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A. Title
Study On the Ability of the First Year Students of SMAN 2 Kuok In
Comprehending News Item Texts
B. Background
English has been taught as a compulsory subject in Indonesia for decades.
Students are expected to be able to understand any forms of English, both oral and
written. Studying English, as an integrated foreign language, embodies the four
basic skills: listening, speaking, reading and writing, in which each of skill has its
own function, but the skills are supporting one another. The receptive skills use in
language acquisition: listening and reading enable the productive skills: speaking
and writing (Saricoban:1999). In learning these skills, the learners are influence
by some linguistics factors, such as semantics, phonology, grammar, vocabulary
and so on.
These skills have great contribution in learning language. One of the skills is
reading, reading is a primary competence to comprehend a text. Without reading
texts, the reader will not find information that occur in the text. Reading activity
includes in four prime element skills to master English because by reading
improve knowledge the reader. So many information can be acquired by reading.
It will be essential if the students can comprehend text well, so that the students
are able to get information easily without any difficulties.
Nuttal (1996) points out that reading is an activity that essentially concerned
with the transfer of meaning from mind to mind, a message from a writer to a
reader. Leipzig, D. H. (2001) states reading is the motivated and fluent
coordination of word recognition and comprehension. Tarin (1985) also describes
about reading, that is a process undertaken and used by readers to obtain the
message, a method used to communicate with yourself and sometimes others
which communicates the meaning contained or implied in the written symbols .
Many experts have stated their opinion and their mind about reading. Information
and knowledge in a text will not be acquired unless by reading comprehension.To
achieve the purpose of reading, which is to get general or detail information from
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the text, the students have to comprehend the text in order to understand the
information effectively
News item is a kind of text which be taught to students in the level of senior high
school to meet the objectives of teaching reading. Based on the School Based
Curriculum (2006), the standard competence of reading comprehension demands the
students to understand the meaning of functional written text and very simple short
essay in narrative, descriptive, and news item in the context of daily life to access
knowledge. In studying news item text as one of the types of the text that be learned
in high school will also increase their English skill besides improve their own
knowledge. According to curriculum 2006, in learning news item text, the students
are expected able to identify the topic of the text, identify such information from the
text and identify the generic structures of news item text.
By learning this type text, the student will learn use simple past tense and they
will master this kind of tenses because one language feature of news item text is use
simple past tense. On the other hand, news item text consists of much new
vocabulary; it will make students notice much vocabulary. It is expected that it will
improve their knowledge about difficult word. The last thing that will improve
English skill of the students by learning news item text is attract interest of students to
read more. Since, news item text consists of factual information that relate with their
daily life, up to date information, technology development, science and general
information. It will make students feel more curious to read more.
SMAN 2 Kuok is the newest public school in Kuok, Kampar Regency. It has 2
classes for first grade. News Item Text has been taught in first grade second semester
of SMAN 2 Kuok and students already have their prior knowledge about news item
text that is why the writer wants to know the students ability in comprehending this
text. Even though students have prior knowledge about news item, but the teachers do
not have data generally about students ability. This school includes newest school
category in Kuok, one teacher should teach many classes, it will not be effective and
it is assumed that it will impact to students ability, because teacher cannot teach
maximal. This research can be a base to next research that conduct in SMAN 2 Kuok,
as one of ways increase students and school achievement.
News item text is included in national examination question and in order the
student can answer the questions correctly, before answering questions student have
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to be able to comprehend the text. Besides that, why the writer focus on news item,
since this text is hardly had been conducted by other researcher. Generally, the
researcher more focus on Narrative, Recount and Procedure text, and this reasearch
aims to find out the ability of the student of SMAN 2 Kuok in comprehending news
item text.
Besides, the English teacher and school do not have much information about
how good is the ability of the students in comprehending in news item text,
especially in first grade.
Based on the writer observation, some of the second grade students states that
the news item text is quite easy, but the rest also states that the text is hard to
comprehend because the report text only taught once in senior high school and it
is a quite new for them.
Based on the explanation above, the writer interested in conducted a research
which is entitled: A Study on The Ability of the first Year Students of SMAN 2
Kuok in Comprehending News Item Text.

C. Formulation of the Problem


The problem of the study is formulated as follows:
1. How good is the ability of the first year student of SMAN 2 Kuok in
comprehending News item text?
2. What are the most difficult and the easiest aspect of comprehending news
item text by the first year students of SMAN 2 Kuok?

D. The General Objectives of the Research


The general objectives of this research are:
1. To identify how the ability of first year students of SMAN 2 Kuok in
comprehending News Item Text is.
2. To find out the most difficult and the easiest aspect of comprehending
News Item text faced by the first year students of SMAN 2 Kuok.

E. The Needs For the Research


The researcher expects that this study will give valuable contributions for
the following things:
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1. To gets information and data about the ability of the first year students of
SMAN 2 Kuok in comprehending news item texts to support the writer to
make a thesis.
2. The teacher gets information about students ability in reading
comprehension news item text in order to design the appropriate teaching
in the students reading comprehension ability.
3. The students get information and know how their ability in reading
comprehension and they will know what should they do in the next time.
4. The government gets information about the ability of students of SMAN 2
Kuok in reading comprehension.

