
not appear when the user is running a trusted application, that version of the application should
be checked immediately for authenticity. If the trusted stripe does not appear, the desktop is not
trustworthy. For a sample desktop display, see Figure 11.

26 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


Basic Concepts of Trusted Extensions

FIGURE 11 Trusted Extensions Multilevel CDE Desktop


Trusted Path menu

Window
label stripe

Window icon
label stripe

Front panel

Trusted stripe

Trusted symbol Workspace label

Most security-related software, that is, the Trusted Computing Base (TCB), runs in the global
zone. Regular users cannot enter the global zone or view its resources. Users are able to interact
with TCB software, as in when they change passwords. The Trusted Path symbol is displayed
whenever the user interacts with the TCB.

Trusted Extensions and Access Control


Trusted Extensions software protects information and other resources through both
discretionary access control (DAC) and mandatory access control (MAC). DAC is the
traditional UNIX permission bits and access control lists that are set at the discretion of the
owner. MAC is a mechanism that the system enforces automatically. MAC controls all
transactions by checking the labels of processes and data in the transaction.

A user's label represents the sensitivity level at which the user is permitted to operate and
chooses to operate. Typical labels are Secret, or Public. The label determines the information
that the user is allowed to access. Both MAC and DAC can be overridden by special permissions
that are in the Oracle Solaris OS. Privileges are special permissions that can be granted to
processes. Authorizations are special permissions that can be granted to users and roles by an
administrator.

Chapter 1 Trusted Extensions Administration Concepts 27


Basic Concepts of Trusted Extensions

As an administrator, you need to train users on the proper procedures for securing their files
and directories, according to your site's security policy. Furthermore, you need to instruct any
users who are allowed to upgrade or downgrade labels as to when doing so is appropriate.

Roles and Trusted Extensions


On a system that is running Oracle Solaris software without Trusted Extensions, roles are
optional. On a system that is configured with Trusted Extensions, roles are required. The
system is administered by the System Administrator role and the Security Administrator role.
In some cases, the root role is used.

As in the Oracle Solaris OS, rights profiles are the basis of a role's capabilities. Trusted
Extensions provides two rights profiles, Information Security and User Security. These two
profiles define the Security Administrator role.

The programs that are available to a role in Trusted Extensions have a special property, the
trusted path attribute. This attribute indicates that the program is part of the TCB. The trusted
path attribute is available when a program is launched from the global zone.

For information about roles, see Part III, Roles, Rights Profiles, and Privileges, in System
Administration Guide: Security Services.

Labels in Trusted Extensions Software


Labels and clearances are at the center of mandatory access control (MAC) in Trusted
Extensions. They determine which users can access which programs, files, and directories.
Labels and clearances consist of one classification component and zero or more compartment
components. The classification component indicates a hierarchical level of security such as TOP
SECRET or CONFIDENTIAL. The compartment component represents a group of users who might
need access to a common body of information. Some typical types of compartments are
projects, departments, or physical locations. Labels are readable by authorized users, but
internally, labels are manipulated as numbers. The numbers and their readable versions are
defined in the label_encodings file.

Trusted Extensions mediates all attempted security-related transactions. The software


compares the labels of the accessing entity, typically a process, and the entity being accessed,
usually a filesystem object. The software then permits or disallows the transaction depending on
which label is dominant. Labels are also used to determine access to other system resources,
such as allocatable devices, networks, frame buffers, and other hosts.

28 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


Basic Concepts of Trusted Extensions

Dominance Relationships Between Labels


One entity's label is said to dominate another label if the following two conditions are met:
The classification component of the first entity's label is equal to or higher than the second
entity's classification. The security administrator assigns numbers to classifications in the
label_encodings file. The software compares these numbers to determine dominance.
The set of compartments in the first entity includes all of the second entity's compartments.

Two labels are said to be equal if they have the same classification and the same set of
compartments. If the labels are equal, they dominate each other and access is permitted.

If one label has a higher classification or if it has the same classification and its compartments
are a superset of the second label's compartments, or both, the first label is said to strictly
dominate the second label.

Two labels are said to be disjoint or noncomparable if neither label dominates the other label.

The following table presents examples of label comparisons for dominance. In the example,
NEED_TO_KNOW is a higher classification than INTERNAL. There are three compartments: Eng,
Mkt, and Fin.

TABLE 11 Examples of Label Relationships

Label 1 Relationship Label 2

NEED_TO_KNOW Eng Mkt (strictly) dominates INTERNAL Eng Mkt

NEED_TO_KNOW Eng Mkt (strictly) dominates NEED_TO_KNOW Eng

NEED_TO_KNOW Eng Mkt (strictly) dominates INTERNAL Eng

NEED_TO_KNOW Eng Mkt dominates (equals) NEED_TO_KNOW Eng Mkt

NEED_TO_KNOW Eng Mkt is disjoint with NEED_TO_KNOW Eng Fin

NEED_TO_KNOW Eng Mkt is disjoint with NEED_TO_KNOW Fin

NEED_TO_KNOW Eng Mkt is disjoint with INTERNAL Eng Mkt Fin

Administrative Labels
Trusted Extensions provides two special administrative labels that are used as labels or
clearances: ADMIN_HIGH and ADMIN_LOW. These labels are used to protect system resources and
are intended for administrators rather than regular users.

ADMIN_HIGH is the highest label. ADMIN_HIGH dominates all other labels in the system and is used
to protect system data, such as administration databases or audit trails, from being read. You
must be in the global zone to read data that is labeled ADMIN_HIGH.

Chapter 1 Trusted Extensions Administration Concepts 29


Basic Concepts of Trusted Extensions

ADMIN_LOW is the lowest label. ADMIN_LOW is dominated by all other labels in a system, including
labels for regular users. Mandatory access control does not permit users to write data to files
with labels lower than the user's label. Thus, a file at the label ADMIN_LOW can be read by regular
users, but cannot be modified. ADMIN_LOW is typically used to protect public executables that are
shared, such as files in /usr/bin.

Label Encodings File


All label components for a system, that is, classifications, compartments, and the associated
rules, are stored in an ADMIN_HIGH file, the label_encodings file. This file is located in the
/etc/security/tsol directory. The security administrator sets up the label_encodings file
for the site. A label encodings file contains:
Component definitions Definitions of classifications, compartments, labels, and
clearances, including rules for required combinations and constraints
Accreditation range definitions Specification of the clearances and minimum labels that
define the sets of available labels for the entire system and for regular users
Printing specifications Identification and handling information for print banners,
trailers, headers, footers, and other security features on printer output
Customizations Local definitions including label color codes, and other defaults

For more information, see the label_encodings(4) man page. Detailed information can also be
found in Trusted Extensions Label Administration and Compartmented Mode Workstation
Labeling: Encodings Format.

Label Ranges
A label range is the set of potentially usable labels at which users can operate. Both users and
resources both have label ranges. Resources that can be protected by label ranges include such
things as allocatable devices, networks, interfaces, frame buffers, and commands or actions. A
label range is defined by a clearance at the top of the range and a minimum label at the bottom.

A range does not necessarily include all combinations of labels that fall between a maximum
and minimum label. Rules in the label_encodings file can disqualify certain combinations. A
label must be well-formed, that is, permitted by all applicable rules in the label encodings file, in
order to be included in a range.

However, a clearance does not have to be well-formed. Suppose, for example, that a
label_encodings file prohibits any combination of compartments Eng, Mkt, and Fin in a label.
INTERNAL Eng Mkt Fin would be a valid clearance but not a valid label. As a clearance, this
combination would let a user access files that are labeled INTERNAL Eng, INTERNAL Mkt, and
INTERNAL Fin.

30 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


Basic Concepts of Trusted Extensions

Account Label Range


When you assign a clearance and a minimum label to a user, you define the upper and lower
boundaries of the account label range in which that user is permitted to operate. The following
equation describes the account label range, using to indicate dominated by or the same as:

minimum label permitted label clearance

Thus, the user is permitted to operate at any label that is dominated by the clearance as long as
that label dominates the minimum label. When a user's clearance or minimum label is not
expressly set, the defaults that are defined in the label_encodings file take effect.

Users can be assigned a clearance and a minimum label that enable them to operate at more
than one label, or at a single label. When a user's clearance and minimum label are equal, the
user can operate at only one label.

Session Range
The session range is the set of labels that is available to a user during a Trusted Extensions
session. The session range must be within the user's account label range and the label range set
for the system. At login, if the user selects single-label session mode, the session range is limited
to that label. If the user selects multilabel session mode, then the label that the user selects
becomes the session clearance. The session clearance defines the upper boundary of the session
range. The user's minimum label defines the lower bound. The user begins the session in a
workspace at the minimum label. During the session, the user can switch to a workspace at any
label within the session range.

What Labels Protect and Where Labels Appear


Labels appear on the desktop and on output that is executed on the desktop, such as printer
output.
Applications Applications start processes. These processes run at the label of the
workspace where the application is started. An application in a labeled zone, as a file, is
labeled at the label of the zone.
Devices Data flowing through devices is controlled through device allocation and device
label ranges. To use a device, users must be within the label range of the device, and be
authorized to allocate the device.
File system mount points Every mount point has a label. The label is viewable by using
the getlabel command.
Network interfaces IP addresses (hosts) have templates that describe their label range.
Unlabeled hosts also have a default label.

Chapter 1 Trusted Extensions Administration Concepts 31


Basic Concepts of Trusted Extensions

Printers and printing Printers have label ranges. Labels are printed on body pages. Labels,
handling information, and other security information is printed on the banner and trailer
pages. To configure printing in Trusted Extensions, see Chapter 15, Managing Labeled
Printing (Tasks), and Labels on Printed Output in Trusted Extensions Label
Administration.
Processes Processes are labeled. Processes run at the label of the workspace where the
process originates. The label of a process is visible by using the plabel command.
Users Users are assigned a default label and a label range. The label of the user's workspace
indicates the label of the user's processes.
Windows Labels are visible at the top of desktop windows. The label of the desktop is also
indicated by color. The color appears on the desktop switch and above window title bars.
When a window is moved to a differently labeled workspace, the window maintains its
original label.
Zones Every zone has a unique label. The files and directories that are owned by a zone are
at the zone's label. For more information, see the getzonepath(1) man page.

32 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


2
C H A P T E R 2

Trusted Extensions Administration Tools

This chapter describes the tools that are available in Trusted Extensions, the location of the
tools, and the databases on which the tools operate.
Administration Tools for Trusted Extensions on page 33
Trusted CDE Actions on page 35
Device Allocation Manager on page 36
Solaris Management Console Tools on page 38
Command Line Tools in Trusted Extensions on page 44
Remote Administration in Trusted Extensions on page 46

Administration Tools for Trusted Extensions


Administration on a system that is configured with Trusted Extensions uses many of the same
tools that are available in the Oracle Solaris OS. Trusted Extensions offers security-enhanced
tools as well. Administration tools are available only to roles in a role workspace.

Within a role workspace, you can access commands, actions, applications, and scripts that are
trusted. The following table summarizes these administrative tools.

33
Administration Tools for Trusted Extensions

TABLE 21 Trusted Extensions Administrative Tools

Tool Description For More Information

/usr/sbin/txzonemgr Provides a menu-based wizard for creating, See Creating Labeled Zones in Trusted
installing, initializing, and booting zones. Extensions Configuration Guide
This script replaces the Trusted CDE
See also the zenity(1) man page.
actions that manage zones.
The script also provides menu items for
networking options, name services
options, and for clienting the global zone to
an existing LDAP server. txzonemgr uses
the zenity command.

In Trusted CDE, actions in the Used to edit local files that the Solaris See Trusted CDE Actions on page 35 and
Trusted_Extensions folder in the Management Console does not manage, How to Start CDE Administrative Actions
Application Manager folder such as /etc/system. Some actions run in Trusted Extensions on page 53.
scripts, such as the Install Zone action.

In Trusted CDE, Device Allocation Used to administer the label ranges of See Device Allocation Manager on
Manager devices, and to allocate or deallocate page 36 and Handling Devices in Trusted
devices. Extensions (Task Map) on page 225.
In Solaris Trusted Extensions (JDS),
Device Manager

Solaris Management Console Used to configure users, roles, rights, hosts, For basic functionality, see Chapter 2,
zones, and networks. This tool can update Working With the Solaris Management
local files or LDAP databases. Console (Tasks), in Oracle Solaris
Administration: Basic Administration. For
This tool can also launch the
information that is specific to Trusted
dtappsession legacy application.
Extensions, see Solaris Management
Console Tools on page 38.

Solaris Management Console commands, Is the command-line interface for the For a list, see Table 24.
such as smuser and smtnzonecfg Solaris Management Console.

Label Builder Is also a user tool. Appears when a program For an example, see How to Modify a
requires you to choose a label. User's Label Range in the Solaris
Management Console on page 89.

Trusted Extensions commands Used to perform tasks that are not covered For the list of administrative commands,
by Solaris Management Console tools or see Table 25.
CDE actions.

34 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


Trusted CDE Actions

txzonemgr Script
Starting in the Solaris 10 5/08 release, the txzonemgr script is used to configure labeled zones.
This zenity(1) script displays a dialog box with the title Labeled Zone Manager. This GUI
presents a dynamically-determined menu that displays only valid choices for the current
configuration status of a labeled zone. For instance, if a zone is already labeled, the Label menu
item is not displayed.

Trusted CDE Actions


The following tables list the CDE actions that roles in Trusted Extensions can run. These trusted
CDE actions are available from the Trusted_Extensions folder. The Trusted_Extensions folder
is available from the Application Manager folder on the CDE desktop.

TABLE 22 Administrative Actions in Trusted CDE, Their Purpose, and Associated Rights Profiles

Action Name Purpose of Action Default Rights Profile

Add Allocatable Device Creates devices by adding entries to device databases. See Device Security
add_allocatable(1M).

Admin Editor Edits the specified file. See How to Edit Administrative Files in Object Access Management
Trusted Extensions on page 54.

Audit Classes Edits the audit_class file. See audit_class(4). Audit Control

Audit Control Edits the audit_control file. See audit_control(4). Audit Control

Audit Events Edits the audit_event file. See audit_event(4). Audit Control

Audit Startup Edits the audit_startup.sh script. See audit_startup(1M). Audit Control

Check Encodings Runs the chk_encodings command on specified encodings file. Object Label Management
See chk_encodings(1M).

Check TN Files Runs the tnchkdb command on tnrhdb, tnrhtp, and tnzonecfg Network Management
databases. See tnchkdb(1M).

Configure Selection Edits /usr/dt/config/sel_config file. See sel_config(4). Object Label Management
Confirmation

Create LDAP Client Makes the global zone an LDAP client of an existing LDAP Information Security
directory service.

Edit Encodings Edits the specified label_encodings file and runs the Object Label Management
chk_encodings command. See chk_encodings(1M).

Name Service Switch Edits the nsswitch.conf file. See nsswitch.conf(4). Network Management

Set DNS Servers Edits the resolv.conf file. See resolv.conf(4). Network Management

Chapter 2 Trusted Extensions Administration Tools 35


Device Allocation Manager

TABLE 22 Administrative Actions in Trusted CDE, Their Purpose, and Associated Rights Profiles (Continued)
Action Name Purpose of Action Default Rights Profile

Set Daily Message Edits the /etc/motd file. At login, the contents of this file display Network Management
in the Last Login dialog box.

Set Default Routes Specifies default static routes. Network Management

Share Filesystem Edits the dfstab file. Does not run the share command. See File System Management
dfstab(4).

The following actions are used by the initial setup team during zone creation. Some of these
actions can be used for maintenance and troubleshooting.

TABLE 23 Installation Actions in Trusted CDE, Their Purpose, and Associated Rights Profiles

Action Name Purpose of Action Default Rights Profile

Clone Zone Creates a labeled zone from a ZFS snapshot of an existing zone. Zone Management

Copy Zone Creates a labeled zone from an existing zone. Zone Management

Configure Zone Associates a label with a zone name. Zone Management

Initialize Zone for LDAP Initializes the zone for booting as an LDAP client. Zone Management

Install Zone Installs the system files that a labeled zone requires. Zone Management

Restart Zone Restarts a zone that has already been booted. Zone Management

Share Logical Interface Sets up one interface for the global zone and a separate interface for the Network Management
labeled zones to share.

Share Physical Interface Sets up one interface that is shared by the global zone and the labeled Network Management
zones.

Shut Down Zone Shuts down an installed zone. Zone Management

Start Zone Boots an installed zone and starts the services for that zone. Zone Management

Zone Terminal Console Opens a console to view processes in an installed zone. Zone Management

Device Allocation Manager


A device is either a physical peripheral that is connected to a computer or a software-simulated
device called a pseudo-device. Because devices provide a means for the import and export of
data to and from a system, devices must be controlled to properly protect the data. Trusted
Extensions uses device allocation and device label ranges to control data flowing through
devices.

36 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


Device Allocation Manager

Examples of devices that have label ranges are frame buffers, tape drives, diskette and CD-ROM
drives, printers, and USB devices.

Users allocate devices through the Device Allocation Manager. The Device Allocation Manager
mounts the device, runs a clean script to prepare the device, and performs the allocation. When
finished, the user deallocates the device through the Device Allocation Manager, which runs
another clean script, and unmounts and deallocates the device.

FIGURE 21 Device Allocation Manager Icon in Trusted CDE


Device Allocation

You can manage devices by using the Device Administration tool from the Device Allocation
Manager. Regular users cannot access the Device Administration tool.

Note In Solaris Trusted Extensions (JDS), this GUI is named Device Manager, and the Device
Administration button is named Administration.

FIGURE 22 Device Allocation Manager GUI

For more information about device protection in Trusted Extensions, see Chapter 17,
Managing Devices for Trusted Extensions (Tasks).

Chapter 2 Trusted Extensions Administration Tools 37


Solaris Management Console Tools

Solaris Management Console Tools


The Solaris Management Console provides access to toolboxes of GUI-based administration
tools. These tools enable you to edit items in various configuration databases. In Trusted
Extensions, the Solaris Management Console is the administrative interface for users, roles, and
the trusted network databases.

Trusted Extensions extends the Solaris Management Console:


Trusted Extensions modifies the Solaris Management Console Users tool set. For an
introduction to the tool set, see Chapter 2, Working With the Solaris Management Console
(Tasks), in Oracle Solaris Administration: Basic Administration.
Trusted Extensions adds the Security Templates tool and the Trusted Network Zones tool to
the Computers and Networks tool set.

Solaris Management Console tools are collected into toolboxes according to scope and security
policy. To administer Trusted Extensions, Trusted Extensions provides toolboxes whose
Policy=TSOL. You can access tools according to scope, that is, according to naming service. The
available scopes are local host and LDAP.

The Solaris Management Console is shown in the following figure. A Scope=Files Trusted
Extensions toolbox is loaded, and the Users tool set is open.

38 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


Solaris Management Console Tools

FIGURE 23 Typical Trusted Extensions Toolbox in the Solaris Management Console

Trusted Extensions Tools in the Solaris Management


Console
Trusted Extensions adds configurable security attributes to three tools:
User Accounts tool Is the administrative interface to change a user's label, change a user's
view of labels, and to control account usage.
Administrative Roles tool Is the administrative interface to change a role's label range
and screen-locking behavior when idle.
Rights tool Includes CDE actions that can be assigned to rights profiles. Security attributes
can be assigned to these actions.

Chapter 2 Trusted Extensions Administration Tools 39


Solaris Management Console Tools

Trusted Extensions adds two tools to the Computers and Networks tool set:
Security Templates tool Is the administrative interface for managing the label aspects of
hosts and networks. This tool modifies the tnrhtp and tnrhdb databases, enforces syntactic
accuracy, and updates the kernel with the changes.
Trusted Network Zones tool Is the administrative interface for managing the label aspects
of zones. This tool modifies the tnzonecfg database, enforces syntactic accuracy, and
updates the kernel with the changes.

Figure 24 shows the Files toolbox with the Users tool set highlighted. The Trusted Extensions
tools appear below the Computers and Networks tool set.

FIGURE 24 Computers and Networks Tool Set in the Solaris Management Console

Security Templates Tool


A security template describes a set of security attributes that can be assigned to a group of hosts.
The Security Templates tool enables you to conveniently assign a specific combination of
security attributes to a group of hosts. These attributes control how data is packaged,
transmitted, and interpreted. Hosts that are assigned to a template have identical security
settings.

40 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


Solaris Management Console Tools

The hosts are defined in the Computers tool. The security attributes of the hosts are assigned in
the Security Templates tool. The Modify Template dialog box contains two tabs:
General tab Describes the template. Includes its name, host type, default label, domain of
interpretation (DOI), accreditation range, and set of discrete sensitivity labels.
Hosts Assigned to Template tab Lists all the hosts on the network that you have assigned
to this template.

Trusted networking and security templates are explained in more detail in Chapter 12, Trusted
Networking (Overview).

Trusted Network Zones Tool


The Trusted Network Zones tool identifies the zones on your system. Initially, the global zone is
listed. When you add zones and their labels, the zone names display in the pane. Zone creation
usually occurs during system configuration. Label assignment, multilevel port configuration,
and label policy is configured in this tool. For details, see Chapter 10, Managing Zones in
Trusted Extensions (Tasks).

Client-Server Communication With the Solaris


Management Console
Typically, a Solaris Management Console client administers systems remotely. On a network
that uses LDAP as a naming service, a Solaris Management Console client connects to the
Solaris Management Console server that runs on the LDAP server. The following figure shows
this configuration.

Chapter 2 Trusted Extensions Administration Tools 41


Solaris Management Console Tools

FIGURE 25 Solaris Management Console Client Using an LDAP Server to Administer the Network
Solaris Management
Console client LDAP Server
tcp_listen = true
remote.connections = true
tsol_ldap.tbx
Scope = LDAP
Policy = TSOL
remote.connections = true

remote.connections = true

Figure 26 shows a network that is not configured with an LDAP server. The administrator
configured each remote system with a Solaris Management Console server.

FIGURE 26 Solaris Management Console Client Administering Individual Remote Systems on a Network

tcp_listen = true
Solaris Management remote.connections = true
Console client

tcp_listen = true
remote.connections = true

tcp_listen = true
remote.connections = true
remote.connections = true

Solaris Management Console Documentation


The main source of documentation for the Solaris Management Console is its online help.
Context-sensitive help is tied to the currently selected feature and is displayed in the
information pane. Expanded help topics are available from the Help menu or by clicking links
in the context-sensitive help. Further information is provided in Chapter 2, Working With the
Solaris Management Console (Tasks), in Oracle Solaris Administration: Basic Administration.
Also see Using the Solaris Management Tools With RBAC (Task Map) in Oracle Solaris
Administration: Basic Administration.

42 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


Label Builder in Trusted Extensions

Label Builder in Trusted Extensions


The label builder GUI enforces your choice of a valid label or clearance when a program
requires you to assign a label. For example, a label builder appears during login (see Chapter 2,
Logging In to Trusted Extensions (Tasks), in Trusted Extensions Users Guide). The label
builder also appears when you change the label of a workspace, or when you assign a label to a
user, zone, or network interface in the Solaris Management Console. The following label
builder appears when you assign a label range to a new device.

In the label builder, component names in the Classification column correspond to the
CLASSIFICATIONS section in the label_encodings file. The component names in the Sensitivity
column correspond to the WORDS section in the label_encodings file.

Chapter 2 Trusted Extensions Administration Tools 43


Command Line Tools in Trusted Extensions

Command Line Tools in Trusted Extensions


Commands that are unique to Trusted Extensions are contained in the Trusted Extensions
Reference Manual. The Oracle Solaris commands that Trusted Extensions modifies are
contained in the Oracle Solaris Reference Manual. The man command finds all the commands.

The following table lists commands that are unique to Trusted Extensions. The commands are
listed in man page format.

TABLE 24 User and Administrative Trusted Extensions Commands

Man Page Trusted Extensions Modification For More Information

add_allocatable(1M) Enables a device to be allocated by adding the device How to Configure a Device in Trusted
to device allocation databases. By default, removable Extensions on page 227
devices are allocatable.

atohexlabel(1M) Translates a label into hexadecimal format. How to Obtain the Hexadecimal
Equivalent for a Label on page 71

chk_encodings(1M) Checks the integrity of the label_encodings file. How to Debug a label_encodings File in
Trusted Extensions Label Administration

dtappsession(1) Opens a remote Trusted CDE session by using the Chapter 8, Remote Administration in
Application Manager. Trusted Extensions (Tasks)

getlabel(1) Displays the label of the selected files or directories. How to Display the Labels of Mounted
Files on page 122

getzonepath(1) Displays the full pathname of a specific zone. Acquiring a Sensitivity Label in Trusted
Extensions Developers Guide

hextoalabel(1M) Translates a hexadecimal label into its readable How to Obtain a Readable Label From Its
equivalent. Hexadecimal Form on page 72

plabel(1) Displays the label of the current process. See the man page.

remove_allocatable(1M) Prevents allocation of a device by removing its entry How to Configure a Device in Trusted
from device allocation databases. Extensions on page 227

setlabel(1) Relabels the selected item. Requires the For the equivalent GUI procedure, see
solaris.label.file.downgrade or How to Move Files Between Labels in
solaris.label.file.upgrade authorization. These Trusted CDE in Trusted Extensions Users
authorizations are in the Object Label Management Guide.
rights profile.

smtnrhdb(1M) Manages entries in the tnrhdb database locally or in a For equivalent procedures that use the
naming service database. Solaris Management Console, see
Configuring Trusted Network Databases
(Task Map) on page 166.

44 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


Command Line Tools in Trusted Extensions

TABLE 24 User and Administrative Trusted Extensions Commands (Continued)


Man Page Trusted Extensions Modification For More Information

smtnrhtp(1M) Manages entries in the tnrhtp database locally or in a See the man page.
naming service database.

smtnzonecfg(1M) Manages entries in the local tnzonecfg database. For an equivalent procedure that uses the
Solaris Management Console, see How to
Create a Multilevel Port for a Zone on
page 130.

tnchkdb(1M) Checks the integrity of the tnrhdb and tnrhtp How to Check the Syntax of Trusted
databases. Network Databases on page 181

tnctl(1M) Caches network information in the kernel. How to Synchronize the Kernel Cache
With Trusted Network Databases on
page 183

tnd(1M) Executes the trusted network daemon. How to Synchronize the Kernel Cache
With Trusted Network Databases on
page 183

tninfo(1M) Displays kernel-level network information and How to Compare Trusted Network
statistics. Database Information With the Kernel
Cache on page 182.

updatehome(1M) Updates .copy_files and .link_files for the How to Configure Startup Files for Users
current label. in Trusted Extensions on page 86

The following table lists Oracle Solaris commands that are modified or extended by Trusted
Extensions. The commands are listed in man page format.

TABLE 25 User and Administrative Commands That Trusted Extensions Modifies

Man Page Trusted Extensions Modification For More Information

allocate(1) Adds options to clean the allocated device, and to How to Allocate a Device in Trusted
allocate a device to a specific zone. In Trusted Extensions in Trusted Extensions Users
Extensions, regular users do not use this command. Guide

deallocate(1) Adds options to clean the device, and to deallocate a How to Allocate a Device in Trusted
device from a specific zone. In Trusted Extensions, Extensions in Trusted Extensions Users
regular users do not use this command. Guide

list_devices(1) Adds the -a option to display device attributes, such See the man page.
as authorizations and labels. Adds the -d option to
display the default attributes of an allocated device
type. Adds the -z option to display available devices
that can be allocated to a labeled zone.

Chapter 2 Trusted Extensions Administration Tools 45


Remote Administration in Trusted Extensions

TABLE 25 User and Administrative Commands That Trusted Extensions Modifies (Continued)
Man Page Trusted Extensions Modification For More Information

tar(1) Adds the -T option to archive and extract files and How to Back Up Files in Trusted
directories that are labeled. Extensions on page 139 and How to
Restore Files in Trusted Extensions on
page 140

auditconfig(1M) Adds the windata_down and windata_up audit policy How to Configure Audit Policy in System
options. Administration Guide: Security Services

auditreduce(1M) Adds the -l option to select audit records by label. How to Select Audit Events From the
Audit Trail in System Administration
Guide: Security Services

automount(1M) Modifies the names and contents of auto_home maps Changes to the Automounter in Trusted
to account for zone names and zone visibility from Extensions on page 137
higher labels.

ifconfig(1M) Adds the all-zones option to make an interface How to Verify That a Host's Interfaces Are
available to every zone on the system. Up on page 185

netstat(1M) Adds the -R option to display extended security How to Debug the Trusted Extensions
attributes for sockets and routing table entries. Network on page 186

route(1M) Adds the -secattr option to display the security How to Configure Routes With Security
attributes of the route: cipso, doi, max_sl, and Attributes on page 179
min_sl.

Remote Administration in Trusted Extensions


You can remotely administer a system that is configured with Trusted Extensions by using the
ssh command, the dtappsession program, or the Solaris Management Console. If site security
policy permits, you can configure a Trusted Extensions host to enable login from a non-Trusted
Extensions host, although this configuration is less secure. For more information, see
Chapter 8, Remote Administration in Trusted Extensions (Tasks).

46 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


3
C H A P T E R 3

Getting Started as a Trusted Extensions


Administrator (Tasks)

This chapter introduces you to administering a system that is configured with Trusted
Extensions.
What's New in Trusted Extensions on page 47
Security Requirements When Administering Trusted Extensions on page 48
Getting Started as a Trusted Extensions Administrator (Task Map) on page 49

What's New in Trusted Extensions


Solaris 10 1/13 In this release, Trusted Extensions adds audit events for the printing
subsystem. Read the /etc/security/audit_event file for the definitions of trusted printing
events, AUE_print_request, AUE_print_request_ps, AUE_print_request_unlabeled, and
AUE_print_request_nobanner.

Solaris 10 10/08 In this release, Trusted Extensions provides the following features:
The Trusted Extensions shared IP stack allows default routes to isolate labeled zones from
each other and from the global zone.
The loopback interface, lo0, is an all-zones interface.
Separation of duty can be enforced by role. The System Administrator role creates users, but
cannot assign passwords. The Security Administrator role assigns passwords, but cannot
create users. For details, see Create Rights Profiles That Enforce Separation of Duty in
Trusted Extensions Configuration Guide.
This guide includes a list of Trusted Extensions man pages in Appendix B, List of Trusted
Extensions Man Pages.

Solaris 10 5/08 In this release, Trusted Extensions provides the following features:

47
Security Requirements When Administering Trusted Extensions

The service management facility (SMF) manages Trusted Extensions as the


svc:/system/labeld service. By default, the labeld service is disabled. When the service is
enabled, the system must still be configured and rebooted to enforce Trusted Extensions
security policies.
The CIPSO Domain of Interpretation (DOI) number that your system uses is configurable.
For information about the DOI, see Network Security Attributes in Trusted
Extensions on page 154.
To specify a DOI that differs from the default, see Configure the Domain of
Interpretation in Trusted Extensions Configuration Guide.
Trusted Extensions recognizes CIPSO labels in NFS Version 3 (NFSv3) mounted file
systems, as well as in NFS Version 4 (NFSv4). Therefore, you can mount NFSv3 file systems
on a Trusted Extensions system as a labeled file system. To use udp as an underlying
protocol for multilevel mounts in NFSv3, see How to Configure a Multilevel Port for
NFSv3 Over udp on page 129.
The name service cache daemon, nscd, can be configured to run in every labeled zone at the
label of the zone.

Security Requirements When Administering Trusted


Extensions
In Trusted Extensions, roles are the conventional way to administer the system. Typically,
superuser is not used. Roles are created just as they are in the Oracle Solaris OS, and most tasks
are performed by roles. In Trusted Extensions, the root user is not used to perform
administrative tasks.

The following roles are typical of a Trusted Extensions site:


root role Created by the initial setup team
Security Administrator role Created during or after initial configuration by the initial
setup team
System Administrator role Created by the Security Administrator role

As in the Oracle Solaris OS, you might also create a Primary Administrator role, an Operator
role, and so on. With the exception of the root role, the roles that you create can be
administered in a naming service.

As in the Oracle Solaris OS, only users who have been assigned a role can assume that role. In
Solaris Trusted Extensions (CDE), you can assume a role from a desktop menu called the
Trusted Path menu. In Solaris Trusted Extensions (JDS), you can assume a role when your user
name is displayed in the Trusted Stripe. The role choices appear when you click your user name.

48 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


Getting Started as a Trusted Extensions Administrator (Task Map)

Role Creation in Trusted Extensions


To administer Trusted Extensions, you create roles that divide system and security functions.
The initial setup team created the Security Administrator role during configuration. For details,
see Create the Security Administrator Role in Trusted Extensions in Trusted Extensions
Configuration Guide.

The process of creating a role in Trusted Extensions is identical to the Oracle Solaris OS process.
As described in Chapter 2, Trusted Extensions Administration Tools, the Solaris Management
Console is the GUI for managing roles in Trusted Extensions.
For an overview of role creation, see Chapter 10, Role-Based Access Control (Reference),
in System Administration Guide: Security Services and Using RBAC (Task Map) in System
Administration Guide: Security Services.
To create a powerful role that is equivalent to superuser, see Creating the Primary
Administrator Role in Oracle Solaris Administration: Basic Administration. At sites that use
Trusted Extensions, the Primary Administrator role might violate security policy. These
sites would turn root into a role, and create a Security Administrator role.
To create the root role, see How to Make root User Into a Role in System Administration
Guide: Security Services.
To create roles by using the Solaris Management Console, see How to Create and Assign a
Role by Using the GUI in System Administration Guide: Security Services.

Role Assumption in Trusted Extensions


Unlike the Oracle Solaris OS, Trusted Extensions provides an Assume Rolename Role menu
item from the Trusted Path menu. After confirming the role password, the software activates a
role workspace with the trusted path attribute. Role workspaces are administrative workspaces.
Such workspaces are in the global zone.

Getting Started as a Trusted Extensions Administrator (Task


Map)
Familiarize yourself with the following procedures before administering Trusted Extensions.

Task Description For Instructions

Log in. Logs you in securely. Logging In to Trusted Extensions in Trusted


Extensions Users Guide

Chapter 3 Getting Started as a Trusted Extensions Administrator (Tasks) 49


Getting Started as a Trusted Extensions Administrator (Task Map)

Task Description For Instructions

Perform common user tasks on a These tasks include: Working on a Labeled System in Trusted
desktop. Configuring your workspaces Extensions Users Guide
Using workspaces at different labels
Accessing Trusted Extensions man
pages
Accessing Trusted Extensions online
help

Perform tasks that require the These tasks include: Performing Trusted Actions in Trusted
trusted path. Allocating a device Extensions Users Guide
Changing your password
Changing the label of a workspace

Create useful roles. Creates administrative roles for your site. Role Creation in Trusted Extensions on page 49
Creating roles in LDAP is a one-time task.
Create the Security Administrator Role in
The Security Administrator role is a useful Trusted Extensions in Trusted Extensions
role. Configuration Guide

(Optional) Make root a role. Prevents anonymous login by root. This How to Make root User Into a Role in System
task is done once per system. Administration Guide: Security Services

Assume a role. Enters the global zone in a role. All How to Enter the Global Zone in Trusted
administrative tasks are performed in the Extensions on page 50
global zone.

Exit a role workspace and become Leaves the global zone. How to Exit the Global Zone in Trusted
regular user. Extensions on page 52

Locally administer users, roles, Uses the Solaris Management Console to How to Administer the Local System With the
rights, zones, and networks. manage the distributed system. Solaris Management Console on page 52

Administer the system by using Uses the administrative actions in the How to Start CDE Administrative Actions in
Trusted CDE actions. Trusted_Extensions folder. Trusted Extensions on page 53

Edit an administrative file. Edits files in a trusted editor. How to Edit Administrative Files in Trusted
Extensions on page 54

Administer device allocation. Uses the Device Allocation Manager Managing Devices in Trusted Extensions (Task
Device Administration GUI. Map) on page 226

How to Enter the Global Zone in Trusted Extensions


By assuming a role, you enter the global zone in Trusted Extensions. Administration of the
entire system is possible only from the global zone. Only superuser or a role can enter the global
zone.

50 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


Getting Started as a Trusted Extensions Administrator (Task Map)

After assuming a role, the role can create a workspace at a user label to edit administration files
in a labeled zone.

For troubleshooting purposes, you can also enter the global zone by starting a Failsafe session.
For details, see How to Log In to a Failsafe Session in Trusted Extensions on page 88.

Before You Begin You have created one or more roles, or you plan to enter the global zone as superuser. For
pointers, see Role Creation in Trusted Extensions on page 49.

1 Use a trusted mechanism.

In Solaris Trusted Extensions (JDS), click your user name in the trusted stripe and choose a
role.
If you have been assigned a role, the role names are displayed in a list.
For the location and significance of Trusted Extensions desktop features, see Chapter 4,
Elements of Trusted Extensions (Reference), in Trusted Extensions Users Guide.

In Solaris Trusted Extensions (CDE), open the Trusted Path menu.

a. Click mouse button 3 over the workspace switch area.

b. Choose Assume rolename Role from the Trusted Path menu.

2 At the prompt, type the role password.


In Trusted CDE, a new role workspace is created, the workspace switch button changes to the
color of the role desktop, and the title bar above each window shows Trusted Path. In Trusted
JDS, the current workspace changes to the role workspace.
In Trusted CDE, you leave a role workspace by using the mouse to choose a regular user
workspace. You can also delete the last role workspace to exit a role. In Trusted JDS, you click
the role name on the trusted stripe, and from the menu, select a different role or user. This
action changes the current workspace to the process of the new role or user.

Chapter 3 Getting Started as a Trusted Extensions Administrator (Tasks) 51


Getting Started as a Trusted Extensions Administrator (Task Map)

How to Exit the Global Zone in Trusted Extensions


The menu locations for exiting a role are different in Trusted JDS and Trusted CDE.

Before You Begin You are in the global zone.

On both desktops, you can click a user workspace in the Workspace Switch area.
You can also exit the role workspace, and therefore the global zone, by doing one of the
following:

In Trusted JDS, click your role name in the trusted stripe.


When you click the role name, your user name and a list of roles that you can assume is
displayed. When you select your user name, all subsequent windows that you create in that
workspace are created by the selected name. The windows that you previously created on
the current desktop continue to display at the name and label of the role.
If you choose a different role name, you remain in the global zone in a different role.

In Trusted CDE, delete the role workspace.


Click mouse button 3 over the workspace button and select Delete. You are returned to the
last workspace you occupied.

How to Administer the Local System With the Solaris


Management Console
The first time that you launch the Solaris Management Console on a system, a delay occurs
while the tools are registered and various directories are created. This delay typically occurs
during system configuration. For the procedure, see Initialize the Solaris Management Console
Server in Trusted Extensions in Trusted Extensions Configuration Guide.
To administer a remote system, see Administering Trusted Extensions Remotely (Task Map)
on page 102.

Before You Begin You must have assumed a role. For details, see How to Enter the Global Zone in Trusted
Extensions on page 50.

1 Start the Solaris Management Console.


In Solaris Trusted Extensions (JDS), use the command line.
$ /usr/sbin/smc &
In Trusted CDE, you have three choices.

Use the smc command in a terminal window.

52 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


Getting Started as a Trusted Extensions Administrator (Task Map)

From the Tools pull-up menu on the Front Panel, click the Solaris Management Console icon.

In the Trusted_Extensions folder, double-click the Solaris Management Console icon.

2 Choose Console -> Open Toolbox.

3 From the list, select a Trusted Extensions toolbox of the appropriate scope.
A Trusted Extensions toolbox has Policy=TSOL as part of its name. The Files scope updates
local files on the current system. The LDAP scope updates LDAP directories on the Oracle
Directory Server Enterprise Edition. The toolbox names appear similar to the following:
This Computer (this-host: Scope=Files, Policy=TSOL)
This Computer (ldap-server: Scope=LDAP, Policy=TSOL)

4 Navigate to the desired Solaris Management Console tool.


The password prompt is displayed.
For tools that Trusted Extensions has modified, click System Configuration.

5 Type the password.


Refer to the online help for additional information about Solaris Management Console tools.
For an introduction to the tools that Trusted Extensions modifies, see Solaris Management
Console Tools on page 38.

6 To close the GUI, choose Exit from the Console menu.

How to Start CDE Administrative Actions in Trusted


Extensions
1 Assume a role.
For details, see How to Enter the Global Zone in Trusted Extensions on page 50.

2 In Trusted CDE, bring up the Application Manager.

a. Click mouse button 3 on the background to bring up the Workspace menu.

Chapter 3 Getting Started as a Trusted Extensions Administrator (Tasks) 53


Getting Started as a Trusted Extensions Administrator (Task Map)

b. Click Applications, then click the Application Manager menu item.

The Trusted_Extensions folder is in the Application Manager.

3 Open the Trusted_Extensions folder.

4 Double-click the appropriate icon.


For a list of administrative actions, see Trusted CDE Actions on page 35.

How to Edit Administrative Files in Trusted Extensions


Administrative files are edited with a trusted editor that incorporates auditing. This editor also
prevents the user from executing shell commands and from saving to any file name other than
the name of the original file.

1 Assume a role.
For details, see How to Enter the Global Zone in Trusted Extensions on page 50.

2 Open a trusted editor.

In Solaris Trusted Extensions (CDE), do the following:

a. To bring up the editor, click mouse button 3 on the background to bring up the
Workspace menu.

b. Click Applications, then click the Application Manager menu item.


The Trusted_Extensions folder is in the Application Manager.

54 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


Getting Started as a Trusted Extensions Administrator (Task Map)

c. Open the Trusted_Extensions folder.

d. Double-click the Admin Editor action.


You are prompted to provide a file name. For the format, see Step 3 and Step 4.

In Solaris Trusted Extensions (JDS), do the following:

(Optional) To use gedit as the trusted editor, modify the EDITOR variable.
For details, see How to Assign the Editor of Your Choice as the Trusted Editor on
page 68.

Use the command line to bring up the trusted editor.


# /usr/dt/bin/trusted_edit filename
You must provide a filename argument.

3 To create a new file, type the full path name for the new file.
When you save the file, the editor creates a temporary file.

4 To edit an existing file, type the full path name for the existing file.

Note If your editor provides a Save As option, do not use it. Use the editor's Save option to save
the file.

5 To save the file to the specified path name, close the editor.

Chapter 3 Getting Started as a Trusted Extensions Administrator (Tasks) 55


56
4
C H A P T E R 4

Security Requirements on a Trusted Extensions


System (Overview)

This chapter describes configurable security features on a system that is configured with
Trusted Extensions.
Configurable Oracle Solaris Security Features on page 57
Security Requirements Enforcement on page 58
Rules When Changing the Level of Security for Data on page 61
Customization of Solaris Trusted Extensions (CDE) on page 64

Configurable Oracle Solaris Security Features


Trusted Extensions uses the same security features that the Oracle Solaris OS provides, and
adds some features. For example, the Oracle Solaris OS provides eeprom protection, password
requirements and strong password algorithms, system protection by locking out a user, and
protection from keyboard shutdown.

Trusted Extensions differs from the Oracle Solaris OS in the actual procedures that are used to
modify these security defaults. In Trusted Extensions, you typically administer systems by
assuming a role. Local settings are modified by using the trusted editor. Changes that affect the
network of users, roles, and hosts are made in the Solaris Management Console.

Trusted Extensions Interfaces for Configuring Security


Features
Procedures are provided in this book where Trusted Extensions requires a particular interface
to modify security settings, and that interface is optional in the Oracle Solaris OS. Where
Trusted Extensions requires the use of the trusted editor to edit local files, no separate
procedures are provided in this book. For example, the procedure How to Prevent Account
Locking for Users on page 94 describes how to update a user's account by using the Solaris
Management Console to prevent the account from being locked. However, the procedure for

57
Security Requirements Enforcement

setting a system-wide password lock policy is not provided in this book. You follow the Oracle
Solaris instructions, except that in Trusted Extensions, you use the trusted editor to modify the
system file.

Extension of Oracle Solaris Security Mechanisms by


Trusted Extensions
The following Oracle Solaris security mechanisms are extensible in Trusted Extensions as they
are in the Oracle Solaris OS:
Audit events and classes Adding audit events and audit classes is described in Chapter 30,
Managing Auditing (Tasks), in System Administration Guide: Security Services.
Rights profiles Adding rights profiles is described in Part III, Roles, Rights Profiles, and
Privileges, in System Administration Guide: Security Services.
Roles Adding roles is described in Part III, Roles, Rights Profiles, and Privileges, in
System Administration Guide: Security Services.
Authorizations For an example of adding a new authorization, see Customizing Device
Authorizations in Trusted Extensions (Task Map) on page 235.

As in the Oracle Solaris OS, privileges cannot be extended.

Trusted Extensions Security Features


Trusted Extensions provides the following unique security features:
Labels Subjects and objects are labeled. Processes are labeled. Zones and the network are
labeled.
Device Allocation Manager By default, devices are protected by allocation requirements.
The Device Allocation Manager GUI is the interface for administrators and for regular
users.
Change Password menu item The Trusted Path menu enables you to change your user
password, and the password of the role that you have assumed.

Security Requirements Enforcement


To ensure that the security of the system is not compromised, administrators need to protect
passwords, files, and audit data. Users need to be trained to do their part. To be consistent with
the requirements for an evaluated configuration, follow the guidelines in this section.

58 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


Security Requirements Enforcement

Users and Security Requirements


Each site's security administrator ensures that users are trained in security procedures. The
security administrator needs to communicate the following rules to new employees and remind
existing employees of these rules on a regular basis:
Do not tell anyone your password.
Anyone who knows your password can access the same information that you can without
being identified and therefore without being accountable.
Do not write your password down or include it in an email message.
Choose passwords that are hard to guess.
Do not send your password to anyone by email.
Do not leave your computer unattended without locking the screen or logging off.
Remember that administrators do not rely on email to send instructions to users. Do not
ever follow emailed instructions from an administrator without first double-checking with
the administrator.
Be aware that sender information in email can be forged.
Because you are responsible for the access permissions on files and directories that you
create, make sure that the permissions on your files and directories are set appropriately. Do
not allow unauthorized users to read a file, to change a file, to list the contents of a directory,
or to add to a directory.

Your site might want to provide additional suggestions.

Email Usage
It is an unsafe practice to use email to instruct users to take an action.

Tell users not to trust email with instructions that purport to come from an administrator.
Doing so prevents the possibility that spoofed email messages could be used to fool users into
changing a password to a certain value or divulging the password, which could subsequently be
used to log in and compromise the system.

Password Enforcement
The System Administrator role must specify a unique user name and user ID when creating a
new account. When choosing the name and ID for a new account, the administrator you must
ensure that both the user name and associated ID are not duplicated anywhere on the network
and have not been previously used.

Chapter 4 Security Requirements on a Trusted Extensions System (Overview) 59


Security Requirements Enforcement

The Security Administrator role is responsible for specifying the original password for each
account and for communicating the passwords to users of new accounts. You must consider the
following information when administering passwords:
Make sure that the accounts for users who are able to assume the Security Administrator
role are configured so that the account cannot be locked. This practice ensures that at least
one account can always log in and assume the Security Administrator role to reopen
everyone's account if all other accounts are locked.
Communicate the password to the user of a new account in such a way that the password
cannot be eavesdropped by anyone else.
Change an account's password if you have any suspicion that the password has been
discovered by someone who should not know it.
Never reuse user names or user IDs over the lifetime of the system.

Ensuring that user names and user IDs are not reused prevents possible confusion about the
following:
Which actions were performed by which user when audit records are analyzed
Which user owns which files when archived files are restored

Information Protection
You as an administrator are responsible for correctly setting up and maintaining discretionary
access control (DAC) and mandatory access control (MAC) protections for security-critical
files. Critical files include the following:
shadow file Contains encrypted passwords. See shadow(4).
prof_attr database Contains definitions of rights profiles. See prof_attr(4).
exec_attr database Contains commands and actions that are part of rights profiles. See
exec_attr(4).
user_attr file Contains the rights profiles, privileges, and authorizations that are assigned
to local users. See user_attr(4).
Audit trail Contains the audit records that the auditing service has collected. See
audit.log(4)

Caution Because the protection mechanisms for LDAP entries are not subject to the access
control policy enforced by the Trusted Extensions software, the default LDAP entries must not
be extended, and their access rules must not be modified.

60 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


Rules When Changing the Level of Security for Data

Password Protection
In local files, passwords are protected from viewing by DAC and from modifications by both
DAC and MAC. Passwords for local accounts are maintained in the /etc/shadow file, which is
readable only by superuser. For more information, see the shadow(4) man page.

Group Administration
The System Administrator role needs to verify on the local system and on the network that all
groups have a unique group ID (GID).

When a local group is deleted from the system, the System Administrator role must ensure the
following:
All objects with the GID of the deleted group must be deleted or assigned to another group.
All users who have the deleted group as their primary group must be reassigned to another
primary group.

User Deletion Practices


When an account is deleted from the system, the System Administrator role and the Security
Administrator role must take the following actions:
Delete the account's home directories in every zone.
Delete any processes or jobs that are owned by the deleted account:
Delete any objects that are owned by the account,or assign the ownership to another
user.
Delete any at or batch jobs that are scheduled on behalf of the user. For details, see the
at(1) and crontab(1) man pages.
Never reuse the user (account) name or user ID.

Rules When Changing the Level of Security for Data


By default, regular users can perform cut-and-paste, copy-and-paste, and drag-and-drop
operations on both files and selections. The source and target must be at the same label.

To change the label of files, or the label of information within files requires authorization. When
users are authorized to change the security level of data, the Selection Manager application
mediates the transfer. In Trusted CDE, the /usr/dt/config/sel_config file controls file
relabeling actions, and the cutting and copying of information to a different label. In Trusted
JDS, the /usr/share/gnome/sel_config file controls these transfers. In Trusted CDE, the

Chapter 4 Security Requirements on a Trusted Extensions System (Overview) 61


Rules When Changing the Level of Security for Data

/usr/dt/bin/sel_mgr application controls drag-and-drop operations between windows. As


the following tables illustrate, the relabeling of a selection is more restrictive than the relabeling
of a file.
The following table summarizes the rules for file relabeling. The rules cover cut-and-paste,
copy-and-paste, and drag-and-drop operations.

TABLE 41 Conditions for Moving Files to a New Label

Transaction Description Label Relationship Owner Relationship Required Authorization

Copy and paste, cut and paste, or drag and Same label Same UID None
drop of files between File Managers
Downgrade Same UID solaris.label.file.downgrade

Upgrade Same UID solaris.label.file.upgrade

Downgrade Different UIDs solaris.label.file.downgrade

Upgrade Different UIDs solaris.label.file.upgrade

Different rules apply to selections within a window or file. Drag-and-drop of selections always
requires equality of labels and ownership. Drag-and-drop between windows is mediated by the
Selection Manager application, not by the sel_config file.
The rules for changing the label of selections are summarized in the following table.

TABLE 42 Conditions for Moving Selections to a New Label

Transaction Description Label Relationship Owner Relationship Required Authorization

Copy and paste, or cut and paste of Same label Same UID None
selections between windows
Downgrade Same UID solaris.label.win.downgrade

Upgrade Same UID solaris.label.win.upgrade

Downgrade Different UIDs solaris.label.win.downgrade

Upgrade Different UIDs solaris.label.win.upgrade

Drag and drop of selections between Same label Same UID None applicable
windows

Trusted Extensions provides a selection confirmer to mediate label changes. This window
appears when an authorized user attempts to change the label of a file or selection. The user has
120 seconds to confirm the operation. To change the security level of data without this window
requires the solaris.label.win.noview authorization, in addition to the relabeling
authorizations. The following illustration shows a selection, zonename, in the window.

62 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


Rules When Changing the Level of Security for Data

By default, the selection confirmer displays whenever data is being transferred to a different
label. If a selection requires several transfer decisions, the automatic reply mechanism provides
a way to reply once to the several transfers. For more information, see the sel_config(4) man
page and the following section.

sel_config File
The sel_config file is checked to determine the behavior of the selection confirmer when an
operation would upgrade or downgrade a label.

The sel_config file defines the following:


A list of selection types to which automatic replies are given
Whether certain types of operations can be automatically confirmed
Whether a selection confirmer dialog box is displayed

In Trusted CDE, the Security Administrator role can change the defaults by using the Configure
Selection Confirmation action in the Trusted_Extensions folder. The new settings become
effective at the next login. In Solaris Trusted Extensions (JDS), the CDE action is not available.
To change the defaults, modify the /usr/share/gnome/sel_config file in a text editor.

Chapter 4 Security Requirements on a Trusted Extensions System (Overview) 63


Customization of Solaris Trusted Extensions (CDE)

Customization of Solaris Trusted Extensions (CDE)


In Solaris Trusted Extensions (CDE), users can add actions to the Front Panel and customize
the Workspace menu. Trusted Extensions software limits users' ability to add programs and
commands to CDE.

Front Panel Customization


Anyone can drag and drop a pre-existing action from the Application Manager to the Front
Panel, as long as the account performing the modification has the action in its profile. Actions in
the /usr/dt/ or /etc/dt/ directories can be added to the Front Panel, but applications in the
$HOME/.dt/appconfig directory cannot. While users can use the Create Action action, they
cannot write into any of the directories where the system-wide actions are stored. Therefore,
regular users cannot create actions that are usable.

In Trusted Extensions, the actions' search path has been changed. Actions in any individual's
home directory are processed last instead of first. Therefore, no one can customize existing
actions.

The Security Administrator role is assigned the Admin Editor action, so can make any needed
modifications to the /usr/dt/appconfig/types/C/dtwm.fp file and the other configuration
files for the Front Panel subpanels.

Workspace Menu Customization


The Workspace Menu is the menu that appears when you click mouse button 3 on the
background of the workspace. Regular users can customize the menu, and add items to the
menu.

The following conditions apply when a user is allowed to work at multiple labels:
The user must have a home directory in the global zone.
To save the customizations, processes in the global zone must be able to write to the user's
home directory at the correct label. The zone path to a user home directory that is writable
by global zone processes is similar to the following:
/zone/zone-name/home/username
The user must use the Customize Menu and Add Item to Menu options in a regular user
workspace. The user can create a different customization for each label.
When the user assumes a role, changes to the Workspace Menu persist.
Changes that are made to the Workspace Menu are stored in the user's home directory at the
current label. The customized menu file is .dt/wsmenu.
The user's rights profile must enable the user to run the desired action.

64 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


Customization of Solaris Trusted Extensions (CDE)

Any action that is added to the Workspace Menu must be handled by one of the user's rights
profiles. Otherwise, the action fails when invoked and an error message is displayed.
For example, anyone with the Run action can double-click the icon for any executable and
run it, even if the action or any commands that the action invokes are not in one of the
account's rights profiles. By default, roles are not assigned the Run action. Therefore, any
menu item that requires the Run action fails when executed by a role.

Chapter 4 Security Requirements on a Trusted Extensions System (Overview) 65


66
5
C H A P T E R 5

Administering Security Requirements in


Trusted Extensions (Tasks)

This chapter contains tasks that are commonly performed on a system that is configured with
Trusted Extensions.

Common Tasks in Trusted Extensions (Task Map)


The following task map describes procedures that set up a working environment for
administrators of Trusted Extensions.

Task Description For Instructions

Change the editor program Specify the editor for administrative files. How to Assign the Editor of Your Choice as the
for the trusted editor. Trusted Editor on page 68

Change the password for Specify a new password for the root user, or for How to Change the Password for root on
root. the root role. page 69

Change the password for a Specifies a new password for your current role. Example 52
role.

Use the Secure Attention key Gets control of the mouse or keyboard. Also, tests How to Regain Control of the Desktop's Current
combination. whether the mouse or keyboard is trusted. Focus on page 70

Determine the hexadecimal Displays the internal representation for a text How to Obtain the Hexadecimal Equivalent for a
number for a label. label. Label on page 71

Determine the text Displays the text representation for a hexadecimal How to Obtain a Readable Label From Its
representation for a label. label. Hexadecimal Form on page 72

Edit system files. Securely edits Oracle Solaris or Trusted How to Change Security Defaults in System
Extensions system files. Files on page 73

Allocate a device. Uses a peripheral device to add information to or How to Allocate a Device in Trusted Extensions
remove information from the system. in Trusted Extensions Users Guide

67
Common Tasks in Trusted Extensions (Task Map)

Task Description For Instructions

Administer a host remotely. Administers Oracle Solaris or Trusted Extensions Chapter 8, Remote Administration in Trusted
hosts from a remote host. Extensions (Tasks)

How to Assign the Editor of Your Choice as the Trusted


Editor
The trusted editor uses the value of the $EDITOR environment variable as its editor.

Before You Begin You must be in a role in the global zone.

1 Determine the value of the $EDITOR variable.


# echo $EDITOR
The following are editor possibilities. The $EDITOR variable might also not be set.
/usr/dt/bin/dtpad Is the editor that CDE provides.
/usr/bin/gedit Is the editor that Java Desktop System, Release number provides. Solaris
Trusted Extensions (JDS) is the trusted version of that desktop.
/usr/bin/vi Is the visual editor.

2 Set the value of the $EDITOR variable.

To set the value permanently, modify the value in the shell initialization file for the role.
For example, in the role's home directory, modify the .kshrc file for a Korn shell, and the
.cshrc file for a C shell.

To set the value for the current shell, set the value in the terminal window.
For example, in a Korn shell, use the following commands:
# setenv EDITOR=pathname-of-editor
# export $EDITOR
In a C shell, use the following command:

# setenv EDITOR=pathname-of-editor
In a Bourne shell, use the following commands:

# EDITOR=pathname-of-editor
# export EDITOR

68 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


Common Tasks in Trusted Extensions (Task Map)

Example 51 Specifying the Editor for the Trusted Editor


The Security Administrator role wants to use vi when editing system files. A user who has
assumed the role modifies the .kshrc initialization file in the role's home directory.

$ cd /home/secadmin
$ vi .kshrc

## Interactive shell
set -o vi
...
export EDITOR=vi

The next time that any user assumes the Security Administrator role, vi is the trusted editor.

How to Change the Password for root


The Security Administrator role is authorized to change any account's password at any time by
using the Solaris Management Console. However, the Solaris Management Console cannot
change the password of a system account. A system account is an account whose UID is below
100. root is a system account because its UID is 0.

1 Become superuser.
If your site has made superuser into the root role, assume the root role.

2 Choose Change Password from the Trusted Path menu.

In Trusted JDS, click the trusted symbol in the trusted stripe.


From the trusted path menu, choose Change Password.

In Solaris Trusted Extensions (CDE), open the Trusted Path menu.

a. Click mouse button 3 over the workspace switch area.

b. Choose Change Password from the Trusted Path menu.

Chapter 5 Administering Security Requirements in Trusted Extensions (Tasks) 69


Common Tasks in Trusted Extensions (Task Map)

3 Change the password, and confirm the change.

Example 52 Changing the Password for a Role


Any user who can assume a role that is defined in LDAP can use the Trusted Path menu to
change the password for the role. The password is then changed in LDAP for all users who
attempt to assume the role.

As in the Oracle Solaris OS, the Primary Administrator role can change the password for a role
by using the Solaris Management Console. In Trusted Extensions, the Security Administrator
role can change another role's password by using the Solaris Management Console.

How to Regain Control of the Desktop's Current Focus


The Secure Attention key combination can be used to break a pointer grab or a keyboard grab
by an untrusted application. The key combination can also be used to verify if a pointer or a
keyboard has been grabbed by a trusted application. On a multiheaded system that has been
spoofed to display more than one trusted stripe, this key combination warps the pointer to the
authorized trusted stripe.

1 To regain control of a Sun keyboard, use the following key combination.


Press the keys simultaneously to regain control of the current desktop focus. On the Sun
keyboard, the diamond is the Meta key.
<Meta> <Stop>
If the grab, such as a pointer, is not trusted, the pointer moves to the stripe. A trusted pointer
does not move to the trusted stripe.

2 If you are not using a Sun keyboard, use the following key combination.
<Alt> <Break>
Press the keys simultaneously to regain control of the current desktop focus on your laptop.

70 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


Common Tasks in Trusted Extensions (Task Map)

Example 53 Testing If the Password Prompt Can Be Trusted


On an x86 system that is using a Sun keyboard, the user has been prompted for a password. The
cursor has been grabbed, and is in the password dialog box. To check that the prompt is trusted,
the user presses the <Meta> <Stop> keys simultaneously. When the pointer remains in the
dialog box, the user knows that the password prompt is trusted.

If the pointer had moved to the trusted stripe, the user would know that the password prompt
could not be trusted, and contact the administrator.

Example 54 Forcing the Pointer to the Trusted Stripe


In this example, a user is not running any trusted processes but cannot see the mouse pointer.
To bring the pointer to the center of the trusted stripe, the user presses the <Meta> <Stop> keys
simultaneously.

How to Obtain the Hexadecimal Equivalent for a Label


This procedure provides an internal hexadecimal representation of a label. This representation
is safe for storing in a public directory. For more information, see the atohexlabel(1M) man
page.

Before You Begin You must be in the Security Administrator role in the global zone. For details, see How to Enter
the Global Zone in Trusted Extensions on page 50.

To obtain a hexadecimal value for a label, do one of the following.

To obtain the hexadecimal value for a sensitivity label, pass the label to the command.
$ atohexlabel "CONFIDENTIAL : NEED TO KNOW"
0x0004-08-68

To obtain the hexadecimal value for a clearance, use the -c option.


$ atohexlabel -c "CONFIDENTIAL NEED TO KNOW"
0x0004-08-68

Chapter 5 Administering Security Requirements in Trusted Extensions (Tasks) 71


Common Tasks in Trusted Extensions (Task Map)

Note Human readable sensitivity labels and clearance labels are formed according to rules
in the label_encodings file. Each type of label uses rules from a separate section of this file.
When a sensitivity label and a clearance label both express the same underlying level of
sensitivity, the labels have identical hexadecimal forms. However, the labels can have
different human readable forms. System interfaces that accept human readable labels as
input expect one type of label. If the text strings for the label types differ, these text strings
cannot be used interchangeably.

In the default label_encodings file, the text equivalent of a clearance label does not include
a colon (:).

Example 55 Using the atohexlabel Command


When you pass a valid label in hexadecimal format, the command returns the argument.

$ atohexlabel 0x0004-08-68
0x0004-08-68

When you pass an administrative label, the command returns the argument.

$ atohexlabel admin_high
ADMIN_HIGH
atohexlabel admin_low
ADMIN_LOW

Troubleshooting The error message atohexlabel parsing error found in <string> at position 0
indicates that the <string> argument that you passed to atohexlabel was not a valid label or
clearance. Check your typing, and check that the label exists in your installed label_encodings
file.

How to Obtain a Readable Label From Its Hexadecimal


Form
This procedure provides a way to repair labels that are stored in internal databases. For more
information, see the hextoalabel(1M) man page.

Before You Begin You must be in the Security Administrator role in the global zone.

To obtain the text equivalent for an internal representation of a label, do one of the following.

To obtain the text equivalent for a sensitivity label, pass the hexadecimal form of the label.
$ hextoalabel 0x0004-08-68
CONFIDENTIAL : NEED TO KNOW

72 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


Common Tasks in Trusted Extensions (Task Map)

To obtain the text equivalent for a clearance, use the -c option.


$ hextoalabel -c 0x0004-08-68
CONFIDENTIAL NEED TO KNOW

How to Change Security Defaults in System Files


In Trusted Extensions, the security administrator changes or accesses default security settings
on a system.

Files in the /etc/security and /etc/default directories contain security settings. On an


Oracle Solaris system, superuser can edit these files. For Oracle Solaris security information, see
Chapter 3, Controlling Access to Systems (Tasks), in System Administration Guide: Security
Services.

Caution Relax system security defaults only if site security policy allows you to.

Before You Begin You must be in the Security Administrator role in the global zone.

Use the trusted editor to edit the system file.


For details, see How to Edit Administrative Files in Trusted Extensions on page 54.
The following table lists the security files and what security parameters to change in the files.

File Task For More Information

/etc/default/login Reduce the allowed number of password See the example under How to Monitor All Failed Login
tries. Attempts in System Administration Guide: Security
Services.
passwd(1) man page

/etc/default/kbd Disable keyboard shutdown. How to Disable a Systems Abort Sequence in System
Administration Guide: Security Services
Note On hosts that are used by administrators for
debugging, the default setting for KEYBOARD_ABORT
allows access to the kadb kernel debugger. For more
information about the debugger, see the kadb(1M) man
page.

Chapter 5 Administering Security Requirements in Trusted Extensions (Tasks) 73


Common Tasks in Trusted Extensions (Task Map)

File Task For More Information

/etc/security/policy.conf Require a more powerful algorithm for policy.conf(4) man page


user passwords.
Remove a basic privilege from all users of
this host.
Restrict users of this host to Basic Solaris
User authorizations.

/etc/default/passwd Require users to change passwords passwd(1) man page


frequently.
Require users to create maximally
different passwords.
Require a longer user password.
Require a password that cannot be found
in your dictionary.

74 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


6
C H A P T E R 6

Users, Rights, and Roles in Trusted Extensions


(Overview)

This chapter describes essential decisions that you must make before creating regular users, and
provides additional background information for managing user accounts. The chapter assumes
that the initial setup team has set up roles and a limited number of user accounts. These users
can assume the roles that are used to configure and administer Trusted Extensions. For details,
see Creating Roles and Users in Trusted Extensions in Trusted Extensions Configuration
Guide.
User Security Features in Trusted Extensions on page 75
Administrator Responsibilities for Users on page 76
Decisions to Make Before Creating Users in Trusted Extensions on page 77
Default User Security Attributes in Trusted Extensions on page 77
Configurable User Attributes in Trusted Extensions on page 78
Security Attributes That Must Be Assigned to Users on page 79

User Security Features in Trusted Extensions


Trusted Extensions software adds the following security features to users, roles, or rights
profiles:
A user has a label range within which the user can use the system.
A role has a label range within which the role can be used to perform administrative tasks.
A Trusted Extensions rights profile can include CDE administrative actions. Like
commands, actions can have security attributes.
Commands and actions in a Trusted Extensions rights profile have a label attribute. The
command or action must be performed within a label range, or at a particular label.
Trusted Extensions software adds privileges and authorizations to the set of privileges and
authorizations that are defined by the Oracle Solaris OS.

75
Administrator Responsibilities for Users

Administrator Responsibilities for Users


The System Administrator role creates user accounts. The Security Administrator role sets up
the security aspects of an account.

If you are using the Oracle Directory Server Enterprise Edition for the LDAP naming service,
check that the initial setup team configured the tsol_ldap.tbx toolbox. For the procedure, see
Configuring the Solaris Management Console for LDAP (Task Map) in Trusted Extensions
Configuration Guide.

For details on setting up users and roles, see the following:


How to Create the First Role (Primary Administrator) in Oracle Solaris Administration:
Basic Administration
Setting Up User Accounts (Task Map) in Oracle Solaris Administration: Basic
Administration
Part III, Roles, Rights Profiles, and Privileges, in System Administration Guide: Security
Services

System Administrator Responsibilities for Users


In Trusted Extensions, the System Administrator role is responsible for determining who can
access the system. The system administrator is responsible for the following tasks:
Adding and deleting users
Adding and deleting roles
Modifying user and role configurations, other than security attributes

Security Administrator Responsibilities for Users


In Trusted Extensions, the Security Administrator role is responsible for all security attributes
of a user or role. The security administrator is responsible for the following tasks:
Assigning and modifying the security attributes of a user, role, or rights profile
Creating and modifying rights profiles
Assigning rights profiles to a user or role
Assigning privileges to a user, role, or rights profile
Assigning authorizations to a user, a role, or rights profile
Removing privileges from a user, role, or rights profile
Removing authorizations from a user, role, or rights profile

76 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


Default User Security Attributes in Trusted Extensions

Typically, the Security Administrator role creates rights profiles. However, if a profile needs
capabilities that the Security Administrator role cannot grant, then superuser or the Primary
Administrator role can create the profile.

Before creating a rights profile, the security administrator needs to analyze whether any of the
commands or actions in the new profile need privilege or authorization to be successful. The
man pages for individual commands list the privileges and authorizations that might be needed.
For examples of actions that require privileges and authorizations, see the exec_attr database.

Decisions to Make Before Creating Users in Trusted Extensions


The following decisions affect what users are able to do in Trusted Extensions and how much
effort is required. Some decisions are the same as the decisions that you would make when
installing the Oracle Solaris OS. However, decisions that are specific to Trusted Extensions can
affect site security and ease of use.
Decide whether to change default user security attributes in the policy.conf file. User
defaults in the label_encodings file were configured by the initial setup team. For a
description of the defaults, see Default User Security Attributes in Trusted Extensions on
page 77.
Decide which startup files, if any, to copy or link from each user's minimum-label home
directory to the user's higher-level home directories. For the procedure, see How to
Configure Startup Files for Users in Trusted Extensions on page 86.
Decide if users can access peripheral devices, such as the microphone, CD-ROM drive, and
JAZ drive.
If access is permitted to some users, decide if your site requires additional authorizations to
satisfy site security. For the default list of device-related authorizations, see How to Assign
Device Authorizations on page 238. For a finer-grained set of device authorizations, see
Customizing Device Authorizations in Trusted Extensions (Task Map) on page 235.

Default User Security Attributes in Trusted Extensions


Settings in the label_encodings and the policy.conf files together define default security
attributes for user accounts. The values that you explicitly set for a user override these system
values. Some values that are set in these files also apply to role accounts. For security attributes
that you can explicitly set, see Configurable User Attributes in Trusted Extensions on
page 78.

label_encodings File Defaults


The label_encodings file defines a user's minimum label, clearance, and default label view. For
details about the file, see the label_encodings(4) man page. Your site's label_encodings file

Chapter 6 Users, Rights, and Roles in Trusted Extensions (Overview) 77


Configurable User Attributes in Trusted Extensions

was installed by your initial setup team. Their decisions were based on Devising a Label
Strategy in Trusted Extensions Configuration Guide, and examples from Trusted Extensions
Label Administration.

Label values that the security administrator explicitly sets for individual users in the Solaris
Management Console are derived from the label_encodings file. Explicitly set values override
the values in the label_encodings file.

policy.conf File Defaults in Trusted Extensions


The Oracle Solaris /etc/security/policy.conf file contains the default security settings for
the system. Trusted Extensions adds two keywords to this file. You can add these
keyword=value pairs to the file if you want to change the system-wide value. These keywords
are enforced by Trusted Extensions. The following table shows the possible values for these
security settings and their default values.

TABLE 61 Trusted Extensions Security Defaults in policy.conf File

Keyword Default Value Possible Values Notes

IDLECMD LOCK LOCK | LOGOUT Does not apply to roles.

IDLETIME 30 0 to 120 minutes Does not apply to roles.

The authorizations and rights profiles that are defined in the policy.conf file are in addition to
any authorizations and profiles that are assigned to individual accounts. For the other fields, the
individual user's value overrides the system value.

Planning User Security in Trusted Extensions in Trusted Extensions Configuration Guide


includes a table of every policy.conf keyword. See also the policy.conf(4) man page.

Configurable User Attributes in Trusted Extensions


The Solaris Management Console 2.1 is your tool for creating and modifying user accounts. For
users who can log in at more than one label, you might also want to set up .copy_files and
.link_files files in each user's minimumlabel home directory.

78 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


Security Attributes That Must Be Assigned to Users

The User Accounts tool in the Solaris Management Console works as it does in the Oracle
Solaris OS, with two exceptions:
Trusted Extensions adds attributes to user accounts.
Home directory server access requires administrative attention in Trusted Extensions.
You create the home directory server entry the same as you do on an Oracle Solaris
system.
Then, you and the user perform additional steps to mount the home directory at every
user label.

As described in How to Add a User With the Solaris Management Consoles Users Tool in
Oracle Solaris Administration: Basic Administration, a wizard enables you to create user
accounts quickly. After using the wizard, you can modify the user's default Trusted Extensions
attributes.

For more information about the .copy_files and .link_files files, see .copy_files and
.link_files Files on page 81.

Security Attributes That Must Be Assigned to Users


The Security Administrator role must specify some security attributes for new users, as the
following table shows. For information about the files that contain default values, see Default
User Security Attributes in Trusted Extensions on page 77. The following table shows the
security attributes that can be assigned to users and the effects of each assignment.

TABLE 62 Security Attributes That Are Assigned After User Creation

User Attribute Location of Default Value Is Action Required Effect of Action

Password None Required User has password

Roles None Optional User can assume a role

Authorizations policy.conf file Optional User has additional authorizations

Rights Profiles policy.conf file Optional User has additional rights profiles

Labels label_encodings file Optional User has different default label or accreditation
range

Privileges policy.conf file Optional User has different set of privileges

Account Usage policy.conf file Optional User has different setting for computer when it is
idle

Audit audit_control file Optional User is audited differently from the system audit
settings

Chapter 6 Users, Rights, and Roles in Trusted Extensions (Overview) 79


Security Attributes That Must Be Assigned to Users

Security Attribute Assignment to Users in Trusted


Extensions
The Security Administrator role assigns security attributes to users in the Solaris Management
Console after the user accounts are created. If you have set up correct defaults, your next step is
to assign security attributes only for users who need exceptions to the defaults.

When assigning security attributes to users, the security administrator considers the following
information:
Assigning Passwords
The Security Administrator role assigns passwords to user accounts after the accounts have
been created. After this initial assignment, users can change their passwords.

As in the Oracle Solaris OS, users can be forced to change their passwords at regular
intervals. The password aging options limit how long any intruder who is able to guess or
steal a password could potentially access the system. Also, establishing a minimum length of
time to elapse before changing a password prevents a user with a new password from
reverting immediately to the old password. For details, see the passwd(1) man page.

Note The passwords for users who can assume roles must not be subject to any password
aging constraints.

Assigning Roles
A user is not required to have a role. A single user can be assigned more than one role if
doing so is consistent with your site's security policy.
Assigning Authorizations
As in the Oracle Solaris OS, assigning authorizations directly to a user adds those
authorizations to existing authorizations. In Trusted Extensions, you add the authorizations
to a rights profile, then assign the profile to the user.
Assigning Rights Profiles
As in the Oracle Solaris OS, the order of profiles is important. The profile mechanism uses
the first instance of the command or action in an account's profile set.

You can use the sorting order of profiles to your advantage. If you want a command to run
with different security attributes from those attributes that are defined for the command in
an existing profile, create a new profile with the preferred assignments for the command.
Then, insert that new profile before the existing profile.

80 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


Security Attributes That Must Be Assigned to Users

Note Do not assign rights profiles that include administrative actions or administrative
commands to a regular user. The profile would not work because a regular user cannot enter
the global zone.

Changing Privilege Default


The default privilege set can be too liberal for many sites. To restrict the privilege set for any
regular user on a system, change the policy.conf file setting. To change the privilege set for
individual users, use the Solaris Management Console. For an example, see How to Restrict
a User's Set of Privileges on page 92.
Changing Label Defaults
Changing a user's label defaults creates an exception to the user defaults in the
label_encodings file.
Changing Audit Defaults
As in the Oracle Solaris OS, assigning audit classes to a user creates exceptions to the audit
classes that are assigned in the /etc/security/audit_control file on the system. For more
information about auditing, see Chapter 18, Trusted Extensions Auditing (Overview).

.copy_files and .link_files Files


In Trusted Extensions, files are automatically copied from the skeleton directory only into the
zone that contains the account's minimum label. To ensure that zones at higher labels can use
startup files, either the user or the administrator must create the files .copy_files and
.link_files.

The Trusted Extensions files .copy_files and .link_files help to automate the copying or
linking of startup files into every label of an account's home directory. Whenever a user creates a
workspace at a new label, the updatehome command reads the contents of .copy_files and
.link_files at the account's minimum label. The command then copies or links every listed
file into the higher-labeled workspace.

The .copy_files file is useful when a user wants a slightly different startup file at different
labels. Copying is preferred, for example, when users use different mail aliases at different
labels. The .link-files file is useful when a startup file should be identical at any label that it is
invoked. Linking is preferred, for example, when one printer is used for all labeled print jobs.
For example files, see How to Configure Startup Files for Users in Trusted Extensions on
page 86.

The following lists some startup files that you might want users to be able to link to higher labels
or to copy to higher labels:

Chapter 6 Users, Rights, and Roles in Trusted Extensions (Overview) 81


Security Attributes That Must Be Assigned to Users

.acrorc .login .signature


.aliases .mailrc .soffice
.cshrc .mime_types .Xdefaults
.dtprofile .newsrc .Xdefaults-hostname
.emacs .profile

82 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


7
C H A P T E R 7

Managing Users, Rights, and Roles in Trusted


Extensions (Tasks)

This chapter provides the Trusted Extensions procedures for configuring and managing users,
user accounts, and rights profiles.
Customizing the User Environment for Security (Task Map) on page 83
Managing Users and Rights With the Solaris Management Console (Task Map) on page 89
Handling Other Tasks in the Solaris Management Console (Task Map) on page 96

Customizing the User Environment for Security (Task Map)


The following task map describes common tasks that you can perform when customizing a
system for all users, or when customizing an individual user's account.

Task Description For Instructions

Change label attributes. Modify label attributes, such as minimum label and default How to Modify Default User
label view, for a user account. Label Attributes on page 84

Change Trusted Extensions Changes the policy.conf file. How to Modify policy.conf
policy for all users of a system. Defaults on page 84

Turns on the screensaver after a set amount of time. Example 71


Logs the user out after a set amount of time that the system is
idle.

Removes unnecessary privileges from all ordinary users of a Example 72


system.

Removes labels from printed output at a public kiosk. Example 73

83
Customizing the User Environment for Security (Task Map)

Task Description For Instructions

Configure initialization files for Configures startup files, such as .cshrc, .copy_files, and How to Configure Startup Files
users. .soffice for all users. for Users in Trusted Extensions
on page 86

Log in to a failsafe session. Fixes faulty user initialization files. How to Log In to a Failsafe Session
in Trusted Extensions on page 88

How to Modify Default User Label Attributes


You can modify the default user label attributes during the configuration of the first system. The
changes must be copied to every Trusted Extensions host.

Before You Begin You must be in the Security Administrator role in the global zone. For details, see How to Enter
the Global Zone in Trusted Extensions on page 50.

1 Review the default user attribute settings in the /etc/security/tsol/label_encodings file.


For the defaults, see label_encodings File Defaults on page 77.

2 Modify the user attribute settings in the label_encodings file.


Use the trusted editor. For details, see How to Edit Administrative Files in Trusted Extensions
on page 54. In Trusted CDE, you can also use the Edit Label Encodings action. For details, see
How to Start CDE Administrative Actions in Trusted Extensions on page 53.
The label_encodings file should be the same on all hosts.

3 Distribute a copy of the file to every Trusted Extensions host.

How to Modify policy.conf Defaults


Changing the policy.conf defaults in Trusted Extensions is similar to changing any
security-relevant system file in the Oracle Solaris OS. In Trusted Extensions, you use a trusted
editor to modify system files.

Before You Begin You must be in the Security Administrator role in the global zone. For details, see How to Enter
the Global Zone in Trusted Extensions on page 50.

1 Review the default settings in the /etc/security/policy.conf file.


For Trusted Extensions keywords, see Table 61.

84 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


Customizing the User Environment for Security (Task Map)

2 Modify the settings.


Use the trusted editor to edit the system file. For details, see How to Edit Administrative Files
in Trusted Extensions on page 54.

Example 71 Changing the System's Idle Settings


In this example, the security administrator wants idle systems to return to the login screen. The
default locks an idle system. Therefore, the Security Administrator role adds the IDLECMD
keyword=value pair to the /etc/security/policy.conf file as follows:

IDLECMD=LOGOUT

The administrator also wants systems to be idle a shorter amount of time before logout.
Therefore, the Security Administrator role adds the IDLETIME keyword=value pair to the
policy.conf file as follows:

IDLETIME=10

The system now logs out the user after the system is idle for 10 minutes.

Example 72 Modifying Every User's Basic Privilege Set


In this example, the security administrator of a Sun Ray installation does not want regular users
to view the processes of other Sun Ray users. Therefore, on every system that is configured with
Trusted Extensions, the administrator removes proc_info from the basic set of privileges. The
PRIV_DEFAULT setting in the /etc/policy.conf file is modified as follows:

PRIV_DEFAULT=basic,!proc_info

Example 73 Assigning Printing-Related Authorizations to All Users of a System


In this example, the security administrator enables a public kiosk computer to print without
labels by typing the following in the computer's /etc/security/policy.conf file. At the next
boot, print jobs by all users of this kiosk print without page labels.

AUTHS_GRANTED= solaris.print.unlabeled

Then, the administrator decides to save paper by removing banner and trailer pages. She first
ensures that the Always Print Banners checkbox in the Print Manager is not selected. She then
modifies the policy.conf entry to read the following and reboots. Now, all print jobs are
unlabeled, and have no banner or trailer pages.

AUTHS_GRANTED= solaris.print.unlabeled,solaris.print.nobanner

Chapter 7 Managing Users, Rights, and Roles in Trusted Extensions (Tasks) 85


Customizing the User Environment for Security (Task Map)

How to Configure Startup Files for Users in Trusted


Extensions
Users can put a .copy_files file and .link_files file into their home directory at the label
that corresponds to their minimum sensitivity label. Users can also modify the existing
.copy_files and .link_files files at the users' minimum label. This procedure is for the
administrator role to automate the setup for a site.

Before You Begin You must be in the System Administrator role in the global zone. For details, see How to Enter
the Global Zone in Trusted Extensions on page 50.

1 Create two Trusted Extensions startup files.


You are going to add .copy_files and .link_files to your list of startup files.
# cd /etc/skel
# touch .copy_files .link_files

2 Customize the .copy_files file.

a. Start the trusted editor.


For details, see How to Edit Administrative Files in Trusted Extensions on page 54.

b. Type the full pathname to the .copy_files file.


/etc/skel/.copy_files

c. Type into .copy_files, one file per line, the files to be copied into the user's home directory
at all labels.
Use .copy_files and .link_files Files on page 81 for ideas. For sample files, see
Example 74.

3 Customize the .link_files file.

a. Type the full pathname to the .link_files file in the trusted editor.
/etc/skel/.link_files

b. Type into .link_files, one file per line, the files to be linked into the user's home directory
at all labels.

4 Customize the other startup files for your users.


For a discussion of what to include in startup files, see Customizing a Users Work
Environment in Oracle Solaris Administration: Basic Administration.
For details, see How to Customize User Initialization Files in Oracle Solaris
Administration: Basic Administration.

86 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


Customizing the User Environment for Security (Task Map)

For an example, see Example 74.

5 (Optional) Create a skelP subdirectory for users whose default shell is a profile shell.
The P indicates the Profile shell.

6 Copy the customized startup files into the appropriate skeleton directory.

7 Use the appropriate skelX pathname when you create the user.
The X indicates the letter that begins the shell's name, such as B for Bourne, K for Korn, C for a C
shell, and P for Profile shell.

Example 74 Customizing Startup Files for Users


In this example, the security administrator configures files for every user's home directory. The
files are in place before any user logs in. The files are at the user's minimum label. At this site, the
users' default shell is the C shell.

The security administrator creates a .copy_files and a .link_files file in the trusted editor
with the following contents:

## .copy_files for regular users


## Copy these files to my home directory in every zone
.mailrc
.mozilla
.soffice
:wq

## .link_files for regular users with C shells


## Link these files to my home directory in every zone
.cshrc
.login
.Xdefaults
.Xdefaults-hostname
:wq

## .link_files for regular users with Korn shells


# Link these files to my home directory in every zone
.ksh
.profile
.Xdefaults
.Xdefaults-hostname
:wq

In the shell initialization files, the administrator ensures that the users' print jobs go to a labeled
printer.

## .cshrc file
setenv PRINTER conf-printer1
setenv LPDEST conf-printer1

Chapter 7 Managing Users, Rights, and Roles in Trusted Extensions (Tasks) 87


Customizing the User Environment for Security (Task Map)

## .ksh file
export PRINTER conf-printer1
export LPDEST conf-printer1
The administrator modifies the .Xdefaults-home-directory-server file to force the dtterm
command to source the .profile file for a new terminal.

## Xdefaults-HDserver
Dtterm*LoginShell: true
The customized files are copied to the appropriate skeleton directory.

$ cp .copy_files .link_files .cshrc .login .profile \


.mailrc .Xdefaults .Xdefaults-home-directory-server \
/etc/skelC
$ cp .copy_files .link_files .ksh .profile \
.mailrc .Xdefaults .Xdefaults-home-directory-server \
/etc/skelK

Troubleshooting If you create a .copy_files files at your lowest label, then log in to a higher zone to run the
updatehome command and the command fails with an access error, try the following:
Verify that from the higher-level zone you can view the lower-level directory.
higher-level zone# ls /zone/lower-level-zone/home/username
ACCESS ERROR: there are no files under that directory
If you cannot view the directory, then restart the automount service in the higher-level zone:
higher-level zone# svcadm restart autofs
Unless you are using NFS mounts for home directories, the automounter in the higher-level
zone should be loopback mounting from /zone/lower-level-zone/export/home/username to
/zone/lower-level-zone/home/username.

How to Log In to a Failsafe Session in Trusted


Extensions
In Trusted Extensions, failsafe login is protected. If a regular user has customized shell
initialization files and now cannot log in, you can use failsafe login to fix the user's files.

Before You Begin You must know the root password.

1 As in the Oracle Solaris OS, choose Options > Failsafe Session on the login screen.

2 At the prompt, have the user provide the user name and password.

3 At the prompt for the root password, provide the password for root.
You can now debug the user's initialization files.

88 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


Managing Users and Rights With the Solaris Management Console (Task Map)

Managing Users and Rights With the Solaris Management


Console (Task Map)
In Trusted Extensions, you must use the Solaris Management Console to administer users,
authorizations, rights, and roles. To manage users and their security attributes, assume the
Security Administrator role. The following task map describes common tasks that you perform
for users who operate in a labeled environment.

Task Description For Instructions

Modify a user's label range. Modifies the labels at which a user can work. How to Modify a User's Label Range in the
Modifications can restrict or extend the range that Solaris Management Console on page 89
the label_encodings file permits.

Create a rights profile for Several authorizations exist that might be useful How to Create a Rights Profile for
convenient authorizations. for regular users. Creates a profile for users who Convenient Authorizations on page 90
qualify to have these authorizations.

Modify a user's default privilege Removes a privilege from the user's default How to Restrict a User's Set of Privileges on
set. privilege set. page 92

Prevent account locking for Users who can assume a role must have account How to Prevent Account Locking for Users
particular users. locking turned off. on page 94

Enable a user to relabel data. Authorizes a user to downgrade information or How to Enable a User to Change the Security
upgrade information. Level of Data on page 95

Remove a user from the system. Completely removes a user and the user's How to Delete a User Account From a
processes.. Trusted Extensions System on page 95

Handle other tasks. Uses the Solaris Management Console to handle Handling Other Tasks in the Solaris
tasks that are not specific to Trusted Extensions. Management Console (Task Map) on
page 96

How to Modify a User's Label Range in the Solaris


Management Console
You might want to extend a user's label range to give the user read access to an administrative
application. For example, a user who can log in to the global zone could then run the Solaris
Management Console. The user could view, but not not change the contents.

Alternatively, you might want to restrict the user's label range. For example, a guest user might
be limited to one label.

Before You Begin You must be in the Security Administrator role in the global zone.

Chapter 7 Managing Users, Rights, and Roles in Trusted Extensions (Tasks) 89


Managing Users and Rights With the Solaris Management Console (Task Map)

1 Open a Trusted Extensions toolbox in the Solaris Management Console.


Use a toolbox of the appropriate scope. For details, see Initialize the Solaris Management
Console Server in Trusted Extensions in Trusted Extensions Configuration Guide.

2 Under System Configuration, navigate to User Accounts.


A password prompt might be displayed.

3 Type the role password.

4 Select the individual user from User Accounts.

5 Click the Trusted Extensions Attributes tab.

To extend the user's label range, choose a higher clearance.


You can also lower the minimum label.

To restrict the label range to one label, make the clearance equal to the minimum label.

6 To save the changes, click OK.

How to Create a Rights Profile for Convenient


Authorizations
Where site security policy permits, you might want to create a rights profile that contains
authorizations for users who can perform tasks that require authorization. To enable every user
of a particular system to be authorized, see How to Modify policy.conf Defaults on page 84.

90 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


Managing Users and Rights With the Solaris Management Console (Task Map)

Before You Begin You must be in the Security Administrator role in the global zone.

1 Open a Trusted Extensions toolbox in the Solaris Management Console.


Use a toolbox of the appropriate scope. For details, see Initialize the Solaris Management
Console Server in Trusted Extensions in Trusted Extensions Configuration Guide.

2 Under System Configuration, navigate to Rights.


A password prompt might be displayed.

3 Type the role password.

4 To add a rights profile, click Action > Add Right.

5 Create a rights profile that contains one or more of the following authorizations.
For the step-by-step procedure, see How to Create or Change a Rights Profile in System
Administration Guide: Security Services.
In the following figure, the Authorizations Included window shows the authorizations that
might be convenient for users.

Allocate Device Authorizes a user to allocate a peripheral device, such as a microphone.


By default, Oracle Solaris users can read and write to a CD-ROM. However, in Trusted
Extensions, only users who can allocate a device can access the CD-ROM drive. To allocate
the drive for use requires authorization. Therefore, to read and write to a CD-ROM in
Trusted Extensions, a user needs the Allocate Device authorization.
Downgrade DragNDrop or CutPaste Info Authorizes a user to select information from a
higher-level file and place that information in a lower-level file.
Downgrade File Label Authorizes a user to lower the security level of a file

Chapter 7 Managing Users, Rights, and Roles in Trusted Extensions (Tasks) 91


Managing Users and Rights With the Solaris Management Console (Task Map)

DragNDrop or CutPaste without viewing contents Authorizes a user to move information


without viewing the information that is being moved.
Print Postscript Authorizes a user to print PostScript files.
Print without Banner - Authorizes a user to print hard copy without a banner page.
Print without Label Authorizes a user to print hard copy that does not display labels.
Remote Login Authorizes a user to remotely log in.
Shutdown the System Authorizes a user to shut down the system and to shut down a zone.
Upgrade DragNDrop or CutPaste Info Authorizes a user to select information from a
lower-level file and place that information in a higher-level file.
Upgrade File Label Authorizes a user to heighten the security level of a file.

6 Assign the rights profile to a user or a role.


For assistance, see the online help. For the step-by-step procedure, see How to Change the
RBAC Properties of a User in System Administration Guide: Security Services.

Example 75 Assigning a Printing-Related Authorization to a Role


In the following example, the Security Administrator allows a role to print jobs without labels
on body pages.

In the Solaris Management Console, the security administrator navigates to Administrative


Roles. She views the rights profiles that are included in a particular role, then ensures that the
print-related authorizations are contained in one of the role's rights profiles.

How to Restrict a User's Set of Privileges


Site security might require that users be permitted fewer privileges than users are assigned by
default. For example, at a site that uses Trusted Extensions on Sun Ray systems, you might want
to prevent users from viewing other users' processes on the Sun Ray server.

Before You Begin You must be in the Security Administrator role in the global zone.

1 Open a Trusted Extensions toolbox in the Solaris Management Console.


Use a toolbox of the appropriate scope. For details, see Initialize the Solaris Management
Console Server in Trusted Extensions in Trusted Extensions Configuration Guide.

2 Under System Configuration, navigate to User Accounts.


A password prompt might be displayed.

3 Type the role password.

92 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


Managing Users and Rights With the Solaris Management Console (Task Map)

4 Doubleclick the icon for the user.

5 Remove one or more of the privileges in the basic set.

a. Double-click the icon for the user.

b. Click the Rights tab.

c. Click the Edit button to the right of the basic set in the right_extended_attr field.

d. Remove proc_session or file_link_any.


By removing the proc_session privilege, you prevent the user from examining any
processes outside the user's current session. By removing the file_link_any privilege, you
prevent the user from making hard links to files that are not owned by the user.

Caution Do not remove the proc_fork or the proc_exec privilege. Without these
privileges, the user would not be able to use the system.

Chapter 7 Managing Users, Rights, and Roles in Trusted Extensions (Tasks) 93


Managing Users and Rights With the Solaris Management Console (Task Map)

6 To save the changes, click OK.

How to Prevent Account Locking for Users


Trusted Extensions extends the user security features in the Solaris Management Console to
include account locking. Turn off account locking for users who can assume a role.

Before You Begin You must be in the Security Administrator role in the global zone.

1 Start the Solaris Management Console.


Use a toolbox of the appropriate scope. For details, see Initialize the Solaris Management
Console Server in Trusted Extensions in Trusted Extensions Configuration Guide.

2 Under System Configuration, navigate to User Accounts.


A password prompt might be displayed.

3 Type the role password.

4 Doubleclick the icon for the user.

5 Click the Trusted Extensions Attributes tab.

6 In the Account Usage section, choose No from the pull-down menu next to Lock account after
maximum failed logins.

7 To save the changes, click OK.

94 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


Managing Users and Rights With the Solaris Management Console (Task Map)

How to Enable a User to Change the Security Level of


Data
A regular user or a role can be authorized to change the security level, or labels, of files and
directories. The user or role, in addition to having the authorization, must be configured to
work at more than one label. And, the labeled zones must be configured to permit relabeling.
For the procedure, see How to Enable Files to be Relabeled From a Labeled Zone on page 128.

Caution Changing the security level of data is a privileged operation. This task is for
trustworthy users only.

Before You Begin You must be in the Security Administrator role in the global zone.

1 Follow the procedure How to Create a Rights Profile for Convenient Authorizationson page 90
to create a rights profile.
The following authorizations enable a user to relabel a file:
Downgrade File Label
Upgrade File Label

The following authorizations enable a user to relabel information within a file:


Downgrade DragNDrop or CutPaste Info
DragNDrop or CutPaste Info Without Viewing
Upgrade DragNDrop or CutPaste Info

2 Use the Solaris Management Console to assign the profile to the appropriate users and roles.
For assistance, use the online help. For a step-by-step procedure, see How to Change the RBAC
Properties of a User in System Administration Guide: Security Services.

How to Delete a User Account From a Trusted


Extensions System
When a user is removed from the system, you must ensure that the user's home directory and
any objects that the user owns are also deleted. As an alternative to deleting objects that are
owned by the user, you might change the ownership of these objects to a valid user.

You must also ensure that all batch jobs that are associated with the user are also deleted. No
objects or processes belonging to a removed user can remain on the system.

Before You Begin You must be in the System Administrator role.

Chapter 7 Managing Users, Rights, and Roles in Trusted Extensions (Tasks) 95


Handling Other Tasks in the Solaris Management Console (Task Map)

1 Archive the user's home directory at every label.

2 Archive the user's mail files at every label.

3 In the Solaris Management Console, delete the user account.

a. Open a Trusted Extensions toolbox in the Solaris Management Console.


Use a toolbox of the appropriate scope. For details, see Initialize the Solaris Management
Console Server in Trusted Extensions in Trusted Extensions Configuration Guide.

b. Under System Configuration, navigate to User Accounts.


A password prompt might be displayed.

c. Type the role password.

d. Select the user account to be removed, and click the Delete button.
You are prompted to delete the user's home directory and mail files. When you accept the
prompt, the user's home directory and mail files are deleted in the global zone only.

4 In every labeled zone, manually delete the user's directories and mail files.

Note You are responsible for finding and deleting the user's temporary files at all labels, such as
files in /tmp directories.

Handling Other Tasks in the Solaris Management Console


(Task Map)
Follow Oracle Solaris procedures to handle tasks in the Solaris Management Console. You must
be superuser, or in a role in the global zone. The following task map points to basic Solaris
Management Console tasks.