F. The Definition of the Term Used


1. Study
Study is a detailed consideration or investigation of a subject (Hornby,
1995). In this research, a study is an investigation to find out the ability of
the first year students of SMAN 2 Kuok in comprehending news item text.
2. Ability
Ability is capacity or power to do something physical or mental (Hornby).
In this study, ability means that capacity of the students of SMAN 2 Kuok
to comprehend news item text.
3. Reading Comprehension
Reading comprehension is the ability to understanding something fully of
the material (Zhi-Hong: 2007)). In this study, reading comprehension
means the capability of SMAN 2 Kuok to comprehend the text fully, can
identify such information, topic, generic structure and the purpose of news
item text.
4. News item text
News item text is a kind of text whose contents reports on event or case
regarded as good for public to know, generally about news (Otong
Setiawan Djuharie 2007). In this study, news item text is a text in which
the content is used by the writer in order to know the ability of the first
year student of SMAN 2 Kuok in comprehending reading text.

G. Literature Review
1. The Nature of Reading
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There so many definition of reading that experts reveal. According to


Nuttal (1982) reading is an activity with purpose and the process of decoding
information from a text into ones mind. A number of the purpose of reading that
Nuttal said that to gain information or verify exiting knowledge, or in other to
criticize a writer idea or writing style. A number of reader also read for enjoyment
or enhance knowledge of the language being read.
Another opinion about reading is given by Eskey (1970), Reading is
exactly the most important of the four skills in a second language around the
world. Furthermore, reading is the main reason why students learn language in
their school. Actually, without reading, the learners never know about anything.
Hudgson (1960) state that reading is a process that doing by the reader to
get information or message that says by author through the words on the text. To
get information students can gain it from reading a text. So many texts that reader
can read, it means that so many information and message that reader achieve from
that activity.
According to Wiryodijoyo (1989) reading is the activity which involves
whole individual abilities of the readers that consist of memory, experience,
knowledge, brain, language ability, psychologist condition, and emotional. In line
with Wiryodijoyo, Harris and Sipay (1980) state that, the readers emotion,
feeling, and intellectual ability, such as thinking, evaluating, judging, imagining,
reasoning, and problem solving, involved in reading activity.
Reading is an exercise dominated by eyes and brain, Harmer (1991). In
reading, eyes and brain have huge relationship. The eyes notice every single
words and send the message from what reader read, whereas, the brain has to
work out the significance and make us understand what text and the message
means. Students not only read the text, but also have to understand what they are
reading. Therefore, they can get knowledge and enjoy with what they read.
On the other side, Kathie steele argues that Reading is a process, namely
an interactive and thinking process of transferring printed letter into meaning in
order to communicate certain message between the writer and the reader. It also
makes the author shares with the reader
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Kennet Bear (2009) says that reading in English is like reading in our
native language. This means that it is not always necessary to read and
understand each and every word in English. There are four types of strategies
and skills that can be applied in reading: skimming, scanning, extensive reading
and intensive reading.
These four types will be explained as follows:
a. Skimming
Skimming is used to quickly gather the most important information. In
this technique the readers only are looking important information. For
example: reading a newspaper (quickly to get the general news of the
day).
b. Scanning
Scanning is used to find a particular piece of information. In this
technique the readers only looking for the specific of information that
the readers need. For example: reading a train schedule.
c. Extensive Reading
Extensive reading is used to obtain a general understanding of a
subject and includes reading longer texts for pleasure, as well as
business book. This reading technique is used to improve the readers
general knowledge. The readers are not expected to understand each of
the words. For example: reading a novel before going to bed.
d. Intensive Reading
Intensive reading is used on shorter texts in order to extract specific
information. It includes very close accurate reading for detail. The
readers use intensive reading skills to grasp the details of a specific
situation. In this case, it is important that we understand each word,
number or fact. For example: reading a contract.
In order to comprehend the text fully, strategies are needed. In the
explanation above there are four strategies to comprehend text, skimming,
scanning, extensive and intensive reading. All the four strategies have relationship
with this study. Students can use one of the four strategies to comprehend news
item text. Therefore, the objective of this study can be achieved.
Byrnes (1998), states about readers knowledge, skill and strategies. He
defines these four classifications. First, language competence: the ability to
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recognize the element of writing system; knowledge of vocabulary; knowledge of


words are structured into sentence. Second, discourse competence: knowledge of
discourse marks how they connect part of the text to one another. Third,
sociolinguistic competence: knowledge about different type of texts and their
usual structure and content. Fourth, strategic competence: the ability to use top-
down strategies (attend to the overall meaning) or bottom-up strategies
(knowledge of the language that focus on the words and phrases).
Reading can be seen as an interactive process between a reader and a
text which leads automaticity or (reading fluency). In this process, the reader
interacts dynamically with the texts as she/ he tries to elicit the meaning and
various kind of knowledge are being used: linguistic or systemic knowledge
(through bottom-up processing) as well as schematic knowledge (through top-
down processing) (Hesham Suleiman Alyousef:2006).
Based the explanation above, the writer conclude that reading is a process
to get the message or information on texts. In this study reading means the
students activity to grasp the meaning of the content and the writer idea about the
topic. To have good ability in reading the readers should practice in reading
comprehension.