Task For Instructions

Perform administrative tasks by using the Solaris Chapter 2, Working With the Solaris Management
Management Console. Console (Tasks), in Oracle Solaris Administration: Basic
Administration

Create users. Using the Solaris Management Tools With RBAC (Task
Map) in Oracle Solaris Administration: Basic
Administration

Create roles. How to Create and Assign a Role by Using the GUI in
System Administration Guide: Security Services

96 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


Handling Other Tasks in the Solaris Management Console (Task Map)

Task For Instructions

Modify roles. How to Change the Properties of a Role in System


Administration Guide: Security Services

Create or modify a rights profile. How to Create or Change a Rights Profile in System
Administration Guide: Security Services

Change other security attributes of a user. How to Change the RBAC Properties of a User in System
Administration Guide: Security Services

Audit the actions of a role. How to Audit Roles in System Administration Guide:
Security Services

List the rights profiles by using smprofile list Chapter 9, Using Role-Based Access Control (Tasks), in
-Dname-service-type:/server-name/domain-name System Administration Guide: Security Services or the
smprofile(1M) man page

Chapter 7 Managing Users, Rights, and Roles in Trusted Extensions (Tasks) 97


98
8
C H A P T E R 8

Remote Administration in Trusted Extensions


(Tasks)

This chapter describes how to use Trusted Extensions administrative tools to administer a
remote system.
Secure Remote Administration in Trusted Extensions on page 99
Methods for Administering Remote Systems in Trusted Extensions on page 100
Remote Login by a Role in Trusted Extensions on page 101
Administering Trusted Extensions Remotely (Task Map) on page 102

Secure Remote Administration in Trusted Extensions


By default, Trusted Extensions does not allow remote administration. Remote administration
would present a significant security risk if users on remote untrusted systems could administer
systems that are configured with Trusted Extensions. Therefore, systems are initially installed
without the option of being remotely administered.

Until the network is configured, all remote hosts are assigned the admin_low security template.
Therefore, the CIPSO protocol is not used or accepted for any connections. While in this initial
state, systems are protected from remote attacks by several mechanisms. Mechanisms include
netservices settings, default login policy, and PAM policy.
When the netservices Service Management Facility (SMF) profile is set to limited, no
remote services except secure shell are enabled. However, the ssh service cannot be used for
remote logins because of the login and PAM policies.
The root account cannot be used for remote logins because the default policy for CONSOLE in
the /etc/default/login file prevents remote logins by root.
Two PAM settings also affect remote logins.
The pam_roles module always rejects local logins from accounts of type role. By default,
this module also rejects remote logins. However, the system can be configured to accept
remote logins by specifying allow_remote in the system's pam.conf entry.

99
Methods for Administering Remote Systems in Trusted Extensions

Additionally, the pam_tsol_account module rejects remote logins into the global zone
unless the CIPSO protocol is used. The intent of this policy is for remote administration to
be performed by another Trusted Extensions system.

To enable remote login functionality, both systems must assign their peer to a CIPSO security
template. If this approach is not practical, the network protocol policy can be relaxed by
specifying the allow_unlabeled option in the pam.conf file. If either policy is relaxed, the
default network template must be changed so that arbitrary machines cannot access the global
zone. The admin_low template should be used sparingly, and the tnrhdb database should be
modified so that the wildcard address 0.0.0.0 does not default to the ADMIN_LOW label. For
details, see Administering Trusted Extensions Remotely (Task Map) on page 102 and How to
Limit the Hosts That Can Be Contacted on the Trusted Network on page 175.

Methods for Administering Remote Systems in Trusted


Extensions
Typically, administrators use the rlogin and ssh commands to administer remote systems
from the command line. The Solaris Management Console can also be used. In Trusted CDE,
the dtappsession program can remotely launch Trusted CDE actions. Starting in the Solaris
10 5/09 release, a virtual networking computer (VNC) can be used to remotely display a
multilevel desktop.

The following methods of remote administration are possible in Trusted Extensions:


The root user can log in to a remote host from a terminal. See How to Log In Remotely
From the Command Line in Trusted Extensions on page 103. This method works as it does
on an Oracle Solaris system. This method is insecure.
A role can log in to a remote host from a terminal in the role workspace. See How to Log In
Remotely From the Command Line in Trusted Extensions on page 103.
Administrators can start a Solaris Management Console server that is running on a remote
system. See How to Remotely Administer Systems by Using the Solaris Management
Console From a Trusted Extensions System on page 105.
Actions in the Trusted_Extensions folder can be started remotely by using the
dtappsession command. See How to Remotely Administer Trusted Extensions With
dtappsession on page 103.
A user can log in to a remote multilevel desktop by using a VNC client program to connect
to the Xvnc server on a Trusted Extensions system. See How to Use Xvnc to Remotely
Access a Trusted Extensions System on page 109.

100 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


Remote Login by a Role in Trusted Extensions

Remote Login by a Role in Trusted Extensions


As in the Oracle Solaris OS, a setting in the /etc/default/login file on each host must be
changed to allow remote logins. Additionally, the pam.conf file might need to be modified. In
Trusted Extensions, the security administrator is responsible for the change. For the
procedures, see Enable Remote Login by root User in Trusted Extensions in Trusted
Extensions Configuration Guide and Enable Remote Login by a Role in Trusted Extensions in
Trusted Extensions Configuration Guide.

On both Trusted Extensions and Oracle Solaris hosts, remote logins might or might not require
authorization. Remote Login Management in Trusted Extensions on page 101 describes the
conditions and types of logins that require authorization. By default, roles have the Remote
Login authorization.

Remote Role-Based Administration From Unlabeled


Hosts
In Trusted Extensions, users assume roles through the Trusted Path menu. The roles then
operate in trusted workspaces. By default, roles cannot be assumed outside of the trusted path.
If site policy permits, the security administrator can change the default policy. Administrators
of unlabeled hosts that are running Solaris Management Console 2.1 client software can then
administer trusted hosts.
To change the default policy, see Enable Remote Login by a Role in Trusted Extensions in
Trusted Extensions Configuration Guide.
To administer systems remotely, see How to Log In Remotely From the Command Line in
Trusted Extensions on page 103.

This policy change only applies when the user on the remote unlabeled system has a user
account on the Trusted Extensions host. The Trusted Extensions user must have the ability to
assume an administrative role. The role can then use the Solaris Management Console to
administer the remote system.

Caution If remote administration from a non-Trusted Extensions host is enabled, the


administrative environment is less protected than a Trusted Extensions administrative
workspace. Be cautious when typing passwords and other secure data. As a precaution, shut
down all untrusted applications before starting the Solaris Management Console.

Remote Login Management in Trusted Extensions


A remote login between two Trusted Extensions hosts is considered to be an extension of the
current login session.

Chapter 8 Remote Administration in Trusted Extensions (Tasks) 101


Administering Trusted Extensions Remotely (Task Map)

An authorization is not required when the rlogin command does not prompt for a password. If
an /etc/hosts.equiv file or a .rhosts file in the user's home directory on the remote host lists
either the username or the host from which the remote login is being attempted, no password is
required. For more information, see the rhosts(4) and rlogin(1) man pages.

For all other remote logins, including logins with the ftp command, the Remote Login
authorization is required.

To create a rights profile that includes the Remote Login authorization, see Managing Users
and Rights With the Solaris Management Console (Task Map) on page 89.

Administering Trusted Extensions Remotely (Task Map)


The following task map describes the tasks used to administer a remote Trusted Extensions
system.

Task Description For Instructions

Enable root to remotely log in to a Enables the root user to work remotely from Enable Remote Login by root User in
Trusted Extensions system. a labeled system. Trusted Extensions in Trusted Extensions
Configuration Guide

Enable a role to remotely log in to a Allows any role to work remotely from a Enable Remote Login by a Role in
Trusted Extensions system. labeled system. Trusted Extensions in Trusted Extensions
Configuration Guide

Enable remote login from an unlabeled Allows any user or role to work remotely Enable Remote Login From an
system to a Trusted Extensions system. from an unlabeled system. Unlabeled System in Trusted Extensions
Configuration Guide

Log in remotely to a Trusted Extensions Logs in as a role to a Trusted Extensions How to Log In Remotely From the
system. system. Command Line in Trusted Extensions
on page 103

Administer a system remotely. Uses the dtappsession command to How to Remotely Administer Trusted
administer the remote system with Extensions With dtappsession on
Trusted_Extensions actions. page 103

From a Trusted Extensions system, uses the How to Remotely Administer Systems by
Solaris Management Console to administer Using the Solaris Management Console
the remote host. From a Trusted Extensions System on
page 105

From an unlabeled system, uses the Solaris How to Remotely Administer Systems by
Management Console to administer remote Using the Solaris Management Console
Trusted Extensions hosts. From an Unlabeled System on page 106

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Task Description For Instructions

Administer and use a remote system From any client, uses the Xvnc server on the How to Use Xvnc to Remotely Access a
remote Trusted Extensions to display a Trusted Extensions System on page 109
multilevel session back to the client

Enable specific users to log in to the global Uses user and network tools in the Solaris How to Enable Specific Users to Log In
zone. Management Console to enable specific Remotely to the Global Zone in Trusted
users to access the global zone. Extensions on page 108

How to Log In Remotely From the Command Line in


Trusted Extensions

Note The telnet command cannot be used for remote role assumption because this command
cannot pass the primary and role identities to the pam_roles module.

Before You Begin The user and the role must be identically defined on the local and the remote system.

The role must have the Remote Login authorization. By default, this authorization is in the
Remote Administration, and the Maintenance and Repair rights profiles.

The security administrator has completed the procedure Enable Remote Login by a Role in
Trusted Extensions in Trusted Extensions Configuration Guide on every system that can be
remotely administered. If the system can be administered from an unlabeled system, the
procedure Enable Remote Login From an Unlabeled System in Trusted Extensions
Configuration Guide has also been completed.

From the workspace of a user who can assume a role, log in to the remote host.
Use the rlogin command, the ssh command, or the ftp command.
If the rlogin -l or ssh command is used to log in, all commands that are in the role's rights
profiles are available.
If the ftp command is used, see the ftp(1) man page for the commands that are available.

How to Remotely Administer Trusted Extensions With


dtappsession
The dtappsession program enables an administrator to administer a remote system that is
running CDE.

Chapter 8 Remote Administration in Trusted Extensions (Tasks) 103


Administering Trusted Extensions Remotely (Task Map)

dtappsession is useful when a remote system does not have a monitor. For example,
dtappsession is often used to administer domains on large servers. For more information, see
the dtappsession(1) man page.

Before You Begin On a labeled system, you must be in an administrative role in the global zone. On an unlabeled
system, you must assume a role that is defined on the remote system. You must then run the
remote login from the role's profile shell.

1 (Optional) Create a workspace that is dedicated to the remote session.


To avoid confusion between the remote CDE applications and any local applications, dedicate
an administrative role workspace to this procedure. For details, see How to Add a Workspace
at a Particular Label in Trusted Extensions Users Guide.

2 Log in to the remote host.


You can use the rlogin command or the ssh command.
$ ssh remote-host

3 Start remote administration.


In the terminal window, type the dtappsession command followed by the name of the local
host.
$ /usr/dt/bin/dtappsession local-host
the Application Manager that is running on the remote host displays on the local host. Also, an
Exit dialog box appears.

4 Administer the remote host.


If you invoked the remote session from Trusted CDE, you can use actions in the
Trusted_Extensions folder.

5 When finished, click the Exit button.

Caution Closing the Application Manager does not end the login session and is not
recommended.

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6 In the terminal window, exit the remote login session.


And use the hostname command to verify that you are on your local host.
$ exit
$ hostname
local-host

How to Remotely Administer Systems by Using the


Solaris Management Console From a Trusted
Extensions System
The Solaris Management Console provides a remote administration interface to manage users,
rights, roles, and the network. You assume a role to use the Console. In this procedure, you run
the Console on the local system and specify the remote system as the server.

Before You Begin You have completed the following procedures:


On both systems Initialize the Solaris Management Console Server in Trusted
Extensions in Trusted Extensions Configuration Guide
On the remote system Enable Remote Login by a Role in Trusted Extensions in Trusted
Extensions Configuration Guide and Enable the Solaris Management Console to Accept
Network Communications in Trusted Extensions Configuration Guide
On the remote system that is the LDAP server Configuring the Solaris Management
Console for LDAP (Task Map) in Trusted Extensions Configuration Guide

1 On the local system, log in as the user who is defined identically on the remote system.

2 Assume the role that you plan to use to administer the system.

3 In the role, start the Solaris Management Console.


For details, see Initialize the Solaris Management Console Server in Trusted Extensions in
Trusted Extensions Configuration Guide.

a. In the Server dialog box, type the name of the remote server.

If you are using LDAP as a naming service, type the name of the LDAP server.
Then, choose one of the following scopes.

To administer the databases in the naming service, choose the Scope=LDAP toolbox.
This Computer (ldap-server: Scope=LDAP, Policy=TSOL)

To administer the local files on the LDAP server, choose the Scope=Files toolbox.
This Computer (ldap-server: Scope=Files, Policy=TSOL)

Chapter 8 Remote Administration in Trusted Extensions (Tasks) 105


Administering Trusted Extensions Remotely (Task Map)

If you are not using LDAP as a naming service, type the name of the remote system that
you want to administer.
Then, choose the Scope=Files toolbox.
This Computer (remote-system: Scope=Files, Policy=TSOL)

4 Select a tool under System Configuration.


When you select a tool such as User, a dialog box displays the Solaris Management Console
server name, your user name, your role name, and a place to type the role's password. Make sure
that the entries are correct.

5 In the role that is defined identically on the local and the remote systems, log in to the Solaris
Management Console server.
Type the role's password and press Login as Role. You can now use the Solaris Management
Console to manage the system.

Note Although you can use the Solaris Management Console to run dtappsession, the
simplest way to use dtappsession is described in How to Remotely Administer Trusted
Extensions With dtappsession on page 103.

How to Remotely Administer Systems by Using the


Solaris Management Console From an Unlabeled
System
In this procedure, you run the Solaris Management Console client and server on the remote
system, and display the Console on the local system.

Before You Begin The Trusted Extensions system must have assigned the label ADMIN_LOW to the local system.

Note A system that is not running the CIPSO protocol, such as a Trusted Solaris system, is an
unlabeled system from the viewpoint of a Trusted Extensions system.

The Solaris Management Console server on the remote system must be configured to accept the
remote connection. For the procedure, see Enable the Solaris Management Console to Accept
Network Communications in Trusted Extensions Configuration Guide.

Both systems must have the same user who is assigned the same role that can use the Solaris
Management Console. The user can have the normal user's label range, but the role must have
the range from ADMIN_LOW to ADMIN_HIGH.

You must be in an administrative role in the global zone.

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Administering Trusted Extensions Remotely (Task Map)

1 Enable the local X server to display the remote Solaris Management Console.
# xhost + TX-SMC-Server
# echo $DISPLAY
:n.n

2 On the local system, become the user who can assume a role for the Solaris Management
Console.
# su - same-username-on-both-systems

3 As that user, log in to the remote server as the role.


$ rlogin -l same-rolename-on-both-systems TX-SMC-Server

4 Make sure that the environment variables that the Solaris Management Console uses have the
correct values.

a. Set the value of the DISPLAY variable.


$ DISPLAY=local:n.n
$ export DISPLAY=local:n.n

b. Set the value of the LOGNAME variable to the user name.


$ LOGNAME=same-username-on-both-systems
$ export LOGNAME=same-username-on-both-systems

c. Set the value of the USER variable to the role name.


$ USER=same-rolename-on-both-systems
$ export USER=same-rolename-on-both-systems

5 In the role, start the Solaris Management Console from the command line.
$ /usr/sbin/smc &

6 Select a tool under System Configuration.


When you select a tool such as User, a dialog box displays the Solaris Management Console
server name, your user name, your role name, and a place to type the role's password. Make sure
that the entries are correct.

7 As the role, log in to the server.


Type the role's password and press Login as Role. You can now use the Solaris Management
Console to manage the system.

Chapter 8 Remote Administration in Trusted Extensions (Tasks) 107


Administering Trusted Extensions Remotely (Task Map)

Note When you try to access network database information from a system that is not the LDAP
server, the operation fails. The Console allows you to log in to the remote host and open the
toolbox. However, when you try to access or change information, the following error message
indicates that you have selected Scope=LDAP on a system that is not the LDAP server:

Management server cannot perform the operation requested.


...
Error extracting the value-from-tool.
The keys received from the client were machine, domain, Scope.
Problem with Scope.

How to Enable Specific Users to Log In Remotely to the


Global Zone in Trusted Extensions
The user's default label range and the zone's default behavior are changed to enable remote
login by a non-role. You might want to complete this procedure for a tester who is using a
remote labeled system. For security reasons, the tester's system should be running a disjoint
label from other users.

Before You Begin You must have a very good reason why this user can log in to the global zone.

You must be in the Security Administrator role in the global zone.

1 To enable specific users to log in to the global zone, assign them an administrative label range.
Use the Solaris Management Console to assign a clearance of ADMIN_HIGH and a minimum label
of ADMIN_LOW to each user. For details, see How to Modify a User's Label Range in the Solaris
Management Console on page 89.
The user's labeled zones must also permit login.

2 To enable remote login from a labeled zone into the global zone, do the following.

a. Add a multilevel port for remote login to the global zone.


Use the Solaris Management Console. Port 513 over the TCP protocol enables remote login.
For an example, see How to Create a Multilevel Port for a Zone on page 130.

b. Read the tnzonecfg changes into the kernel.


# tnctl -fz /etc/security/tsol/tnzonecfg

c. Restart the remote login service.


# svcadm restart svc:/network/login:rlogin

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Administering Trusted Extensions Remotely (Task Map)

How to Use Xvnc to Remotely Access a Trusted


Extensions System
Virtual Network Computing (VNC) technology connects a client to a remote server, then
displays the desktop of the remote server in a window on the client. Xvnc is the UNIX version of
VNC, which is based on a standard X server. In Trusted Extensions, a client on any platform can
connect to an Xvnc that is running Trusted Extensions software, log in to the Xvnc server, then
display and work on a multilevel desktop.

Before You Begin You have installed and configured Trusted Extensions software on the system that is going to be
used as the Xvnc server. You have created and booted the labeled zones. Your Xvnc server
recognizes the VNC clients by hostname or IP address.
You are superuser in the global zone of the system that is going to be used as the Xvnc server.

1 Configure the Xvnc server.


For more information, see the Xvnc(1) and vncconfig(1) man pages.

Caution If you are running the Solaris 10 10/08 or the Solaris 10 5/08 release, you must patch
your system before configuring the server. For a SPARC system, install the latest version of
patch 125719. For an x86 system, install the latest version of patch 125720.

a. Create the Xservers configuration directory.


# mkdir -p /etc/dt/config

b. Copy the /usr/dt/config/Xservers file to the /etc/dt/config directory.


# cp /usr/dt/config/Xservers /etc/dt/config/Xservers

c. Edit the /etc/dt/config/Xservers file to start up the Xvnc program instead of Xserver or
Xorg.
In this example, the entry is configured to log in to the server without a password. To
successfully log in the desktop, the local UID must be none instead of console.
The entry is split for display purposes. The entry must be on one line.
# :0 Local local_uid@console root /usr/X11/bin/Xserver :0 -nobanner
:0 Local local_uid@none root /usr/X11/bin/Xvnc :0 -nobanner
-AlwaysShared -SecurityTypes None -geometry 1024x768x24 -depth 24

Note A safer configuration is to require a password by using the -SecurityTypes VncAuth


parameter. The Xvnc(1) man page describes password requirements.

d. Reboot the server or start the Xvnc server.


# reboot

Chapter 8 Remote Administration in Trusted Extensions (Tasks) 109


Administering Trusted Extensions Remotely (Task Map)

After reboot, verify that the Xvnc program is running.

# ps -ef | grep Xvnc


root 2145 932 0 Jan 18 ? 6:15 /usr/X11/bin/Xvnc :0 -nobanner
-AlwaysShared -SecurityTypes None -geometry 1024

2 On every VNC client of the Trusted Extensions Xvnc server, install VNC client software.
For the client system, you have a choice of software. This example uses the Sun VNC software.
# cd SUNW-pkg-directory
# pkgadd -d . SUNWvncviewer

3 In a terminal window on a VNC client, connect to the server.


% /usr/bin/vncviewer Xvnc-server-hostname

4 In the window that displays, type your name and password.


Continue with the login procedure. For a description of the remaining steps, see Logging In to
Trusted Extensions in Trusted Extensions Users Guide.
If you logged in to the server as superuser, you can administer the server immediately. If you
logged in to the server as a user, you must assume a role to administer the system.

110 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


9
C H A P T E R 9

Trusted Extensions and LDAP (Overview)

This chapter describes the use of the Oracle Directory Server Enterprise Edition (Directory
Server) for a system that is configured with Trusted Extensions.
Using a Naming Service in Trusted Extensions on page 111
Using the LDAP Naming Service in Trusted Extensions on page 113

Using a Naming Service in Trusted Extensions


To achieve uniformity of user, host, and network attributes within a security domain with
multiple Trusted Extensions systems, a naming service is used for distributing most
configuration information. LDAP is an example of a naming service. The nsswitch.conf file
determines which naming service is used. LDAP is the recommended naming service for
Trusted Extensions.

The Directory Server can provide the LDAP naming service for Trusted Extensions and Oracle
Solaris clients. The server must include Trusted Extensions network databases, and the Trusted
Extensions clients must connect to the server over a multilevel port. The security administrator
specifies the multilevel port when configuring Trusted Extensions.

Trusted Extensions adds two trusted network databases to the LDAP server: tnrhdb and
tnrhtp. These databases are administered by using the Security Templates tool in the Solaris
Management Console. A toolbox of Scope=LDAP, Policy=TSOL stores configuration changes
on the Directory Server.
For information about the use of the LDAP naming service in the Oracle Solaris OS, see
System Administration Guide: Naming and Directory Services (DNS, NIS, and LDAP).
Setting up the Directory Server for Trusted Extensions clients is described in Trusted
Extensions Configuration Guide. Trusted Extensions systems can be clients of an Oracle
Solaris LDAP server by using an LDAP proxy server that is configured with Trusted
Extensions.

111
Using a Naming Service in Trusted Extensions

Note Systems that are configured with Trusted Extensions cannot be clients of NIS or NIS+
masters.

Non-Networked Trusted Extensions Systems


If a naming service is not used at a site, administrators must ensure that configuration
information for users, hosts, and networks is identical on all hosts. A change that is made on
one host must be made on all hosts.

On a non-networked Trusted Extensions system, configuration information is maintained in


the /etc, /etc/security, and /etc/security/tsol directories. Actions in the
Trusted_Extensions folder enable you to modify some configuration information. The Security
Templates tool in the Solaris Management Console enables you to modify network database
parameters. Users, roles, and rights are modified in the User Accounts, Administrative Roles,
and Rights tools. A toolbox on This Computer with Scope=Files, Policy=TSOL stores
configuration changes locally.

Trusted Extensions LDAP Databases


Trusted Extensions extends the Directory Server's schema to accommodate the tnrhdb and
tnrhtp databases. Trusted Extensions defines two new attributes, ipTnetNumber and
ipTnetTemplateName, and two new object classes, ipTnetTemplate and ipTnetHost.

The attribute definitions are as follows:

ipTnetNumber
( 1.3.6.1.1.1.1.34 NAME ipTnetNumber
DESC Trusted network host or subnet address
EQUALITY caseExactIA5Match
SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.26
SINGLE-VALUE )

ipTnetTemplateName
( 1.3.6.1.1.1.1.35 NAME ipTnetTemplateName
DESC Trusted network template name
EQUALITY caseExactIA5Match
SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.26
SINGLE-VALUE )

The object class definitions are as follows:

ipTnetTemplate
( 1.3.6.1.1.1.2.18 NAME ipTnetTemplate SUP top STRUCTURAL
DESC Object class for Trusted network host templates
MUST ( ipTnetTemplateName )

112 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


Using the LDAP Naming Service in Trusted Extensions

MAY ( SolarisAttrKeyValue ) )

ipTnetHost
( 1.3.6.1.1.1.2.19 NAME ipTnetHost SUP top AUXILIARY
DESC Object class for Trusted network host/subnet address
to template mapping
MUST ( ipTnetNumber $ ipTnetTemplateName ) )

The cipso template definition in LDAP is similar to the following:

ou=ipTnet,dc=example,dc=example1,dc=exampleco,dc=com
objectClass=top
objectClass=organizationalUnit
ou=ipTnet
ipTnetTemplateName=cipso,ou=ipTnet,dc=example,dc=example1,dc=exampleco,dc=com
objectClass=top
objectClass=ipTnetTemplate
ipTnetTemplateName=cipso
SolarisAttrKeyValue=host_type=cipso;doi=1;min_sl=ADMIN_LOW;max_sl=ADMIN_HIGH;
ipTnetNumber=0.0.0.0,ou=ipTnet,dc=example,dc=example1,dc=exampleco,dc=com
objectClass=top
objectClass=ipTnetTemplate
objectClass=ipTnetHost
ipTnetNumber=0.0.0.0
ipTnetTemplateName=internal

Using the LDAP Naming Service in Trusted Extensions


The LDAP naming service is managed in Trusted Extensions as it is managed in the Oracle
Solaris OS. The following is a sample of useful commands, and contains references to more
detailed information:
For strategies to solve LDAP configuration problems, see Chapter 13, LDAP
Troubleshooting (Reference), in System Administration Guide: Naming and Directory
Services (DNS, NIS, and LDAP).
To troubleshoot client-to-server LDAP connection problems that are affected by labels, see
How to Debug a Client Connection to the LDAP Server on page 188.
To troubleshoot other client-to-server LDAP connection problems, see Chapter 13, LDAP
Troubleshooting (Reference), in System Administration Guide: Naming and Directory
Services (DNS, NIS, and LDAP).
To display LDAP entries from an LDAP client, type:
$ ldaplist -l
$ ldap_cachemgr -g
To display LDAP entries from an LDAP server, type:
$ ldap_cachemgr -g
$ idsconfig -v

Chapter 9 Trusted Extensions and LDAP (Overview) 113


Using the LDAP Naming Service in Trusted Extensions

To list the hosts that LDAP manages, type:


$ ldaplist -l hosts Long listing
$ ldaplist hosts One-line listing
To list information in the Directory Information Tree (DIT) on LDAP, type:
$ ldaplist -l services | more
dn: cn=apocd+ipServiceProtocol=udp,ou=Services,dc=exampleco,dc=com
objectClass: ipService
objectClass: top
cn: apocd
ipServicePort: 38900
ipServiceProtocol: udp
...
$ ldaplist services name
dn=cn=name+ipServiceProtocol=udp,ou=Services,dc=exampleco,dc=com
To display the status of the LDAP service on the client, type:
# svcs -xv network/ldap/client
svc:/network/ldap/client:default (LDAP client)
State: online since date
See: man -M /usr/share/man -s 1M ldap_cachemgr
See: /var/svc/log/network-ldap-client:default.log
Impact: None.
To start and stop the LDAP client, type:
# svcadm enable network/ldap/client
# svcadm disable network/ldap/client
To start and stop the LDAP server in version 5.2 of Oracle Directory Server Enterprise
Edition software, type:
# installation-directory/slap-LDAP-server-hostname/start-slapd
# installation-directory/slap-LDAP-server-hostname/stop-slapd
To start and stop the LDAP server in version 6 of Oracle Directory Server Enterprise Edition
software, type:
# dsadm start /export/home/ds/instances/your-instance
# dsadm stop /export/home/ds/instances/your-instance
To start and stop a proxy LDAP server in version 6 of Oracle Directory Server Enterprise
Edition software, type:
# dpadm start /export/home/ds/instances/your-instance
# dpadm stop /export/home/ds/instances/your-instance

114 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


10
C H A P T E R 1 0

Managing Zones in Trusted Extensions (Tasks)

This chapter describes how non-global zones work on a system that is configured with Trusted
Extensions. Also included are procedures that are unique to zones in Trusted Extensions.
Zones in Trusted Extensions on page 115
Global Zone Processes and Labeled Zones on page 118
Zone Administration Utilities in Trusted Extensions on page 119
Managing Zones (Task Map) on page 120

Zones in Trusted Extensions


A properly configured Trusted Extensions system consists of a global zone, which is the
operating system instance, and one or more labeled non-global zones. During configuration,
Trusted Extensions attaches a unique label to each zone, which creates labeled zones. The labels
come from the label_encodings file. The administrators can create a zone for each label, but
are not required to. It is possible to have more labels than labeled zones on a system. It is not
possible to have more labeled zones than labels.

On a Trusted Extensions system, the file systems of a zone are usually mounted as a loopback
file system (lofs). All writable files and directories in a labeled zone are at the label of the zone.
By default, a user can view files that are in a zone at a lower label than the user's current label.
This configuration enables users to view their home directories at lower labels than the label of
the current workspace. Although users can view files at a lower label, they cannot modify them.
Users can only modify files from a process that has the same label as the file.

In Trusted Extensions, the global zone is an administrative zone. The labeled zones are for
regular users. Users can work in a zone whose label is within the user's accreditation range.

Every zone has an associated IP address and security attributes. A zone can be configured with
multilevel ports (MLPs). Also, a zone can be configured with a policy for Internet Control
Message Protocol (ICMP) broadcasts, such as ping.

115
Zones in Trusted Extensions

For information about sharing directories from a labeled zone and about mounting directories
from labeled zones remotely, see Chapter 11, Managing and Mounting Files in Trusted
Extensions (Tasks).

Zones in Trusted Extensions are built on the Oracle Solaris zones product. For details, see
Part II, Zones, in System Administration Guide: Oracle Solaris Containers-Resource
Management and Oracle Solaris Zones. In particular, patching and package installation issues
affect Trusted Extensions. For details, see Chapter 25, About Packages and Patches on an
Oracle Solaris System With Zones Installed (Overview), in System Administration Guide:
Oracle Solaris Containers-Resource Management and Oracle Solaris Zones and Chapter 30,
Troubleshooting Miscellaneous Oracle Solaris Zones Problems, in System Administration
Guide: Oracle Solaris Containers-Resource Management and Oracle Solaris Zones.

Zones and IP Addresses in Trusted Extensions


Your initial setup team assigned IP addresses to the global zone and the labeled zones. Three
types of configurations are documented in Creating Labeled Zones in Trusted Extensions
Configuration Guide:
The system has one IP address for the global zone and all labeled zones.
This configuration is useful on a system that uses DHCP software to obtain its IP address. If
no users are expected to log in, an LDAP server might have this configuration.
The system has one IP address for the global zone, and one IP address that is shared by all
zones, including the global zone. Any zone can have a combination of a unique address and
a shared address.
This configuration is useful on a system that regular users are going to log in to. It can also be
used for a printer or an NFS server. This configuration conserves IP addresses.
The system has one IP address for the global zone, and each labeled zone has a unique IP
address.
This configuration is useful for providing access to separate physical networks of
single-level systems. Typically, each zone would have an IP address on a different physical
network from the other labeled zones. Because this configuration is implemented with a
single IP instance, the global zone controls the physical interfaces and manages global
resources, such as the route table.

With the introduction of exclusive IP instances for a non-global zone, a fourth type of
configuration is available in the Oracle Solaris OS. Starting in the Solaris 10 8/07 release, a
non-global zone can be assigned its own IP instance and manage its own physical interfaces. In
this configuration, each zone operates as if it is a distinct system. For a description, see Zone
Network Interfaces in System Administration Guide: Oracle Solaris Containers-Resource
Management and Oracle Solaris Zones.

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However, in such a configuration, each labeled zone operates as if it is a distinct single-labeled


system. The multilevel networking features of Trusted Extensions rely on features of a shared IP
stack. Administration procedures in Trusted Extensions assume that networking is controlled
entirely by the global zone. Therefore, if your initial setup team has installed labeled zones with
exclusive IP instances, you must provide or refer to site-specific documentation.

Zones and Multilevel Ports


By default, a zone cannot send packets to and receive packets from any other zone. Multilevel
ports (MLPs) enable particular services on a port to accept requests within a range of labels or
from a set of labels. These privileged services can reply at the label of the request. For example,
you might want to create a privileged web browser port that can listen at all labels, but whose
replies are restricted by label. By default, labeled zones have no MLPs.

The range of labels or set of labels that constrains the packets that the MLP can accept is based
on the zone's IP address. The IP address is assigned a remote host template in the tnrhdb
database. The label range or set of labels in the remote host template constrains the packets that
the MLP can accept.
The constraints on MLPs for different IP address configurations are as follows:
On a system where the global zone has an IP address and each labeled zone has a unique IP
address, an MLP for a particular service can be added to every zone. For example, the system
could be configured so that the ssh service, over TCP port 22, is an MLP in the global zone
and in every labeled zone.
In a typical configuration, the global zone is assigned one IP address and labeled zones share
a second IP address with the global zone. When an MLP is added to a shared interface, the
service packet is routed to the labeled zone where the MLP is defined. The packet is accepted
only if the remote host template for the labeled zone includes the label of the packet. If the
range is ADMIN_LOW to ADMIN_HIGH, then all packets are accepted. A narrower range would
discard packets that are not within the range.
At most, one zone can define a particular port to be an MLP on a shared interface. In the
preceding scenario, where the ssh port is configured as a shared MLP in a non-global zone,
no other zone can receive ssh connections on the shared address. However, the global zone
could define the ssh port as a private MLP for receipt of connections on its zone-specific
address.
On a system where the global zone and the labeled zones share an IP address, an MLP for the
ssh service could be added to one zone. If the MLP for ssh is added to the global zone, then
no labeled zone can add an MLP for the ssh service. Similarly, if the MLP for the ssh service
is added to a labeled zone, then the global zone cannot be configured with an ssh MLP.

For an example of adding MLPs to labeled zones, see Example 1316.

Chapter 10 Managing Zones in Trusted Extensions (Tasks) 117


Global Zone Processes and Labeled Zones

Zones and ICMP in Trusted Extensions


Networks transmit broadcast messages and send ICMP packets to systems on the network. On a
multilevel system, these transmissions could flood the system at every label. By default, the
network policy for labeled zones requires that ICMP packets be received only at the matching
label.

Global Zone Processes and Labeled Zones


In Trusted Extensions, MAC policy applies to all processes, including processes in the global
zone. Processes in the global zone run at the label ADMIN_HIGH. When files from a global zone
are shared, they are shared at the label ADMIN_LOW. Therefore, because MAC prevents a
higher-labeled process from modifying a lower-level object, the global zone usually cannot
write to an NFS-mounted system.

However, in a limited number of cases, actions in a labeled zone can require that a global zone
process modify a file in that zone.

To enable a global zone process to mount a remote file system with read/write permissions, the
mount must be under the zone path of the zone whose label corresponds to that of the remote
file system. But it must not be mounted under that zone's root path.
The mounting system must have a zone at the identical label as the remote file system.
The system must mount the remote file system under the zone path of the identically labeled
zone.
The system must not mount the remote file system under the zone root path of the
identically labeled zone

Consider a zone that is named public at the label PUBLIC. The zone path is /zone/public/. All
directories under the zone path are at the label PUBLIC, as in:

/zone/public/dev
/zone/public/etc
/zone/public/home/username
/zone/public/root
/zone/public/usr

Of the directories under the zone path, only files under /zone/public/root are visible from the
public zone. All other directories and files at the label PUBLIC are accessible only from the global
zone. The path /zone/public/root is the zone root path.

From the perspective of the public zone administrator, the zone root path is visible as /.
Similarly, the public zone administrator cannot access a user's home directory in the zone path,
/zone/public/home/username directory. That directory is visible only from the global zone.
The public zone mounts that directory in the zone root path as /home/username. From the
perspective of the global zone, that mount is visible as /zone/public/root/home/username.

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The public zone administrator can modify /home/username. A global zone process, when files
in a user's home directory need to be modified, does not use that path. The global zone uses the
user's home directory in the zone path, /zone/public/home/username.
Files and directories that are under the zone path, /zone/zonename/, but not under the
zone root path, /zone/zonename/root directory, can be modified by a global zone process
that runs at the label ADMIN_HIGH.
Files and directories that are under the zone root path, /zone/public/root, can be
modified by the labeled zone administrator.

For example, when a user allocates a device in the public zone, a global zone process that runs at
the label ADMIN_HIGH modifies the dev directory in the zone path, /zone/public/dev. Similarly,
when a user saves a desktop configuration, the desktop configuration file is modified by a global
zone process in the /zone/public/home/username. Finally, to share files from a labeled zone,
the global zone administrator creates the configuration file, dfstab, in the zone path,
/zone/public/etc/dfs/dfstab. A labeled zone administrator cannot access that file, and
cannot share files from the labeled zone. To share a labeled directory, see How to Share
Directories From a Labeled Zone on page 140.

Zone Administration Utilities in Trusted Extensions


Some zone administration tasks can be performed from the command line. However, the
simplest way to administer zones is to use the GUIs that Trusted Extensions provides:
The configuration of zone security attributes is performed by using the Trusted Network
Zones tool in the Solaris Management Console. For a description of the tool, see Trusted
Network Zones Tool on page 41. For examples of zone configuration and creation, see
Chapter 4, Configuring Trusted Extensions (Tasks), in Trusted Extensions Configuration
Guide and How to Create a Multilevel Port for a Zone on page 130.
The shell script, /usr/sbin/txzonemgr, provides a menu-based wizard for creating,
installing, initializing, and booting zones. If you are administering zones from Solaris
Trusted Extensions (JDS), use the txzonemgr script rather than Trusted CDE actions.
txzonemgr uses the zenity command. For details, see the zenity(1) man page.
In Trusted CDE, the configuration and creation of zones can be performed by using actions
in the Trusted_Extensions folder. For a description of the actions, see Trusted CDE
Actions on page 35. For procedures that use the actions, see How to Start CDE
Administrative Actions in Trusted Extensions on page 53.

Chapter 10 Managing Zones in Trusted Extensions (Tasks) 119


Managing Zones (Task Map)

Managing Zones (Task Map)


The following task map describes zone management tasks that are specific to Trusted
Extensions. The map also points to common procedures that are performed in Trusted
Extensions just as they are performed on an Oracle Solaris system.

Task Description For Instructions

View all zones. At any label, views the zones that are How to Display Ready or Running Zones
dominated by the current zone. on page 121

View mounted directories. At any label, views the directories that are How to Display the Labels of Mounted
dominated by the current label. Files on page 122

Enable regular users to view an /etc file. Loopback mounts a directory or file from How to Loopback Mount a File That Is
the global zone that is not visible by default Usually Not Visible in a Labeled Zone on
in a labeled zone. page 123

Prevent regular users from viewing a By default, lower-level directories are How to Disable the Mounting of
lower-level home directory from a higher visible from higher-level zones. When you Lower-Level Files on page 124
label. disable the mounting of one lower-level
zone, you disable all mounts of lower-level
zones.

Configure a zone to enable the changing of Labeled zones have limited privileges. By How to Enable Files to be Relabeled From
the labels on files. default, labeled zones do not have the a Labeled Zone on page 128
privilege that enables an authorized user to
relabel a file. You modify the zone
configuration to add the privilege.

Move a file or directory into or out of a Changes a file or directory's level of How to Move Files Between Labels in
labeled zone. security by changing its label. Trusted CDE in Trusted Extensions Users
Guide

Attach a ZFS dataset to a labeled zone and Mounts a ZFS dataset with read/write How to Share a ZFS Dataset From a
share it. permissions in a labeled zone and shares Labeled Zone on page 125.
the dataset read-only with a higher zone.

Configure a new zone. Creates a zone at a label that is not See Name and Label the Zone in Trusted
currently being used to label a zone on this Extensions Configuration Guide.
system.
Then, follow the procedure that the initial
setup team used to create the other zones.
For the steps, see Creating Labeled Zones
in Trusted Extensions Configuration Guide.

Create a multilevel port for an application. Multilevel ports are useful for programs How to Configure a Multilevel Port for
that require a multilevel feed into a labeled NFSv3 Over udp on page 129
zone.
How to Create a Multilevel Port for a
Zone on page 130

120 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


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Task Description For Instructions

Troubleshoot NFS mount and access Debugs general access issues for mounts How to Troubleshoot Mount Failures in
problems. and possibly for zones. Trusted Extensions on page 146

Remove a labeled zone. Completely removes a labeled zone from How to Remove a Non-Global Zone in
the system. System Administration Guide: Oracle
Solaris Containers-Resource Management
and Oracle Solaris Zones

How to Display Ready or Running Zones


This procedure creates a shell script that displays the labels of the current zone and all zones
that the current zone dominates.

Before You Begin You must be in the System Administrator role in the global zone.

1 Use the trusted editor to create the getzonelabels script.


For details, see How to Edit Administrative Files in Trusted Extensions on page 54.
Provide the pathname to the script, such as /usr/local/scripts/getzonelabels.

2 Add the following content, and save the file:


#!/bin/sh
#
echo "NAME\t\tSTATUS\t\tLABEL"
echo "====\t\t======\t\t====="
myzone=zonename
for i in /usr/sbin/zoneadm list -p ; do
zone=echo $i | cut -d ":" -f2
status=echo $i | cut -d ":" -f3
path=echo $i | cut -d ":" -f4
if [ $zone != global ]; then
if [ $myzone = global ]; then
path=$path/root/tmp
else
path=$path/export/home
fi
fi
label=/usr/bin/getlabel -s $path |cut -d ":" -f2-9
if [ echo $zone|wc -m -lt 8 ]; then
echo "$zone\t\t$status\t$label"
else
echo "$zone\t$status\t$label"
fi
done

3 Test the script in the global zone.


# getzonelabels
NAME STATUS LABEL
==== ====== =====

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Managing Zones (Task Map)

global running ADMIN_HIGH


needtoknow running CONFIDENTIAL : NEED TO KNOW
restricted ready CONFIDENTIAL : RESTRICTED
internal running CONFIDENTIAL : INTERNAL
public running PUBLIC
When run from the global zone, the script displays the labels of all ready or running zones. Here
is the global zone output for the zones that were created from the default label_encodings file:

Example 101 Displaying the Labels of All Ready or Running Zones


In the following example, a user runs the getzonelabels script in the internal zone.

# getzonelabels
NAME STATUS LABEL
==== ====== =====
internal running CONFIDENTIAL : INTERNAL
public running PUBLIC

How to Display the Labels of Mounted Files


This procedure creates a shell script that displays the mounted file systems of the current zone.
When run from the global zone, the script displays the labels of all mounted file systems in every
zone.

Before You Begin You must be in the System Administrator role in the global zone.

1 Use the trusted editor to create the getmounts script.


For details, see How to Edit Administrative Files in Trusted Extensions on page 54.
Provide the pathname to the script, such as /usr/local/scripts/getmounts.

2 Add the following content and save the file:


#!/bin/sh
#
for i in /usr/sbin/mount -p | cut -d " " -f3 ; do
/usr/bin/getlabel $i
done

3 Test the script in the global zone.


# /usr/local/scripts/getmounts
/: ADMIN_LOW
/dev: ADMIN_LOW
/kernel: ADMIN_LOW
/lib: ADMIN_LOW
/opt: ADMIN_LOW
/platform: ADMIN_LOW
/sbin: ADMIN_LOW

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Managing Zones (Task Map)

/usr: ADMIN_LOW
/var/tsol/doors: ADMIN_LOW
/zone/needtoknow/export/home: CONFIDENTIAL : NEED TO KNOW
/zone/internal/export/home: CONFIDENTIAL : INTERNAL USE ONLY
/zone/restricted/export/home: CONFIDENTIAL : RESTRICTED
/proc: ADMIN_LOW
/system/contract: ADMIN_LOW
/etc/svc/volatile: ADMIN_LOW
/etc/mnttab: ADMIN_LOW
/dev/fd: ADMIN_LOW
/tmp: ADMIN_LOW
/var/run: ADMIN_LOW
/zone/public/export/home: PUBLIC
/root: ADMIN_LOW

Example 102 Displaying the Labels of File Systems in the restricted Zone
When run from a labeled zone by a regular user, the getmounts script displays the labels of all
the mounted file systems in that zone. On a system where zones are created for every label in the
default label_encodings file, the following is the output from the restricted zone:

# /usr/local/scripts/getmounts
/: CONFIDENTIAL : RESTRICTED
/dev: CONFIDENTIAL : RESTRICTED
/kernel: ADMIN_LOW
/lib: ADMIN_LOW
/opt: ADMIN_LOW
/platform: ADMIN_LOW
/sbin: ADMIN_LOW
/usr: ADMIN_LOW
/var/tsol/doors: ADMIN_LOW
/zone/needtoknow/export/home: CONFIDENTIAL : NEED TO KNOW
/zone/internal/export/home: CONFIDENTIAL : INTERNAL USE ONLY
/proc: CONFIDENTIAL : RESTRICTED
/system/contract: CONFIDENTIAL : RESTRICTED
/etc/svc/volatile: CONFIDENTIAL : RESTRICTED
/etc/mnttab: CONFIDENTIAL : RESTRICTED
/dev/fd: CONFIDENTIAL : RESTRICTED
/tmp: CONFIDENTIAL : RESTRICTED
/var/run: CONFIDENTIAL : RESTRICTED
/zone/public/export/home: PUBLIC
/home/gfaden: CONFIDENTIAL : RESTRICTED

How to Loopback Mount a File That Is Usually Not


Visible in a Labeled Zone
This procedure enables a user in a specified labeled zone to view files that are not exported from
the global zone by default.

Before You Begin You must be in the System Administrator role in the global zone.

Chapter 10 Managing Zones in Trusted Extensions (Tasks) 123


Managing Zones (Task Map)

1 Halt the zone whose configuration you want to change.


# zoneadm -z zone-name halt

2 Loopback mount a file or directory.


For example, enable ordinary users to view a file in the /etc directory.
# zonecfg -z zone-name
add filesystem
set special=/etc/filename
set directory=/etc/filename
set type=lofs
add options [ro,nodevices,nosetuid]
end
exit

Note Certain files are not used by the system, so that loopback mounting them has no effect.
For example, the /etc/dfs/dfstab file in a labeled zone is not checked by Trusted Extensions
software. For more information, see Sharing Files From a Labeled Zone on page 135.

3 Start the zone.


# zoneadm -z zone-name boot

Example 103 Loopback Mounting the /etc/passwd file


In this example, the security administrator wants to enable testers and programmers to check
that their local passwords are set. After the sandbox zone is halted, it is configured to loopback
mount the passwd file. Then, the zone is restarted.

# zoneadm -z sandbox halt


# zonecfg -z sandbox
add filesystem
set special=/etc/passwd
set directory=/etc/passwd
set type=lofs
add options [ro,nodevices,nosetuid]
end
exit
# zoneadm -z sandbox boot

How to Disable the Mounting of Lower-Level Files


By default, users can view lower-level files. Remove the net_mac_aware privilege to prevent the
viewing of all lower-level files from a particular zone. For a description of the net_mac_aware
privilege, see the privileges(5) man page.

Before You Begin You must be in the System Administrator role in the global zone.

124 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


Managing Zones (Task Map)

1 Halt the zone whose configuration you want to change.


# zoneadm -z zone-name halt

2 Configure the zone to prevent the viewing of lower-level files.


Remove the net_mac_aware privilege from the zone.
# zonecfg -z zone-name
set limitpriv=default,!net_mac_aware
exit

3 Restart the zone.


# zoneadm -z zone-name boot

Example 104 Preventing Users From Viewing Lower-Level Files


In this example, the security administrator wants to prevent users on one system from being
confused. Therefore, users can only view files at the label at which the users are working. So, the
security administrator prevents the viewing of all lower-level files. On this system, users cannot
see publicly available files unless they are working at the PUBLIC label. Also, users can only NFS
mount files at the label of the zones.

# zoneadm -z restricted halt


# zonecfg -z restricted
set limitpriv=default,!net_mac_aware
exit
# zoneadm -z restricted boot

# zoneadm -z needtoknow halt


# zonecfg -z needtoknow
set limitpriv=default,!net_mac_aware
exit
# zoneadm -z needtoknow boot

# zoneadm -z internal halt


# zonecfg -z internal
set limitpriv=default,!net_mac_aware
exit
# zoneadm -z internal boot
Because PUBLIC is the lowest label, the security administrator does not run the commands for
the PUBLIC zone.

How to Share a ZFS Dataset From a Labeled Zone


In this procedure, you mount a ZFS dataset with read/write permissions in a labeled zone.
Because all commands are executed in the global zone, the global zone administrator controls
the addition of ZFS datasets to labeled zones.
At a minimum, the labeled zone must be in the ready state to share a dataset. The zone can be in
the running state.

Chapter 10 Managing Zones in Trusted Extensions (Tasks) 125


Managing Zones (Task Map)

Before You Begin To configure the zone with the dataset, you first halt the zone.

1 Create the ZFS dataset.


# zfs create datasetdir/subdir
The name of the dataset can include a directory, such as zone/data.

2 In the global zone, halt the labeled zone.


# zoneadm -z labeled-zone-name halt

3 Set the mount point of the dataset.


# zfs set mountpoint=legacy datasetdir/subdir
Setting the ZFS mountpoint property sets the label of the mount point when the mount point
corresponds to a labeled zone.

4 Add the dataset to the zone as a file system.


# zonecfg -z labeled-zone-name
# zonecfg:labeled-zone-name> add fs
# zonecfg:labeled-zone-name:dataset> set dir=/subdir
# zonecfg:labeled-zone-name:dataset> set special=datasetdir/subdir
# zonecfg:labeled-zone-name:dataset> set type=zfs
# zonecfg:labeled-zone-name:dataset> end
# zonecfg:labeled-zone-name> exit
By adding the dataset as a file system, the dataset is mounted at /data in the zone before the
dfstab file is interpreted. This step ensures that the dataset is not mounted before the zone is
booted. Specifically, the zone boots, the dataset is mounted, then the dfstab file is interpreted.

5 Share the dataset.


Add an entry for the dataset file system to the /zone/labeled-zone-name/etc/dfs/dfstab file.
This entry also uses the /subdir pathname.
share -F nfs -d "dataset-comment" /subdir

6 Boot the labeled zone.


# zoneadm -z labeled-zone-name boot
When the zone is booted, the dataset is mounted automatically as a read/write mount point in
the labeled-zone-name zone with the label of the labeled-zone-name zone.

Example 105 Sharing and Mounting a ZFS Dataset From Labeled Zones
In this example, the administrator adds a ZFS dataset to the needtoknow zone and shares the
dataset. The dataset, zone/data, is currently assigned to the /mnt mount point. Users in the
restricted zone can view the dataset.

First, the administrator halts the zone.

126 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


Managing Zones (Task Map)

# zoneadm -z needtoknow halt

Because the dataset is currently assigned to a different mount point, the administrator removes
the previous assignment, then sets the new mount point.

# zfs set zoned=off zone/data


# zfs set mountpoint=legacy zone/data

Next, in the zonecfg interactive interface, the administrator explicitly adds the dataset to the
needtoknow zone.

# zonecfg -z needtoknow
# zonecfg:needtoknow> add fs
# zonecfg:needtoknow:dataset> set dir=/data
# zonecfg:needtoknow:dataset> set special=zone/data
# zonecfg:needtoknow:dataset> set type=zfs
# zonecfg:needtoknow:dataset> end
# zonecfg:needtoknow> exit

Next, the administrator modifies the /zone/needtoknow/etc/dfs/dfstab file to share the


dataset, then boots the needtoknow zone.

## Global zone dfstab file for needtoknow zone


share -F nfs -d "App Data on ZFS" /data

# zoneadm -z needtoknow boot

The dataset is now accessible.

Users in the the restricted zone, which dominates the needtoknow zone, can view the
mounted dataset by changing to the /data directory. They use the full path to the mounted
dataset from the perspective of the global zone. In this example, machine1 is the host name of
the system that includes the labeled zone. The administrator assigned this host name to a
non-shared IP address.

# cd /net/machine1/zone/needtoknow/root/data

Troubleshooting If the attempt to reach the dataset from the higher label returns the error not found or No such
file or directory, the administrator must restart the automounter service by running the
svcadm restart autofs command.

Chapter 10 Managing Zones in Trusted Extensions (Tasks) 127


Managing Zones (Task Map)

How to Enable Files to be Relabeled From a Labeled


Zone
This procedure is a prerequisite for a user to be able to relabel files.

Before You Begin You must be in the Security Administrator role in the global zone.

1 Halt the zone whose configuration you want to change.


# zoneadm -z zone-name halt

2 Configure the zone to enable relabeling.


Add the appropriate privileges to the zone. The windows privileges enable users to use
drag-and-drop and cut-and-paste operations.

To enable downgrades, add the file_downgrade_sl privilege to the zone.


# zonecfg -z zone-name
set limitpriv=default,win_dac_read,win_mac_read,win_dac_write,
win_mac_write,win_selection,file_downgrade_sl
exit

To enable upgrades, add the sys_trans_label and file_upgrade_sl privileges to the


zone.
# zonecfg -z zone-name
set limitpriv=default,win_dac_read,win_mac_read,win_dac_write,
win_mac_write,win_selection,sys_trans_label,file_upgrade_sl
exit

To enable both upgrades and downgrades, add all three privileges to the zone.
# zonecfg -z zone-name
set limitpriv=default,win_dac_read,win_mac_read,win_dac_write,
win_mac_write,win_selection,sys_trans_label,file_downgrade_sl,
file_upgrade_sl
exit

3 Restart the zone.


# zoneadm -z zone-name boot
For the user and process requirements that permit relabeling, see the setflabel(3TSOL) man
page. To authorize a user to relabel files, see How to Enable a User to Change the Security Level
of Data on page 95.

128 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


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Example 106 Enabling Upgrades From the internal Zone


In this example, the security administrator wants to enable authorized users on a system to
upgrade files. By enabling users to upgrade information, the administrator enables them to
protect the information at a higher level of security. In the global zone, the administrator runs
the following zone administration commands.

# zoneadm -z internal halt


# zonecfg -z internal
set limitpriv=default,sys_trans_label,file_upgrade_sl
exit
# zoneadm -z internal boot

Authorized users can now upgrade internal information to restricted from the internal
zone.

Example 107 Enabling Downgrades From the restricted Zone


In this example, the security administrator wants to enable authorized users on a system to
downgrade files. Because the administrator does not add windows privileges to the zone,
authorized users cannot use the File Manager to relabel files. To relabel files, users use the
setlabel command.

By enabling users to downgrade information, the administrator permits users at a lower level of
security to access the files. In the global zone, the administrator runs the following zone
administration commands.

# zoneadm -z restricted halt


# zonecfg -z restricted
set limitpriv=default,file_downgrade_sl
exit
# zoneadm -z restricted boot

Authorized users can now downgrade restricted information to internal or public from the
restricted zone by using the setlabel command.

How to Configure a Multilevel Port for NFSv3 Over udp


This procedure is used to enable NFSv3 read-down mounts over udp. The Solaris Management
Console is used to add the MLP.

Before You Begin You must be in the Security Administrator role in the global zone.

1 Start the Solaris Management Console.


For details, see How to Administer the Local System With the Solaris Management Console
on page 52.

Chapter 10 Managing Zones in Trusted Extensions (Tasks) 129


Managing Zones (Task Map)

2 Choose the Files toolbox.


The title of the toolbox includes Scope=Files, Policy=TSOL.

3 Configure the zone and the MLP.

a. Navigate to the Trusted Network Zones tool.

b. Double-click the global zone.

c. Add a multilevel port for the UDP protocol:

i. Click Add for the Multilevel Ports for Zone's IP Addresses.

ii. Type 2049 for the port number, and click OK.

d. Click OK to save the settings.

4 Close the Solaris Management Console.

5 Update the kernel.


# tnctl -fz /etc/security/tsol/tnzonecfg

How to Create a Multilevel Port for a Zone


This procedure is used when an application that runs in a labeled zone requires a multilevel port
(MLP) to communicate with the zone. In this procedure, a web proxy communicates with the
zone. The Solaris Management Console is used to add the MLP.

Before You Begin You must be in the Security Administrator role in the global zone. The labeled zone must exist.
For details, see Creating Labeled Zones in Trusted Extensions Configuration Guide.

1 Start the Solaris Management Console.


For details, see How to Administer the Local System With the Solaris Management Console
on page 52.

2 Choose the Files toolbox.


The title of the toolbox includes Scope=Files, Policy=TSOL.

3 Add the proxy host and the webservices host to the list of computers.

a. Under System Configuration, navigate to the Computers and Networks tool.

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b. In the Computers tool, click the Action menu and choose Add Computer.

c. Add the host name and IP address for the proxy host.

d. Save the changes.

e. Add the host name and IP address for the webservice host.

f. Save the changes.

4 Configure the zone and the MLP.

a. Navigate to the Trusted Network Zones tool.

b. Select the labeled zone.

c. In the MLP Configuration for Local IP Addresses section, specify the appropriate
port/protocol field.

d. Save the changes.

5 For the zone, customize a template by completing the following steps:

a. Navigate to the Security Templates tool.


Click the Action menu and choose Add Template.

b. Use the host name for the template name.

c. Specify CIPSO for the Host Type.

d. Use the label of the zone for the Minimum Label and for the Maximum Label.

e. Assign the zone label to the Security Label Set.

f. Select the Hosts Explicitly Assigned tab.

g. In the Add an Entry section, add the IP address that is associated with the zone.

h. Save the changes.

6 Close the Solaris Management Console.

7 Start the zones.


# zoneadm -z zone-name boot

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Managing Zones (Task Map)

8 In the global zone, add routes for the new addresses.


For example, if the zones have a shared IP address, do the following:
# route add proxy labeled-zones-IP-address
# route add webservice labeled-zones-IP-address

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11
C H A P T E R 1 1

Managing and Mounting Files in Trusted


Extensions (Tasks)

This chapter describes how LOFS and NFS mounts work on a system that is configured with
Trusted Extensions. This chapter also covers how to back up and restore files.
Sharing and Mounting Files in Trusted Extensions on page 133
NFS Mounts in Trusted Extensions on page 133
Sharing Files From a Labeled Zone on page 135
Access to NFS Mounted Directories in Trusted Extensions on page 135
Trusted Extensions Software and NFS Protocol Versions on page 138
Backing Up, Sharing, and Mounting Labeled Files (Task Map) on page 139

Sharing and Mounting Files in Trusted Extensions


Trusted Extensions software supports the same file systems and file system management
commands as the Oracle Solaris OS. Trusted Extensions adds the ability for a non-global zone
to share files. In addition, Trusted Extensions attaches a unique label to every non-global zone.
All the files and directories that belong to that zone are mounted at the label of the zone. Any
shared file systems that belong to other zones or to NFS servers are mounted at the label of the
owner. Trusted Extensions prevents any mounts that would violate the mandatory access
control (MAC) policies for labeling. For example, a zone's label must dominate all of its
mounted file system labels, and only equally labeled file systems can be mounted with
read/write permissions.

NFS Mounts in Trusted Extensions


NFS mounts in Trusted Extensions are similar to Oracle Solaris mounts. The differences occur
in the use of zone root pathnames when mounting a labeled zone in Trusted Extensions, and in
the enforcement of MAC policy.

133
NFS Mounts in Trusted Extensions

NFS shares in Trusted Extensions are similar to Oracle Solaris shares in a global zone. However,
the sharing of files from a labeled zone on a multilevel system is unique to Trusted Extensions:
Shares and mounts in the global zone Sharing and mounting files in the global zone of a
Trusted Extensions system is almost identical to the procedure in the Oracle Solaris OS. For
mounting files, the automounter, the vfstab file, and the mount command can be used. For
sharing files, the dfstab file is used.
Mounts in labeled zones Mounting files in labeled zones in Trusted Extensions is almost
identical to mounting files in non-global zones in the Oracle Solaris OS. For mounting files,
the automounter, the vfstab file, and the mount command can be used. In Trusted
Extensions, a unique automount_home_label configuration file exists for each labeled zone.
Shares in labeled zones Files in a labeled zone can be shared at the label of the zone by
using a dfstab file that is at the label of the zone, but is visible to the global zone only. So,
configuring a labeled zone to share files is performed by the global zone administrator in the
global zone. This configuration file is not visible from its labeled zone. For more discussion,
see Global Zone Processes and Labeled Zones on page 118.

Labels affect which files can be mounted. Files are shared and mounted at a particular label. For
a Trusted Extensions client to write to a file that is NFS-mounted, the file must be mounted with
read/write permissions and be at the same label as the client. If you are mounting a file between
two Trusted Extensions hosts, the server and the client must have compatible remote host
templates of type cipso. If you are mounting a file between a Trusted Extensions host and an
unlabeled host, files that are at the single label that is specified for the unlabeled host in the
tnrhdb file can be mounted. Files that are mounted with LOFS can be viewed, but cannot be
modified. For details on NFS mounts, see Access to NFS Mounted Directories in Trusted
Extensions on page 135.

Labels also affect which directories and files can be viewed. By default, lower-level objects are
available in a user's environment. Therefore, in the default configuration, a regular user can
view files that are in a zone at a lower level than the user's current level. For example, users can
see their lower-level home directories from a higher label. For details, see Home Directory
Creation in Trusted Extensions on page 136.

If site security forbids the viewing of lower-level objects, you can make lower-level directories
invisible to the user. For details, see How to Disable the Mounting of Lower-Level Files on
page 124.

The mount policy in Trusted Extensions has no MAC overrides. Mounted files that are visible at
a lower label can never be modified by a higher-label process. This MAC policy is also in effect
in the global zone. A global zone ADMIN_HIGH process cannot modify an NFS-mounted file at a
lower label, such as a PUBLIC file or an ADMIN_LOW file. MAC policies enforce the default
configuration and are invisible to regular users. Regular users cannot see objects unless they
have MAC access to them.

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Sharing Files From a Labeled Zone


In the Oracle Solaris OS, a non-global zone cannot share directories from its zone. However, in
Trusted Extensions, a labeled zone can share directories. The specification of which directories
in a labeled zone can be shared is performed in the global zone by using a directory that is
outside the root path of the zone. For more discussion, see Global Zone Processes and Labeled
Zones on page 118.
/zone/labeled-zone/directories Also called the zone path. Is the path from the global
zone to the labeled zone. Every directory under
labeled-zone is labeled the same as the zone.
/zone/labeled-zone/root/directories Also called the zone root path. Is the root path of a
labeled zone from the perspective of the global zone.
From the perspective of the labeled zone, this is the
zone's root, the / directory. This path is not used by
the global zone to administer the zone.

To share directories from a labeled zone, the global zone administrator creates and modifies the
dfstab file in the /etc directory of the zone path:

/zone/labeled-zone/etc/dfs/dfstab

This /etc directory is not visible from the labeled zone. This directory is distinct from the /etc
directory that is visible from the zone:

Global zone view: /zone/labeled-zone/root/etc


Labeled zone view of the same directory: /etc

A dfstab file in this path does not enable labeled directories to be shared.

When the status of the labeled zone is ready or running, the files that are listed in the
/zone/labeled-zone/etc/dfs/dfstab file are shared at the label of the zone. For the procedure,
see How to Share Directories From a Labeled Zone on page 140.

Access to NFS Mounted Directories in Trusted Extensions


By default, NFS-mounted file systems are visible at the label of the exported file system. If the file
system is exported with read/write permissions, users at that label can write to the files. NFS
mounts that are at a lower label than the user's current session are visible to the user, but cannot
be written to. Even if a file system is shared with read/write permissions, the mounting system
can write to it only at the label of the mount.

To make lower-level directories that are NFS-mounted visible to users in a higher-level zone,
the administrator of the global zone on the NFS server must export the parent directory. The

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Access to NFS Mounted Directories in Trusted Extensions

parent directory is exported at its label. On the client side, each zone must have the
net_mac_aware privilege. By default, labeled zones include the net_mac_aware privilege in their
limitpriv set.
Server configuration On the NFS server, you export the parent directory in a dfstab file.
If the parent directory is in a labeled zone, the dfstab file must be modified in the labeled
zone of the parent directory. The dfstab file for a labeled zone is visible only from the global
zone. For the procedure, see How to Share Directories From a Labeled Zone on page 140.
Client configuration The net_mac_aware privilege must be specified in the zone
configuration file that is used during initial zone configuration. So, a user who is permitted
to view all lower-level home directories must have the net_mac_aware privilege in every
zone, except the lowest zone. For an example, see How to NFS Mount Files in a Labeled
Zone on page 142.

EXAMPLE 111 Providing Access to Lower-Level Home Directories


On the home directory server, the administrator creates and modifies the
/zone/labeled-zone/etc/dfs/dfstab file in every labeled zone. The dfstab file exports the
/export/home directory with read/write permissions. Thus, when the directory is mounted at
the same label, the home directory is writable. To export the /export/home directory of PUBLIC,
the administrator creates a workspace at the PUBLIC label on the home directory server, and
from the global zone, modifies the /zone/public/etc/dfs/dfstab file.

On the client, the administrator of the global zone checks that every labeled zone, except the
lowest label, has the net_mac_aware privilege. This privilege permits the mount. This privilege
can be specified by using the zonecfg command during zone configuration. The lower-level
home directory can only be viewed. MAC protects the files in the directory from modification.

Home Directory Creation in Trusted Extensions


Home directories are a special case in Trusted Extensions. You need to make sure that the home
directories are created in every zone that a user can use. Also, the home directory mount points
must be created in the zones on the user's system. For NFS-mounted home directories to work
correctly, the conventional location for directories, /export/home, must be used. In Trusted
Extensions, the automounter has been modified to handle home directories in every zone, that
is, at every label. For details, see Changes to the Automounter in Trusted Extensions on
page 137.

Home directories are created when users are created. In Trusted Extensions, the Solaris
Management Console (Console) is used to create users, so the Console creates the home
directories. However, the Console creates the home directories in the global zone of the home
directory server. On that server, the directories are mounted by LOFS. Home directories are
automatically created by the automounter if they are specified as LOFS mounts.

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Note When you delete a user by using the Console, only the user's home directory in the global
zone is deleted. The user's home directories in the labeled zones are not deleted. You are
responsible for archiving and deleting the home directories in the labeled zones. For the
procedure, see How to Delete a User Account From a Trusted Extensions System on page 95.

However, the automounter cannot automatically create home directories on remote NFS
servers. Either the user must first log in to the NFS server or administrative intervention is
required. To create home directories for users, see Enable Users to Access Their Home
Directories in Trusted Extensions in Trusted Extensions Configuration Guide.

Changes to the Automounter in Trusted Extensions


In Trusted Extensions, each label requires a separate home directory mount. The automount
command has been modified to handle these labeled automounts. For each zone, the
automounter, autofs, mounts an auto_home_zone-name file. For example, the following is the
entry for the global zone in the auto_home_global file:

+auto_home_global
* -fstype=lofs :/export/home/&

When a zone that permits lower-level zones to be mounted is booted, the following occurs. The
home directories of lower-level zones are mounted read only under
/zone/<zone-name>/export/home. The auto_home_<zone-name> map specifies the /zone path
as the source directory for an lofs remount onto /zone/<zone-name>/home/<username>.

For example, the following is an auto_home_public entry in an


auto_home_zone-at-higher-label map that is generated from a higher-level zone:

+auto_home_public
* -fstype=lofs :/zone/public/export/home/&

The following is the corresponding entry in the public zone:

auto_home_public
* -fstype=lofs :/export/home/&

When a home directory is referenced and the name does not match any entries in the
auto_home_<zone-name> map, the map tries to match this loopback mount specification. The
software creates the home directory when the following two conditions are met:
1. The map finds the match of the loopback mount specification
2. The home directory name matches a valid user whose home directory does not yet exist in
zone-name

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For details on changes to the automounter, see the automount(1M) man page.

Trusted Extensions Software and NFS Protocol Versions


In the Solaris 10 11/06 and Solaris 10 8/07 releases, Trusted Extensions recognizes multiple
labels on NFS Version 4 (NFSv4) only. Starting in the Solaris 10 5/08 release, Trusted
Extensions software recognizes labels on NFS Version 3 (NFSv3) and NFSv4. You can use one
of the following sets of mount options:

vers=4 proto=tcp
vers=3 proto=tcp
vers=3 proto=udp

Trusted Extensions has no restrictions on mounts over the tcp protocol. In NFSv3 and NFSv4,
the tcp protocol can be used for same-label mounts and for read-down mounts. Read-down
mounts require a multilevel port (MLP).

For NFSv3, Trusted Extensions behaves like the Oracle Solaris OS. The udp protocol is the
default for NFSv3, but udp is used only for the initial mount operation. For subsequent NFS
operations, the system uses tcp. Therefore, read-down mounts work for NFSv3 in the default
configuration.

In the rare case that you have restricted NFSv3 mounts to use the udp protocol for initial and
subsequent NFS operations, you must create an MLP for NFS operations that use the udp
protocol. For the procedure, see How to Configure a Multilevel Port for NFSv3 Over udp on
page 129.

A host that is configured with Trusted Extensions can also share its own file systems with
unlabeled hosts. A file or directory that is exported to an unlabeled host is writable if its label
equals the label that is associated with the remote host in its trusted networking database
entries. A file or directory that is exported to an unlabeled host is readable only if its label is
dominated by the label that is associated with the remote host.

Communications with systems that are running a release of Trusted Solaris software is possible
only at a single label. The Trusted Extensions system and the Trusted Solaris system must assign
to the other system a template with the unlabeled host type. The unlabeled host types must
specify the same single label. As an unlabeled NFS client of a Trusted Solaris server, the label of
the client cannot be ADMIN_LOW.

The NFS protocol that is used is independent of the local file system's type. Rather, the protocol
depends on the type of the sharing computer's operating system. The file system type that is
specified to the mount command or in the vfstab file for remote file systems is always NFS.

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Backing Up, Sharing, and Mounting Labeled Files (Task Map)


The following task map describes common tasks that are used to back up and restore data from
labeled file systems, and to share and mount directories and files that are labeled.

Task Description For Instructions

Back up files. Protects your data by backing it up. How to Back Up Files in Trusted
Extensions on page 139

Restore data. Restores data from a backup. How to Restore Files in Trusted
Extensions on page 140

Share the contents of a directory from a Allows the contents of a labeled directory How to Share Directories From a Labeled
labeled zone. to be shared among users. Zone on page 140

Mount the contents of a directory that was Allows the contents of a directory to be How to NFS Mount Files in a Labeled
shared by a labeled zone. mounted in a zone at the same label for Zone on page 142
read/write. When a higher-level zone
mounts the shared directory, the directory
is mounted read-only.

Create home directory mount points. Creates mount points for every user at Enable Users to Access Their Home
every label. This task enables users to Directories in Trusted Extensions in
access their home directory on a system Trusted Extensions Configuration Guide
that is not the NFS home directory server.

Hide lower-level information from a user Prevent the viewing of lower-level How to Disable the Mounting of
who is working at a higher label. information from a higher-level window. Lower-Level Files on page 124

Troubleshoot file system mounting Resolve problems with mounting a file How to Troubleshoot Mount Failures in
problems. system. Trusted Extensions on page 146

How to Back Up Files in Trusted Extensions


1 Assume the Operator role.
This role includes the Media Backup rights profile.

2 Use one of the following backup methods:


/usr/lib/fs/ufs/ufsdump for major backups
/usr/sbin/tar cT for small backups
A script calling either of these commands
For example, the Budtool backup application calls the ufsdump command. See the
ufsdump(1M) man page. For details on the T option to the tar command, see the tar(1) man
page.

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Backing Up, Sharing, and Mounting Labeled Files (Task Map)

How to Restore Files in Trusted Extensions


1 Become root.

2 Use one of the following methods:


/usr/lib/fs/ufs/ufsrestore for major restores
/usr/sbin/tar xT for small restores
A script calling either of these commands
For details on the T option to the tar command, see the tar(1) man page.

Caution Only these commands preserve labels.

How to Share Directories From a Labeled Zone


As in the Oracle Solaris OS, the Mounts and Shares tool in the Solaris Management Console is
used to share and mount files from the global zone. The tool cannot be used to mount or share
directories that originate in labeled zones. Create a dfstab file at the label of the zone, and then
restart the zone to share the labeled directories.

Caution Do not use proprietary names for shared file systems. The names of shared file systems
are visible to every user.

Before You Begin You must be superuser, or in the System Administrator role in the global zone on the file server.

1 Create a workspace at the label of the directory that is going to be shared.


For details, see How to Add a Workspace at a Particular Label in Trusted Extensions Users
Guide.

2 Create a dfstab file in at the label of that zone.


For each zone that will share a directory, repeat the following steps:

a. Create the /etc/dfs directory in the zone.


# mkdir -p /zone/zone-name/etc/dfs

b. Open the trusted editor.


For details, see How to Edit Administrative Files in Trusted Extensions on page 54.

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c. Type the full pathname of the dfstab file into the editor.
# /zone/zone-name/etc/dfs/dfstab

d. Add an entry to share a directory from that zone.


The entry describes the directory from the perspective of the zone root path. For example,
the following entry shares an application's files at the label of the containing zone:
share -F nfs -o ro /viewdir/viewfiles

3 For each zone, share the directories by starting the zone.


In the global zone, run one of the following commands for each zone. Each zone can share its
directories in any of these ways. The actual sharing occurs when each zone is brought into the
ready or running state.

If the zone is not in the running state and you do not want users to log in to the server at the
label of the zone, set the zone state to ready.
# zoneadm -z zone-name ready

If the zone is not in the running state and users are allowed to log in to the server at the label
of the zone, boot the zone.
# zoneadm -z zone-name boot

If the zone is already running, reboot the zone.


# zoneadm -z zone-name reboot

4 Display the directories that are shared from your system.


# showmount -e

5 To enable the client to mount the exported files, see How to NFS Mount Files in a Labeled Zone
on page 142.

Example 112 Sharing the /export/share Directory at the PUBLIC Label


For applications that run at the label PUBLIC, the system administrator enables users to read the
documentation in the /export/share directory of the public zone. The zone named public
runs at the label PUBLIC.

First, the administrator creates a public workspace and edits the dfstab file.

# mkdir -p /zone/public/etc/dfs
# /usr/dt/bin/trusted_edit /zone/public/etc/dfs/dfstab

In the file, the administrator adds the following entry:

## Sharing PUBLIC user manuals


share -F nfs -o ro /export/appdocs

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The administrator leaves the public workspace and returns to the Trusted Path workspace.
Because users are not allowed to log in to this system, the administrator shares the files by
putting the zone in the ready state:

# zoneadm -z public ready

Users can access the shared directories once the directories are mounted on the users' systems.

How to NFS Mount Files in a Labeled Zone


In Trusted Extensions, a labeled zone manages the mounting of files in its zone.

Files from unlabeled and labeled hosts can be mounted on a Trusted Extensions labeled host.
To mount the files read/write from a single-label host, the assigned label of the remote host
must be identical to the zone in which the file is being mounted.
Files that are mounted by a higher-level zone are read-only.
In Trusted Extensions, the auto_home configuration file is customized per zone. The file is
named by zone name. For example, a system with a global zone and a public zone has two
auto_home files, auto_home_global and auto_home_public.

Trusted Extensions uses the same mounting interfaces as the Oracle Solaris OS:
To mount files at boot, use the /etc/vfstab file in the labeled zone.
To mount files dynamically, use the mount command in the labeled zone.
To automount home directories, use the auto_home_zone-name files.
To automount other directories, use the standard automount maps. If the automount maps
are in LDAP, use LDAP commands to manage them.

Before You Begin You must be on the client system, in the zone at the label of the files that you want to mount.
Unless you are using the automounter, you must be superuser, or be in the System
Administrator role. To mount from lower-level servers, the zone must be configured with the
net_mac_aware privilege.

To NFS mount files in a labeled zone, use the following procedures.


Most procedures include creating a workspace at a particular label. To create a workspace, see
How to Add a Workspace at a Particular Label in Trusted Extensions Users Guide.

Mount files dynamically.


In the labeled zone, use the mount command. For an example of mounting files dynamically,
see Example 113.

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Mount files when the zone boots


In the labeled zone, add the mounts to the vfstab file.
For examples of mounting files when a labeled zone boots, see Example 114 and
Example 115.

Mount home directories for systems that are administered with LDAP.

a. At every label, add the user specifications to the auto_home_zone-name files.

b. Then, use these files to populate the auto_home_zone-name database on the LDAP
server.
For an example, see Example 116.

Mount home directories for systems that are administered with files.

a. Create and populate an /export/home/auto_home_lowest-labeled-zone-name file.

b. Edit the /etc/auto_home_lowest-labeled-zone-name file to point to the newly populated


file.

c. Modify the /etc/auto_home_lowest-labeled-zone-name file in every higher-level zone to


point to the file that you created in Step a.
For an example, see Example 117.

Example 113 Mounting Files in a Labeled Zone by Using the mount Command
In this example, the system administrator mounts a remote file system from a public zone. The
public zone is on a multilevel server.

After assuming the System Administrator role, the administrator creates a workspace at the
label PUBLIC. In that workspace, the administrator runs the mount command.

# zonename
public
# mount -F nfs remote-sys:/zone/public/root/opt/docs /opt/docs

A single-label file server at the label PUBLIC also contains documents to be mounted:

# mount -F nfs public-sys:/publicdocs /opt/publicdocs

When the public zone of the remote-sys file server is in the ready or running state, the
remote-sys files successfully mount on this system. When the public-sys file server is
running, the files successfully mount.

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Example 114 Mounting Files Read/Write in a Labeled Zone by Modifying the vfstab File
In this example, the system administrator mounts two remote file systems at the label PUBLIC in
the local system's public zone when the public zone boots. One file system mount is from a
multilevel system, and one file system mount is from a single-label system.
After assuming the System Administrator role, the administrator creates a workspace at the
label PUBLIC. In that workspace, the administrator modifies the vfstab file in that zone.

## Writable books directories at PUBLIC


remote-sys:/zone/public/root/opt/docs - /opt/docs nfs no yes rw
public-sys:/publicdocs - /opt/publicdocs nfs no yes rw
To access the files in the remote labeled zone of the multilevel system, the vfstab entry uses the
zone root path of the remote system's public zone, /zone/public/root, as the directory
pathname to the directories to mount. The path to the single-label system is identical to the path
that would be used on an Oracle Solaris system.
In a terminal window at the label PUBLIC, the administrator mounts the files.

# mountall

Example 115 Mounting Lower-Level Files in a Labeled Zone by Modifying the vfstab File
In this example, the system administrator mounts a remote file system from a public zone in the
local system's internal zone. After assuming the System Administrator role, the administrator
creates a workspace at the label INTERNAL, then modifies the vfstab file in that zone.

## Readable books directory at PUBLIC


## ro entry indicates that PUBLIC docs can never be mounted rw in internal zone
remote-sys:/zone/public/root/opt/docs - /opt/docs nfs no yes ro
To access the files in the remote labeled zone, the vfstab entry uses the zone root path of the
remote system's public zone, /zone/public/root, as the directory pathname to the directories
to mount.
From the perspective of a user in the internal zone, the files can be accessed at /opt/docs.
In a terminal window at the label INTERNAL, the administrator mounts the files.

# mountall

Example 116 Mounting Labeled Home Directories in a Network That Is Administered by Using
LDAP
In this example, the system administrator enables a new user, ikuk, to access her home
directory at every label. This site uses two home directory servers, and is administered by using
LDAP. The second server contains the home directories for the users jdoe and pkai. The new
user is added to this list.

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First, after assuming the System Administrator role, the administrator modifies the
auto_home_zone-name files in the /etc directory of the global zone to include the new user on
the second home directory server.

## auto_home_global file
jdoe homedir2-server:/export/home/jdoe
pkai homedir2-server:/export/home/pkai
ikuk homedir2-server:/export/home/ikuk
* homedir-server:/export/home/&

## auto_home_internal file
## Mount the home directory from the internal zone of the NFS server
jdoe homedir2-server:/export/home/jdoe
pkai homedir2-server:/export/home/pkai
ikuk homedir2-server:/export/home/ikuk
* homedir-server:/export/home/&

## auto_home_public
## Mount the home directory from the public zone of the NFS server
jdoe homedir2-server:/export/home/jdoe
pkai homedir2-server:/export/home/pkai
ikuk homedir2-server:/export/home/ikuk
* homedir-server:/export/home/&

Next, to enable the users to log in at all labels, the administrator repeats these edits for the
auto_home_zone-name files at every label.

Finally, after modifying every auto_home_zone-name file on this system, the administrator uses
these files to add entries to the LDAP database.

Similar to the Oracle Solaris OS, the +auto_home_public entry in the


/etc/auto_home_zone-name files directs the automounter to the LDAP entries. The
auto_home_zone-name files on other systems on the network are updated from the LDAP
database.

Example 117 Mounting a Lower-Level Home Directory on a System That Is Administered by Using
Files
In this example, the system administrator enables users to access their home directories at every
label. The labels at the site are PUBLIC, INTERNAL, and NEEDTOKNOW. This site uses two home
directory servers, and is administered by using files. The second server contains the home
directories for the users jdoe and pkai.

To accomplish this task, the system administrator defines the public zone NFS home directories
in the public zone, and shares this configuration with the internal and needtoknow zones.

First, after assuming the System Administrator role, the administrator creates a workspace at
the label PUBLIC. In this workspace, the administrator creates a new file,
/export/home/auto_home_public. This file contains all the customized per-user NFS
specification entries.

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## /export/home/auto_home_public file at PUBLIC label


jdoe homedir2-server:/export/home/jdoe
pkai homedir2-server:/export/home/pkai
* homedir-server:/export/home/&

Second, the administrator modifies the /etc/auto_home_public file to point to this new file.

## /etc/auto_home_public file in the public zone


## Use /export/home/auto_home_public for the user entries
## +auto_home_public
+ /export/home/auto_home_public

This entry directs the automounter to use the contents of the local file.

Third, the administrator similarly modifies the /etc/auto_home_public file in the internal and
needtoknow zones. The administrator uses the pathname to the public zone that is visible to the
internal and needtoknow zones.

## /etc/auto_home_public file in the internal zone


## Use /zone/public/export/home/auto_home_public for PUBLIC user home dirs
## +auto_home_public
+ /zone/public/export/home/auto_home_public

## /etc/auto_home_public file in the needtoknow zone


## Use /zone/public/export/home/auto_home_public for PUBLIC user home dirs
## +auto_home_public
+ /zone/public/export/home/auto_home_public

When the administrator adds the new user ikuk, the addition is made to the
/export/home/auto_home_public file at the PUBLIC label.

## /export/home/auto_home_public file at PUBLIC label


jdoe homedir2-server:/export/home/jdoe
pkai homedir2-server:/export/home/pkai
ikuk homedir2-server:/export/home/ikuk
* homedir-server:/export/home/&

The higher-level zones read down to obtain the per-user home directories from the lower-level
public zone.

How to Troubleshoot Mount Failures in Trusted


Extensions
Before You Begin You must be in the zone at the label of the files that you want to mount. You must be the
superuser, or in the System Administrator role.

146 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


Backing Up, Sharing, and Mounting Labeled Files (Task Map)

1 Check the security attributes of the NFS server.


Use the Security Templates tool in the Solaris Management Console at the appropriate scope.
For details, see Initialize the Solaris Management Console Server in Trusted Extensions in
Trusted Extensions Configuration Guide.

a. Verify that the IP address of the NFS server is an assigned host in one of the security
templates.
The address might be directly assigned, or indirectly assigned through a wildcard
mechanism. The address can be in a labeled template, or in an unlabeled template.

b. Check the label that the template assigns to the NFS server.
The label must be consistent with the label at which you are trying to mount the files.

2 Check the label of the current zone.


If the label is higher than the label of the mounted file system, then you cannot write to the
mount even if the remote file system is exported with read/write permissions. You can only
write to the mounted file system at the label of the mount.

3 To mount file systems from an NFS server that is running earlier versions of Trusted Solaris
software, do the following:

For a Trusted Solaris 1 NFS server, use the vers=2 and proto=udp options to the mount
command.

For a Trusted Solaris 2.5.1 NFS server, use the vers=2 and proto=udp options to the mount
command.

For a Trusted Solaris 8 NFS server, use the vers=3 and proto=udp options to the mount
command.
To mount file systems from any of these servers, the server must be assigned to an unlabeled
template.

Chapter 11 Managing and Mounting Files in Trusted Extensions (Tasks) 147


148
12
C H A P T E R 1 2

Trusted Networking (Overview)

This chapter describes trusted networking concepts and mechanisms in Trusted Extensions.
The Trusted Network on page 149
Network Security Attributes in Trusted Extensions on page 154
Trusted Network Fallback Mechanism on page 157
Overview of Routing in Trusted Extensions on page 159
Administration of Routing in Trusted Extensions on page 161

The Trusted Network


Trusted Extensions assigns security attributes to zones, hosts, and networks. These attributes
ensure that the following security features are enforced on the network:
Data is properly labeled in network communications.
Mandatory access control (MAC) rules are enforced when data is sent or received across a
local network and when file systems are mounted.
MAC rules are enforced when data is routed to distant networks.
MAC rules are enforced when data is routed to zones.

In Trusted Extensions, network packets are protected by MAC. Labels are used for MAC
decisions. Data is labeled explicitly or implicitly with a sensitivity label. A label has an ID field, a
classification or level field, and a compartment or category field. Data must pass an
accreditation check. This check determines if the label is well formed, and if the label lies within
the accreditation range of the receiving host. Well-formed packets that are within the receiving
host's accreditation range are granted access.

IP packets that are exchanged between trusted systems can be labeled. Trusted Extensions
supports Commercial IP Security Option (CIPSO) labels. A CIPSO label on a packet serves to
classify, segregate, and route IP packets. Routing decisions compare the sensitivity label of the
data with the label of the destination.

149
The Trusted Network

Typically on a trusted network, the label is generated by a sending host and processed by the
receiving host. However, a trusted router can also add or strip labels while forwarding packets
in a trusted network. A sensitivity label is mapped to a CIPSO label before transmission. The
CIPSO label is embedded in the IP packet. Typically, a packet sender and the packet's receiver
operate at the same label.

Trusted networking software ensures that the Trusted Extensions security policy is enforced
even when the subjects (processes) and objects (data) are located on different hosts. Trusted
Extensions networking preserves MAC across distributed applications.

Trusted Extensions Data Packets


Trusted Extensions data packets include a CIPSO label option. The data packets can be sent
over IPv4 or IPv6 networks.

In the standard IPv4 format, the IPv4 header with options is followed by a TCP, UDP, or SCTP
header and then the actual data. The Trusted Extensions version of an IPv4 packet uses the
CIPSO option in the IP header for the security attributes.

IPv4 Header With CIPSO Option TCP, UDP, or SCTP Data

In the standard IPv6 format, an IPv6 header with extensions is followed by a TCP, UDP, or
SCTP header and then the actual data. The Trusted Extensions IPv6 packet includes a
multilevel security option in the header with extensions.

IPv6 Header With Extensions TCP, UDP, or SCTP Data

Trusted Network Communications


Trusted Extensions supports labeled and unlabeled hosts on a trusted network. LDAP is a fully
supported naming service. Various commands and GUIs enable the network to be
administered.

Systems that run Trusted Extensions software support network communications between
Trusted Extensions hosts and any of the following types of systems:
Other systems that are running Trusted Extensions
Systems that are running operating systems that do not recognize security attributes, but do
support TCP/IP, such as Oracle Solaris systems, other UNIX systems, Microsoft Windows,
and Macintosh OS systems

150 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


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Systems that are running other trusted operating systems that recognize CIPSO labels

As in the Oracle Solaris OS, Trusted Extensions network communications and services can be
managed by a naming service. Trusted Extensions adds the following interfaces to Oracle
Solaris network interfaces:
Trusted Extensions adds three network configuration databases, tnzonecfg, tnrhdb, and
tnrhtp. For details, see Network Configuration Databases in Trusted Extensions on
page 152.
The Trusted Extensions version of the naming service switch file, nsswitch.conf, includes
entries for the tnrhtp and tnrhdb databases. These entries can be modified to suit each site's
configuration.
Trusted Extensions uses the LDAP naming service to centrally manage configuration files
that define hosts, networks, and users. The default nsswitch.conf entries for the trusted
network databases for the LDAP naming service follow:
# Trusted Extensions
tnrhtp: files ldap
tnrhdb: files ldap

The LDAP naming service on a Oracle Directory Server Enterprise Edition is the only fully
supported naming service in Trusted Extensions. For information about the use of LDAP on
a system that is configured with Trusted Extensions, see Chapter 9, Trusted Extensions and
LDAP (Overview).
Trusted Extensions adds tools to the Solaris Management Console. The console is used to
centrally manage zones, hosts, and networks. The network tools are described in Solaris
Management Console Tools on page 38.
The Trusted Extensions Configuration Guide describes how to define zones and hosts when
you configure the network. For additional details, see Chapter 13, Managing Networks in
Trusted Extensions (Tasks).
Trusted Extensions adds commands to administer trusted networking. Trusted Extensions
also adds options to the Oracle Solaris network commands. For a description of these
commands, see Network Commands in Trusted Extensions on page 152.

Chapter 12 Trusted Networking (Overview) 151


The Trusted Network

Network Configuration Databases in Trusted


Extensions
Trusted Extensions loads three network configuration databases into the kernel. These
databases are used in accreditation checks as data is transmitted from one host to another host.
tnzonecfg This local database stores zone attributes that are security-related. The
attributes for each zone specify the zone label and the zone's access to single-level and
multilevel ports. Another attribute handles responses to control messages, such as ping. The
labels for zones are defined in the label_encodings file. For more information, see the
label_encodings(4) and smtnzonecfg(1M) man pages. For a discussion of multilevel
ports, see Zones and Multilevel Ports on page 117.
tnrhtp This database stores templates that describe the security attributes of hosts and
gateways. tnrhtp can be a local database or stored on the LDAP server. Hosts and gateways
use the attributes of the destination host and next-hop gateway to enforce MAC when
sending traffic. When receiving traffic, hosts and gateways use the attributes of the sender.
For details of the security attributes, see Trusted Network Security Attributes on page 153.
For more information, see the smtnrhtp(1M) man page.
tnrhdb This database holds the IP addresses and network prefixes (fallback mechanism)
that correspond to all hosts that are allowed to communicate. tnrhdb can be a local database
or stored on the LDAP server. Each host or network prefix is assigned a security template
from the tnrhtp database. The attributes in the template define the attributes of the assigned
host. For more information, see the smtnrhdb(1M) man page.

In Trusted Extensions, the Solaris Management Console has been extended to handle these
databases. For details, see Solaris Management Console Tools on page 38.

Network Commands in Trusted Extensions


Trusted Extensions adds the following commands to administer trusted networking:
tnchkdb This command is used to verify the correctness of the trusted network databases.
The tnchkdb command is used whenever you change a security template (tnrhtp), a
security template assignment (tnrhdb), or the configuration of a zone (tnzonecfg). The
Solaris Management Console tools run this command automatically when a database is
modified. For details, see the tnchkdb(1M) man page.
tnctl This command can be used to update the trusted network information in the
kernel. tnctl is also a system service. A restart with the command svcadm restart
/network/tnctl refreshes the kernel cache from the trusted network databases on the local
system. The Solaris Management Console tools run this command automatically when a
database is modified in the Files scope. For details, see the tnctl(1M) man page.

152 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


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tnd This daemon pulls tnrhdb and tnrhtp information from the LDAP directory and
local files. The information from the naming services is loaded according to their order in
the nsswitch.conf file. The tnd daemon is started at boot time by the svc:/network/tnd
service. This service is dependent on the svc:/network/ldap/client.
The tnd command also can be used for debugging and for changing the polling interval. For
details, see the tnd(1M) man page.
tninfo This command displays the details of the current state of the trusted network
kernel cache. The output can be filtered by host name, zone, or security template. For details,
see the tninfo(1M) man page.

Trusted Extensions adds options to the following Oracle Solaris network commands:
ifconfig The all-zones interface flag for this command makes the specified interface
available to every zone on the system. The appropriate zone to deliver data to is determined
by the label that is associated with the data. For details, see the ifconfig(1M) man page.
netstat The -R option extends Oracle Solaris netstat usage to display Trusted
Extensions-specific information, such as security attributes for multilevel sockets and
routing table entries. The extended security attributes include the label of the peer, and
whether the socket is specific to a zone, or available to several zones. For details, see the
netstat(1M) man page.
route The -secattr option extends Oracle Solaris route usage to display the security
attributes of the route. The value of the option has the following format:
min_sl=label,max_sl=label,doi=integer,cipso

The cipso keyword is optional and set by default. For details, see the route(1M) man page.
snoop As in the Oracle Solaris OS, the -v option to this command can be used to display
the IP headers in detail. In Trusted Extensions, the headers contain label information.

Trusted Network Security Attributes


Network administration in Trusted Extensions is based on security templates. A security
template describes a set of hosts that have common protocols and identical security attributes.

Security attributes are administratively assigned to systems, both hosts and routers, by means of
templates. The security administrator administers templates and assigns them to systems. If a
system does not have an assigned template, no communications are allowed with that system.

Every template is named, and includes the following:


A host type of either Unlabeled or CIPSO. The protocol that is used for network
communications is determined by the host type of the template.
The host type is used to determine whether to use CIPSO options and affects MAC. See
Host Type and Template Name in Security Templates on page 155.

Chapter 12 Trusted Networking (Overview) 153


Network Security Attributes in Trusted Extensions

A set of security attributes that are applied to each host type.


For more detail about host types and security attributes, see Network Security Attributes in
Trusted Extensions on page 154.

Network Security Attributes in Trusted Extensions


Trusted Extensions is installed with a default set of security templates. When a template is
assigned to a host, the security values in the template are applied to the host. In Trusted
Extensions, both unlabeled hosts and labeled hosts on the network are assigned security
attributes by means of a template. Hosts that are not assigned a security template cannot be
reached. The templates can be stored locally, or in the LDAP naming service on the Oracle
Directory Server Enterprise Edition.
Templates can be assigned directly or indirectly to a host. Direct assignment assigns a template
to a particular IP address. Indirect assignment assigns a template to a network address that
includes the host. Hosts that do not have a security template cannot communicate with hosts
that are configured with Trusted Extensions. For an explanation of direct assignment and
indirect assignment, see Trusted Network Fallback Mechanism on page 157.
Templates are modified or created by using the Security Templates tool in the Solaris
Management Console. The Security Templates tool enforces the completion of the required
fields in the templates. Which fields are required is based on the host type.
Each host type has its own set of additional required and optional security attributes. The
following security attributes are specified in security templates:
Host type Defines whether the packets are labeled with CIPSO security labels or not
labeled at all.
Default label Defines the level of trust of the unlabeled host. Packets that are sent by an
unlabeled host are read at this label by the receiving Trusted Extensions host or gateway.
The Default label attribute is specific to the unlabeled host type. For details, see the
smtnrhtp(1M) man page and the following sections.
DOI A positive, non-zero integer that identifies the domain of interpretation. The DOI is
used to indicate which set of label encodings applies to a network communication or
network entity. Labels with different DOIs, even if otherwise identical, are disjoint. For
unlabeled hosts, the DOI applies to the default label. In Trusted Extensions, the default value
is 1.
Minimum label Defines the bottom of the label accreditation range. Hosts and next-hop
gateways do not receive packets that are below the minimum label that is specified in their
template.
Maximum label Defines the top of the label accreditation range. Hosts and next-hop
gateways do not receive packets that are higher than the maximum label that is specified in
their template.

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Security label set Optional. Specifies a discrete set of security labels for a security template.
In addition to their accreditation range that is determined by the maximum and minimum
label, hosts that are assigned to a template with a security label set can send and receive
packets that match any one of the labels in the label set. The maximum number of labels that
can be specified is four.

Host Type and Template Name in Security Templates


Trusted Extensions supports two host types in the trusted network databases and provides two
default templates:
CIPSO host type Intended for hosts that run trusted operating systems. Trusted
Extensions supplies the template named cipso for this host type.
The Common IP Security Option (CIPSO) protocol is used to specify security labels that are
passed in the IP options field. CIPSO labels are derived automatically from the data's label.
Tag type 1 is used to pass the CIPSO security label. This label is then used to make security
checks at the IP level and to label the data in the network packet.
Unlabeled host type - Intended for hosts that use standard networking protocols but do not
support CIPSO options. Trusted Extensions supplies the template named admin_low for
this host type.
This host type is assigned to hosts that run the Oracle Solaris OS or other unlabeled
operating systems. This host type gives provides a default label and a default clearance to
apply to communications with the unlabeled host. Also, a label range or a set of discrete
labels can be specified to allow the sending of packets to an unlabeled gateway for
forwarding.

Caution The admin_low template provides an example for constructing unlabeled templates
with site-specific labels. While the admin_low template is required for the installation of Trusted
Extensions, the security settings might not be appropriate for normal system operations. Retain
the provided templates without modification for system maintenance and support reasons.

Default Label in Security Templates


Templates for the unlabeled host type specify a default label. This label is used to control
communications with hosts whose operating systems are not aware of labels, such as Oracle
Solaris systems. The default label that is assigned reflects the level of trust that is appropriate for
the host and its users.

Because communications with unlabeled hosts are essentially limited to the default label, these
hosts are also referred to as single-label hosts.

Chapter 12 Trusted Networking (Overview) 155


Network Security Attributes in Trusted Extensions

Domain of Interpretation in Security Templates


Organizations that use the same Domain of Interpretation (DOI) agree among themselves to
interpret label information and other security attributes in the same way. When Trusted
Extensions performs a label comparison, a check is made as to whether the DOI is equal.

A Trusted Extensions system enforces label policy on one DOI value. All zones on a Trusted
Extensions system must operate at the same DOI. A Trusted Extensions system does not
provide exception handling on packets that are received from a system that uses a different
DOI.

If your site uses a DOI value that is different from the default value, you must add this value to
the /etc/system file, and change the value in every security template. For the initial procedure,
see Configure the Domain of Interpretation in Trusted Extensions Configuration Guide. To
configure the DOI in every security template, see Example 131.

Label Range in Security Templates


The minimum label and maximum label attributes are used to establish the label range for
labeled and unlabeled hosts. These attributes are used to do the following:
To set the range of labels that can be used when communicating with a remote CIPSO host
In order for a packet to be sent to a destination host, the label of the packet must be within
the label range assigned to the destination host in the security template for that host.
To set a label range for packets that are being forwarded through a CIPSO gateway or an
unlabeled gateway
The label range can be specified in the template for an unlabeled host type. The label range
enables the host to forward packets that are not necessarily at the label of the host, but are
within a specified label range.

Security Label Set in Security Templates


The security label set defines at most four discrete labels at which packets can be accepted,
forwarded, or sent by the remote host. This attribute is optional. By default, no security label set
is defined.

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Trusted Network Fallback Mechanism

Trusted Network Fallback Mechanism


The tnrhdb database can assign a security template to a particular host either directly or
indirectly. Direct assignment assigns a template to a host's IP address. Indirect assignment is
handled by a fallback mechanism. The trusted network software first looks for an entry that
specifically assigns the host's IP address to a template. If the software does not find a specific
entry for the host, it looks for the longest prefix of matching bits. You can indirectly assign a
host to a security template when the IP address of the host falls within the longest prefix of
matching bits of an IP address with a fixed prefix length.

In IPv4, you can make an indirect assignment by subnet. When you make an indirect
assignment by using 4, 3, 2, or 1 trailing zero (0) octets, the software calculates a prefix length of
0, 8, 16, or 24, respectively. Entries 3 6 in Table 121 illustrate this fallback mechanism.

You can also set a fixed prefix length by adding a slash (/) followed by the number of fixed bits.
IPv4 network addresses can have a prefix length between 1 32. IPv6 network addresses can
have a prefix length between 1 128.

The following table provides fallback address and host address examples. If an address within
the set of fallback addresses is directly assigned, the fallback mechanism is not used for that
address.

Chapter 12 Trusted Networking (Overview) 157


Trusted Network Fallback Mechanism

TABLE 121 tnrhdb Host Address and Fallback Mechanism Entries

IP Version tnrhdb Entry Addresses Covered

IPv4 192.168.118.57:cipso 192.168.118.57


192.168.118.57/32:cipso The /32 sets a prefix length of 32 fixed bits.

192.168.118.128/26:cipso From 192.168.118.0 through 192.168.118.63

192.168.118.0:cipso All addresses on 192.168.118. network


192.168.118.0/24:cipso

192.168.0.0/24:cipso All addresses on 192.168.0. network.

192.168.0.0:cipso All addresses on 192.168. network


192.168.0.0/16:cipso

192.0.0.0:cipso All addresses on 192. network


192.0.0.0/8:cipso

192.168.0.0/32:cipso Network address 192.168.0.0. Not a wildcard


address.

192.168.118.0/32:cipso Network address 192.168.118.0. Not a wildcard


address.

192.0.0.0/32:cipso Network address 192.0.0.0. Not a wildcard address.

0.0.0.0/32:cipso Host address 0.0.0.0. Not a wildcard address.

0.0.0.0:cipso All addresses on all networks

IPv6 2001\:DB8\:22\:5000\:\:21f7:cipso 2001:DB8:22:5000::21f7

2001\:DB8\:22\:5000\:\:0/52:cipso From 2001:DB8:22:5000::0 through


2001:DB8:22:5fff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff

0\:\:0/0:cipso All addresses on all networks

Note that the 0.0.0.0/32 address matches the specific address, 0.0.0.0. The tnrhdb entry
0.0.0.0/32:admin_low is useful on a system where the literal address, 0.0.0.0, is used as a
source IP address. For example, DHCP clients contact the DHCP server as 0.0.0.0 before the
server provides the clients with an IP address.

To create a tnrhdb entry on a Sun Ray server that serves DHCP clients, see Example 1313.
Because 0.0.0.0:admin_low is the default wildcard entry, see How to Limit the Hosts That
Can Be Contacted on the Trusted Network on page 175 for issues to consider before removing
or changing this default.

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For more information about prefix lengths in IPv4 and IPv6 addresses, see Designing Your
CIDR IPv4 Addressing Scheme in Oracle Solaris Administration: IP Services and IPv6
Addressing Overview in Oracle Solaris Administration: IP Services.

Overview of Routing in Trusted Extensions


In Trusted Extensions, routes between hosts on different networks must maintain security at
each step in the transmission. Trusted Extensions adds extended security attributes to the
routing protocols in the Oracle Solaris OS. Unlike the Oracle Solaris OS, this Trusted
Extensions release does not support dynamic routing. For details about specifying static
routing, see the -p option in the route(1M) man page.

Gateways and routers route packets. In this discussion, the terms gateway and router are
used interchangeably.

For communications between hosts on the same subnet, accreditation checks are performed at
endpoints only because no routers are involved. Label range checks are performed at the source.
If the receiving host is running Trusted Extensions software, label range checks are also
performed at the destination.

When the source and destination hosts are on different subnets, the packet is sent from the
source host to a gateway. The label range of the destination and the first-hop gateway is checked
at the source when a route is selected. The gateway forwards the packet to the network where
the destination host is connected. A packet might go through several gateways before reaching
the destination.

Background on Routing
On Trusted Extensions gateways, label range checks are performed in certain cases. A Trusted
Extensions system that is routing a packet between two unlabeled hosts compares the default
label of the source host to the default label of the destination host. When the unlabeled hosts
share a default label, the packet is routed.

Each gateway maintains a list of routes to all destinations. Standard Oracle Solaris routing
makes choices to optimize the route. Trusted Extensions provides additional software to check
security requirements that apply to the route choices. The Oracle Solaris choices that do not
satisfy security requirements are skipped.

Routing Table Entries in Trusted Extensions


The routing table entries in Trusted Extensions can incorporate security attributes. Security
attributes can include a cipso keyword. Security attributes must include a maximum label, a
minimum label, and a DOI.

Chapter 12 Trusted Networking (Overview) 159


Overview of Routing in Trusted Extensions

For entries that do not provide security attributes, the attributes in the gateway's security
template are used.

Trusted Extensions Accreditation Checks


Trusted Extensions software determines the suitability of a route for security purposes. The
software runs a series of tests called accreditation checks on the source host, the destination host,
and the intermediate gateways.

Note In the following discussion, an accreditation check for a label range also means a check
for a security label set.

The accreditation check verifies the label range and CIPSO label information. The security
attributes for a route are obtained from the routing table entry, or from the security template of
the gateway if the entry has no security attributes.

For incoming communications, the Trusted Extensions software obtains labels from the
packets themselves, whenever possible. Obtaining labels from packets is only possible when the
messages are sent from systems that support labels. When a label is not available from the
packet, a default label is assigned to the message from trusted networking database files. These
labels are then used during accreditation checks. Trusted Extensions enforces several checks on
outgoing messages, forwarded messages, and incoming messages.

Source Accreditation Checks


The following accreditation checks are performed on the sending process or sending zone:
For all destinations, the label of the data must be within the label range of the next hop in the
route, that is, the first hop. And, the label must be contained in the first-hop gateway's
security attributes.
For all destinations, the DOI of an outgoing packet must match the DOI of the destination
host. The DOI must also match the DOI of all hops along the route, including its first-hop
gateway.
When the destination host is an unlabeled host, one of the following conditions must be
satisfied:
The sending host's label must match the destination host's default label.
The sending host is privileged to perform cross-label communication, and the sender's
label dominates the destination's default label.
The sending host is privileged to perform cross-label communication, and the sender's
label is ADMIN_LOW. That is, the sender is sending from the global zone.

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Note A first-hop check occurs when a message is being sent through a gateway from a host on
one network to a host on another network.

Gateway Accreditation Checks


On a Trusted Extensions gateway system,the following accreditation checks are performed for
the next-hop gateway:
If the incoming packet is unlabeled, the packet inherits the source host's default label from
the tnrhdb entry. Otherwise, the packet receives the indicated CIPSO label.
Checks for forwarding a packet proceed similar to source accreditation:
For all destinations, the label of the data must be within the label range of the next hop.
And, the label must be contained in the security attributes of the next-hop host.
For all destinations, the DOI of an outgoing packet must match the DOI of the
destination host. The DOI must also match the DOI of the next-hop host.
The label of an unlabeled packet must match the destination host's default label.
The label of a CIPSO packet must be within the destination host's label range.

Destination Accreditation Checks


When a Trusted Extensions host receives data, the software performs the following checks:
If the incoming packet is unlabeled, the packet inherits the source host's default label from
the tnrhdb entry. Otherwise, the packet receives the indicated CIPSO label.
The label and DOI for the packet must be consistent with the destination zone or
destination process's label and DOI. The exception is when a process is listening on a
multilevel port. The listening process can receive a packet if the process is privileged to
perform cross-label communications, and the process is either in the global zone or has a
label that dominates the packet's label.

Administration of Routing in Trusted Extensions


Trusted Extensions supports several methods for routing communications between networks.
In the Security Administrator role, you can set up routes that enforce the degree of security
required by your site's security policy.

Chapter 12 Trusted Networking (Overview) 161


Administration of Routing in Trusted Extensions

For example, sites can restrict communications outside the local network to a single label. This
label is applied to publicly available information. Labels such as UNCLASSIFIED or PUBLIC can
indicate public information. To enforce the restriction, these sites assign a single-label template
to the network interface that is connected to the external network. For more details about
TCP/IP and routing, see the following:
Planning for Routers on Your Network in Oracle Solaris Administration: IP Services
Configuring Systems on the Local Network in Oracle Solaris Administration: IP Services
Major TCP/IP Administrative Tasks (Task Map) in Oracle Solaris Administration: IP
Services
Preparing Your Network for the DHCP Service (Task Map) in Oracle Solaris
Administration: IP Services

Choosing Routers in Trusted Extensions


Trusted Extensions hosts offer the highest degree of trust as routers. Other types of routers
might not recognize Trusted Extensions security attributes. Without administrative action,
packets can be routed through routers that do not provide MAC security protection.
CIPSO routers drop packets when they do not find the correct type of information in the IP
options section of the packet. For example, a CIPSO router drops a packet if it does not find
a CIPSO option in the IP options when the option is required, or when the DOI in the IP
options is not consistent with the destination's accreditation.
Other types of routers that are not running Trusted Extensions software can be configured
to either pass the packets or drop the packets that include the CIPSO option. Only
CIPSO-aware gateways such as Trusted Extensions provides can use the contents of the
CIPSO IP option to enforce MAC.
To support trusted routing, the Solaris 10 routing tables are extended to include Trusted
Extensions security attributes. The attributes are described in Routing Table Entries in Trusted
Extensions on page 159. Trusted Extensions supports static routing, in which the
administrator creates routing table entries manually. For details, see the -p option in the
route(1M) man page.
The routing software tries to find a route to the destination host in the routing tables. When the
host is not explicitly named, the routing software looks for an entry for the subnetwork where
the host resides. When neither the host nor the network where the host resides is defined, the
host sends the packet to a default gateway, if defined. Multiple default gateways can be defined,
and each is treated equally.
In this release of Trusted Extensions, the security administrator sets up routes manually, and
then manually changes the routing table when conditions change. For example, many sites have
a single gateway that communicates with the outside world. In these cases, the single gateway
can be statically defined as the default on each host on the network. Dynamic routing support
might be available in future releases of Trusted Extensions.

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Gateways in Trusted Extensions


An example of routing in Trusted Extensions follows. The diagram and table show three
potential routes between Host 1 and Host 2.

FIGURE 121 Typical Trusted Extensions Routes and Routing Table Entries
Route #1
Gateway 1 Gateway 2

Route #2
Host 1 Gateway 3 Gateway 4 Host 2

Route #3
Gateway 5 Gateway 6

Route First-Hop Gateway Minimum Label Maximum Label DOI

#1 Gateway 1 CONFIDENTIAL SECRET 1

#2 Gateway 3 ADMIN_LOW ADMIN_HIGH 1

#3 Gateway 5

Route #1 can transmit packets within the label range of CONFIDENTIAL to SECRET.
Route #2 can transmit packets from ADMIN_LOW to ADMIN_HIGH.
Route #3 does not specify routing information. Therefore, its security attributes are derived
from the template in the tnrhtp database for Gateway 5.

Routing Commands in Trusted Extensions


To show labels and extended security attributes for sockets, Trusted Extensions modifies the
following Oracle Solaris network commands:
The netstat -rR command displays the security attributes in routing table entries.
The netstat -aR command displays the security attributes for sockets.
The route -p command with the add or delete option changes the routing table entries.

For details, see the netstat(1M) and route(1M) man pages.

For examples, see How to Configure Routes With Security Attributes on page 179.

Chapter 12 Trusted Networking (Overview) 163


164
13
C H A P T E R 1 3

Managing Networks in Trusted Extensions


(Tasks)

This chapter provides implementation details and procedures for securing a Trusted
Extensions network.
Managing the Trusted Network (Task Map) on page 165
Configuring Trusted Network Databases (Task Map) on page 166
Configuring Routes and Checking Network Information in Trusted Extensions (Task
Map) on page 179
Troubleshooting the Trusted Network (Task Map) on page 185

Managing the Trusted Network (Task Map)


The following table points to the task maps for common trusted networking procedures.

Task Description For Instructions

Configure network databases. Creates remote host templates,and assigns Configuring Trusted Network Databases
hosts to the templates. (Task Map) on page 166

Configure routing, and check network Configures static routes that enable labeled Configuring Routes and Checking
databases and network information in the packets to reach their destination through Network Information in Trusted
kernel. labeled and unlabeled gateways. Extensions (Task Map) on page 179
Also, displays the state of your network.

Troubleshoot networking problems. Steps to take when diagnosing network Troubleshooting the Trusted Network
problems with labeled packets. (Task Map) on page 185

165
Configuring Trusted Network Databases (Task Map)

Configuring Trusted Network Databases (Task Map)


Trusted Extensions software includes the tnrhtp and tnrhdb databases. These databases
provide labels for remote hosts that contact the system. The Solaris Management Console
provides the GUI that you use to administer these databases.

The following task map describes tasks to create security templates and apply them to hosts.

Task Description For Instructions

Determine if your site requires customized Evaluates the existing templates for the How to Determine If You Need
security templates. security requirements of your site. Site-Specific Security Templates on
page 167

Access the Security Templates tool in the Accesses the tool for modifying trusted How to Open the Trusted Networking
Solaris Management Console. network databases. Tools on page 168

Modify security templates. Modifies the definitions of security How to Construct a Remote Host
attributes in your trusted network by Template on page 168
modifying the trusted network databases.

Changes the DOI to a value different from Example 131


1.

Creates a security template for labeled Example 132


hosts that restrict communication between
other hosts to a single label.

Creates a security template for unlabeled Example 133


hosts that operate as single-label gateways.

Creates a security template for hosts with a Example 134


restricted label range.

Creates a security template for a host that Example 135


specifies a set of discrete labels in its label
range.

Creates a security template for unlabeled Example 136


systems and networks.

Creates a security template for two Example 137


developer systems.

Add hosts to the known network. Adds systems and networks to the trusted How to Add Hosts to the System's Known
network. Network on page 173

Provide remote host access by using Allows hosts within a range of IP addresses Example 138
wildcard entries. to communicate with a system by
Example 139
indirectly assigning each host to the same
security template. Example 1310

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Task Description For Instructions

Change the admin_low wildcard entry in Increases security by replacing the How to Limit the Hosts That Can Be
the tnrhdb file. wildcard entry with specific addresses for Contacted on the Trusted Network on
the host to contact at boot time. page 175

Increases security by replacing the Example 1311


wildcard entry with a network of labeled
hosts as the default.

Create an entry for the host address Configures a Sun Ray server to accept the Example 1313
0.0.0.0 initial contact from a remote client

Assign security templates. Associates a template with an IP address or How to Assign a Security Template to a
list of contiguous IP addresses. Host or a Group of Hosts on page 174

How to Determine If You Need Site-Specific Security


Templates
Before You Begin You must be in the Security Administrator role in the global zone.

1 Familiarize yourself with the Trusted Extensions templates.


Read the tnrhtp file on a local host. The comments in the file are helpful. You can also view the
security attribute values in the Security Templates tool in the Solaris Management Console.
The default templates match any installation. The label range for each template is
ADMIN_LOW to ADMIN_HIGH.
The cipso template defines a CIPSO host type whose DOI is 1. The label range for the
template is ADMIN_LOW to ADMIN_HIGH.
The admin_low template defines an unlabeled host whose DOI is 1. The template's default
label is ADMIN_LOW. The label range for the template is ADMIN_LOW to ADMIN_HIGH. In the
default configuration, the address 0.0.0.0 is assigned to this template. Therefore, all
non-CIPSO hosts are treated as hosts that operate at the ADMIN_LOW security label.

2 Keep the default templates.


For support purposes, do not delete or modify the default templates. You can change the host
that is assigned these default templates. For an example, see How to Limit the Hosts That Can
Be Contacted on the Trusted Network on page 175.

3 Create new templates if you want to do any of the following:


Limit the label range of a host or a group of hosts.
Create a single-label host.
Create a host that recognizes a few discrete labels.
Use a different DOI than 1.

Chapter 13 Managing Networks in Trusted Extensions (Tasks) 167


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Require a default label for unlabeled hosts that is not ADMIN_LOW.


For details, see How to Construct a Remote Host Template on page 168.

How to Open the Trusted Networking Tools


Before You Begin You must be in the global zone in a role that can modify network security. For example, roles
that are assigned the Information Security or Network Security rights profile can modify
security settings. The Security Administrator role includes these profiles.

To use the LDAP toolbox, you must have completed Configuring the Solaris Management
Console for LDAP (Task Map) in Trusted Extensions Configuration Guide.

1 Start the Solaris Management Console.


For details, see Initialize the Solaris Management Console Server in Trusted Extensions in
Trusted Extensions Configuration Guide.

2 Use the appropriate tool.


To modify a template, use the Security Templates tool.
All currently defined templates display in the right pane. When you select or create a
template, online help is available in the left pane.
To assign a host to a template, use the Security Templates tool.
To create a host that can be assigned to a template, use the Computers and Networks tool.
To assign a label to a zone, use the Trusted Network Zones tool. For more information about
zones in Trusted Extensions, see Chapter 10, Managing Zones in Trusted Extensions
(Tasks).

How to Construct a Remote Host Template


Before You Begin You must be in the global zone in a role that can modify network security. For example, roles
that are assigned the Information Security or Network Security rights profiles can modify
security settings. The Security Administrator role includes these profiles.

1 In the Solaris Management Console, navigate to the Security Templates tool.


See How to Open the Trusted Networking Tools on page 168 for the steps.

2 Under Computers and Networks, double-click Security Templates.


The existing templates are displayed in the View pane. These templates describe the security
attributes for hosts that this system can contact. These hosts include CIPSO hosts that are
running Trusted Extensions and unlabeled hosts.

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3 Examine the cipso template.


View which hosts and which networks are already assigned this template.

4 Examine the admin_low template.


View which hosts and which networks are already assigned this template.

5 Create a template.
If the provided templates do not sufficiently describe the hosts that can be in communication
with this system, choose Add Template from the Action menu.
Use the online help for assistance. Before assigning hosts to the templates, create all the
templates that your site requires.

6 (Optional) Modify an existing template that is not a default template.


Double-click the template, and use the online help for assistance. You can change the assigned
hosts or the assigned networks.

Example 131 Creating a Security Template With a Different DOI Value


In this example, the security administrator's network has a DOI whose value is different from 1.
The team that initially configured the system has completed Configure the Domain of
Interpretation in Trusted Extensions Configuration Guide.

First, the security administrator confirms the value of the DOI in the /etc/system file:

# grep doi /etc/system


set default_doi = 4

Then, in the Security Templates tool, for every template that the administrator creates, the value
of doi is set to 4. For the single-label system that is described in Example 132, the security
administrator creates the following template:

template: CIPSO_PUBLIC
host_type: CIPSO
doi: 4
min_sl: PUBLIC
max_sl: PUBLIC

Example 132 Creating a Security Template That Has a Single Label


In this example, the security administrator wants to create a gateway that can only pass packets
at a single label, PUBLIC. Using the Security Templates tool in the Solaris Management Console,
the administrator creates a template and assigns the gateway host to the template.

First, the gateway host and IP address are added to the Computers and Networks tool.

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Configuring Trusted Network Databases (Task Map)

gateway-1
192.168.131.75

Then, the template is created in the Security Templates tool. The following are the values in the
template:

template: CIPSO_PUBLIC
host_type: CIPSO
doi: 1
min_sl: PUBLIC
max_sl: PUBLIC

The tool supplies the hexadecimal value for PUBLIC, 0X0002-08-08.

Finally, the gateway-1 host is assigned to the template by its name and IP address.

gateway-1
192.168.131.75

On a local host, the tnrhtp entry appears similar to the following:

cipso_public:host_type=cipso;doi=1;min_sl=0X0002-08-08;max_sl=0X0002-08-08;

On a local host, the tnrhdb entry appears similar to the following:

# gateway-1
192.168.131.75:cipso_public

Example 133 Creating a Security Template for an Unlabeled Router


Any IP router can forward messages with CIPSO labels even though the router does not
explicitly support labels. Such an unlabeled router needs a default label to define the level at
which connections to the router, perhaps for router management, need to be handled. In this
example, the security administrator creates a router that can forward traffic at any label, but all
direct communication with the router is handled at the default label, PUBLIC.

In the Solaris Management Console, the administrator creates a template and assigns the
gateway host to the template.

First, the router and its IP address are added to the Computers and Networks tool.

router-1
192.168.131.82

Then, the template is created in the Security Templates tool. The following values are in the
template:

Template Name: UNL_PUBLIC


Host Type: UNLABELED
DOI: 1

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Default Label: PUBLIC


Minimum Label: ADMIN_LOW
Maximum Label: ADMIN_HIGH

The tool supplies the hexadecimal value for the labels.

Finally, the router-1 router is assigned to the template by its name and IP address.

router-1
192.168.131.82

Example 134 Creating a Security Template That Has a Limited Label Range
In this example, the security administrator wants to create a gateway that restricts packets to a
narrow label range. In the Solaris Management Console, the administrator creates a template
and assigns the gateway host to the template.

First, the host and its IP address are added to the Computers and Networks tool.

gateway-ir
192.168.131.78

Then, the template is created in the Security Templates tool. The following values are in the
template:

Template Name: CIPSO_IUO_RSTRCT


Host Type: CIPSO
DOI: 1
Minimum Label: CONFIDENTIAL : INTERNAL USE ONLY
Maximum Label: CONFIDENTIAL : RESTRICTED

The tool supplies the hexadecimal value for the labels.

Finally, the gateway-ir gateway is assigned to the template by its name and IP address.

gateway-ir
192.168.131.78

Example 135 Creating a Security Template That Has a Security Label Set
In this example, the security administrator wants to create a security template that recognizes
two labels only. In the Solaris Management Console, the administrator creates a template and
assigns the gateway host to the template.

First, each host and IP address that is going to use this template is added to the Computers and
Networks tool.

host-slset1
192.168.132.21

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host-slset2
192.168.132.22

host-slset3
192.168.132.23

host-slset4
192.168.132.24

Then, the template is created in the Security Templates tool. The following values are in the
template:

Template Name: CIPSO_PUB_RSTRCT


Host Type: CIPSO
DOI: 1
Minimum Label: PUBLIC
Maximum Label: CONFIDENTIAL : RESTRICTED
SL Set: PUBLIC, CONFIDENTIAL : RESTRICTED

The tool supplies the hexadecimal value for the labels.

Finally, the range of IP addresses are assigned to the template by using the Wildcard button and
a prefix.

192.168.132.0/17

Example 136 Creating an Unlabeled Template at the Label PUBLIC


In this example, the security administrator allows a subnetwork of Oracle Solaris systems to
have the PUBLIC label in the trusted network. The template has the following values:

Template Name: public


Host Type: Unlabeled
Default Label: Public
Minimum Label: Public
Maximum Label: Public
DOI: 1

Wildcard Entry: 10.10.0.0


Prefix: 16

All systems on the 10.10.0.0 subnetwork are handled at the label PUBLIC.

Example 137 Creating a Labeled Template for Developers


In this example, the security administrator creates a SANDBOX template. This template is
assigned to systems that are used by developers of trusted software. The two systems that are
assigned this template create and test labeled programs. However, their tests do not affect the
other labeled systems, because the label SANDBOX is disjoint from the other labels on the
network.

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Template Name: cipso_sandbox


Host Type: CIPSO
Minimum Label: SANDBOX
Maximum Label: SANDBOX
DOI: 1

Hostname: DevMachine1
IP Address: 196.168.129.129
Hostname: DevMachine2
IP Address: 196.168.129.102

The developers who use these systems can communicate with each other at the label SANDBOX.

How to Add Hosts to the System's Known Network


The Computers tool in the Solaris Management Console is identical to the Computers tool in
the Oracle Solaris OS. This procedure is provided here for your convenience. After the hosts are
known, you then assign the hosts to a security template.

Before You Begin You must be in an administrator who can manage networks. For example, roles that include the
Network Management or System Administrator rights profiles can manage networks.

1 In the Solaris Management Console, navigate to the Computers tool.


For details, see How to Open the Trusted Networking Tools on page 168.

2 In the Computers tool, confirm that you want to view all computers on the network.

3 Add a host that this system can contact.


You must add every host that this system might contact, including any static routers and any
audit servers.

a. From the Action menu, choose Add Computer.

b. Identify the host by name and IP address.

c. (Optional) Provide additional information about the host.

d. To add the host, click Apply.

e. When the entries are complete, click OK.

4 Add a group of hosts that this system can contact.


Use the online help to add groups of hosts by using a network IP address.

Chapter 13 Managing Networks in Trusted Extensions (Tasks) 173


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How to Assign a Security Template to a Host or a Group


of Hosts
Before You Begin You must be in the Security Administrator role in the global zone.

All hosts that you want to assign to a template must exist in the Computers and Networks tool.
For details, see How to Add Hosts to the System's Known Network on page 173.

1 In the Solaris Management Console, navigate to the Security Templates tool.


For details, see How to Open the Trusted Networking Tools on page 168.

2 Double-click the appropriate template name.

3 Click the Hosts Assigned to Template tab.

4 To assign the template to a single host, do the following:

a. In the Hostname field, type the host's name.

b. In the IP Address field, type the host's address.

c. Click the Add button.

d. To save your changes, click OK.

5 To assign a template to a group of hosts with contiguous addresses, do the following:

a. Click Wildcard.

b. In the IP Address field, type the IP address.

c. In the Prefix field, type the prefix that describes the group of contiguous addresses.

d. Click the Add button.

e. To save your changes, click OK.

Example 138 Adding an IPv4 Network as a Wildcard Entry


In the following example, a security administrator assigns several IPv4 subnetworks to the same
security template. In the Hosts Assigned to Template tab, the administrator adds the following
wildcard entries:

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IP Address: 192.168.113.0
IP address: 192.168.75.0

Example 139 Adding a List of IPv4 Hosts as a Wildcard Entry


In the following example, a security administrator assigns contiguous IPv4 addresses that are
not along octet boundaries to the same security template. In the Hosts Assigned to Template
tab, the administrator adds the following wildcard entries:

IP Address: 192.168.113.100
Prefix Length: 25

This wildcard entry covers the address range of 192.168.113.0 to 192.168.113.127. The
address includes 192.168.113.100.

Example 1310 Adding a List of IPv6 Hosts as a Wildcard Entry


In the following example, a security administrator assigns contiguous IPv6 addresses to the
same security template. In the Hosts Assigned to Template tab, the administrator adds the
following wildcard entries:

IP Address: 2001:a08:3903:200::0
Prefix Length: 56

This wildcard entry covers the address range of 2001:a08:3903:200::0 to


2001:a08:3903:2ff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff. The address includes
2001:a08:3903:201:20e:cff:fe08:58c.

How to Limit the Hosts That Can Be Contacted on the


Trusted Network
This procedure protects labeled hosts from being contacted by arbitrary unlabeled hosts. When
Trusted Extensions is installed, this default template defines every host on the network. Use this
procedure to enumerate specific unlabeled hosts.

The local tnrhdb file on each system is used to contact the network at boot time. By default,
every host that is not provided with a CIPSO template is defined by the admin_low template.
This template assigns every system that is not otherwise defined (0.0.0.0) to be an unlabeled
system with the default label of admin_low.

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Caution The default admin_low template can be a security risk on a Trusted Extensions
network. If site security requires strong protection, the security administrator can remove the
0.0.0.0 wildcard entry after the system is installed. The entry must be replaced with entries for
every host that the system contacts during boot.

For example, DNS servers, home directory servers, audit servers, broadcast and multicast
addresses, and routers must be in the local tnrhdb file after the 0.0.0.0 wildcard entry is
removed.

If an application initially recognizes clients at the host address 0.0.0.0, then you must add the
0.0.0.0/32:admin_low host entry to the tnrhdb database. For example, to receive initial
connection requests from potential Sun Ray clients, Sun Ray servers must include this entry.
Then, when the server recognizes the clients, the clients are provided an IP address and
connected as CIPSO clients.

Before You Begin You must be in the Security Administrator role in the global zone.

All hosts that are to be contacted at boot time must exist in the Computers and Networks tool.

1 In the Solaris Management Console, navigate to the Security Templates tool in the Files scope.
The Files scope protects the system during boot. To access the Security Templates tool, see
How to Open the Trusted Networking Tools on page 168.

2 Modify the hosts that are assigned to the admin_low template.

a. Double-click the admin_low template.


Every host that is added can be contacted during boot at the label ADMIN_LOW.

b. Click the Hosts Assigned to Template tab.


Every host that is added can be contacted during boot at the label ADMIN_LOW.

c. Add each unlabeled host that must be contacted at boot time.


For details, see How to Assign a Security Template to a Host or a Group of Hosts on
page 174.
Include every on-link router that is not running Trusted Extensions, through which this
host must communicate.

d. Add the ranges of hosts that must be contacted at boot time.

e. Remove the 0.0.0.0 entry.

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3 Modify the hosts that are assigned to the cipso template.

a. Double-click the cipso template.


Every host that is added can be contacted during boot.

b. Click the Hosts Assigned to Template tab.


Every host that is added can be contacted during boot at the label ADMIN_LOW.

c. Add each labeled host that must be contacted at boot time.


For details, see How to Assign a Security Template to a Host or a Group of Hosts on
page 174.
Include the LDAP server.
Include every on-link router that is running Trusted Extensions, through which this host
must communicate
Make sure that all network interfaces are assigned to the template.
Include broadcast addresses.

d. Add the ranges of hosts that must be contacted at boot time.

4 Verify that the host assignments allow the system to boot.

Example 1311 Changing the Label of the 0.0.0.0 tnrhdb Entry


In this example, the security administrator creates a public gateway system. The administrator
removes the 0.0.0.0 entry from the admin_low template and assigns the entry to an unlabeled
template that is named public. The system then recognizes any system that is not listed in its
tnrhdb file as an unlabeled system with the security attributes of the public security template.

The following describes an unlabeled template that was created specifically for public gateways.

Template Name: public


Host Type: Unlabeled
Default Label: Public
Minimum Label: Public
Maximum Label: Public
DOI: 1

Example 1312 Enumerating Computers to Contact During Boot in the tnrhdb Database
The following example shows the local tnrhdb database with entries for an LDAP client with
two network interfaces. The client communicates with another network and with routers.

127.0.0.1:cipso Loopback address


192.168.112.111:cipso Interface 1 of this host

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192.168.113.111:cipso Interface 2 of this host


10.6.6.2:cipso LDAP server
192.168.113.6:cipso Audit server
192.168.112.255:cipso Subnet broadcast address
192.168.113.255:cipso Subnet broadcast address
192.168.113.1:cipso Router
192.168.117.0:cipso Another Trusted Extensions network
192.168.112.12:public Specific network router
192.168.113.12:public Specific network router
224.0.0.2:public Multicast address
255.255.255.255:admin_low Broadcast address

Example 1313 Making the Host Address 0.0.0.0 a Valid tnrhdb Entry
In this example, the security administrator configures a Sun Ray server to accept initial
connection requests from potential clients. The server is using a private topology and is using
the defaults:

# utadm -a bge0

First, the administrator determines the Solaris Management Console domain name:

SMCserver # /usr/sadm/bin/dtsetup scopes


Getting list of managable scopes...
Scope 1 file:/machine1.ExampleCo.COM/machine1.ExampleCo.COM

Then, the administrator adds the entry for client initial connection to the Sun Ray server's
tnrhdb database. Because the administrator is testing, the default wildcard address is still used
for all unknown addresses:

SunRayServer # /usr/sadm/bin/smtnrhdb \
add -D file:/machine1.ExampleCo.COM/machine1.ExampleCo.COM \
-- -w 0.0.0.0 -p 32 -n admin_low
Authenticating as user: root
Please enter a string value for: password ::
... from machine1.ExampleCo.COM was successful.

After this command, the tnhrdb database appears similar to the following. The result of the
smtnrhdb command is highlighted:

## tnrhdb database
## Sun Ray server address
192.168.128.1:cipso
## Sun Ray client addresses on 192.168.128 network
192.168.128.0/24:admin_low
## Initial address for new clients
0.0.0.0/32:admin_low
## Default wildcard address
0.0.0.0:admin_low
Other addresses to be contacted at boot

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# tnchkdb -h /etc/security/tsol/tnrhdb

After this phase of testing succeeds, the administrator makes the configuration more secure by
removing the default wildcard address, checks the syntax of the tnrhdb database, and tests
again. The final tnhrdb database appears similar to the following:

## tnrhdb database
## Sun Ray server address
192.168.128.1:cipso
## Sun Ray client addresses on 192.168.128 network
192.168.128.0/24:admin_low
## Initial address for new clients
0.0.0.0/32:admin_low
## 0.0.0.0:admin_low - no other systems can enter network at admin_low
Other addresses to be contacted at boot

Configuring Routes and Checking Network Information in


Trusted Extensions (Task Map)
The following task map describes tasks to configure the network and to verify the configuration.

Task Description For Instructions

Configure static routes. Manually describes the best route from one How to Configure Routes With Security
host to another host. Attributes on page 179

Check the accuracy of the local network Uses the tnchkdb command to check the How to Check the Syntax of Trusted
databases. syntactic validity of the local network Network Databases on page 181
databases.

Compare the network database entries Uses the tninfo command to determine if How to Compare Trusted Network
with the entries in the kernel cache. the kernel cache has been updated with the Database Information With the Kernel
latest database information. Cache on page 182

Synchronize the kernel cache with the Uses the tnctl command to update the How to Synchronize the Kernel Cache
network databases. kernel cache with up-to-date network With Trusted Network Databases on
database information on a running system. page 183

How to Configure Routes With Security Attributes


Before You Begin You must be in the Security Administrator role in the global zone.

1 Add every destination host and gateway that you are using to route packets over the trusted
network.
The addresses are added to the local /etc/hosts file, or to its equivalent on the LDAP server.
Use the Computers and Networks tool in the Solaris Management Console. The Files scope

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modifies the /etc/hosts file. The LDAP scope modifies the entries on the LDAP server. For
details, see How to Add Hosts to the System's Known Network on page 173.

2 Assign each destination host, network, and gateway to a security template.


The addresses are added to the local /etc/security/tsol/tnrhdb file, or to its equivalent on
the LDAP server. Use the Security Templates tool in the Solaris Management Console. For
details, see How to Assign a Security Template to a Host or a Group of Hosts on page 174.

3 Set up the routes.


In a terminal window, use the route add command to specify routes.
The first entry sets up a default route. The entry specifies a gateway's address, 192.168.113.1,
to use when no specific route is defined for either the host or the packet's destination.
# route add default 192.168.113.1 -static
For details, see the route(1M) man page.

4 Set up one or more network entries.


Use the -secattr flag to specify security attributes.
In the following list of commands, the second line shows a network entry. The third line shows a
network entry with a label range of PUBLIC to CONFIDENTIAL : INTERNAL USE ONLY.
# route add default 192.168.113.36
# route add -net 192.168.102.0 gateway-101
# route add -net 192.168.101.0 gateway-102 \
-secattr min_sl=PUBLIC,max_sl=CONFIDENTIAL : INTERNAL USE ONLY,doi=1

5 Set up one or more host entries.


The new fourth line shows a host entry for the single-label host, gateway-pub. gateway-pub has
a label range of PUBLIC to PUBLIC.
# route add default 192.168.113.36
# route add -net 192.168.102.0 gateway-101
# route add -net 192.168.101.0 gateway-102 \
-secattr min_sl="PUBLIC",max_sl="CONFIDENTIAL : INTERNAL USE ONLY",doi=1
# route add -host 192.168.101.3 gateway-pub \
-secattr min_sl="PUBLIC",max_sl="PUBLIC",doi=1

Example 1314 Adding a Route With a Label Range of CONFIDENTIAL : INTERNAL USE ONLY to
CONFIDENTIAL : RESTRICTED
The following route command adds to the routing table the hosts at 192.168.115.0 with
192.168.118.39 as its gateway. The label range is from CONFIDENTIAL : INTERNAL USE ONLY
to CONFIDENTIAL : RESTRICTED, and the DOI is 1.

$ route add -net 192.168.115.0 192.168.118.39 \


-secattr min_sl="CONFIDENTIAL : INTERNAL USE ONLY",max_sl="CONFIDENTIAL : RESTRICTED",doi=1

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The result of the added hosts is shown with the netstat -rR command. In the following
excerpt, the other routes are replaced by ellipses (...).

$ netstat -rRn
...
192.168.115.0 192.168.118.39 UG 0 0
min_sl=CNF : INTERNAL USE ONLY,max_sl=CNF : RESTRICTED,DOI=1,CIPSO
...

How to Check the Syntax of Trusted Network


Databases
The tnchkdb command checks that the syntax of each network database is accurate. The Solaris
Management Console runs this command automatically when you use the Security Templates
tool or the Trusted Network Zones tool. Typically, you run this command to check the syntax of
database files that you are configuring for future use.

Before You Begin You must be in the global zone in a role that can check network settings. The Security
Administrator role and the System Administrator role can check these settings.

In a terminal window, run the tnchkdb command.


$ tnchkdb [-h tnrhdb-path] [-t tnrhtp-path] [-z tnzonecfg-path]
checking /etc/security/tsol/tnrhtp ...
checking /etc/security/tsol/tnrhdb ...
checking /etc/security/tsol/tnzonecfg ...

Example 1315 Testing the Syntax of a Trial Network Database


In this example, the security administrator is testing a network database file for possible use.
Initially, the administrator uses the wrong option. The results of the check are printed on the
line for the tnrhdb file:

$ tnchkdb -h /opt/secfiles/trial.tnrhtp
checking /etc/security/tsol/tnrhtp ...
checking /opt/secfiles/trial.tnrhtp ...
line 12: Illegal name: min_sl=ADMIN_LOW;max_sl=ADMIN_HIGH
line 14: Illegal name: min_sl=ADMIN_LOW;max_sl=ADMIN_HIGH
checking /etc/security/tsol/tnzonecfg ...

When the security administrator checks the file by using the -t option, the command confirms
that the syntax of the trial tnrhtp database is accurate:

$ tnchkdb -t /opt/secfiles/trial.tnrhtp
checking /opt/secfiles/trial.tnrhtp ...
checking /etc/security/tsol/tnrhdb ...
checking /etc/security/tsol/tnzonecfg ...

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Configuring Routes and Checking Network Information in Trusted Extensions (Task Map)

How to Compare Trusted Network Database


Information With the Kernel Cache
The network databases might contain information that is not cached in the kernel. This
procedure checks that the information is identical. When you use the Solaris Management
Console to update the network, the kernel cache is updated with network database information.
The tninfo command is useful during testing and for debugging.

Before You Begin You must be in the global zone in a role that can check network settings. The Security
Administrator role and the System Administrator role can check these settings.

In a terminal window, run the tninfo command.


tninfo -h hostname displays the IP address and template for the specified host.
tninfo -t templatename displays the following information:
template: template-name
host_type: either CIPSO or UNLABELED
doi: 1
min_sl: minimum-label
hex: minimum-hex-label
max_sl: maximum-label
hex:maximum-hex-label
tninfo -m zone-name displays the multilevel port (MLP) configuration of a zone.

Example 1316 Displaying Multilevel Ports on a Host


In this example, a system is configured with several labeled zones. All zones share the same IP
address. Some zones are also configured with zone-specific addresses. In this configuration, the
TCP port for web browsing, port 8080, is an MLP on a shared interface in the public zone. The
administrator has also set up telnet, TCP port 23, to be an MLP in the public zone. Because
these two MLPs are on a shared interface, no other zone, including the global zone, can receive
packets on the shared interface on ports 8080 and 23.

In addition, the TCP port for ssh, port 22, is a per-zone MLP in the public zone. The public
zone's ssh service can receive any packets on its zone-specific address within the address's label
range.

The following command shows the MLPs for the public zone:

$ tninfo -m public
private: 22/tcp
shared: 23/tcp;8080/tcp

The following command shows the MLPs for the global zone. Note that ports 23 and 8080
cannot be MLPs in the global zone because the global zone shares the same address with the
public zone:

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$ tninfo -m global
private: 111/tcp;111/udp;514/tcp;515/tcp;631/tcp;2049/tcp;
6000-6003/tcp;38672/tcp;60770/tcp;
shared: 6000-6003/tcp

How to Synchronize the Kernel Cache With Trusted


Network Databases
When the kernel has not been updated with trusted network database information, you have
several ways to update the kernel cache. The Solaris Management Console runs this command
automatically when you use the Security Templates tool or the Trusted Network Zones tool.

Before You Begin You must be in the Security Administrator role in the global zone.

To synchronize the kernel cache with network databases, run one of the following commands:

Restart the tnctl service.

Caution Do not use this method on systems that obtain their trusted network database
information from an LDAP server. The local database information would overwrite the
information that is obtained from the LDAP server.

$ svcadm restart svc:/network/tnctl


This command reads all information from the local trusted network databases into the
kernel.

Update the kernel cache for your recently added entries.


$ tnctl -h hostname
This command reads only the information from the chosen option into the kernel. For
details about the options, see Example 1317 and the tnctl(1M) man page.

Modify the tnd service.

Note The tnd service is running only if the ldap service running.

Change the tnd polling interval.


This does not update the kernel cache. However, you can shorten the polling interval to
update the kernel cache more frequently. For details, see the example in the tnd(1M)
man page.

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Configuring Routes and Checking Network Information in Trusted Extensions (Task Map)

Refresh the tnd.


This Service Management Facility (SMF) command triggers an immediate update of the
kernel with recent changes to trusted network databases.
$ svcadm refresh svc:/network/tnd

Restart the tnd by using SMF.


$ svcadm restart svc:/network/tnd

Caution Avoid running the tnd command to restart the tnd. This command can
interrupt communications that are currently succeeding.

Example 1317 Updating the Kernel With Your Latest tnrhdb Entries
In this example, the administrator has added three addresses to the local tnrhdb database. First,
the administrator removed the 0.0.0.0 wildcard entry.

$ tnctl -d -h 0.0.0.0:admin_low

Then, the administrator views the format of the final three entries in the
/etc/security/tsol/tnrhdb database:

$ tail /etc/security/tsol/tnrhdb
#\:\:0:admin_low
127.0.0.1:cipso
#\:\:1:cipso
192.168.103.5:admin_low
192.168.103.0:cipso
0.0.0.0/32:admin_low

Then, the administrator updates the kernel cache:

$ tnctl -h 192.168.103.5
tnctl -h 192.168.103.0
tnctl -h 0.0.0.0/32

Finally, the administrator verifies that the kernel cache is updated. The output for the first entry
is similar to the following:

$ tninfo -h 192.168.103.5
IP Address: 192.168.103.5
Template: admin_low

Example 1318 Updating Network Information in the Kernel


In this example, the administrator updates the trusted network with a public print server, and
then checks that the kernel settings are correct.

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$ tnctl -h public-print-server
$ tninfo -h public-print-server
IP Address: 192.168.103.55
Template: PublicOnly
$ tninfo -t PublicOnly
==================================
Remote Host Template Table Entries
----------------------------------
template: PublicOnly
host_type: CIPSO
doi: 1
min_sl: PUBLIC
hex: 0x0002-08-08
max_sl: PUBLIC
hex: 0x0002-08-08

Troubleshooting the Trusted Network (Task Map)


The following task map describes tasks to debug your network.

Task Description For Instructions

Determine why two hosts cannot Checks that the interfaces on a single How to Verify That a Host's Interfaces Are
communicate. system are up. Up on page 185

Uses debugging tools when two hosts How to Debug the Trusted Extensions
cannot communicate with each other. Network on page 186

Determine why an LDAP client cannot Troubleshoots the loss of connection How to Debug a Client Connection to the
reach the LDAP server. between an LDAP server and a client. LDAP Server on page 188

How to Verify That a Host's Interfaces Are Up


Use this procedure if your system does not communicate with other hosts as expected.

Before You Begin You must be in the global zone in a role that can check network settings. The Security
Administrator role and the System Administrator role can check these settings.

1 Verify that the system's network interface is up.


The following output shows that the system has two network interfaces, hme0 and hme0:3.
Neither interface is up.
# ifconfig -a
...
hme0: flags=1000843<BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST,IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2
inet 192.168.0.11 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.168.0.255
hme0:3 flags=1000843<BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST,IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2
inet 192.168.0.12 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.168.0.255

Chapter 13 Managing Networks in Trusted Extensions (Tasks) 185


Troubleshooting the Trusted Network (Task Map)

2 If the interface is not up, bring it up and then verify that it is up.
The following output shows that both interfaces are up.
# ifconfig hme0 up
# ifconfig -a
...
hme0: flags=1000843<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST,...
hme0:3 flags=1000843<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST,..

How to Debug the Trusted Extensions Network


To debug two hosts that should be communicating but are not, you can use Trusted Extensions
and Solaris debugging tools. For example, Oracle Solaris network debugging commands such as
snoop and netstat are available. For details, see the snoop(1M) and netstat(1M) man pages.
For commands that are specific to Trusted Extensions, see Table 24.
For problems with contacting labeled zones, see Managing Zones (Task Map) on
page 120.
For debugging NFS mounts, see How to Troubleshoot Mount Failures in Trusted
Extensions on page 146.
For debugging LDAP communications, see How to Debug a Client Connection to the
LDAP Server on page 188.

Before You Begin You must be in the global zone in a role that can check network settings. The Security
Administrator role or the System Administrator role can check these settings.

1 To troubleshoot the tnd daemon, change the polling interval and collect debugging
information.

Note The tnd service is running only if the ldap service running.

For details, see the tnd(1M) man page.

2 Check that the hosts that cannot communicate are using the same naming service.

a. On each host, check the nsswitch.conf file.

i. Check the values for the Trusted Extensions databases in the nsswitch.conf file.
For example, at a site that uses LDAP to administer the network, the entries are similar to
the following:
# Trusted Extensions
tnrhtp: files ldap
tnrhdb: files ldap

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ii. If the values are different, correct the nsswitch.conf file.


To modify these entries, the system administrator uses the Name Service Switch action.
For details, see How to Start CDE Administrative Actions in Trusted Extensions on
page 53. This action preserves the required DAC and MAC file permissions.

b. Check that the LDAP naming service is configured.


$ ldaplist -l

c. Check that both hosts are in the LDAP naming service.


$ ldaplist -l hosts | grep hostname

3 Check that each host is defined correctly.

a. Use the Solaris Management Console to verify the definitions.


In the Security Templates tool, check that each host is assigned to a security template
that is compatible with the security template of the other host.
For an an unlabeled system, check that the default label assignment is correct.
In the Trusted Network Zones tool, check that the multilevel ports (MLPs) are correctly
configured.

b. Use the command line to check that the network information in the kernel is current.
Check that the assignment in each host's kernel cache matches the assignment on the
network, and on the other host.
To get security information for the source, destination, and gateway hosts in the
transmission, use the tninfo command.

Display the IP address and the assigned security template for a given host.
$ tninfo -h hostname
IP Address: IP-address
Template: template-name

Display a template definition.


$ tninfo -t template-name
template: template-name
host_type: one of CIPSO or UNLABELED
doi: 1
min_sl: minimum-label
hex: minimum-hex-label
max_sl: maximum-label
hex: maximum-hex-label

Display the MLPs for a zone.


$ tninfo -m zone-name
private: ports-that-are-specific-to-this-zone-only
shared: ports-that-the-zone-shares-with-other-zones

Chapter 13 Managing Networks in Trusted Extensions (Tasks) 187


Troubleshooting the Trusted Network (Task Map)

4 Fix any incorrect information.


To change or check network security information, use the Solaris Management Console
tools. For details, see How to Open the Trusted Networking Tools on page 168
To update the kernel cache, restart the tnctl service on the host whose information is out of
date. Allow some time for this process to complete. Then, refresh the tnd service. If the
refresh fails, try restarting the tnd service. For details, see How to Synchronize the Kernel
Cache With Trusted Network Databases on page 183.

Note The tnd service is running only if the ldap service running.

Rebooting clears the kernel cache. At boot time, the cache is populated with database
information. The nsswitch.conf file determines whether local databases or LDAP
databases are used to populate the kernel.

5 Collect transmission information to help you in debugging.

Verify your routing configuration.


Use the get subcommand to the route command.
$ route get [ip] -secattr sl=label,doi=integer
For details, see the route(1M) man page.

View the label information in packets.


Use the snoop -v command.
The -v option displays the details of packet headers, including label information. This
command provides a lot of detail, so you might want to restrict the packets that the
command examines. For details, see the snoop(1M) man page.

View the routing table entries and the security attributes on sockets.
Use the -R option with the netstat -a|-r command.
The -aR option displays extended security attributes for sockets. The -rR option displays
routing table entries. For details, see the netstat(1M) man page.

How to Debug a Client Connection to the LDAP Server


Misconfiguration of the client entry on the LDAP server can prevent the client from
communicating with the server. Similarly, misconfiguration of files on the client can prevent
communication. Check the following entries and files when attempting to debug a client-server
communication problem.

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Before You Begin You must be in the Security Administrator role in the global zone on the LDAP client.

1 Check that the remote host template for the LDAP server and for the gateway to the LDAP server
are correct.
# tninfo -h LDAP-server
# route get LDAP-server
# tninfo -h gateway-to-LDAP-server
If a remote host template assignment is incorrect, assign the host to the correct template by
using the Security Templates tool in the Solaris Management Console.

2 Check and correct the /etc/hosts file.


Your system, the interfaces for the labeled zones on your system, the gateway to the LDAP
server, and the LDAP server must be listed in the file. You might have more entries.
Look for duplicate entries. Remove any entries that are labeled zones on other systems. For
example, if Lserver is the name of your LDAP server, and LServer-zones is the shared
interface for the labeled zones, remove LServer-zones from /etc/hosts.

3 If you are using DNS, check and correct the entries in the resolv.conf file.
# more resolv.conf
search list of domains
domain domain-name
nameserver IP-address

...
nameserver IP-address

4 Check that the tnrhdb and tnrhtp entries in the nsswitch.conf file are accurate.

5 Check that the client is correctly configured on the server.


# ldaplist -l tnrhdb client-IP-address

6 Check that the interfaces for your labeled zones are correctly configured on the LDAP server.
# ldaplist -l tnrhdb client-zone-IP-address

7 Verify that you can ping the LDAP server from all currently running zones.
# ldapclient list
...
NS_LDAP_SERVERS= LDAP-server-address
# zlogin zone-name1 ping LDAP-server-address
LDAP-server-address is alive
# zlogin zone-name2 ping LDAP-server-address
LDAP-server-address is alive
...

Chapter 13 Managing Networks in Trusted Extensions (Tasks) 189


Troubleshooting the Trusted Network (Task Map)

8 Configure LDAP and reboot.

a. For the procedure, see Make the Global Zone an LDAP Client in Trusted Extensionsin
Trusted Extensions Configuration Guide.

b. In every labeled zone, re-establish the zone as a client of the LDAP server.
# zlogin zone-name1
# ldapclient init \
-a profileName=profileName \
-a domainName=domain \
-a proxyDN=proxyDN \
-a proxyPassword=password LDAP-Server-IP-Address
# exit
# zlogin zone-name2 ...

c. Halt all zones, lock the file systems, and reboot.


If you are using Oracle Solaris ZFS, halt the zones and lock the file systems before rebooting.
If you are not using ZFS, you can reboot without halting the zones and locking the file
systems.
# zoneadm list
# zoneadm -z zone-name halt
# lockfs -fa
# reboot

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C H A P T E R 1 4

Multilevel Mail in Trusted Extensions


(Overview)

This chapter covers security and multilevel mailers on systems that are configured with Trusted
Extensions.
Multilevel Mail Service on page 191
Trusted Extensions Mail Features on page 191

Multilevel Mail Service


Trusted Extensions provides multilevel mail for any mail application. When regular users start
their mailer, the application opens at the user's current label. If users are operating in a
multilevel system, they might want to link or copy their mailer initialization files. For details, see
How to Configure Startup Files for Users in Trusted Extensions on page 86.

Trusted Extensions Mail Features


In Trusted Extensions, the System Administrator role sets up and administers mail servers
according to instructions in the Oracle Solaris System Administration Guide: Advanced
Administration and Oracle Solaris Administration: IP Services. In addition, the security
administrator determines how Trusted Extensions mail features need to be configured.

The following aspects of managing mail are specific to Trusted Extensions:


The .mailrc file is at a user's minimum label.
Therefore, users who work at multiple labels do not have a .mailrc file at the higher labels,
unless they copy or link the .mailrc file in their minimum-label directory to each higher
directory.
The Security Administrator role or the individual user can add the .mailrc file to either
.copy_files or .link_files. For a description of these files, see the updatehome(1M) man
page. For configuration suggestions, see .copy_files and .link_files Files on page 81.

191
Trusted Extensions Mail Features

Your mail reader can run at every label on a system. Some configuration is required to
connect a mail client to the server.
For example, to use Mozilla mail for multilevel mail requires that you configure a Mozilla
mail client at each label to specify the mail server. The mail server could be the same or
different for each label, but the server must be specified.
The Mailing Lists tool in the Solaris Management Console manages mail aliases.
Depending on the scope of the selected Solaris Management Console toolbox, you can
update the local /etc/aliases file or the LDAP entry on the Oracle Directory Server
Enterprise Edition.
Trusted Extensions software checks host and user labels before sending or forwarding mail.
The software checks that the mail is within the accreditation range of the host. The
checks are described in this list and in Chapter 13, Managing Networks in Trusted
Extensions (Tasks).
The software checks that the mail is between the account's clearance and minimum label.
Users can read email that is received within their accreditation range. During a session,
users can read mail only at their current label.
To contact regular user by email, an administrative role must send mail from a
workspace that is at a label that the user can read. The user's default label is usually a
good choice.

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C H A P T E R 1 5

Managing Labeled Printing (Tasks)

This chapter describes how to use Trusted Extensions software to configure labeled printing. It
also describes how to configure print jobs without the labeling options.
Labels, Printers, and Printing on page 193
Managing Printing in Trusted Extensions (Task Map) on page 200
Configuring Labeled Printing (Task Map) on page 201
Reducing Printing Restrictions in Trusted Extensions (Task Map) on page 213

Labels, Printers, and Printing


Trusted Extensions software uses labels to control printer access. Labels are used to control
access to printers and to information about queued print jobs. The software also labels printed
output. Body pages are labeled, and mandatory banner and trailer pages are labeled. Banner and
trailer pages can also include handling instructions.

The system administrator handles basic printer administration. The security administrator role
manages printer security, which includes labels and how the labeled output is handled. The
administrators follow basic Oracle Solaris printer administration procedures, then they assign
labels to the print servers and printers.

Trusted Extensions software supports both single-level and multilevel printing. Multilevel
printing is implemented in the global zone only. To use the global zone's print server, a labeled
zone must have a host name that is different from the global zone. One way to obtain a distinct
host name is to assign an IP address to the labeled zone. The address would be distinct from the
global zone's IP address.

193
Labels, Printers, and Printing

Restricting Access to Printers and Print Job


Information in Trusted Extensions
Users and roles on a system that is configured with Trusted Extensions software create print
jobs at the label of their session. The print jobs can print only on printers that recognize that
label. The label must be in the printer's label range.
Users and roles can view print jobs whose label is the same as the label of the session. In the
global zone, a role can view jobs whose labels are dominated by the label of the zone.
Printers that are configured with Trusted Extensions software print labels on the printer output.
Printers that are managed by unlabeled print servers do not print labels on the printer output.
Such printers have the same label as their unlabeled server. For example, an Oracle Solaris print
server can be assigned an arbitrary label in the tnrhdb database of the LDAP naming service.
Users can then print jobs at that arbitrary label on the Oracle Solaris printer. As with Trusted
Extensions printers, those Oracle Solaris printers can only accept print jobs from users who are
working at the label that has been assigned to the print server.

Labeled Printer Output


Trusted Extensions prints security information on body pages and banner and trailer pages.
The information comes from the label_encodings file and from the tsol_separator.ps file.
The security administrator can do the following to modify defaults that set labels and add
handling instructions to printer output:
Localize or customize the text on the banner and trailer pages
Specify alternate labels to be printed on body pages or in the various fields of the banner and
trailer pages
Change or omit any of the text or labels
The security administrator can also configure user accounts to use printers that do not print
labels on the output. Users can also be authorized to selectively not print banners or labels on
printer output.

Labeled Body Pages


By default, the Protect As classification is printed at the top and bottom of every body page.
The Protect As classification is the dominant classification when the classification from the
job's label is compared to the minimum protect as classification. The minimum protect as
classification is defined in the label_encodings file.
For example, if the user is logged in to an Internal Use Only session, then the user's print jobs
are at that label. If the minimum protect as classification in the label_encodings file is
Public, then the Internal Use Only label is printed on the body pages.

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FIGURE 151 Job's Label Printed at the Top and Bottom of a Body Page

[INTERNAL_USE_ONLY]

[INTERNAL_USE_ONLY]

Labeled Banner and Trailer Pages


The following figures show a default banner page and how the default trailer page differs.
Callouts identify the various sections. Note that the trailer page uses a different outer line.

The text, labels, and warnings that appear on print jobs are configurable. The text can also be
replaced with text in another language for localization.

Chapter 15 Managing Labeled Printing (Tasks) 195


Labels, Printers, and Printing

FIGURE 152 Typical Banner Page of a Labeled Print Job

FIGURE 153 Differences on a Trailer Page

The following table shows aspects of trusted printing that the security administrator can change
by modifying the /usr/lib/lp/postscript/tsol_separator.ps file.

Note To localize or internationalize the printed output, see the comments in the
tsol_separator.ps file.

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TABLE 151 Configurable Values in the tsol_separator.ps File

Output Default Value How Defined To Change

PRINTER BANNERS /Caveats Job_Caveats /Caveats Job_Caveats See Specifying Printer Banners in
Trusted Extensions Label
Administration.

CHANNELS /Channels Job_Channels /Channels Job_Channels See Specifying Channels in Trusted


Extensions Label Administration.

Label at the top of /HeadLabel Job_Protect def See /PageLabel description. The same as changing /PageLabel..
banner and trailer
Also see Specifying the Protect As
pages
Classification in Trusted Extensions
Label Administration.

Label at the top and /PageLabel Job_Protect def Compares the label of the job to Change the /PageLabel definition to
bottom of body pages the minimum protect as specify another value.
classification in the
Or, type a string of your choosing.
label_encodings file. Prints the
more dominant classification. Or, print nothing at all.
Contains compartments if the
print job's label has
compartments.

Text and label in the /Protect Job_Protect def See /PageLabel description. The same as changing /PageLabel.
Protect as
/Protect_Text1 () def Text to appear above label. Replace () in Protect_Text1 and
classification statement
Protect_Text2 with text string.
/Protect_Text2 () def Text to appear below label.

PostScript Printing of Security Information


Labeled printing in Trusted Extensions relies on features from Solaris printing. In the Oracle
Solaris OS, printer model scripts handle banner page creation. To implement labeling, a printer
model script first converts the print job to a PostScript file. Then, the PostScript file is
manipulated to insert labels on body pages, and to create banner and trailer pages.

Solaris printer model scripts can also translate PostScript into the native language of a printer. If
a printer accepts PostScript input, then Oracle Solaris software sends the job to the printer. If a
printer does not accept PostScript input, then the software converts the PostScript format to a
raster image. The raster image is then converted to the appropriate printer format.

Because PostScript software is used to print label information, users cannot print PostScript
files by default. This restriction prevents a knowledgeable PostScript programmer from creating
a PostScript file that modifies the labels on the printer output.

Chapter 15 Managing Labeled Printing (Tasks) 197


Labels, Printers, and Printing

The Security Administrator role can override this restriction by assigning the Print
Postscript authorization to role accounts and to trustworthy users. The authorization is
assigned only if the account can be trusted not to spoof the labels on printer output. Also,
allowing a user to print PostScript files must be consistent with the site's security policy.

Printer Model Scripts


A printer model script enables a particular model of printer to provide banner and trailer pages.
Trusted Extensions provides four scripts:
tsol_standard - For directly attached PostScript printers, for example, printers attached by
a parallel port
tsol_netstandard - For networkaccessible PostScript printers
tsol_standard_foomatic - For directly attached printers that do not print PostScript
format
tsol_netstandard_foomatic - For networkaccessible printers that do not print
PostScript format

The foomatic scripts are used when a printer driver name begins with Foomatic. Foomatic
drivers are PostScript Printer Drivers (PPD).

Note When you add a printer to a labeled zone, Use PPD is specified by default in the Print
Manager. A PPD is then used to translate banner and trailer pages into the language of the
printer.

Additional Conversion Filters


A conversion filter converts text files to PostScript format. The filter's programs are trusted
programs that are run by the printer daemon. Files that are converted to PostScript format by
any installed filter program can be trusted to have authentic labels and banner and trailer page
text.

Oracle Solaris software provides most conversion filters that a site needs. A site's System
Administrator role can install additional filters. These filters can then be trusted to have
authentic labels, and banner and trailer pages. To add conversion filters, see Chapter 7,
Customizing LP Printing Services and Printers (Tasks), in System Administration Guide:
Printing.

198 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


Labels, Printers, and Printing

Interoperability of Trusted Extensions With Trusted


Solaris 8 Printing
Trusted Solaris 8 and Trusted Extensions systems that have compatible label_encodings files
and that identify each other as using a CIPSO template can use each other for remote printing.
The following table describes how to set up the systems to enable printing. By default, users
cannot list or cancel print jobs on a remote print server of the other OS. Optionally, you can
authorize users to do so.

Originating System Print Server System Action Results

Trusted Extensions Trusted Solaris 8 Configure printing In the Trusted Solaris 8 printer can
Trusted Extensions tnrhdb, print jobs from a Trusted
assign a template with the Extensions system within the
appropriate label range to the printer's label range.
Trusted Solaris 8 print server.
The label could be CIPSO or
unlabeled.

Trusted Extensions Trusted Solaris 8 Authorize users On the Trusted Extensions users can
Trusted Extensions system, list or cancel print jobs that
create a profile that adds the they send to a Trusted Solaris
needed authorizations. 8 printer.
Assign the profile to users.
Users cannot view or remove
jobs at a different label.

Trusted Solaris 8 Trusted Extensions Configure printing In the Trusted Extensions printer
Trusted Solaris 8 tnrhdb, can print jobs from a Trusted
assign a template with the Solaris 8 system within the
appropriate label range to the printer's label range.
Trusted Extensions print
server. The label could be
CIPSO or unlabeled.

Trusted Solaris 8 Trusted Extensions Authorize users On the Trusted Solaris 8 users can list
Trusted Solaris 8 system, or cancel print jobs that they
create a profile that adds the send to a Trusted Extensions
needed authorizations. printer.
Assign the profile to users.
Users cannot view or remove
jobs at a different label.

Chapter 15 Managing Labeled Printing (Tasks) 199


Managing Printing in Trusted Extensions (Task Map)

Trusted Extensions Print Interfaces (Reference)


The following user commands are extended to conform with Trusted Extensions security
policy:
cancel The caller must be equal to the label of the print job to cancel a job. By default,
regular users can cancel only their own jobs.
lp Trusted Extensions adds the -o nolabels option. Users must be authorized to print
with no labels. Similarly, users must be authorized to use the -o nobanner option.
lpstat The caller must be equal to the label of the print job to obtain the status of a job. By
default, regular users can view only their own print jobs.

The following administrative commands are extended to conform with Trusted Extensions
security policy. As in the Oracle Solaris OS, these commands can only be run by a role that
includes the Printer Management rights profile.
lpmove The caller must be equal to the label of the print job to move a job. By default,
regular users can move only their own print jobs.
lpadmin In the global zone, this command works for all jobs. In a labeled zone, the caller
must dominate the print job's label to view a job, and be equal to change a job.
Trusted Extensions adds printer model scripts to the -m option. Trusted Extensions adds the
-o nolabels option.
lpsched In the global zone, this command is always successful. As in the Oracle Solaris
OS, use the svcadm command to enable, disable, start, or restart the print service. In a
labeled zone, the caller must be equal to the label of the print service to change the print
service. For details about the service management facility, see the smf(5), svcadm(1M), and
svcs(1) man pages.

Trusted Extensions adds the solaris.label.print authorization to the Printer Management


rights profile. The solaris.print.unlabeled authorization is required to print body pages
without labels.

Managing Printing in Trusted Extensions (Task Map)


Trusted Extensions procedures for configuring printing are performed after completing Oracle
Solaris printer setup. The following task map points to the major tasks that manage labeled
printing.

Task Description For Instructions

Configure printers for labeled Enables users to print to a Trusted Extensions printer. Configuring Labeled Printing (Task
output. The print jobs are marked with labels. Map) on page 201

200 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


Configuring Labeled Printing (Task Map)

Task Description For Instructions

Remove visible labels from Enables users to print at a specific label to an Oracle Reducing Printing Restrictions in
printer output. Solaris printer. The print jobs are not marked with labels. Trusted Extensions (Task Map) on
page 213
Or, prevents labels from printing on a Trusted
Extensions printer.

Configuring Labeled Printing (Task Map)


The following task map describes common configuration procedures that are related to labeled
printing.

Note Printer clients can only print jobs within the label range of the Trusted Extensions print
server.

Task Description For Instructions

Configure printing from the Creates a multilevel print server in the global How to Configure a Multilevel Print Server
global zone. zone. and Its Printers on page 201

Configure printing for a network Creates a multilevel print server in the global zone How to Configure a Network Printer for Sun
of systems. and enables labeled zones to use the printer. Ray Clients on page 203

Configure printing for unlabeled Enable unlabeled systems to use the network How to Configure Cascade Printing on a
systems in the same subnet as printer. Labeled System on page 206
labeled systems.

Configure printing from a Creates a singlelabel print server for a labeled How to Configure a Zone for Single-Label
labeled zone. zone. Printing on page 209

Configure a multilevel print Connects a Trusted Extensions host to a printer. How to Enable a Trusted Extensions Client
client. to Access a Printer on page 210

Restrict the label range of a Limits a Trusted Extensions printer to a narrow How to Configure a Restricted Label Range
printer. label range. for a Printer on page 212

How to Configure a Multilevel Print Server and Its


Printers
Printers that are managed by a Trusted Extensions print server print labels on body pages,
banner pages, and trailer pages. Such printers can print jobs within the label range of the print
server. Any Trusted Extensions host that can reach the print server can use the printers that are
connected to that server.

Chapter 15 Managing Labeled Printing (Tasks) 201


Configuring Labeled Printing (Task Map)

Before You Begin Determine the print server for your Trusted Extensions network. You must be in the System
Administrator role in the global zone on this print server.

1 Start the Solaris Management Console.


For details, see How to Administer the Local System With the Solaris Management Console
on page 52.

2 Choose the Files toolbox.


The title of the toolbox includes Scope=Files, Policy=TSOL.

3 Enable multilevel printing by configuring the global zone with the print server port, 515/tcp.
Create a multilevel port (MLP) for the print server by adding the port to the global zone.

a. Navigate to the Trusted Network Zones tool.

b. In the Multilevel Ports for Zone's IP Addresses, add 515/tcp.

c. Click OK.

4 Define the characteristics of every connected printer.


Use the command line. The Print Manager GUI does not work in the global zone.
# lpadmin -p printer-name -v /dev/null \
-o protocol=tcp -o dest=printer-IP-address:9100 -T PS -I postscript
# accept printer-name
# enable printer-name

5 Assign a printer model script to each printer that is connected to the print server.
The model script activates the banner and trailer pages for the specified printer.
For a description of the scripts, see Printer Model Scripts on page 198. If the driver name for
the printer starts with Foomatic, then specify one of the foomatic model scripts. On one line,
use the following command:
$ lpadmin -p printer \
-m { tsol_standard | tsol_netstandard |
tsol_standard_foomatic | tsol_netstandard_foomatic }
If the default printer label range of ADMIN_LOW to ADMIN_HIGH is acceptable for every printer,
then your label configuration is done.

6 In every labeled zone where printing is allowed, configure the printer.


Use the all-zones IP address for the global zone as the print server.

a. Log in as root to the zone console of the labeled zone.


# zlogin -C labeled-zone

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Configuring Labeled Printing (Task Map)

b. Add the printer to the zone.


# lpadmin -p printer-name -s all-zones-IP-address

c. (Optional) Set the printer as the default.


# lpadmin -d printer-name

7 In every zone, test the printer.

Note Starting in the Solaris 10 7/10 release, files with an administrative label, either
ADMIN_HIGH or ADMIN_LOW, print ADMIN_HIGH on the body of the printout. The banner and
trailer pages are labeled with the highest label and compartments in the label_encodings file.
As root and as a regular user, perform the following steps:

a. Print plain files from the command line.

b. Print files from your applications, such as Beehive, your browser, and your editor.

c. Verify that banner pages, trailer pages, and security banners print correctly.

See Also Limit printer label range How to Configure a Restricted Label Range for a Printer on
page 212
Prevent labeled output Reducing Printing Restrictions in Trusted Extensions (Task
Map) on page 213
Use this zone as a print server How to Enable a Trusted Extensions Client to Access a
Printer on page 210

How to Configure a Network Printer for Sun Ray


Clients
This procedure configures a PostScript printer on a Sun Ray server that has a single all-zones
interface. The printer is made available to all users of Sun Ray clients of this server. Initial
configuration happens in the global zone. After the global zone is configured, each labeled zone
is configured to use the printer.

Before You Begin You must be logged in to a multilevel session in Trusted CDE.

1 In the global zone, assign an IP address to the network printer.


For instructions, see Chapter 5, Setting Up Printers by Using LP Print Commands (Tasks), in
System Administration Guide: Printing.

2 Start the Solaris Management Console.

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Configuring Labeled Printing (Task Map)

For instructions, see Initialize the Solaris Management Console Server in Trusted
Extensions in Trusted Extensions Configuration Guide.
Select the Scope=Files, Policy=TSOL toolbox and log in.

3 Assign the printer to the admin_low template.

a. In the Computers and Networks tool, double-click Security Templates.

b. Double-click admin_low.

c. In the Hosts Assigned to Template tab, add the printer's IP address.


For more information, read the online help in the left pane.

4 Add the printer port to the shared interface of the global zone.

a. In the Computers and Networks tool, double-click Trusted Network Zones.

b. Double-click global.

c. To the Multilevel Ports for Shared IP Addresses list, add port 515, protocol tcp.

5 Verify that the Solaris Management Console assignments are in the kernel.
# tninfo -h printer-IP-address
IP address= printer-IP-address
Template = admin_low

# tninfo -m global
private: 111/tcp;111/udp;513/tcp;515/tcp;631/tcp;2049/tcp;6000-6050/tcp;
7007/tcp;7010/tcp;7014/tcp;7015/tcp;32771/tcp;32776/ip
shared: 515/tcp;6000-6050/tcp;7007/tcp;7010/tcp;7014/tcp;7015/tcp

Note The additional private and shared multilevel ports (MLPs) such as 6055 and 7007 support
Sun Ray requirements.

6 Ensure that printing services are enabled in the global zone.


# svcadm enable print/server
# svcadm enable rfc1179

7 If your system was installed with netservices limited, enable the printer to reach the
network.
The rfc1179 service must listen on addresses other than localhost. The LP service listens only
on a named pipe.
# inetadm -m svc:/application/print/rfc1179:default bind_addr=
# svcadm refresh rfc1179

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Configuring Labeled Printing (Task Map)

Note If you are running netservices open, the preceding command generates the following
error: Error: "inetd" property group missing.

8 Enable all users to print PostScript.


In the Trusted Editor, create the /etc/default/print file and add this line:
PRINT_POSTSCRIPT=1
Applications such as Beehive and gedit create PostScript output.

9 Add all LP filters to the printing service.


In the global zone, run this C-Shell script:
csh
cd /etc/lp/fd/
foreach a (*.fd)
lpfilter -f $a:r -F $a
end

10 Add a printer in the global zone.


Use the command line. The Print Manager GUI does not work in the global zone.
# lpadmin -p printer-name -v /dev/null -m tsol_netstandard \
-o protocol=tcp -o dest=printer-IP-address:9100 -T PS -I postscript
# accept printer-name
# enable printer-name

11 (Optional) Set the printer as the default.


# lpadmin -d printer-name

12 In every labeled zone, configure the printer.


Use the all-zones IP address for the global zone as the print server. If your all-zones NIC is a
virtual network interface (vni), use the IP address for the vni as the argument to the -s option.

a. Log in as root to the zone console of the labeled zone.


# zlogin -C labeled-zonename

b. Add the printer to the zone.


# lpadmin -p printer-name -s global-zone-shared-IP-address

c. (Optional) Set the printer as the default.


# lpadmin -d printer-name

13 In every zone, test the printer.

Chapter 15 Managing Labeled Printing (Tasks) 205


Configuring Labeled Printing (Task Map)

Note Starting in the Solaris 10 7/10 release, files with an administrative label, either
ADMIN_HIGH or ADMIN_LOW, print ADMIN_HIGH on the body of the printout. The banner and
trailer pages are labeled with the highest label and compartments in the label_encodings file.
As root and as a regular user, perform the following steps:

a. Print plain files from the command line.

b. Print files from your applications, such as Beehive, your browser, and your editor.

c. Verify that banner pages, trailer pages, and security banners print correctly.

Example 151 Determining Printer Status for a Network Printer


In this example, the administrator verifies the network printer's status from the global zone and
from a labeled zone.

global # lpstat -t
scheduler is running
system default destination: math-printer
system for _default: trusted1 (as printer math-printer)
device for math-printer: /dev/null
character set
default accepting requests since Feb 28 00:00 2008
lex accepting requests since Feb 28 00:00 2008
printer math-printer is idle. enabled since Feb 28 00:00 2008. available.

Solaris1# lpstat -t
scheduler is not running
system default destination: math-printer
system for _default: 192.168.4.17 (as printer math-printer)
system for math-printer: 192.168.4.17
default accepting requests since Feb 28 00:00 2008
math-printer accepting requests since Feb 28 00:00 2008
printer _default is idle. enabled since Feb 28 00:00 2008. available.
printer math-printer is idle. enabled since Feb 28 00:00 2008. available.

How to Configure Cascade Printing on a Labeled


System
Cascade printing provides the ability to print from a Windows desktop session to a Trusted
Extensions labeled zone interface, where the zone IP address of the physical interface acts as the
print spooler. The multilevel port (MLP) listener that is on the zone IP address of the physical
interface talks to the Trusted Extensions printing subsystem and prints the file with the
appropriate labeled header and trailer sheets.

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Configuring Labeled Printing (Task Map)

This procedure enables unlabeled systems that are in the same subnet as labeled systems to use
the labeled network printer. The rfc1179 service handles cascade printing. You must perform
this procedure in every labeled zone from which you permit cascade printing.

Before You Begin You have completed How to Configure a Network Printer for Sun Ray Clients on page 203.

1 Log in as root to the zone console of the labeled zone.


# zlogin -C labeled-zonename

2 Remove the rfc1179 service's dependency on the print/server service.


labeled-zone # cat <<EOF | svccfg
select application/print/rfc1179
delpg lpsched
end
EOF

labeled-zone # svcadm refresh application/print/rfc1179

3 Ensure that the rfc1179 service is enabled.


labeled-zone # svcadm enable rfc1179

4 If the labeled zone was installed with netservices limited, enable the printer to reach the
network.
The rfc1179 service must listen on addresses other than localhost. The LP service listens only
on a named pipe.
# inetadm -m svc:/application/print/rfc1179:default bind_addr=
# svcadm refresh rfc1179

Note If you are running netservices open, the preceding command generates the following
message: Error: "inetd" property group missing.

5 Configure cascade printing from the labeled zone.


labeled-zone # lpset -n system -a spooling-type=cascade printer-name
This command updates the zone's /etc/printers.conf file.

6 Test an Oracle Solaris system that is on the same subnet as this labeled zone.
For example, test the Solaris1 system. This system is on the same subnet as the internal zone.
The configuration parameters are the following:
math-printer IP address is 192.168.4.6
Solaris1 IP address is 192.168.4.12

Chapter 15 Managing Labeled Printing (Tasks) 207


Configuring Labeled Printing (Task Map)

internal zone IP address is 192.168.4.17

Solaris1# uname -a
SunOS Solaris1 Generic_120011-11 sun4u sparc SUNW,Sun-Blade-1000
Solaris1# lpadmin -p math-printer -s 192.168.4.17
Solaris1# lpadmin -d math-printer
Solaris1# lpstat -t
scheduler is not running
system default destination: math-printer
system for _default: 192.168.4.17 (as printer math-printer)
system for math-printer: 192.168.4.17
default accepting requests since Feb 28 00:00 2008
math-printer accepting requests since Feb 28 00:00 2008
printer _default is idle. enabled since Feb 28 00:00 2008. available.
printer math-printer is idle. enabled since Feb 28 00:00 2008. available.

Test the lp command.


Solaris1# lp /etc/hosts
request id is math-printer-1 (1 file)

Test printing from applications such as Beehive and the browser.

7 Test a Windows 2003 server that is on the same subnet as this labeled zone.

a. Set up the printer on the Windows server.


Use the Start Menu->Settings->Printers & Faxes GUI.
Specify the following printer configuration:
Add A Printer
Local Printer attached to this computer
Create a new port Standard TCP/IP Port
Printer Name or IP Address 192.168.4.17, that is, the IP address of the labeled zone
Port Name Accept default
Additional Port Information Required Accept default
Device Type = Custom
Settings Protocol = LPR
LPR Settings Queue Name = math-printer, that is, the UNIX Queue Name
LPR Byte Counting Enabled
Finish the printer prompts by specifying the manufacturer, model, driver and other printer
parameters.

8 Test the printer by selecting the printer from an application.


For example, test the winserver system that is on the same subnet as the internal zone. The
configuration parameters are the following:

208 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


Configuring Labeled Printing (Task Map)

math-printer IP address is 192.168.4.6


winserver IP address is 192.168.4.200
internal zone IP address is 192.168.4.17

winserver C:/> ipconfig


Windows IP Configuration
Ethernet adapter TP-NIC:
Connection-specific DNS Suffix . :
IP Address. . . . . . . . . . . . : 192.168.4.200
Subnet Mask . . . . . . . . . . . : 255.255.255.0
Default Gateway . . . . . . . . . : 192.168.4.17

How to Configure a Zone for Single-Label Printing


Before You Begin The zone must not be sharing an IP address with the global zone. You must be in the System
Administrator role in the global zone.

1 Add a workspace.
For details, see How to Add a Workspace at a Particular Label in Trusted Extensions Users
Guide.

2 Change the label of the new workspace to the label of the zone that will be the print server for
that label.
For details, see How to Change the Label of a Workspace in Trusted Extensions Users Guide.

3 Define the characteristics of the connected printers.

a. At the label of zone, start the Print Manager.


By default, the Use PPD checkbox is selected. The system finds the appropriate driver for
the printer.

b. (Optional) To specify a different printer driver, do the following:

i. Remove the check fromUse PPD.

ii. Define the make and model of the printer that uses a different driver.
In the Print Manager, you supply the values for the first two fields, then the Print
Manager supplies the driver name.
Printer Make manufacturer
Printer Model manufacturer-part-number
Printer Driver automatically filled in

4 Assign a printer model script to each printer that is connected to the zone.
The model script activates the banner and trailer pages for the specified printer.

Chapter 15 Managing Labeled Printing (Tasks) 209


Configuring Labeled Printing (Task Map)

For your choices of scripts, see Printer Model Scripts on page 198. If the driver name for the
printer starts with Foomatic, then specify one of the foomatic model scripts. Use the following
command:
$ lpadmin -p printer -m model
The attached printers can print jobs only at the label of the zone.

5 Test the printer.

Note Starting in the Solaris 10 7/10 release, files with an administrative label, either
ADMIN_HIGH or ADMIN_LOW, print ADMIN_HIGH on the body of the printout. The banner and
trailer pages are labeled with the highest label and compartments in the label_encodings file.

As root and as a regular user, perform the following steps:

a. Print plain files from the command line.

b. Print files from your applications, such as Beehive, your browser, and your editor.

c. Verify that banner pages, trailer pages, and security banners print correctly.

See Also Prevent labeled output Reducing Printing Restrictions in Trusted Extensions (Task Map)
on page 213

How to Enable a Trusted Extensions Client to Access a


Printer
Initially, only the zone in which a print server was configured can print to the printers of that
print server. The system administrator must explicitly add access to those printers for other
zones and systems. The possibilities are as follows:
For a global zone, add access to the printers that are connected to a global zone on a different
system.
For a labeled zone, add access to the printers that are connected to the global zone of its
system.
For a labeled zone, add access to a printer that a remote zone at the same label is configured
for.
For a labeled zone, add access to the printers that are connected to a global zone on a
different system.

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Configuring Labeled Printing (Task Map)

Before You Begin A print server has been configured with a label range or a single label, and the printers that are
connected to it have been configured. For details, see the following:
How to Configure a Multilevel Print Server and Its Printers on page 201
How to Configure a Zone for Single-Label Printing on page 209
How to Assign a Label to an Unlabeled Print Server on page 214

You must be in the System Administrator role in the global zone, or be able to assume the role.

1 Complete the procedures that enable your systems to access a printer.

Configure the global zone on a system that is not a print server to use another system's
global zone for printer access.

a. On the system that does not have printer access, assume the System Administrator role.

b. Add access to the printer that is connected to the Trusted Extensions print server.
$ lpadmin -s printer

Configure a labeled zone to use its global zone for printer access.

a. Change the label of the role workspace to the label of the labeled zone.
For details, see How to Change the Label of a Workspace in Trusted Extensions Users
Guide.

b. Add access to the printer.


$ lpadmin -s printer

Configure a labeled zone to use another system's labeled zone for printer access.
The labels of the zones must be identical.

a. On the system that does not have printer access, assume the System Administrator role.

b. Change the label of the role workspace to the label of the labeled zone.
For details, see How to Change the Label of a Workspace in Trusted Extensions Users
Guide.

c. Add access to the printer that is connected to the print server of the remote labeled zone.
$ lpadmin -s printer

Configure a labeled zone to use an unlabeled print server for printer access.
The label of the zone must be identical to the label of the print server.

a. On the system that does not have printer access, assume the System Administrator role.

Chapter 15 Managing Labeled Printing (Tasks) 211


Configuring Labeled Printing (Task Map)

b. Change the label of the role workspace to the label of the labeled zone.
For details, see How to Change the Label of a Workspace in Trusted Extensions Users
Guide.

c. Add access to the printer that is connected to the arbitrarily labeled print server.
$ lpadmin -s printer

2 Test the printers.


Starting in the Solaris 10 7/10 release, files with an administrative label, either ADMIN_HIGH or
ADMIN_LOW, print ADMIN_HIGH on the body of the printout. The banner and trailer pages are
labeled with the highest label and compartments in the label_encodings file.
On every client, test that printing works for root and roles in the global zone and for root,
roles, and regular users in labeled zones.

a. Print plain files from the command line.

b. Print files from your applications, such as Beehive, your browser, and your editor.

c. Verify that banner pages, trailer pages, and security banners print correctly.

How to Configure a Restricted Label Range for a


Printer
The default printer label range is ADMIN_LOW to ADMIN_HIGH. This procedure narrows the label
range for a printer that is controlled by a Trusted Extensions print server.

Before You Begin You must be in the Security Administrator role in the global zone.

1 Start the Device Allocation Manager.

Choose the Allocate Device option from the Trusted Path menu.

In Trusted CDE, launch the Device Allocation Manager action from the Tools subpanel on the
Front Panel.

2 Click the Device Administration button to display the Device Allocation: Administration dialog
box.

3 Type a name for the new printer.


If the printer is attached to your system, find the name of the printer.

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Reducing Printing Restrictions in Trusted Extensions (Task Map)

4 Click the Configure button to display the Device Allocation: Configuration dialog box.

5 Change the printer's label range.

a. Click the Min Label button to change the minimum label.


Choose a label from the label builder. For information about the label builder, see Label
Builder in Trusted Extensions on page 43.

b. Click the Max Label button to change the maximum label.

6 Save the changes.

a. Click OK in the Configuration dialog box.

b. Click OK in the Administration dialog box.

7 Close the Device Allocation Manager.

Reducing Printing Restrictions in Trusted Extensions (Task


Map)
The following tasks are optional. They reduce the printing security that Trusted Extensions
provides by default when the software is installed.

Task Description For Instructions

Configure a printer to not label Prevents security information from printing on body How to Remove Labels From Printed
output. pages, and removes banner and trailer pages. Output on page 214

Configure printers at a single Enables users to print at a specific label to an Oracle How to Assign a Label to an Unlabeled
label without labeled output. Solaris printer. The print jobs are not marked with Print Server on page 214
labels.

Remove visible labeling of body Modifies the tsol_separator.ps file to prevent How to Remove Page Labels From All
pages. labeled body pages on all print jobs that are sent from Print Jobs on page 215
a Trusted Extensions host.

Suppress banner and trailer Authorizes specific users to print jobs without banner How to Suppress Banner and Trailer
pages. and trailer pages. Pages for Specific Users on page 216

Enable trusted users to print Authorizes specific users or all users of a particular How to Enable Specific Users to Suppress
jobs without labels. system to print jobs without labels. Page Labels on page 216

Enable the printing of PostScript Authorizes specific users or all users of a particular How to Enable Users to Print PostScript
files. system to print PostScript files. Files in Trusted Extensions on page 217

Chapter 15 Managing Labeled Printing (Tasks) 213


Reducing Printing Restrictions in Trusted Extensions (Task Map)

Task Description For Instructions

Assign printing authorizations. Enables users to bypass default printing restrictions. How to Create a Rights Profile for
Convenient Authorizations on page 90
How to Modify policy.conf Defaults on
page 84

How to Remove Labels From Printed Output


Printers that do not have a Trusted Extensions printer model script do not print labeled banner
or trailer pages. The body pages also do not include labels.

Before You Begin You must be in the Security Administrator role in the global zone.

At the appropriate label, do one of the following:

From the print server, stop banner printing altogether.


$ lpadmin -p printer -o nobanner=never
Body pages are still labeled.

Set the printer model script to an Oracle Solaris script.


$ lpadmin -p printer \
-m { standard | netstandard | standard_foomatic | netstandard_foomatic }
No labels appear on printed output.

How to Assign a Label to an Unlabeled Print Server


A Oracle Solaris print server is an unlabeled print server that can be assigned a label for Trusted
Extensions access to the printer at that label. Printers that are connected to an unlabeled print
server can print jobs only at the label that has been assigned to the print server. Jobs print
without labels or trailer pages and might print without banner pages. If a job prints with a
banner page, the page does not contain any security information.
A Trusted Extensions system can be configured to submit jobs to a printer that is managed by
an unlabeled print server. Users can print jobs on the unlabeled printer at the label that the
security administrator assigns to the print server.

Before You Begin You must be in the Security Administrator role in the global zone.

1 Open the Solaris Management Console in the appropriate scope.


For details, see Initialize the Solaris Management Console Server in Trusted Extensions in
Trusted Extensions Configuration Guide.

214 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


Reducing Printing Restrictions in Trusted Extensions (Task Map)

2 Under System Configuration, navigate to the Computers and Networks tool.


Provide a password when prompted.

3 Assign an unlabeled template to the print server.


For details, see How to Assign a Security Template to a Host or a Group of Hosts on page 174.
Choose a label. Users who are working at that label can send print jobs to the Oracle Solaris
printer at the label of the print server. Pages do not print with labels, and banner and trailer
pages are also not part of the print job.

Example 152 Sending Public Print Jobs to an Unlabeled Printer


Files that are available to the general public are suitable for printing to an unlabeled printer. In
this example, marketing writers need to produce documents that do not have labels printed on
the top and bottom of the pages.

The security administrator assigns an unlabeled host type template to the Oracle Solaris print
server. The template is described in Example 136. The arbitrary label of the template is PUBLIC.
The printer pr-nolabel1 is connected to this print server. Print jobs from users in a PUBLIC
zone print on the pr-nolabel1 printer with no labels. Depending on the settings for the printer,
the jobs might or might not have banner pages. The banner pages do not contain security
information.

How to Remove Page Labels From All Print Jobs


This procedure prevents all print jobs on a Trusted Extensions printer from including visible
labels on the body pages of the print job.

Before You Begin You must be in the Security Administrator role in the global zone.

1 Edit the /usr/lib/lp/postscript/tsol_separator.ps file.


Use the trusted editor. For details, see How to Edit Administrative Files in Trusted Extensions
on page 54.

2 Find the definition of /PageLabel.


Find the following lines:
%% To eliminate page labels completely, change this line to
%% set the page label to an empty string: /PageLabel () def
/PageLabel Job_PageLabel def

Note The value Job_PageLabel might be different at your site.

Chapter 15 Managing Labeled Printing (Tasks) 215


Reducing Printing Restrictions in Trusted Extensions (Task Map)

3 Replace the value of /PageLabel with a set of empty parentheses.


/PageLabel () def

How to Enable Specific Users to Suppress Page Labels


This procedure enables an authorized user or role to print jobs on a Trusted Extensions printer
without labels on the top and bottom of each body page. Page labels are suppressed for all labels
at which the user can work.

Before You Begin You must be in the Security Administrator role in the global zone.

1 Determine who is permitted to print jobs without page labels.

2 Authorize those users and roles to print jobs without page labels.
Assign a rights profile that includes the Print without Label authorization to those users and
roles. For details, see How to Create a Rights Profile for Convenient Authorizations on
page 90.

3 Instruct the user or role to use the lp command to submit print jobs:
% lp -o nolabels staff.mtg.notes

How to Suppress Banner and Trailer Pages for Specific


Users
Before You Begin You must be in the Security Administrator role in the global zone.

1 Create a rights profile that includes the Print without Banner authorization.
Assign the profile to each user or role that is allowed to print without banner and trailer pages.
For details, see How to Create a Rights Profile for Convenient Authorizations on page 90.

2 Instruct the user or role to use the lp command to submit print jobs:
% lp -o nobanner staff.mtg.notes

216 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


Reducing Printing Restrictions in Trusted Extensions (Task Map)

How to Enable Users to Print PostScript Files in Trusted


Extensions
Before You Begin You must be in the Security Administrator role in the global zone.

Use one of the following three methods to enable users to print PostScript files:

To enable PostScript printing on a system, modify the /etc/default/print file.

a. Create or modify the /etc/default/print file.


Use the trusted editor. For details, see How to Edit Administrative Files in Trusted
Extensions on page 54.

b. Type the following entry:


PRINT_POSTSCRIPT=1

c. Save the file and close the editor.

To authorize all users to print PostScript files from a system, modify the
/etc/security/policy.conf file.

a. Modify the policy.conf file.


Use the trusted editor. For details, see How to Edit Administrative Files in Trusted
Extensions on page 54.

b. Add the solaris.print.ps authorization.


AUTHS_GRANTED=other-authorizations,solaris.print.ps

c. Save the file and close the editor.

To enable a user or role to print PostScript files from any system, give just those users and
roles the appropriate authorization.
Assign a profile that includes the Print Postscript authorization to those users and roles.
For details, see How to Create a Rights Profile for Convenient Authorizations on page 90.

Example 153 Enabling PostScript Printing From a Public System


In the following example, the security administrator has constrained a public kiosk to operate at
the PUBLIC label. The system also has a few icons that open topics of interest. These topics can
be printed.

Chapter 15 Managing Labeled Printing (Tasks) 217


Reducing Printing Restrictions in Trusted Extensions (Task Map)

The security administrator creates an /etc/default/print file on the system. The file has one
entry to enable the printing of PostScript files. No user needs a Print Postscript
authorization.

# vi /etc/default/print

# PRINT_POSTSCRIPT=0
PRINT_POSTSCRIPT=1

218 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


16
C H A P T E R 1 6

Devices in Trusted Extensions (Overview)

This chapter describes the extensions that Trusted Extensions provides to device protection.
Device Protection With Trusted Extensions Software on page 219
Device Allocation Manager GUI on page 221
Enforcement of Device Security in Trusted Extensions on page 223
Devices in Trusted Extensions (Reference) on page 223

Device Protection With Trusted Extensions Software


On an Oracle Solaris system, devices can be protected by allocation and by authorization. By
default, devices are available to regular users without an authorization. A system that is
configured with the Trusted Extensions feature uses the device protection mechanisms of the
Oracle Solaris OS.

However, by default, Trusted Extensions requires that a device be allocated for use, and that the
user be authorized to use the device. In addition, devices are protected by labels. Trusted
Extensions provides a graphical user interface (GUI) for administrators to manage devices. The
same interface is used by users to allocate devices.

Note In Trusted Extensions, users cannot use the allocate and deallocate commands. Users
must use the Device Allocation Manager. In Solaris Trusted Extensions (JDS), the title of the
GUI is Device Manager.

For information about device protection in Oracle Solaris, see Chapter 4, Controlling Access
to Devices (Tasks), in System Administration Guide: Security Services.

219
Device Protection With Trusted Extensions Software

On a system that is configured with Trusted Extensions, two roles protect devices.
The System Administrator role controls access to peripheral devices.
The system administrator makes a device allocatable. Devices that the system administrator
makes nonallocatable cannot be used by anyone. Allocatable devices can be allocated only
by authorized users.
The Security Administrator role restricts the labels at which a device can be accessed and
sets device policy. The security administrator decides who is authorized to allocate a device.

The following are the main features of device control with Trusted Extensions software:
By default, an unauthorized user on a Trusted Extensions system cannot allocate devices
such as tape drives, CD-ROM drives, or diskette drives.
A regular user with the Allocate Device authorization can import or export information at
the label at which the user allocates the device.
Users invoke the Device Allocation Manager to allocate devices when they are logged in
directly. To allocate a device remotely, users must have access to the global zone. Typically,
only roles have access to the global zone.
The label range of each device can be restricted by the security administrator. Regular users
are limited to accessing devices whose label range includes the labels at which the users are
allowed to work. The default label range of a device is ADMIN_LOW to ADMIN_HIGH.
Label ranges can be restricted for both allocatable and nonallocatable devices.
Nonallocatable devices are devices such as frame buffers and printers.

Device Label Ranges


To prevent users from copying sensitive information, each allocatable device has a label range.
To use an allocatable device, the user must be currently operating at a label within the device's
label range. If the user is not, allocation is denied. The user's current label is applied to data that
is imported or exported while the device is allocated to the user. The label of exported data is
displayed when the device is deallocated. The user must physically label the medium that
contains the exported data.

Effects of Label Range on a Device


To restrict direct login access through the console, the security administrator can set a restricted
label range on the frame buffer.

For example, a restricted label range might be specified to limit access to a publicly accessible
system. The label range enables users to access the system only at a label within the frame
buffer's label range.

220 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


Device Allocation Manager GUI

When a host has a local printer, a restricted label range on the printer limits the jobs that can be
printed on the printer.

Device Access Policies


Trusted Extensions follows the same device policies as Oracle Solaris. The security
administrator can change default policies and define new policies. The getdevpolicy
command retrieves information about device policy, and the update_drv command changes
device policy. For more information, see Configuring Device Policy (Task Map) in System
Administration Guide: Security Services. See also the getdevpolicy(1M) and update_drv(1M)
man pages.

Device-Clean Scripts
A device-clean script is run when a device is allocated or deallocated. Oracle Solaris provides
scripts for tape drives, CD-ROM drives, and diskette drives. If your site adds allocatable device
types to the system, the added devices might need scripts. To see existing scripts, go to the
/etc/security/lib directory. For more information, see Device-Clean Scripts in System
Administration Guide: Security Services.

For Trusted Extensions software, device-clean scripts must satisfy certain requirements. These
requirements are described in the device_clean(5) man page.

Device Allocation Manager GUI


The Device Allocation Manager is used by administrators to administer allocatable and
nonallocatable devices. The Device Allocation Manager is also used by regular users to allocate
and deallocate devices. The users must have the Allocate Device authorization. In a Solaris
Trusted Extensions (CDE) workspace, the Device Allocation Manager is opened from the Front
Panel. The icon appears as follows:

Device Allocation

In a Solaris Trusted Extensions (JDS) workspace, the GUI is called the Device Manager. This
GUI is started from the Trusted Path menu by selecting Allocate Device. In Trusted CDE, you
can also start the GUI from the Trusted Path menu. The following figure shows a Device
Allocation Manager that was opened by a user who can allocate the audio device.

Chapter 16 Devices in Trusted Extensions (Overview) 221


Device Allocation Manager GUI

FIGURE 161 Device Allocation Manager Opened by a User

Users see an empty list when they are not authorized to allocate devices. Or, an empty list might
indicate that the allocatable devices are currently allocated by another user or are in an error
state. If a user cannot see a device in the Available Devices list, the user needs to contact the
responsible administrator.

The Device Administration feature is available to roles that have either one or both of the
authorizations that are needed to administer devices. The administration authorizations are
Configure Device Attributes, and Revoke or Reclaim Device. The following figure shows a
Device Allocation Administration dialog box.

222 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


Devices in Trusted Extensions (Reference)

In a Solaris Trusted Extensions (JDS), the Device Administration button is called


Administration.

Enforcement of Device Security in Trusted Extensions


The security administrator decides who can allocate devices and makes sure that any user who
is authorized to use devices is trained. The user is trusted to do the following:
Properly label and handle any media containing exported sensitive information so that the
information does not become available to anyone who should not see it.
For example, if information at a label of NEED TO KNOW ENGINEERING is stored on a diskette,
the person who exports the information must physically label the disk with the NEED TO
KNOW ENGINEERING label. The diskette must be stored where it is accessible only to members
of the engineering group with a need to know.
Ensure that labels are properly maintained on any information being imported (read) from
media on these devices.
An authorized user must allocate the device at the label that matches the label of the
information that is being imported. For example, if a user allocates a diskette drive at
PUBLIC, the user must only import information labeled PUBLIC.

The security administrator is also responsible for enforcing proper compliance with these
security requirements.

Devices in Trusted Extensions (Reference)


Trusted Extensions device protection uses Oracle Solaris interfaces and Trusted Extensions
interfaces.

For Oracle Solaris command-line interfaces, see Device Protection (Reference) in System
Administration Guide: Security Services.

Administrators who do not have access to the Device Allocation Manager can administer
allocatable devices by using the command line. The allocate and deallocate commands have
administrative options. For examples, see Forcibly Allocating a Device in System
Administration Guide: Security Services and Forcibly Deallocating a Device in System
Administration Guide: Security Services.

For Trusted Extensions command-line interfaces, see the add_allocatable(1M) and


remove_allocatable(1M) man pages.

Chapter 16 Devices in Trusted Extensions (Overview) 223


224
17
C H A P T E R 1 7

Managing Devices for Trusted Extensions


(Tasks)

This chapter describes how to administer and use devices on a system that is configured with
Trusted Extensions.
Handling Devices in Trusted Extensions (Task Map) on page 225
Using Devices in Trusted Extensions (Task Map) on page 226
Managing Devices in Trusted Extensions (Task Map) on page 226
Customizing Device Authorizations in Trusted Extensions (Task Map) on page 235

Handling Devices in Trusted Extensions (Task Map)


The following task map links to task maps for administrators and users for handling peripheral
devices.

Task Description For Instructions

Use devices. Uses a device as a role or as a regular user. Using Devices in Trusted Extensions (Task Map)
on page 226

Administer devices. Configures devices for regular users. Managing Devices in Trusted Extensions (Task
Map) on page 226

Customize device The Security Administrator role creates new Customizing Device Authorizations in Trusted
authorizations. authorizations, adds them to the device, places them in Extensions (Task Map) on page 235
a rights profile and assigns this profile to the user.

225
Using Devices in Trusted Extensions (Task Map)

Using Devices in Trusted Extensions (Task Map)


In Trusted Extensions, all roles are authorized to allocate a device. Like users, roles must use the
Device Allocation Manager. The Oracle Solaris allocate command does not work in Trusted
Extensions. The following task map links to user procedures for using devices in Trusted
Extensions.

Task For Instructions

Allocate and deallocate a device. How to Allocate a Device in Trusted Extensions in Trusted Extensions Users Guide
Workspace Switch Area in Trusted Extensions Users Guide

Use portable media to transfer files. How to Copy Files From Portable Media in Trusted Extensions in Trusted Extensions
Configuration Guide
How to Copy Files to Portable Media in Trusted Extensions in Trusted Extensions
Configuration Guide

Managing Devices in Trusted Extensions (Task Map)


The following task map describes procedures to protect devices at your site.

Task Description For Instructions

Set or modify device policy. Changes the privileges that are required to access Configuring Device Policy (Task Map) in
a device. System Administration Guide: Security
Services

Authorize users to allocate a device. The Security Administrator role assigns a rights How to Authorize Users to Allocate a
profile with the Allocate Device authorization to Device in System Administration Guide:
the user. Security Services

The Security Administrator role assigns a profile Customizing Device Authorizations in


with the site-specific authorizations to the user. Trusted Extensions (Task Map) on
page 235

Configure a device. Chooses security features to protect the device. How to Configure a Device in Trusted
Extensions on page 227

Revoke or reclaim a device. Uses the Device Allocation Manager to make a How to Revoke or Reclaim a Device in
device available for use. Trusted Extensions on page 230

Uses Oracle Solaris commands to make a device Forcibly Allocating a Device in System
available or unavailable for use. Administration Guide: Security Services
Forcibly Deallocating a Device in System
Administration Guide: Security Services

226 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


Managing Devices in Trusted Extensions (Task Map)

Task Description For Instructions

Prevent access to an allocatable Provides finegrained access control to a device. Example 174
device.
Denies everyone access to an allocatable device. Example 171

Protect printers and frame buffers. Ensures that nonallocatable devices are not How to Protect Nonallocatable Devices in
allocatable. Trusted Extensions on page 231

Configure serial login devices. Enables logins by serial port. How to Configure a Serial Line for Logins
on page 232

Enable a CD player program to be Enables an audio player program to open How to Configure an Audio Player
used. automatically when a music CD is inserted. Program for Use in Trusted CDE on
page 233

Prevent the File Manager from Prevents the File Manager from displaying after a How to Prevent the File Manager From
displaying. device has been allocated. Displaying After Device Allocation on
page 233

Use a new device-clean script. Places a new script in the appropriate places. How to Add a Device_Clean Script in
Trusted Extensions on page 234

How to Configure a Device in Trusted Extensions


By default, an allocatable device has a label range from ADMIN_LOW to ADMIN_HIGH and must be
allocated for use. Also, users must be authorized to allocate the device. These defaults can be
changed.

The following devices can be allocated for use:


audion Indicates a microphone and speaker
cdromn Indicates a CD-ROM drive
floppyn Indicates a diskette drive
mag_tapen Indicates a tape drive (streaming)
rmdiskn Indicates a removable disk, such as a JAZ or ZIP drive, or USB hot-pluggable
media

Before You Begin You must be in the Security Administrator role in the global zone.

Chapter 17 Managing Devices for Trusted Extensions (Tasks) 227


Managing Devices in Trusted Extensions (Task Map)

1 From the Trusted Path menu, select Allocate Device.


The Device Allocation Manager appears.

2 View the default security settings.


Click Device Administration, then highlight the device. The following figure shows an audio
device that is being viewed by the root role.

3 (Optional) Restrict the label range on the device.

a. Set the minimum label.


Click the Min Label button. Choose a minimum label from the label builder. For
information about the label builder, see Label Builder in Trusted Extensions on page 43.

b. Set the maximum label.


Click the Max Label... button. Choose a maximum label from the label builder.

228 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


Managing Devices in Trusted Extensions (Task Map)

4 Specify if the device can be allocated locally.


In the Device Allocation Configuration dialog box, under For Allocations From Trusted Path,
select an option from the Allocatable By list. By default, the Authorized Users option is checked.
Therefore, the device is allocatable and users must be authorized.

To make the device nonallocatable, click No Users.


When configuring a printer, frame buffer, or other device that must not be allocatable, select
No Users.

To make the device allocatable, but to not require authorization, click All Users.

5 Specify if the device can be allocated remotely.


In the For Allocations From Non-Trusted Path section, select an option from the Allocatable By
list. By default, the Same As Trusted Path option is checked.

To require user authorization, select Allocatable by Authorized Users.

To make the device nonallocatable by remote users, select No Users.

To make the device allocatable by anyone, select All Users.

6 If the device is allocatable, and your site has created new device authorizations, select the
appropriate authorization.
The following dialog box shows the solaris.device.allocate authorization is required to
allocate the cdrom0 device.

To create and use site-specific device authorizations, see Customizing Device Authorizations
in Trusted Extensions (Task Map) on page 235.

Chapter 17 Managing Devices for Trusted Extensions (Tasks) 229


Managing Devices in Trusted Extensions (Task Map)

7 To save your changes, click OK.

How to Revoke or Reclaim a Device in Trusted


Extensions
If a device is not listed in the Device Allocation Manager, it might already be allocated or it
might be in an allocate error state. The system administrator can recover the device for use.

Before You Begin You must be in the System Administrator role in the global zone. This role includes the
solaris.device.revoke authorization.

1 From the Trusted Path menu, select Allocate Device.


In the following figure, the audio device is already allocated to a user.

2 Click the Device Administration button.

3 Check the status of a device.


Select the device name and check the State field.

If the State field is Allocate Error State, click the Reclaim button.

If the State field is Allocated, do one of the following:

Ask the user in the Owner field to deallocate the device.

Force deallocation of the device by clicking the Revoke button.

4 Close the Device Allocation Manager.

230 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


Managing Devices in Trusted Extensions (Task Map)

How to Protect Nonallocatable Devices in Trusted


Extensions
The No Users option in the Allocatable By section of the Device Configuration dialog box is
used most often for the frame buffer and printer, which do not have to be allocated to be used.

Before You Begin You must be in the Security Administrator role in the global zone.

1 From the Trusted Path menu, select Allocate Device.

2 In the Device Allocation Manager, click the Device Administration button.

3 Select the new printer or frame buffer.

a. To make the device nonallocatable, click No Users.

b. (Optional) Restrict the label range on the device.

i. Set the minimum label.


Click the Min Label... button. Choose a minimum label from the label builder. For
information about the label builder, see Label Builder in Trusted Extensions on
page 43.

ii. Set the maximum label.


Click the Max Label... button. Choose a maximum label from the label builder.

Example 171 Preventing Remote Allocation of the Audio Device


The No Users option in the Allocatable By section prevents remote users from hearing
conversations around a remote system.

The security administrator configures the audio device in the Device Allocation Manager as
follows:

Device Name: audio


For Allocations From: Trusted Path
Allocatable By: Authorized Users
Authorizations: solaris.device.allocate

Device Name: audio


For Allocations From: Non-Trusted Pathh
Allocatable By: No Users

Chapter 17 Managing Devices for Trusted Extensions (Tasks) 231


Managing Devices in Trusted Extensions (Task Map)

How to Configure a Serial Line for Logins


Before You Begin You must be in the Security Administrator role in the global zone.

1 Open the Solaris Management Console in the Files scope.

FIGURE 171 Serial Ports Tool in the Solaris Management Console

2 Under Devices and Hardware, navigate to Serial Ports.


Provide a password when prompted. Follow the online help to configure the serial port.

3 To change the default label range, open the Device Allocation Manager.
The default label range is ADMIN_LOW to ADMIN_HIGH.

Example 172 Restricting the Label Range of a Serial Port


After creating a serial login device, the security administrator restricts the label range of the
serial port to a single label, Public. The administrator sets the following values in the Device
Administration dialog boxes.

Device Name: /dev/term/[a|b]


Device Type: tty
Clean Program: /bin/true
Device Map: /dev/term/[a|b]
Minimum Label: Public
Maximum Label: Public
Allocatable By: No Users

232 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


Managing Devices in Trusted Extensions (Task Map)

How to Configure an Audio Player Program for Use in


Trusted CDE
The following procedure enables an audio player to open automatically in a Trusted CDE
workspace when a user inserts a music CD. For the user's procedure, see the example in How to
Allocate a Device in Trusted Extensions in Trusted Extensions Users Guide.

Note In a Trusted JDS workspace, users specify the behavior of removable media just as they
specify it in a non-trusted workspace.

Before You Begin You must be in the System Administrator role in the global zone.

1 Edit the /etc/rmmount.conf file.


Use the trusted editor. For details, see How to Edit Administrative Files in Trusted Extensions
on page 54.

2 Add your site's CD player program to the cdrom action in the file.
action media action_program.so path-to-program

Example 173 Configuring an Audio Player Program for Use


In the following example, the system administrator makes the workman program available to all
users of a system. The workman program is an audio player program.

# /etc/rmmount.conf file
action cdrom action_workman.so /usr/local/bin/workman

How to Prevent the File Manager From Displaying


After Device Allocation
By default, the File Manager displays when a device is mounted. If you are not mounting devices
that have file systems, you might want to prevent the File Manager from displaying.

Before You Begin You must be in the System Administrator role in the global zone.

1 Edit the /etc/rmmount.conf file.


Use the trusted editor. For details, see How to Edit Administrative Files in Trusted Extensions
on page 54.

Chapter 17 Managing Devices for Trusted Extensions (Tasks) 233


Managing Devices in Trusted Extensions (Task Map)

2 Find the following filemgr actions:


action cdrom action_filemgr.so
action floppy action_filemgr.so

3 Comment out the appropriate action.


The following example shows the action_filemgr.so actions commented out for both the
cdrom and diskette devices.
# action cdrom action_filemgr.so
# action floppy action_filemgr.so
When a CDROM or diskette is allocated, the File Manager does not display.

How to Add a Device_Clean Script in Trusted


Extensions
If no device_clean script is specified at the time a device is created, the default script,
/bin/true, is used.

Before You Begin Have ready a script that purges all usable data from the physical device and that returns 0 for
success. For devices with removable media, the script attempts to eject the media if the user does
not do so. The script puts the device into the allocate error state if the medium is not ejected. For
details about the requirements, see the device_clean(5) man page.

You must be in the root role in the global zone.

1 Copy the script into the /etc/security/lib directory.

2 In the Device Administration dialog box, specify the full path to the script.

a. Open the Device Allocation Manager.

b. Click the Device Administration button.

c. Select the name of the device, and click the Configure button.

d. In the Clean Program field, type the full path to the script.

3 Save your changes.

234 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


Customizing Device Authorizations in Trusted Extensions (Task Map)

Customizing Device Authorizations in Trusted Extensions


(Task Map)
The following task map describes procedures to change device authorizations at your site.

Task Description For Instructions

Create new device authorizations. Creates site-specific authorizations. How to Create New Device Authorizations
on page 235

Add authorizations to a device. Adds site-specific authorizations to selected How to Add Site-Specific Authorizations to a
devices. Device in Trusted Extensions on page 238

Assign device authorizations to Enables users and roles to use the new How to Assign Device Authorizations on
users and roles. authorizations. page 238

How to Create New Device Authorizations


If a device does not require an authorization, then, by default, all users can use the device. If an
authorization is required, then only authorized users can use the device.

To deny all access to an allocatable device, see Example 171.

Before You Begin You must be in the Security Administrator role in the global zone.

1 Edit the auth_attr file.


Use the trusted editor. For details, see How to Edit Administrative Files in Trusted Extensions
on page 54.

2 Create a heading for the new authorizations.


Use the reverse-order Internet domain name of your organization followed by optional
additional arbitrary components, such as the name of your company. Separate components by
dots. End heading names with a dot.
domain-suffix.domain-prefix.optional.:::Company Header::help=Company.html

3 Add new authorization entries.


Add the authorizations, one authorization per line. The lines are split for display purposes. The
authorizations include grant authorizations that enable administrators to assign the new
authorizations.
domain-suffix.domain-prefix.grant:::Grant All Company Authorizations::
help=CompanyGrant.html
domain-suffix.domain-prefix.grant.device:::Grant Company Device Authorizations::
help=CompanyGrantDevice.html

Chapter 17 Managing Devices for Trusted Extensions (Tasks) 235


Customizing Device Authorizations in Trusted Extensions (Task Map)

domain-suffix.domain-prefix.device.allocate.tape:::Allocate Tape Device::


help=CompanyTapeAllocate.html
domain-suffix.domain-prefix.device.allocate.floppy:::Allocate Floppy Device::
help=CompanyFloppyAllocate.html

4 Save the file and close the editor.

5 If you are using LDAP as your naming service, update the auth_attr entries on the Oracle
Directory Server Enterprise Edition (Directory Server).
For information, see the ldapaddent(1M) man page.

6 Add the new authorizations to the appropriate rights profiles. Then assign the profiles to users
and roles.
Use the Solaris Management Console. Assume the Security Administrator role, then follow the
Oracle Solaris procedure How to Create or Change a Rights Profile in System Administration
Guide: Security Services.

7 Use the authorization to restrict access to tape and diskette drives.


Add the new authorizations to the list of required authorizations in the Device Allocation
Manager. For the procedure, see How to Add Site-Specific Authorizations to a Device in
Trusted Extensions on page 238.

Example 174 Creating Fine-Grained Device Authorizations


A security administrator for NewCo needs to construct fine-grained device authorizations for
the company.

First, the administrator writes the following help files, and places the files in the
/usr/lib/help/auths/locale/C directory:

Newco.html
NewcoGrant.html
NewcoGrantDevice.html
NewcoTapeAllocate.html
NewcoFloppyAllocate.html

Next, the administrator adds a header for all of the authorizations for newco.com in the
auth_attr file.

# auth_attr file
com.newco.:::NewCo Header::help=Newco.html

Next, the administrator adds authorization entries to the file:

com.newco.grant:::Grant All NewCo Authorizations::


help=NewcoGrant.html
com.newco.grant.device:::Grant NewCo Device Authorizations::
help=NewcoGrantDevice.html

236 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


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com.newco.device.allocate.tape:::Allocate Tape Device::


help=NewcoTapeAllocate.html
com.newco.device.allocate.floppy:::Allocate Floppy Device::
help=NewcoFloppyAllocate.html

The lines are split for display purposes.

The auth_attr entries create the following authorizations:


An authorization to grant all NewCo's authorizations
An authorization to grant NewCo's device authorizations
An authorization to allocate a tape drive
An authorization to allocate a diskette drive

Example 175 Creating Trusted Path and Non-Trusted Path Authorizations


By default, the Allocate Devices authorization enables allocation from the trusted path and
from outside the trusted path.

In the following example, site security policy requires restricting remote CD-ROM allocation.
The security administrator creates the com.someco.device.cdrom.local authorization. This
authorization is for CD-ROM drives that are allocated with the trusted path. The
com.someco.device.cdrom.remote authorization is for those few users who are allowed to
allocate a CD-ROM drive outside the trusted path.

The security administrator creates the help files, adds the authorizations to the auth_attr
database, adds the authorizations to the devices, and then places the authorizations in rights
profiles. The profiles are assigned to users who are allowed to allocate devices.
The following are the auth_attr database entries:
com.someco.:::SomeCo Header::help=Someco.html
com.someco.grant:::Grant All SomeCo Authorizations::
help=SomecoGrant.html
com.someco.grant.device:::Grant SomeCo Device Authorizations::
help=SomecoGrantDevice.html
com.someco.device.cdrom.local:::Allocate Local CD-ROM Device::
help=SomecoCDAllocateLocal.html
com.someco.device.cdrom.remote:::Allocate Remote CD-ROM Device::
help=SomecoCDAllocateRemote.html
The following is the Device Allocation Manager assignment:
The Trusted Path enables authorized users to use the Device Allocation Manager when
allocating the local CD-ROM drive.
Device Name: cdrom_0
For Allocations From: Trusted Path
Allocatable By: Authorized Users
Authorizations: com.someco.device.cdrom.local

The Non-Trusted Path enables users to allocate a device remotely by using the allocate
command.

Chapter 17 Managing Devices for Trusted Extensions (Tasks) 237


Customizing Device Authorizations in Trusted Extensions (Task Map)

Device Name: cdrom_0


For Allocations From: Non-Trusted Path
Allocatable By: Authorized Users
Authorizations: com.someco.device.cdrom.remote
The following are the rights profile entries:
# Local Allocator profile
com.someco.device.cdrom.local

# Remote Allocator profile


com.someco.device.cdrom.remote
The following are the rights profiles for authorized users:
# List of profiles for regular authorized user
Local Allocator Profile
...
# List of profiles for role or authorized user
Remote Allocator Profile
...

How to Add Site-Specific Authorizations to a Device in


Trusted Extensions
Before You Begin You must be in the Security Administrator role, or in a role that includes the Configure Device
Attributes authorization. You must have already created site-specific authorizations, as
described in How to Create New Device Authorizations on page 235.

1 Follow the How to Configure a Device in Trusted Extensionson page 227 procedure.

a. Select a device that needs to be protected with your new authorizations.

b. Click the Device Administration button.

c. Click the Authorizations button.


The new authorizations are displayed in the Not Required list.

d. Add the new authorizations to the Required list of authorizations.

2 To save your changes, click OK.

How to Assign Device Authorizations


The Allocate Device authorization enables users to allocate a device. The Allocate Device
authorization, and the Revoke or Reclaim Device authorization, are appropriate for
administrative roles.

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Before You Begin You must be in the Security Administrator role in the global zone.

If the existing profiles are not appropriate, the security administrator can create a new profile.
For an example, see How to Create a Rights Profile for Convenient Authorizations on page 90.

Assign to the user a rights profile that contains the Allocate Device authorization.
For assistance, see the online help. For the step-by-step procedure, see How to Change the
RBAC Properties of a User in System Administration Guide: Security Services.
The following rights profiles enable a role to allocate devices:
All Authorizations
Device Management
Media Backup
Object Label Management
Software Installation

The following rights profiles enable a role to revoke or reclaim devices:


All Authorizations
Device Management

The following rights profiles enable a role to create or configure devices:


All Authorizations
Device Security

Example 176 Assigning New Device Authorizations


In this example, the security administrator configures the new device authorizations for the
system and assigns the rights profile with the new authorizations to trustworthy users. The
security administrator does the following:
1. Creates new device authorizations, as in How to Create New Device Authorizations on
page 235
2. In the Device Allocation Manager, adds the new device authorizations to the tape and
diskette drives
3. Places the new authorizations in the rights profile, NewCo Allocation
4. Adds the NewCo Allocation rights profile to the profiles of users and roles who are
authorized to allocate tape and diskette drives

Authorized users and roles can now use the tape drives and diskette drives on this system.

Chapter 17 Managing Devices for Trusted Extensions (Tasks) 239


240
18
C H A P T E R 1 8

Trusted Extensions Auditing (Overview)

This chapter describes the additions to auditing that Trusted Extensions provides.
Trusted Extensions and Auditing on page 241
Audit Management by Role in Trusted Extensions on page 242
Trusted Extensions Audit Reference on page 244

Trusted Extensions and Auditing


On a system that is configured with Trusted Extensions software, auditing is configured and is
administered similarly to auditing on an Oracle Solaris system. However, the following are
some differences.
Trusted Extensions software adds audit classes, audit events, audit tokens, and audit policy
options to the system.
By default, auditing is enabled in Trusted Extensions software.
Oracle Solaris per-zone auditing is not supported. In Trusted Extensions, all zones are
audited identically.
Trusted Extensions provides administrative tools to administer the users' audit
characteristics and to edit audit files.
Two roles, System Administrator and Security Administrator, are used to configure and
administer auditing in Trusted Extensions.
The security administrator plans what to audit and any site-specific, event-to-class
mappings. As in the Oracle Solaris OS, the system administrator plans disk space
requirements for the audit files, creates an audit administration server, and installs audit
configuration files.

241
Audit Management by Role in Trusted Extensions

Audit Management by Role in Trusted Extensions


Auditing in Trusted Extensions requires the same planning as in the Oracle Solaris OS. For
details about planning, see Chapter 29, Planning for Auditing, in System Administration
Guide: Security Services.

Role Setup for Audit Administration


In Trusted Extensions, auditing is the responsibility of two roles. The System Administrator
role sets up the disks and the network of audit storage. The Security Administrator role decides
what is to be audited, and specifies the information in the audit configuration files. As in the
Oracle Solaris OS, you create the roles in software. The rights profiles for these two roles are
provided. The initial setup team created the Security Administrator role during initial
configuration. For details, see Create the Security Administrator Role in Trusted Extensions
in Trusted Extensions Configuration Guide.

Note A system only records the security-relevant events that the audit configuration files
configure the system to record (that is, by preselection). Therefore, any subsequent audit review
can only consider the events that have been recorded. As a result of misconfiguration, attempts
to breach the security of the system can go undetected, or the administrator is unable to detect
the user who is responsible for an attempted breach of security. Administrators must regularly
analyze audit trails to check for breaches of security.

Audit Tasks in Trusted Extensions


The procedures to configure and manage auditing in Trusted Extensions differ slightly from
Oracle Solaris procedures.
Audit configuration is performed in the global zone by one of two administrative roles.
Then, the system administrator copies specific customized audit files from the global zone to
every labeled zone. By following this procedure, user actions are audited identically in the
global zone and in labeled zones.
For details, see Audit Tasks of the Security Administrator on page 243 and Audit Tasks of
the System Administrator on page 243
Trusted Extensions administrators use a trusted editor to edit audit configuration files. In
Trusted CDE, Trusted Extensions administrators use CDE actions to invoke the trusted
editor. For the list of actions, see Trusted CDE Actions on page 35.
Trusted Extensions administrators use the Solaris Management Console to configure
specific users. User-specific audit characteristics can be specified in this tool. Specifying user
characteristics is only required when the user's audit characteristics differ from the audit
characteristics of the systems on which the user works. For an introduction to the tool, see
Solaris Management Console Tools on page 38.

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Audit Tasks of the Security Administrator


The following tasks are security-relevant, and are therefore the responsibility of the security
administrator. Follow the Oracle Solaris instructions, but use the Trusted Extensions
administrative tools.

Task For Oracle Solaris Instructions Trusted Extensions Differences

Configure audit files. Configuring Audit Files (Task Map) in System Use the trusted editor. For details, see How
Administration Guide: Security Services to Edit Administrative Files in Trusted
Extensions on page 54.

(Optional) Change default How to Configure Audit Policy in System Use the trusted editor.
audit policy. Administration Guide: Security Services

Disable and re-enable auditing. How to Disable the Audit Service in System Auditing is enabled by default.
Administration Guide: Security Services

Manage auditing. Auditing (Task Map) in System Administration Use the trusted editor.
Guide: Security Services
Ignore per-zone audit tasks.

Audit Tasks of the System Administrator


The following tasks are the responsibility of the system administrator. Follow the Oracle Solaris
instructions, but use the Trusted Extensions administrative tools.

Task For Oracle Solaris Instructions Trusted Extensions Differences

Create a ZFS file system that is dedicated Managing Audit Records in System Perform all administration in the global
to audit files. Administration Guide: Security Services zone.
Create an audit_warn alias. How to Configure the audit_warn Email Use the trusted editor.
Alias in System Administration Guide:
Security Services

Copy or loopback mount customized Configuring the Audit Service in Zones Loopback mount or copy the files to every
audit files to labeled zones. (Tasks) in System Administration Guide: labeled zone after the zones are created.
Security Services
Copy the files to the first labeled zone,
then copy the zone.

(Optional) Distribute audit configuration No instructions See How to Copy Files From Portable
files. Media in Trusted Extensions in Trusted
Extensions Configuration Guide

Manage auditing. Auditing (Task Map) in System Ignore per-zone audit tasks.
Administration Guide: Security Services

Chapter 18 Trusted Extensions Auditing (Overview) 243


Trusted Extensions Audit Reference

Task For Oracle Solaris Instructions Trusted Extensions Differences

Select audit records by label. How to Select Audit Events From the Audit To select records by label, use the
Trail in System Administration Guide: auditreduce command with the -l
Security Services option.

Trusted Extensions Audit Reference


Trusted Extensions software adds audit classes, audit events, audit tokens, and audit policy
options to the Oracle Solaris OS. Several auditing commands are extended to handle labels. The
following figure shows a typical Trusted Extensions kernel audit record and user-level audit
record.

FIGURE 181 Typical Audit Record Structures on a Labeled System

header token header token

arg token subject token

data tokens [other tokens]

subject token slabel token

slabel token return token

return token

Trusted Extensions Audit Classes


The audit classes that Trusted Extensions software adds to the Oracle Solaris OS are listed
alphabetically in the following table. The classes are listed in the /etc/security/audit_class
file. For more information about audit classes, see the audit_class(4) man page.

TABLE 181 X Server Audit Classes

Short Name Long Name Audit Mask

xc X - Object create/destroy 0x00800000

xp X - Privileged/administrative operations 0x00400000

xs X - Operations that always silently fail, if bad 0x01000000

xx X - All X events in the xc, xp, and xs classes (metaclass) 0x01c00000

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Trusted Extensions Audit Reference

The X server audit events are mapped to these classes according to the following criteria:
xc This class audits server objects for creation or for destruction. For example, this class
audits CreateWindow().
xp This class audits for use of privilege. Privilege use can be successful or unsuccessful. For
example, ChangeWindowAttributes() is audited when a client attempts to change the
attributes of another client's window. This class also includes administrative routines such
as SetAccessControl().
xs This class audits routines that do not return X error messages to clients on failure when
security attributes cause the failure. For example, GetImage() does not return a BadWindow
error if it cannot read from a window for lack of privilege.
These events should be selected for audit on success only. When xs events are selected for
failure, the audit trail fills with irrelevant records.
xx This class includes all of the X audit classes.

Trusted Extensions Audit Events


Trusted Extensions software adds audit events to the system. The new audit events and the
audit classes to which the events belong are listed in the /etc/security/audit_event file. The
audit event numbers for Trusted Extensions are between 9000 and 10000. For more
information about audit events, see the audit_event(4) man page.

Trusted Extensions Audit Tokens


The audit tokens that Trusted Extensions software adds to the Oracle Solaris OS are listed
alphabetically in the following table. The tokens are also listed in the audit.log(4) man page.

TABLE 182 Trusted Extensions Audit Tokens

Token Name Description

label Token on page 246 Sensitivity label

xatom Token on page 246 X window atom identification

xclient Token on page 247 X client identification

xcolormap Token on page 247 X window color information

xcursor Token on page 247 X window cursor information

xfont Token on page 248 X window font information

xgc Token on page 248 X window graphical context information

xpixmap Token on page 248 Xwindow pixel mapping information

Chapter 18 Trusted Extensions Auditing (Overview) 245


Trusted Extensions Audit Reference

TABLE 182 Trusted Extensions Audit Tokens (Continued)


Token Name Description

xproperty Token on page 248 X window property information

xselect Token on page 249 X window data information

xwindow Token on page 250 X window window information

label Token
The label token contains a sensitivity label. This token contains the following fields:
A token ID
A sensitivity label

The following figure shows the token format.

FIGURE 182 label Token Format

token ID sensitivity label


1 byte 36 bytes

label ID pad classification compartments

1 byte 1 byte 2 bytes 32 bytes

A label token is displayed by the praudit command as follows:

sensitivity label,ADMIN_LOW

xatom Token
The xatom token contains information concerning an X atom. This token contains the
following fields:
A token ID
The string length
A text string that identifies the atom

An xatom token is displayed by praudit as follows:

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X atom,_DT_SAVE_MODE

xclient Token
The xclient token contains information concerning the X client. This token contains the
following fields:
A token ID
The client ID

An xclient token is displayed by praudit as follows:

X client,15

xcolormap Token
The xcolormap token contains information about the colormaps. This token contains the
following fields:
A token ID
The X server identifier
The creator's user ID

The following figure shows the token format.

FIGURE 183 Format for xcolormap, xcursor, xfont, xgc, xpixmap, and xwindow Tokens

token ID XID creator UID


1 byte 4 bytes 4 bytes

An xcolormap token is displayed by praudit as follows:

X color map,0x08c00005,srv

xcursor Token
The xcursor token contains information about the cursors. This token contains the following
fields:
A token ID
The X server identifier
The creator's user ID

Figure 183 shows the token format.

An xcursor token is displayed by praudit as follows:

X cursor,0x0f400006,srv

Chapter 18 Trusted Extensions Auditing (Overview) 247


Trusted Extensions Audit Reference

xfont Token
The xfont token contains information about the fonts. This token contains the following fields:
A token ID
The X server identifier
The creator's user ID

Figure 183 shows the token format.

An xfont token is displayed by praudit as follows:

X font,0x08c00001,srv

xgc Token
The xgc token contains information about the xgc. This token contains the following fields:
A token ID
The X server identifier
The creator's user ID

Figure 183 shows the token format.

An xgc token is displayed by praudit as follows:

Xgraphic context,0x002f2ca0,srv

xpixmap Token
The xpixmap token contains information about the pixel mappings. This token contains the
following fields:
A token ID
The X server identifier
The creator's user ID

Figure 183 shows the token format.

An xpixmap token is displayed by praudit as follows:

X pixmap,0x08c00005,srv

xproperty Token
The xproperty token contains information about various properties of a window. This token
contains the following fields:
A token ID
The X server identifier

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The creator's user ID


A string length
A text string that identifies the atom

The following figure shows an xproperty token format.

FIGURE 184 xproperty Token Format

token ID XID creator UID strlen string (atom name)

1 byte 4 bytes 4 bytes 2 bytes N bytes

An xproperty token is displayed by praudit as follows:

X property,0x000075d5,root,_MOTIF_DEFAULT_BINDINGS

xselect Token
The xselect token contains the data that is moved between windows. This data is a byte stream
with no assumed internal structure and a property string. This token contains the following
fields:
A token ID
The length of the property string
The property string
The length of the property type
The property type string
A length field that gives the number of bytes of data
A byte string that contains the data

The following figure shows the token format.

FIGURE 185 xselect Token Format

token ID property length prop string prop type len prop type data length window data
1 byte 2 bytes N bytes 2 bytes N bytes 2 bytes N bytes

An xselect token is displayed by praudit as follows:

X selection,entryfield,halogen

Chapter 18 Trusted Extensions Auditing (Overview) 249


Trusted Extensions Audit Reference

xwindow Token
The xwindow token contains information about a window. This token contains the following
fields:
A token ID
The X server identifier
The creator's user ID

Figure 183 shows the token format.

An xwindow token is displayed by praudit as follows:

X window,0x07400001,srv

Trusted Extensions Audit Policy Options


Trusted Extensions adds two audit policy options to existing Oracle Solaris auditing policy
options. List the policies to see the additions:

$ auditconfig -lspolicy
...
windata_down Include downgraded window information in audit records
windata_up Include upgraded window information in audit records
...

Extensions to Auditing Commands in Trusted


Extensions
The auditconfig, auditreduce, and bsmrecord commands are extended to handle Trusted
Extensions information:
The auditconfig command includes the Trusted Extensions audit policies. For details, see
the auditconfig(1M) man page.
The auditreduce command adds the -l option for filtering records according to the label.
For details, see the auditreduce(1M) man page.
The bsmrecord command includes the Trusted Extensions audit events. For details, see the
bsmrecord(1M) man page.

250 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


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C H A P T E R 1 9

Software Management in Trusted Extensions


(Tasks)

This chapter contains information about ensuring that third-party software runs in a
trustworthy manner on a system that is configured with Trusted Extensions.
Adding Software to Trusted Extensions on page 251
Trusted Processes in the Window System on page 254
Managing Software in Trusted Extensions (Tasks) on page 256

Adding Software to Trusted Extensions


Any software that can be added to an Oracle Solaris system can be added to a system that is
configured with Trusted Extensions. Additionally, programs that use Trusted Extensions APIs
can be added. Adding software to a Trusted Extensions system is similar to adding software to
an Oracle Solaris system that is running non-global zones.

For example, packaging issues affect systems that have installed non-global zones. Package
parameters define the following:
The zone scope of the package The scope determines the type of zone in which a specific
package can be installed.
The visibility of the package Visibility determines whether a package must be installed
and be identical in all zones.
The limitation of the package One limitation is whether a package must be installed in
the current zone only.

In Trusted Extensions, programs are typically installed in the global zone for use by regular
users in labeled zones. For details about installing packages in zones, see Chapter 25, About
Packages and Patches on an Oracle Solaris System With Zones Installed (Overview), in System
Administration Guide: Oracle Solaris Containers-Resource Management and Oracle Solaris
Zones. Also, see the pkgadd(1M) man page.

251
Adding Software to Trusted Extensions

At a Trusted Extensions site, the system administrator and the security administrator work
together to install software. The security administrator evaluates software additions for
adherence to security policy. When the software requires privileges or authorizations to
succeed, the Security Administrator role assigns an appropriate rights profile to the users of that
software.

To import software from removable media requires authorization. An account with the
Allocate Device authorization can import or export data from removable media. Data can
include executable code. A regular user can only import data at a label within that user's
clearance.

The System Administrator role is responsible for adding the programs that the security
administrator approves.

Oracle Solaris Security Mechanisms for Software


Trusted Extensions uses the same security mechanisms as the Oracle Solaris OS. The
mechanisms include the following:
Authorizations Users of a program can be required to have a particular authorization. For
information about authorizations, see Oracle Solaris RBAC Elements and Basic Concepts
in System Administration Guide: Security Services. Also, see the auth_attr(4) and
getauthattr(3SECDB) man pages.
Privileges Programs and processes can be assigned privileges. For information about
privileges, see Chapter 8, Using Roles and Privileges (Overview), in System Administration
Guide: Security Services. Also, see the privileges(5) man page.
The ppriv command provides a debugging utility. For details, see the ppriv(1) man page.
For instructions on using this utility with programs that work in non-global zones, see
Using the ppriv Utility in System Administration Guide: Oracle Solaris
Containers-Resource Management and Oracle Solaris Zones.
Right Profiles Rights profiles collect security attributes in one place for assignment to
users or roles. For information about rights profiles, see RBAC Rights Profiles in System
Administration Guide: Security Services. Trusted Extensions adds CDE actions to the type of
executables that can be assigned security attributes.
Trusted libraries Dynamically shared libraries that are used by setuid, setgid, and
privileged programs can be loaded only from trusted directories. As in the Oracle Solaris
OS, the crle command is used to add a privileged program's shared library directories to the
list of trusted directories. For details, see the crle(1) man page.

252 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


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Evaluating Software for Security


When software has been assigned privileges or when it runs with an alternate user ID or group
ID, the software becomes trusted. Trusted software can bypass aspects of the Trusted Extensions
security policy. Be aware that you can make software trusted even though it might not be
worthy of trust. The security administrator must wait to give privileges to software until careful
scrutiny has revealed that the software uses the privileges in a trustworthy manner.

Programs fall into three categories on a trusted system:


Programs that require no security attributes Some programs run at a single level and
require no privileges. These programs can be installed in a public directory, such as
/usr/local. For access, assign the programs as commands in the rights profiles of users and
roles.
Programs that run as root Some programs execute with setuid 0. Such programs can be
assigned an effective UID of 0 in a rights profile. The security administrator then assigns the
profile to an administrative role.

Tip If the application can use privileges in a trustworthy manner, assign the needed
privileges to the application, and do not execute the program as root.

Programs that require privileges Some programs might need privileges for reasons that
are not obvious. Even if a program is not performing any function that seems to violate
system security policy, the program might be doing something internally that violates
security. For example, the program could be using a shared log file, or the program could be
reading from /dev/kmem. For security concerns, see the mem(7D) man page.
Sometimes, an internal policy override is not particularly important to the application's
correct operation. Rather, the override provides a convenient feature for users.
If your organization has access to the source code, check if you can remove the operations
that require policy overrides without affecting the application's performance.

Developer Responsibilities When Creating Trusted Programs


Even though a program's developer can manipulate privilege sets in the source code, if the
security administrator does not assign the required privileges to the program, the program will
fail. The developer and security administrator need to cooperate when creating trusted
programs.

A developer who writes a trusted program must do the following:


1. Understand where the program requires privileges to do its work.
2. Know and follow techniques, such as privilege bracketing, for safely using privileges in
programs.

Chapter 19 Software Management in Trusted Extensions (Tasks) 253


Trusted Processes in the Window System

3. Be aware of the security implications when assigning privileges to a program. The program
must not violate security policy.
4. Compile the program by using shared libraries that are linked to the program from a trusted
directory.
For additional information, see Developers Guide to Oracle Solaris Security. For examples of
code for Trusted Extensions, see Trusted Extensions Developers Guide.

Security Administrator Responsibilities for Trusted Programs


The security administrator is responsible for testing and evaluating new software. After
determining that the software is trustworthy, the security administrator configures rights
profiles and other security-relevant attributes for the program.

The security administrator responsibilities include the following:


1. Make sure that the programmer and the program distribution process is trusted.
2. From one of the following sources, determine which privileges are required by the program:
Ask the programmer.
Search the source code for any privileges that the program expects to use.
Search the source code for any authorizations that the program requires of its users.
Use the debugging options to the ppriv command to search for use of privilege. For
examples, see the ppriv(1) man page.
3. Examine the source code to make sure that the code behaves in a trustworthy manner
regarding the privileges that the program needs to operate.
If the program fails to use privilege in a trustworthy manner, and you can modify the
program's source code, then modify the code. A security consultant or developer who is
knowledgeable about security can modify the code. Modifications might include privilege
bracketing or checking for authorizations.
The assignment of privileges must be manual. A program that fails due to lack of privilege
can be assigned privileges. Alternatively, the security administrator might decide to assign
an effective UID or GID to make the privilege unnecessary.

Trusted Processes in the Window System


In Solaris Trusted Extensions (CDE), the following window system processes are trusted:
Front Panel
Subpanels of the Front Panel
Workspace Menu
File Manager
Application Manager

254 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


Trusted Processes in the Window System

The window system's trusted processes are available to everyone, but access to administrative
actions is restricted to roles in the global zone.

In the File Manager, if an action is not in one of the account's profiles, the icon for the action is
not visible. In the Workspace Menu, if an action is not in one of the account's profiles, the action
is visible, but an error displays if the action is invoked.

In Trusted CDE, the window manager, dtwm, calls the Xtsolusersession script. This script
works with the window manager to invoke actions that are started from the window system.
The Xtsolusersession script checks the account's rights profiles when the account attempts to
launch an action. In either case, if the action is in an assigned rights profile, the action is run
with the security attributes that are specified in the profile.

Adding Trusted CDE Actions


The process of creating and using CDE actions in Trusted Extensions is similar to the process in
the Oracle Solaris OS. Adding actions is described in the Chapter 4, Adding and Administering
Applications, in Solaris Common Desktop Environment: Advanced Users and System
Administrators Guide.

As in the Oracle Solaris OS, the use of actions can be controlled by the rights profile mechanism.
In Trusted Extensions, several actions have been assigned security attributes in the rights
profiles of administrative roles. The security administrator can also use the Rights tool to assign
security attributes to new actions.

The following table summarizes the main differences between an Oracle Solaris system and a
Trusted Extensions system when you create and use actions.

TABLE 191 Constraints on CDE Actions in Trusted Extensions

Oracle Solaris CDE Actions Trusted CDE Actions

New actions can be created by An action is usable only if the action is in a rights profile that is assigned to the user. The search path
anyone within the originator's for actions differs. Actions in a user's home directory are processed last instead of first. Therefore,
home directory. no one can customize existing actions.
A new action is automatically
Users can create a new action in their home directory, but the action might not be usable.
usable by its creator.

Users with the All profile can use an action that they create. Otherwise, the security administrator
must add the name of the new action to one of the account's rights profiles.

To start the action, the user uses the File Manager. The system administrator can place actions in
public directories.

Chapter 19 Software Management in Trusted Extensions (Tasks) 255


Managing Software in Trusted Extensions (Tasks)

TABLE 191 Constraints on CDE Actions in Trusted Extensions (Continued)


Oracle Solaris CDE Actions Trusted CDE Actions

Actions can be dragged and The Front Panel is part of the trusted path. The window manager recognizes only the
dropped to the Front Panel. administratively added actions that are located in the /usr/dt and /etc/dt subdirectories. Even
with the All profile, a user cannot drag a new action to the Front Panel. Actions from a user's home
directory are not recognized by the window manager. The manager only checks the public
directories.

Actions can do privileged Actions can do privileged operations if the actions have been assigned privileges in a rights profile
operations if they are run by that has been assigned to a user.
root.

Actions are not managed by the Actions are assigned to rights profiles in the Rights tool of the Solaris Management Console. If new
Solaris Management Console. actions are added, the security administrator can make the new actions available.

Managing Software in Trusted Extensions (Tasks)


Managing software in Trusted Extensions is similar to managing software on an Oracle Solaris
system that has installed non-global zones. For details about zones, see Part II, Zones, in
System Administration Guide: Oracle Solaris Containers-Resource Management and Oracle
Solaris Zones.

How to Add a Software Package in Trusted Extensions


Before You Begin You must be in a role that can allocate a device.

1 Start from the appropriate workspace.

To install a software package in the global zone, stay in the global zone.

To install a software package in a labeled zone, create a workspace at that label.


For details, see How to Change the Label of a Workspace in Trusted Extensions Users
Guide.

2 Allocate the CD-ROM drive.


For details, see How to Allocate a Device in Trusted Extensions in Trusted Extensions Users
Guide.

3 Install the software.


For details, see Where to Find Software Management Tasks in Oracle Solaris Administration:
Basic Administration.

256 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


Managing Software in Trusted Extensions (Tasks)

4 Deallocate the device when you are finished.


For details, see How to Allocate a Device in Trusted Extensions in Trusted Extensions Users
Guide.

How to Install a Java Archive File in Trusted Extensions


This procedure downloads a Java archive (JAR) file to the global zone. From the global zone, the
administrator can make it available to regular users.

Before You Begin The security administrator has verified that the source of the Java program is trustworthy, that
the method of delivery is secure, and that the program can run in a trustworthy manner.

You are in the System Administrator role in the global zone. In Trusted CDE, the Software
Installation rights profile includes the Open action for Java code.

1 Download the JAR file to the /tmp directory.


For example, if you are selecting software from http://www.sunfreeware.com, use the site's
Solaris pkg-get tool instructions.

2 Open the File Manager and navigate to the /tmp directory.

3 Double-click the downloaded file.

4 To install the software, answer the questions in the dialog boxes.

5 Read the installation log.

Example 191 Downloading a JAR File to a User Label


To limit the security risk, the system administrator downloads the software to a single label
within a regular user's accreditation range. Then, the security administrator tests the JAR file at
that label. When the software passes the test, the security administrator then downgrades the
label to ADMIN_LOW. The system administrator installs the software on an NFS server to make it
available to all users.
1. First, the system administrator creates a workspace at a user label.
2. In that workspace, he downloads the JAR file.
3. At that label, the security administrator tests the file.
4. Then, the security administrator changes the label of the file to ADMIN_LOW.
5. Finally, the system administrator copies the file to an NFS server whose label is ADMIN_LOW.

Chapter 19 Software Management in Trusted Extensions (Tasks) 257


258
A
A P P E N D I X A

Quick Reference to Trusted Extensions


Administration

Trusted Extensions interfaces extend the Oracle Solaris OS. This appendix provides a quick
reference of the differences. For a detailed list of interfaces, including library routines and
system calls, see Appendix B, List of Trusted Extensions Man Pages.

Administrative Interfaces in Trusted Extensions


Trusted Extensions provides interfaces for its software. The following interfaces are available
only when Trusted Extensions software is running:
txzonemgr script Provides a menu-based wizard for creating, installing,
initializing, and booting labeled zones. The title of the menu is
Labeled Zone Manager. This script also provides menu items
for networking options, name services options, and for
clienting the global zone to an existing LDAP server.
Trusted CDE actions In Trusted CDE, Workspace Menu > Application Manager >
Trusted_Extensions contains CDE actions that configure files,
install and boot zones, and simplify other Trusted Extensions
tasks. For the tasks that these actions perform, see Trusted
CDE Actions on page 35. Trusted CDE online help also
describes these actions.
Admin Editor This trusted editor is used to edit system files. In Trusted CDE,
Workspace Menu > Application Manager >
Trusted_Extensions > Admin Editor invokes the Admin
Editor. In Trusted JDS, the editor is invoked from the
command line. You provide the file to be edited as the
argument, as in:
/usr/dt/bin/trusted_edit filename

259
Oracle Solaris Interfaces Extended by Trusted Extensions

Device Allocation Manager In Trusted Extensions, this GUI is used to administer devices.
The Device Administration dialog box is used by
administrators to configure devices.

The Device Allocation Manager is used by roles and regular


users to allocate devices. The GUI is available from the Trusted
Path menu.
Label Builder This application is invoked when the user can choose a label or
a clearance. This application also appears when a role assigns
labels or label ranges to devices, zones, users, or roles.
Selection Manager This application is invoked when an authorized user or
authorized role attempts to upgrade or downgrade
information.
Trusted Path menu This menu handles interactions with the trusted computing
base (TCB). For example, this menu has a Change Password
menu item. In Trusted CDE, you access the Trusted Path menu
from the workspace switch area. In Trusted JDS, you access the
Trusted Path menu by clicking the trusted symbol at the left of
the trusted stripe.
Administrative commands Trusted Extensions provides commands to obtain labels and
perform other tasks. For a list of the commands, see
Command Line Tools in Trusted Extensions on page 44.

Oracle Solaris Interfaces Extended by Trusted Extensions


Trusted Extensions adds to existing Oracle Solaris configuration files, commands, and GUIs.
Administrative commands Trusted Extensions adds options to selected Oracle Solaris
commands. For a list, see Table 25
Configuration files Trusted Extensions adds two privileges, net_mac_aware and
net_mlp. For the use of net_mac_aware, see Access to NFS
Mounted Directories in Trusted Extensions on page 135.

Trusted Extensions adds authorizations to the auth_attr


database.

Trusted Extensions adds executables, including CDE actions,


to the exec_attr database.

Trusted Extensions modifies existing rights profiles in the


prof_attr database. It also adds profiles to the database.

260 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


Tighter Security Defaults in Trusted Extensions

Trusted Extensions adds CDE actions to the executables that


can be privileged in the exec_attr database.

Trusted Extensions adds fields to the policy.conf database.


For the fields, see policy.conf File Defaults in Trusted
Extensions on page 78.

Trusted Extensions adds audit tokens, audit events, audit


classes, and audit policy options. For a list, see Trusted
Extensions Audit Reference on page 244.
Solaris Management Console Trusted Extensions adds a Security Templates tool to the
Computers and Networks tool set.

Trusted Extensions adds a Trusted Network Zones tool to


the Computers and Networks tool set.

Trusted Extensions adds a Trusted Extensions Attributes tab


to the Users tool and the Administrative Roles tool.
Shared directories from zones Trusted Extensions enables you to share directories from
labeled zones. The directories are shared at the label of the
zone by creating an /etc/dfs/dfstab file from the global
zone.

Tighter Security Defaults in Trusted Extensions


Trusted Extensions establishes tighter security defaults than the Oracle Solaris OS:
Auditing By default, auditing is enabled.

An administrator can turn off auditing. However, auditing is typically required at


sites that install Trusted Extensions.
Devices By default, device allocation is enabled.

By default, device allocation requires authorization. Therefore, by default, regular


users cannot use removable media.

An administrator can remove the authorization requirement. However, device


allocation is typically required at sites that install Trusted Extensions.
Printing Regular users can print only to printers that include the user's label in the printer's
label range.

By default, printed output has trailer and banner pages. These pages, and the body
pages, include the label of the print job.

Appendix A Quick Reference to Trusted Extensions Administration 261


Limited Options in Trusted Extensions

By default, users cannot print PostScript files.


Roles Roles are available in the Oracle Solaris OS, but their use is optional. In Trusted
Extensions, roles are required for proper administration.

Making the root user a role is possible in the Oracle Solaris OS. In Trusted
Extensions, the root user is made a role to better audit who is acting as superuser.

Limited Options in Trusted Extensions


Trusted Extensions narrows the range of Oracle Solaris configuration options:
Desktop Trusted Extensions offers two desktops, the Solaris Trusted Extensions
(CDE) and the Solaris Trusted Extensions (JDS).

Trusted Extensions offers the Solaris Trusted Extensions (GNOME)


desktop.
Naming service The LDAP naming service is supported. All zones must be administered
from one naming service.
Zones The global zone is an administrative zone. Only the root user or a role can
enter the global zone. Therefore, administrative interfaces that are available
to regular Oracle Solaris users are not available to regular Trusted
Extensions users. For example, in Trusted Extensions, users cannot bring
up the Solaris Management Console.

Non-global zones are labeled zones. Users work in labeled zones.

262 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


B
A P P E N D I X B

List of Trusted Extensions Man Pages

Trusted Extensions is a configuration of the Oracle Solaris OS. This appendix provides a short
description of the Oracle Solaris man pages that include Trusted Extensions information.

Trusted Extensions Man Pages in Alphabetical Order


The following man pages describe Trusted Extensions software on an Oracle Solaris system.
These man pages are relevant only on a system that is configured with Trusted Extensions.
Oracle Solaris Man Page Synopsis
add_allocatable(1M) Adds entries to allocation databases
atohexlabel(1M) Converts a human-readable label to its internal
text equivalent
blcompare(3TSOL) Compares binary labels
blminmax(3TSOL) Determines the bound of two labels
chk_encodings(1M) Checks the label encodings file syntax
dtappsession(1) Starts a new Application Manager session
fgetlabel(2) Gets the file's label
getlabel(1) Displays the label of files
getlabel(2) Gets the label of a file
getpathbylabel(3TSOL) Gets the zone pathname
getplabel(3TSOL) Gets the label of a process
getuserrange(3TSOL) Gets the label range of a user
getzoneidbylabel(3TSOL) Gets zone ID from zone label

263
Trusted Extensions Man Pages in Alphabetical Order

getzonelabelbyid(3TSOL) Gets zone label from zone ID


getzonelabelbyname(3TSOL) Gets zone label from zone name
getzonepath(1) Displays the root path of the zone that corresponds
to the specified label
getzonerootbyid(3TSOL) Gets zone root pathname from zone root ID
getzonerootbylabel(3TSOL) Gets zone root pathname from zone label
getzonerootbyname(3TSOL) Gets zone root pathname from zone name
hextoalabel(1M) Converts an internal text label to its
human-readable equivalent
labelbuilder(3TSOL) Creates a Motif-based user interface for
interactively building a valid label or clearance
labelclipping(3TSOL) Translates a binary label and clips the label to the
specified width
label_encodings(4) Describes the label encodings file
label_to_str(3TSOL) Converts labels to human-readable strings
labels(5) Describes Trusted Extensions label attributes
libtsnet(3LIB) Is the Trusted Extensions network library
libtsol(3LIB) Is the Trusted Extensions library
m_label(3TSOL) Allocates and frees resources for a new label
pam_tsol_account(5) Checks account limitations that are due to labels
plabel(1) Gets the label of a process
remove_allocatable(1M) Removes entries from allocation databases
sel_config(4) Is the selection rules for copy, cut, paste, and
drag-and-drop operations
setflabel(3TSOL) Moves a file to a zone with the corresponding
sensitivity label
smtnrhdb(1M) Manages entries in the Trusted Extensions
networking database
smtnrhtp(1M) Manages entries in the template database for
Trusted Extensions networking

264 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


Trusted Extensions Man Pages in Alphabetical Order

smtnzonecfg(1M) Manages entries in the configuration database for


Trusted Extensions networking in non-global
zones
str_to_label(3TSOL) Parses human-readable strings to a label
tnctl(1M) Configures Trusted Extensions network
parameters
tnd(1M) Is the trusted network daemon
tninfo(1M) Displays kernel-level Trusted Extensions network
information and statistics
trusted_extensions(5) Introduces Trusted Extensions
TrustedExtensionsPolicy(4) Is the configuration file for Trusted Extensions X
Server Extension
tsol_getrhtype(3TSOL) Gets the host type from Trusted Extensions
network information
updatehome(1M) Updates the home directory copy and link files for
the current label
XTSOLgetClientAttributes(3XTSOL) Gets the label attributes of an X client
XTSOLgetPropAttributes(3XTSOL) Gets the label attributes of a window property
XTSOLgetPropLabel(3XTSOL) Gets the label of a window property
XTSOLgetPropUID(3XTSOL) Gets the UID of a window property
XTSOLgetResAttributes(3XTSOL) Gets all label attributes of a window or a pixmap
XTSOLgetResLabel(3XTSOL) Gets the label of a window, a pixmap, or a
colormap
XTSOLgetResUID(3XTSOL) Gets the UID of a window or a pixmap
XTSOLgetSSHeight(3XTSOL) Gets the height of the screen stripe
XTSOLgetWorkstationOwner(3XTSOL) Gets the ownership of the workstation
XTSOLIsWindowTrusted(3XTSOL) Determines if a window is created by a trusted
client
XTSOLMakeTPWindow(3XTSOL) Make this window a Trusted Path window
XTSOLsetPolyInstInfo(3XTSOL) Sets polyinstantiation information
XTSOLsetPropLabel(3XTSOL) Sets the label of a window property
XTSOLsetPropUID(3XTSOL) Sets the UID of a window property

Appendix B List of Trusted Extensions Man Pages 265


Oracle Solaris Man Pages That Are Modified by Trusted Extensions

XTSOLsetResLabel(3XTSOL) Sets the label of a window or a pixmap


XTSOLsetResUID(3XTSOL) Sets the UID of a window, a pixmap, or a colormap
XTSOLsetSessionHI(3XTSOL) Sets the session high sensitivity label to the window
server
XTSOLsetSessionLO(3XTSOL) Sets the session low sensitivity label to the window
server
XTSOLsetSSHeight(3XTSOL) Sets the height of the screen stripe
XTSOLsetWorkstationOwner(3XTSOL) Sets the ownership of the workstation

Oracle Solaris Man Pages That Are Modified by Trusted


Extensions
Trusted Extensions adds information to the following Oracle Solaris man pages.
Oracle Solaris Man Page Trusted Extensions Modification
allocate(1) Adds options to support allocating a device in a zone and
cleaning the device in a windowed environment
auditconfig(1M) Adds the window policy for labeled information
audit_class(4) Adds X server audit classes
audit_event(4) Adds audit events
auditreduce(1M) Adds a label selector
auth_attr(4) Adds label authorizations
automount(1M) Adds the capability to mount, and therefore view, lower-level
home directories
cancel(1) Adds label restrictions to a user's ability to cancel a print job
deallocate(1) Adds options to support deallocating a device in a zone, cleaning
the device in a windowed environment, and specifying the type of
device to deallocate
device_clean(5) Is invoked by default in Trusted Extensions
exec_attr(4) Adds CDE actions as a type of profile object
getpflags(2) Recognizes the NET_MAC_AWARE and NET_MAC_AWARE_INHERIT
process flags

266 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


Oracle Solaris Man Pages That Are Modified by Trusted Extensions

getsockopt(3SOCKET) Gets the mandatory access control status, SO_MAC_EXEMPT, of the


socket
getsockopt(3XNET) Gets the mandatory access control status, SO_MAC_EXEMPT, of the
socket
ifconfig(1M) Adds the all-zones interface
is_system_labeled(3C) Determines whether the system is configured with Trusted
Extensions
ldaplist(1) Adds Trusted Extensions network databases
list_devices(1) Adds attributes, such as labels, that are associated with a device
lp(1) Adds the -nolabels option
lpadmin(1M) Adds label restrictions to the administrator's ability to administer
printing
lpmove(1M) Adds label restrictions to the administrator's ability to move a
print job
lpq(1B) Adds label restrictions to the display of print queue information
lprm(1B) Adds label restrictions to the caller's ability to remove print
requests
lpsched(1M) Adds label restrictions to the administrator's ability to stop and
restart the print service
lpstat(1) Adds label restrictions to the display of the print service status
netstat(1M) Adds the -R option to display extended security attributes
privileges(5) Adds Trusted Extensions privileges, such as
PRIV_FILE_DOWNGRADE_SL
prof_attr(4) Adds rights profiles, such as Object Label Management
route(1M) Adds the -secattr option to add extended security attributes to a
route
setpflags(2) Sets the NET_MAC_AWARE per-process flag
setsockopt(3SOCKET) Sets the SO_MAC_EXEMPT option
setsockopt(3XNET) Sets the mandatory access control, SO_MAC_EXEMPT, on the socket
smexec(1M) Adds options to support the CDE action type
smrole(1M) Adds options to support a role's label

Appendix B List of Trusted Extensions Man Pages 267


Oracle Solaris Man Pages That Are Modified by Trusted Extensions

smuser(1M) Adds options to support a user's label and other security


attributes, such as permitted idle time
socket.h(3HEAD) Supports the SO_MAC_EXEMPT option for unlabeled peers
tar(1) Adds including labels in tar files and extracting files according to
label
tar.h(3HEAD) Adds attribute types that are used in labeled tar files
ucred_getlabel(3C) Adds getting the label value on a user credential
user_attr(4) Adds user security attributes that are specific to Trusted
Extensions

268 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


Index

A actions (Continued)
access, See computer access restricted by rights profiles, 255
access policy use differences between CDE and Trusted CDE, 255
devices, 221 add_allocatable command, 44
Discretionary Access Control (DAC), 23, 2425 Add Allocatable Device action, 35
Mandatory Access Control (MAC), 24 Admin Editor action, 35
accessing opening, 5455
Admin Editor action, 5455 ADMIN_HIGH label, 29
administrative tools, 4955 ADMIN_LOW label
audit records by label, 244 lowest label, 30
devices, 219221 protecting administrative files, 61
global zone, 5051 administering
home directories, 115 account locking, 94
printers, 193200 assigning device authorizations, 238239
remote multilevel desktop, 109110 audio device to play music, 233
Solaris Management Console, 5253 auditing in Trusted Extensions, 242244
trusted CDE actions, 5354 changing label of information, 95
ZFS dataset mounted in lower-level zone from convenient authorizations for users, 9092
higher-level zone, 126127 device allocation, 238239
account locking, preventing, 94 device authorizations, 235238
accounts devices, 225239
See roles file systems
See also users mounting, 142146
accreditation checks, 160161 overview, 133
accreditation ranges, label_encodings file, 30 troubleshooting, 146147
actions files
See also individual actions by name backing up, 139
adding new Trusted CDE actions, 255256 restoring, 140
Admin Editor, 5455 from the global zone, 5051
Device Allocation Manager, 221223 labeled printing, 193218
list of trusted CDE, 3536 LDAP, 111114
Name Service Switch, 187 mail, 191192

269
Index

administering (Continued) administrative tools


multilevel ports, 182183 accessing, 4955
network in Trusted Extensions, 165190 commands, 4446
network of users, 8996 description, 3346
PostScript printing, 217218 Device Allocation Manager, 3637
printing in Trusted Extensions, 200201 in Trusted_Extensions folder, 5354
printing interoperability with Trusted Solaris label builder, 43
8, 199200 Labeled Zone Manager, 35
quick reference for administrators, 259262 Solaris Management Console, 3842, 5253
remote host database, 174175 Trusted CDE actions, 3536
remote host templates, 168173 txzonemgr script, 35
remotely, 99110 allocate command, 45
remotely from command line, 103 Allocate Device authorization, 9092, 220, 238239,
remotely with dtappsession, 103105 239
remotely with Solaris Management allocate error state, correcting, 230
allocating, using Device Allocation Manager, 221223
Console, 105106, 106108
applications
routes with security attributes, 179181
evaluating for security, 254
serial line for login, 232
installing, 256257
sharing file systems, 140142
trusted and trustworthy, 253254
startup files for users, 8688
assigning
Sun Ray printing, 203206
editor as the trusted editor, 6869
system files, 7374
privileges to users, 81
third-party software, 251257
rights profiles, 80
trusted network databases, 166179 Assume Role menu item, 5051
trusted networking, 165190 assuming, roles, 5051
unlabeled printing, 213218 atohexlabel command, 44, 7172
user privileges, 9294 audio devices
users, 77, 8397 automatically starting an audio player, 233
zones, 120132 preventing remote allocation, 231
zones from Trusted JDS, 119 audit_class file, action for editing, 35
Administering Trusted Extensions Remotely (Task Audit Classes action, 35
Map), 102110 audit classes for Trusted Extensions, list of new X audit
administrative actions classes, 244245
See also actions Audit Control action, 35
accessing, 5455 audit_control file, action for editing, 35
in CDE, 3536 audit_event file, 35
in Trusted_Extensions folder, 5354 Audit Events action, 35
list of trusted CDE, 3536 audit events for Trusted Extensions, list of, 245
starting remotely, 105106, 106108 audit policy in Trusted Extensions, 250
trusted, 255 audit records in Trusted Extensions, policy, 250
administrative labels, 29 Audit Review profile, reviewing audit records, 244
administrative roles, See roles Audit Startup action, 35
Administrative Roles tool, 39 audit_startup command, action for editing, 35

270 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


Index

Audit Tasks of the System Administrator, 243244 authorizations (Continued)


audit tokens for Trusted Extensions profiles that include device allocation
label token, 246 authorizations, 239
list of, 245250 Revoke or Reclaim Device, 238239, 239
xatom token, 246247 solaris.print.nobanner, 216
xclient token, 247 solaris.print.ps, 217218
xcolormap token, 247 authorizing
xcursor token, 247 device allocation, 238239
xfont token, 248 PostScript printing, 213218
unlabeled printing, 213218
xgc token, 248
automount command, 46
xpixmap token, 248
xproperty token, 248249
xselect token, 249
xwindow token, 250 B
auditconfig command, 46 Backing Up, Sharing, and Mounting Labeled Files (Task
auditing in Trusted Extensions Map), 139147
additional audit events, 245 banner pages
additional audit policies, 250 description of labeled, 195197
additional audit tokens, 245250 difference from trailer page, 195196
additions to existing auditing commands, 250 printing without labels, 216
differences from Oracle Solaris auditing, 241 typical, 195
reference, 241250 body pages
roles for administering, 242244 description of labeled, 194195
security administrator tasks, 243 unlabeled for all users, 215216
system administrator tasks, 243244 unlabeled for specific users, 216
tasks, 242
X audit classes, 244245
auditreduce command, 46
C
authorizations
cascade printing, 206209
adding new device authorizations, 235238
CD-ROM drives
Allocate Device, 220, 238239, 239
accessing, 220
assigning, 80
playing music automatically, 233
assigning device authorizations, 238239 CDE actions, See actions
authorizing a user or role to change label, 95 Change Password menu item
Configure Device Attributes, 239 description, 58
convenient for users, 9092 using to change root password, 6970
creating customized device authorizations, 236237 changing
creating local and remote device IDLETIME keyword, 85
authorizations, 237238 labels by authorized users, 95
customizing for devices, 238 rules for label changes, 63
granted, 27 security level of data, 95
Print Postscript, 197198 Selection Confirmer defaults, 63
Print PostScript, 217218 system security defaults, 7374

271
Index

changing (Continued) Configuring Trusted Network Databases (Task


user privileges, 9294 Map), 166179
Check Encodings action, 35 controlling, See restricting
Check TN Files action, 35 .copy_files file
chk_encodings command, 44 description, 8182
action for invoking, 35 setting up for users, 8688
choosing, See selecting startup file, 45
classification label component, 29 Copy Zone action, 36
clearances, label overview, 28 Create LDAP Client action, 35
Clone Zone action, 36 creating
colors, indicating label of workspace, 32 authorizations for devices, 235238
commands home directories, 136137
executing with privilege, 5051 customizing
troubleshooting networking, 186 device authorizations, 238
trusted_edit trusted editor, 5455 label_encodings file, 30
commercial applications, evaluating, 254 unlabeled printing, 213218
Common Tasks in Trusted Extensions (Task user accounts, 8388
Map), 6774 Customizing Device Authorizations in Trusted
compartment label component, 29 Extensions (Task Map), 235239
component definitions, label_encodings file, 30 Customizing User Environment for Security (Task
computer access Map), 8388
administrator responsibilities, 6061 cut and paste, and labels, 6163
cutting and pasting, configuring rules for label
restricting, 220221
changes, 63
Computers and Networks tool
adding known hosts, 173, 174175
modifying tnrhdb database, 166179
Computers and Networks tool set, 40 D
Configure Device Attributes authorization, 239 DAC, See discretionary access control (DAC)
Configure Selection Confirmation action, 35 databases
Configure Zone action, 36 devices, 35
configuring in LDAP, 111
audio device to play music, 233 trusted network, 152
auditing, 243 datasets, See ZFS
authorizations for devices, 235238 deallocate command, 45
devices, 227230 deallocating, forcing, 230
labeled printing, 201213 debugging, See troubleshooting
routes with security attributes, 179181 desktops
serial line for login, 232 accessing multilevel remotely, 109110
startup files for users, 8688 logging in to a failsafe session, 88
trusted network, 165190 workspace color changes, 51
Configuring Labeled Printing (Task Map), 201213 /dev/kmem kernel image file, security violation, 253
Configuring Routes and Checking Network developer responsibilities, 253
Information in Trusted Extensions (Task device allocation
Map), 179185 authorizing, 238239

272 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


Index

device allocation (Continued) differences (Continued)


overview, 219221 between Trusted Extensions and Oracle Solaris
preventing File Manager display, 233234 auditing, 241
profiles that include allocation authorizations, 239 between Trusted Extensions and Oracle Solaris
Device Allocation Manager OS, 2425
administrative tool, 34 defaults in Trusted Extensions, 261262
description, 221223 extending Oracle Solaris interfaces, 260261
device-clean scripts limited options in Trusted Extensions, 262
adding to devices, 234 directories
accessing lower-level, 115
requirements, 221
authorizing a user or role to change label of, 95
device databases, action for editing, 35
mounting, 140142
Device Manager
sharing, 140142
administrative tool, 34 discretionary access control (DAC), 27
use by administrators, 227230 diskettes, accessing, 220
devices displaying
access policy, 221 labels of file systems in labeled zone, 123
accessing, 221223 status of every zone, 121
adding customized authorizations, 238 DOI, remote host templates, 154
adding device_clean script, 234 dominance of labels, 2930
administering, 225239 Downgrade DragNDrop or CutPaste Info
administering with Device Manager, 227230 authorization, 9092
allocating, 219221 Downgrade File Label authorization, 9092
automatically starting an audio player, 233 downgrading labels, configuring rules for selection
configuring devices, 227230 confirmer, 63
configuring serial line, 232 DragNDrop or CutPaste without viewing contents
creating new authorizations, 235238 authorization, 9092
in Trusted Extensions, 219223 dtappsession command, 44
policy defaults, 221 dtsession command, running updatehome, 8182
preventing remote allocation of audio, 231 dtterm terminal, forcing the sourcing of .profile, 88
protecting, 3637 dtwm command, 255
protecting nonallocatable, 231
reclaiming, 230
setting label range for nonallocatable, 220221 E
setting policy, 221 Edit Encodings action, 35
setting up audio, 233 editing
troubleshooting, 230 system files, 7374
using, 226 using trusted editor, 5455
dfstab file enabling
action for editing, 36 DOI different from 1, 4748
for public zone, 136 keyboard shutdown, 7374
differences /etc/default/kbd file, how to edit, 7374
administrative interfaces in Trusted /etc/default/login file, how to edit, 7374
Extensions, 259260 /etc/default/passwd file, how to edit, 7374

273
Index

/etc/default/print file, 217 files (Continued)


/etc/dfs/dfstab file, 36 /etc/default/login, 7374
/etc/dfs/dfstab file for public zone, 136 /etc/default/passwd, 7374
/etc/dt/config/sel_config file, 63 /etc/default/print, 217
/etc/hosts file, 173, 174175 /etc/dfs/dfstab, 36
/etc/motd file, action for editing, 36 /etc/dt/config/sel_config, 63
/etc/nsswitch.conf file, 35 /etc/motd, 36
/etc/resolv.conf file, 35
/etc/nsswitch.conf, 35
/etc/rmmount.conf file, 233
/etc/resolv.conf, 35
/etc/security/audit_class file, 35
/etc/rmmount.conf, 233
/etc/security/audit_control file, 35
/etc/security/audit_event file, 35 /etc/security/audit_class, 35
/etc/security/audit_startup file, 35 /etc/security/audit_control, 35
/etc/security/policy.conf file /etc/security/audit_event, 35
defaults, 78 /etc/security/audit_startup, 35
enabling PostScript printing, 217 /etc/security/policy.conf, 78, 8485, 217
how to edit, 7374 /etc/security/tsol/label_encodings, 35
modifying, 8485 getmounts, 122
/etc/security/tsol/label_encodings file, 30 getzonelabels, 121
evaluating programs for security, 253254 .link_files, 45, 8182, 8688
exporting, See sharing loopback mounting, 123
policy.conf, 7374
PostScript, 217218
preventing access from dominating labels, 124125
F
relabeling privileges, 128
failsafe session, logging in, 88
fallback mechanism restoring, 140
for remote hosts, 166179 sel_config file, 63
in tnrhdb, 157 startup, 8688
using for network configuration, 166179 /usr/dt/bin/sel_mgr, 6163
File Manager, preventing display after device /usr/dt/config/sel_config, 35, 63
allocation, 233234 /usr/lib/lp/postscript/tsol_separator.ps, 194197
file systems /usr/sbin/txzonemgr, 34, 119
mounting in global and labeled zones, 133134 /usr/share/gnome/sel_config, 63
NFS mounts, 133134 files and file systems
NFSv3, 4748 mounting, 140142
sharing, 133 naming, 140
sharing in global and labeled zones, 133134 sharing, 140142
files finding
accessing from dominating labels, 122123 label equivalent in hexadecimal, 7172
authorizing a user or role to change label of, 95
label equivalent in text format, 7273
backing up, 139
floppies, See diskettes
.copy_files, 45, 8182, 8688
floppy disks, See diskettes
editing with trusted editor, 5455
/etc/default/kbd, 7374 Front Panel, Device Allocation Manager, 221223

274 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


Index

G I
gateways icon visibility
accreditation checks, 161 in the File Manager, 255
example of, 163 in the Workspace Menu, 255
getlabel command, 44 IDLECMD keyword, changing default, 85
getmounts script, 122 IDLETIME keyword, changing default, 85
Getting Started as a Trusted Extensions Administrator ifconfig command, 46, 153
importing, software, 251
(Task Map), 4955
Initialize Zone for LDAP action, 36
getzonelabels script, 121
Install Zone action, 36
getzonepath command, 44
interfaces
global zone assigning to security template, 174175
difference from labeled zones, 115 verifying they are up, 185186
entering, 5051 internationalizing, See localizing
exiting, 52 interoperability, Trusted Solaris 8 and
remote login by users, 108 printing, 199200
groups IP addresses
deletion precautions, 61 fallback mechanism in tnrhdb, 157
security requirements, 61 in tnrhdb database, 166179
in tnrhdb file, 166179

H
Handling Devices in Trusted Extensions (Task J
Map), 225 Java archive (JAR) files, installing, 257
Handling Other Tasks in the Solaris Management
Console (Task Map), 9697
hextoalabel command, 44, 7273
K
home directories
key combinations, testing if grab is trusted, 7071
accessing, 115
keyboard shutdown, enabling, 7374
creating, 136137 kmem kernel image file, 253
host types
networking, 150, 155
remote host templates, 154
table of templates and protocols, 155 L
hosts label audit token, 246
assigning a template, 166179 label_encodings file
assigning to security template, 174175 action for editing and checking, 35
entering in network files, 173 contents, 30
networking concepts, 150151 reference for labeled printing, 194197
hot key, regaining control of desktop focus, 7071 source of accreditation ranges, 30
label ranges
restricting printer label range, 212213
setting on frame buffers, 220221

275
Index

label ranges (Continued) .link_files file


setting on printers, 220221 description, 8182
labeled printing setting up for users, 8688
banner pages, 195197 startup file, 45
body pages, 194195 list_devices command, 45
PostScript files, 217218 localizing, changing labeled printer output, 196
removing label, 9092 login
removing PostScript restriction, 9092 by roles, 4849
Sun Ray clients, 203206 configuring serial line, 232
remote by roles, 101102
without banner page, 9092, 216
logout, requiring, 85
labeled zones, See zones
labels
See also label ranges
authorizing a user or role to change label of data, 95 M
classification component, 29 MAC, See mandatory access control (MAC)
compartment component, 29 mail
configuring rules for label changes, 63 administering, 191192
default in remote host templates, 154 implementation in Trusted Extensions, 191192
described, 27 multilevel, 191
determining text equivalents, 7273 man pages, quick reference for Trusted Extensions
displaying in hexadecimal, 7172 administrators, 263268
displaying labels of file systems in labeled zone, 123 managing, See administering
dominance, 2930 Managing Devices in Trusted Extensions (Task
downgrading and upgrading, 63 Map), 226234
of processes, 3132 Managing Printing in Trusted Extensions (Task
of user processes, 31 Map), 200201
on printer output, 194197 Managing Software in Trusted Extensions
overview, 28 (Tasks), 256257
printing without page labels, 215216 Managing Trusted Networking (Task Map), 165
Managing Users and Rights With the Solaris
relationships, 2930
Management Console (Task Map), 8996
repairing in internal databases, 7273
Managing Zones (Task Map), 120132
troubleshooting, 7273
mandatory access control (MAC)
well-formed, 30
enforcing on the network, 149154
LDAP in Trusted Extensions, 27
action for creating global zone clients, 35 maximum labels, remote host templates, 154
displaying entries, 113 minimum labels, remote host templates, 154
managing the naming service, 113114 MLPs, See multilevel ports (MLPs)
naming service for Trusted Extensions, 111113 modifying, sel_config file, 63
starting, 114 motd file, action for editing, 36
stopping, 114 mounting
troubleshooting, 188190 file systems, 140142
Trusted Extensions databases, 111 files by loopback mounting, 123
limiting, defined hosts on the network, 175179 NFSv3 file systems, 4748

276 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


Index

mounting (Continued) Oracle Solaris OS


overview, 133134 differences from Trusted Extensions, 2425
troubleshooting, 146147 differences from Trusted Extensions auditing, 241
ZFS dataset on labeled zone, 125127 similarities with Trusted Extensions, 2324
multiheaded system, trusted stripe, 25 similarities with Trusted Extensions auditing, 241
multilevel mounts, NFS protocol versions, 138
multilevel ports (MLPs)
administering, 182183
example of NFSv3 MLP, 129 P
example of web proxy MLP, 130 packages, accessing the media, 256257
multilevel printing passwords
accessing by print client, 210212 assigning, 80
configuring, 201203 Change Password menu item, 58, 6970
Sun Ray clients, 206209 changing for root, 6970
changing user passwords, 58
storage, 61
testing if password prompt is trusted, 71
N plabel command, 44
Name Service Switch action, 35, 187 policy.conf file
names of file systems, 140 changing defaults, 7374
naming services changing Trusted Extensions keywords, 85
databases unique to Trusted Extensions, 111 defaults, 78
LDAP, 111114 how to edit, 8485
managing LDAP, 113114 PostScript
net_mac_aware privilege, 124125 enabling to print, 217218
netstat command, 46, 153, 186 printing restrictions in Trusted
network, See trusted network Extensions, 197198
network databases preventing, See protecting
action for checking, 35 Print Postscript authorization, 9092, 197198,
description, 152 217218
in LDAP, 111 Print without Banner authorization, 9092, 216
network packets, 150 Print without Label authorization, 9092
networking concepts, 150151 printer output, See printing
NFS mounts printers, setting label range, 220221
accessing lower-level directories, 135138 printing
in global and labeled zones, 133134 adding conversion filters, 198
nonallocatable devices and label_encodings file, 30
protecting, 231 authorizations for unlabeled output from a public
setting label range, 220221 system, 85
nsswitch.conf file, action for editing, 35 configuring for multilevel labeled output, 201203
configuring for print client, 210212
configuring for Sun Ray clients, 203206
configuring labeled zone, 209210
O configuring labels and text, 196
-o nobanner option to lp command, 216 configuring public print jobs, 215

277
Index

printing (Continued) R
in local language, 196 real UID of root, required for applications, 253
internationalizing labeled output, 196 Reducing Printing Restrictions in Trusted Extensions
interoperability with Trusted Solaris 8, 199200 (Task Map), 213218
labeling an Oracle Solaris print server, 214215 regaining control of desktop focus, 7071
localizing labeled output, 196 regular users, See users
managing, 193200 relabeling information, 95
model scripts, 198 remote administration
PostScript files, 217218 defaults, 99100
PostScript restrictions in Trusted methods, 100
Extensions, 197198 remote host templates
preventing labels on output, 214 assigning, 166179
assigning to hosts, 174175
public jobs from an Oracle Solaris print server, 215
creating, 168173
removing PostScript restriction, 9092
tool for administering, 4041
restricting label range, 212213
remote hosts, using fallback mechanism in tnrhdb, 157
using an Oracle Solaris print server, 214215
Remote Login authorization, 9092
without labeled banners and trailers, 9092, 216 remote multilevel desktop, accessing, 109110
without page labels, 9092, 215216 removable media, mounting, 256257
privileges remove_allocatable command, 44
changing defaults for users, 81 removing, labels on printer output, 214
non-obvious reasons for requiring, 253 repairing, labels in internal databases, 7273
removing proc_info from basic set, 85 resolv.conf file, action for editing, 35
restricting users', 9294 Restart Zone action, 36
when executing commands, 5051 restoring control of desktop focus, 7071
proc_info privilege, removing from basic set, 85 restricting
procedures, See tasks and task maps access to computer based on label, 220221
processes access to devices, 219221
labels of, 3132 access to global zone, 49
labels of user processes, 31 access to lower-level files, 124125
preventing users from seeing others' processes, 85 access to printers with labels, 194
profiles, See rights profiles actions by rights profiles, 255
programs, See applications mounts of lower-level files, 124125
protecting printer access with labels, 194
devices, 3637, 219221 printer label range, 212213
devices from remote allocation, 231 remote access, 99100
file systems by using non-proprietary names, 140 Revoke or Reclaim Device authorization, 238239, 239
rights, See rights profiles
files at lower labels from being accessed, 124125
rights profiles
from access by arbitrary hosts, 175179
assigning, 80
information with labels, 3132
controlling the use of actions, 255
labeled hosts from contact by arbitrary unlabeled
Convenient Authorizations, 9092
hosts, 175179 with Allocate Device authorization, 239
nonallocatable devices, 231 with device allocation authorizations, 239

278 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


Index

rights profiles (Continued) Security Administrator role (Continued)


with new device authorizations, 237238 creating Convenient Authorizations rights
Rights tool, 39 profile, 9092
rmmount.conf file, 233 enabling unlabeled body pages from a public
role workspace, global zone, 4849 system, 85
roles enforcing security, 223
administering auditing, 242 modifying window configuration files, 64
administering remotely, 105106, 106108 protecting nonallocatable devices, 231
assigning rights, 80 security administrators, See Security Administrator role
assuming, 4849, 5051 security attributes, 159160
creating, 49 modifying defaults for all users, 8485
leaving role workspace, 52 modifying user defaults, 84
remote login, 101102 setting for remote hosts, 168173
role assumption from unlabeled host, 101 using in routing, 179181
trusted application access, 33 security information, on printer output, 194197
workspaces, 4849 security label set, remote host templates, 155
root role, adding device_clean script, 234 security mechanisms
root UID, required for applications, 253 extensible, 58
route command, 46, 153 Oracle Solaris, 252
routing, 159 security policy
accreditation checks, 160161 auditing, 250
commands in Trusted Extensions, 163 training users, 59
concepts, 161 users and devices, 223
example of, 163 security templates, See remote host templates
static with security attributes, 179181 Security Templates tool, 40
tables, 159160, 162 assigning templates, 174175
using route command, 179181 modifying tnrhdb, 166179
using, 168
sel_config file, 63
action for editing, 35
S configuring selection transfer rules, 63
scripts sel_mgr application, 6163
getmounts, 122 selecting, audit records by label, 244
getzonelabels, 121 Selection Confirmer, changing defaults, 63
/usr/sbin/txzonemgr, 34, 119 Selection Manager, configuring rules for selection
secure attention, key combination, 7071 confirmer, 63
Security Administrator role Selection Manager application, 6163
administering network of users, 8996 serial line, configuring for logins, 232
administering PostScript restriction, 198 service management facility (SMF), Trusted Extensions
administering printer security, 193 service, 4748
assigning authorizations to users, 9092 session range, 31
audit tasks, 243 sessions, failsafe, 88
configuring a device, 227230 Set Daily Message action, 36
configuring serial line for login, 232 Set Default Routes action, 36

279
Index

Set DNS Servers action, 35 System Administrator role


setlabel command, 44 adding print conversion filters, 198
Share Filesystems action, 36 administering printers, 193
Share Logical Interface action, 36 audit tasks, 243244
Share Physical Interface action, 36 enabling music to play automatically, 233
sharing, ZFS dataset from labeled zone, 125127 preventing File Manager display, 233234
Shut Down Zone action, 36 reclaiming a device, 230
Shutdown authorization, 9092 reviewing audit records, 244
similarities system files
between Trusted Extensions and Oracle Solaris editing, 5455, 7374
auditing, 241 Oracle Solaris /etc/default/print, 217
between Trusted Extensions and Oracle Solaris Oracle Solaris policy.conf, 217
OS, 2324 Trusted Extensions sel_config, 63
single-label operation, 31 Trusted Extensions tsol_separator.ps, 215216
single-label printing, configuring for a zone, 209210
smtnrhdb command, 44
smtnrhtp command, 45
T
smtnzonecfg command, 45
tape devices, accessing, 220
snoop command, 153, 186
tar command, 46
software
tasks and task maps
administering third-party, 251257
Administering Trusted Extensions Remotely (Task
importing, 251
Map), 102110
installing Java programs, 257
Audit Tasks of the Security Administrator, 243
Solaris Management Console
Audit Tasks of the System Administrator, 243244
administering trusted network, 166179 Backing Up, Sharing, and Mounting Labeled Files
administering users, 8996 (Task Map), 139147
Computers and Networks tool, 173 Common Tasks in Trusted Extensions (Task
description of tools and toolboxes, 3842 Map), 6774
Security Templates tool, 4041, 168 Configuring Labeled Printing (Task Map), 201213
starting, 5253 Configuring Routes and Checking Network
toolboxes, 38 Information in Trusted Extensions (Task
Trusted Network Zones tool, 41 Map), 179185
solaris.print.nobanner authorization, 85, 216 Configuring Trusted Network Databases (Task
solaris.print.ps authorization, 217218 Map), 166179
solaris.print.unlabeled authorization, 85 Customizing Device Authorizations in Trusted
Start Zone action, 36 Extensions (Task Map), 235239
startup files, procedures for customizing, 8688 Customizing User Environment for Security (Task
Stop-A, enabling, 7374 Map), 8388
Sun Ray systems Getting Started as a Trusted Extensions
configuring network printer, 203206 Administrator (Task Map), 4955
enabling initial contact between client and Handling Devices in Trusted Extensions (Task
server, 178 Map), 225
preventing users from seeing others' processes, 85 Handling Other Tasks in the Solaris Management
tnrhdb address for client contact, 176 Console (Task Map), 9697

280 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


Index

tasks and task maps (Continued) tnrhtp database


Managing Devices in Trusted Extensions (Task action for checking, 35
Map), 226234 adding to, 168173
Managing Printing in Trusted Extensions (Task tool for administering, 4041
Map), 200201 toolboxes, defined, 38
Managing Software in Trusted Extensions tools, See administrative tools
(Tasks), 256257 Tools subpanel, Device Allocation Manager, 221223
Managing Trusted Networking (Task Map), 165 trailer pages, See banner pages
Managing Users and Rights With the Solaris translation, See localizing
Management Console, 8996 troubleshooting
Managing Zones (Task Map), 120132 failed login, 88
Reducing Printing Restrictions in Trusted LDAP, 188190
Extensions (Task Map), 213218 mounted file systems, 146147
Troubleshooting the Trusted Network (Task network, 185190
Map), 185190 reclaiming a device, 230
Using Devices in Trusted Extensions (Tasks repairing labels in internal databases, 7273
Map), 226 trusted network, 186188
text label equivalents, determining, 7273 verifying interface is up, 185186
tnchkdb command viewing ZFS dataset mounted in lower-level
action for checking, 35 zone, 127
description, 152 Troubleshooting the Trusted Network (Task
summary, 45 Map), 185190
tnctl command trusted actions, in CDE, 3536
description, 152 trusted applications, in a role workspace, 33
summary, 45 trusted_edit trusted editor, 5455
updating kernel cache, 183 trusted editor
using, 184 assigning your favorite editor, 6869
tnd command starting, 5455
description, 153 Trusted Extensions
summary, 45 differences from Oracle Solaris auditing, 241
tninfo command differences from Oracle Solaris OS, 2425
description, 153 man pages quick reference, 263268
summary, 45 quick reference to administration, 259262
using, 187, 189 similarities with Oracle Solaris auditing, 241
tnrhdb database similarities with Oracle Solaris OS, 2324
0.0.0.0 host address, 158, 176 Trusted Extensions DOI, enabling DOI different from
0.0.0.0 wildcard address, 176 1, 4748
action for checking, 35 Trusted_Extensions folder
adding to, 174175 location, 34
configuring, 166179 using actions in, 5354
entry for Sun Ray servers, 176 using Admin Editor from, 5455
fallback mechanism, 157, 166179 trusted grab, key combination, 7071
tool for administering, 4041 trusted network
wildcard address, 166179 0.0.0.0 tnrhdb entry, 175179

281
Index

trusted network (Continued) upgrading labels, configuring rules for selection


action for setting default routes, 36 confirmer, 63
administering with Solaris Management User Accounts tool, 39
Console, 166179 users
checking syntax of files, 181 accessing devices, 219221
concepts, 149163 accessing printers, 193200
default labeling, 160 assigning authorizations to, 80
editing local files, 166179 assigning labels, 81
example of routing, 163 assigning passwords, 80
host types, 155 assigning rights, 80
labels and MAC enforcement, 149154 assigning roles to, 80
using templates, 166179 authorizations for, 9092
Trusted Network tools Change Password menu item, 58
description, 40 changing default privileges, 81
using, 168 creating, 76
Trusted Network Zones tool customizing environment, 8388
configuring a multilevel port, 129 deletion precautions, 61
configuring a multilevel print server, 201203 labels of processes, 31
creating a multilevel port, 130 logging in remotely to the global zone, 108
description, 40, 41 logging in to a failsafe session, 88
trusted path attribute, when available, 28 modifying security defaults, 84
Trusted Path menu, Assume Role, 5051 modifying security defaults for all users, 8485
trusted processes planning for, 77
in the window system, 254256 preventing account locking, 94
starting actions, 255 preventing from seeing others' processes, 85
trusted programs printing, 193200
adding, 253254 removing some privileges, 9294
defined, 253254 restoring control of desktop focus, 7071
trusted stripe security precautions, 61
on multiheaded system, 25 security training, 58, 61, 223
warping pointer to, 71 session range, 31
trustworthy programs, 253254 setting up skeleton directories, 8688
tsol_separator.ps file startup files, 8688
configurable values, 196 using .copy_files file, 8688
customizing labeled printing, 194197 using .link_files file, 8688
using devices, 226
Using Devices in Trusted Extensions (Task Map), 226
/usr/dt/bin/sel_mgr application, 6163
U /usr/dt/bin/trusted_edit trusted editor, 5455
unlabeled printing, configuring, 213218 /usr/dt/config/sel_config file, 63
updatehome command, 45, 8182 /usr/lib/lp/postscript/tsol_separator.ps file,
Upgrade DragNDrop or CutPaste Info labeling printer output, 194197
authorization, 9092 /usr/local/scripts/getmounts script, 122
Upgrade File Label authorization, 9092 /usr/local/scripts/getzonelabels script, 121

282 Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures January 2013


Index

/usr/sbin/txzonemgr script, 34, 119 Xvnc systems running Trusted Extensions


/usr/share/gnome/sel_config file, 63 remote access to, 100, 109110
utadm command, default Sun Ray server xwindow audit token, 250
configuration, 178 xx audit class, 244

V Z
verifying ZFS
interface is up, 185186 adding dataset to labeled zone, 125127
syntax of network databases, 181 mounting dataset read-write on labeled
viewing, See accessing zone, 125127
virtual network computing (VNC), See Xvnc systems viewing mounted dataset read-only from
running Trusted Extensions higher-level zone, 126127
/zone/public/etc/dfs/dfstab file, 136
Zone Terminal Console action, 36
zones
W action for cloning, 36
well-formed labels, 30 action for configuring, 36
wildcard address, See fallback mechanism action for copying, 36
window manager, 255 action for initializing, 36
window system, trusted processes, 254256 action for installing, 36
workspaces action for restarting, 36
color changes, 51 action for sharing logical interface, 36
colors indicating label of, 32 action for sharing physical interface, 36
global zone, 4849 action for shutting down, 36
action for starting, 36
action for viewing from console, 36
administering, 120132
X administering from Trusted JDS, 119
X audit classes, 244245 creating MLP, 130
xatom audit token, 246247 creating MLP for NFSv3, 129
xc audit class, 244 displaying labels of file systems, 123
xclient audit token, 247 displaying status, 121
xcolormap audit token, 247 global, 115
xcursor audit token, 247 in Trusted Extensions, 115132
xfont audit token, 248 managing, 115132
xgc audit token, 248 net_mac_aware privilege, 142146
xp audit class, 244 tool for labeling, 41
xpixmap audit token, 248
xproperty audit token, 248249
xs audit class, 244
xselect audit token, 249
Xtsolusersession script, 255

283
284