2. The Nature of Reading Comprehension

Reading comprehension is the process of simultaneously extracting and


constructing meaning through interaction and involvement with written language
(RAND Reading Study Group, 2002). This process of interaction and involvement
with the text is a function of both reader and text variables that take place within a
larger social context.
Harmer (1998), points out that reading comprehension is very important
for students because in fact the textbook for most science and technologies are
written in English. This means that learners are expected to be able to understand
English textbook that they are reading. In this case reading skill is needed by
learners of English language.
Klinger,et al (2007) point out that reading comprehension is multi-
components, highly complex process that involve many interactions between
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readers and what they bring to the text as well as variables related to the text itself.
In other words, the reader and the writer become one mind and the concepts are
translated from one person to another.
Reading comprehension involves at least two people: the reader and the
writer. The process of comprehending involves decoding the writers words and
then the reader uses his/her background knowledge to construct the writers
messages. Gillet and Temple (in Ngadiso, 1998, 2) say, Comprehension is the
understanding new information in light of what we have already known. This
thing will make students be more successful in applying and improving
everything that had been learned and understood.
Reading comprehension is the process of using syntactic, semantic, and
rhetorical information found in the printed texts to reconstruct in the readers
mind, using the knowledge of the world he or she possesses (Ngadiso, 1998: 1).
Burnes and Page (1991) state that in reading comprehension the readers have to
involved their intelligence because it can influence their ability in comprehending
what they read. In line with Burnes and Page, Whereas Scott (2001) said that the
reader combines their own background knowledge with the information while
comprehending the text. It is argued by Jones (2003) states that the keys to
comprehension are the activation of prior background knowledge, active
engagement in the content, and metacognition.
So reading comprehension is a thinking process to evaluate, judge, imagine,
reason and solve problem during reading activity with the activation of prior
background knowledge, active engagement to the content and metacognition.
Reading comprehension is construction of meaning from printed or written
message (Zhi-Hong: 2007). It means that readers construct the meaning from a
text through reading text. Understanding the meaning of the text or having good
comprehension in reading is factor to be successful to gain information or
knowledge in the text.

The prime goal of reading is comprehension. (Latham; in Parker; in


Burnes and Page(1985). The information in ones mind that gained from the text
is what people commonly call Reading Comprehension. By reading the reader
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can get the information, knowledge and etc. But if the reader cannot understand or
comprehend the meaning or the content of text it is useless.
Burnes and Page (1991) states that there are several levels of
comprehension:

1. Four linguistic levels of analysis


It includes comprehension at the word level, at the sentence level, at the
paragraph level and at the whole text level.
2. Traditional levels of comprehension
The best known description of the traditional levels of comprehension is
probably the taxonomy of reading comprehension proposed by Barrett asquoted
by Burnes and Page (1991)
a. Literal: Literal comprehension requires the recognition or recall of
ideas, information and happenings that are explicitly stated in the
materials read.
b. Inference : Inferential comprehension in demonstrated by students
when they use a synthesis of the literal content of a selection, their
personal knowledge, intuition and imagination as a basis for
conjectures or hypotheses.
c. Evaluation: Evaluation is demonstrated by students when they
make judgments about the content of a reading selection by
comparing it with external criteria, for example, information
provided by the teacher on the subject, authorities on the subject or
by accredited written sources on the subject; or with internal
criteria, for example, the readers experiences, knowledge, or
values related to the subject under consideration.
d. Appreciation: Appreciation has to do with the students awareness
of the literary techniques, forms, styles and structures employed by
authors to stimulate emotional responses in their readers.
In comprehending the texts, the readers need to prepare themselves by
knowing some skills that they can apply while they are reading so that the goal of
reading can be achieved. Mc Neil D. John, et. al (1980) explains about some
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specific comprehension skills that can help the reader in reading activity, they are:
understanding sequence, interpreting sentence, interpreting meaning through
punctuation, recognizing main idea in the paragraph, drawing logical conclusion
and obtaining meaning of words through text.
1. Understanding Sequence
By understanding the sequence will help the readers to understand
the text easily because there are many advantages that they can get
by understanding it. One of them is to help the reader and
determining which events come first and last, so that they can
understand the text well.
2. Interpreting Sentence Structure: Semantic and Syntax
Reading involves semantic and syntax. Both of them have close
relationship because in a text, the reader will find sentence structure
related to the word order in a sentence.
3. Interpreting Meaning through Punctuation
Punctuation in a text has crucial roles because it can influence
themeaning of the sentence. It is also a key to the interpretation of
meaning.
4. Recognizing Main Idea in the Paragraphs
The main idea is the most important statement about the topic,
sothat the reader should recognize it well in order to comprehend
the text easier.
5. Drawing Logical Conclusion
The readers need to know how to draw logical conclusion
incomprehending reading text. They can draw conclusion from their
reading is to sensitize them to words serve as support or signals to
the ideas that are to be presented.
6. Obtaining Meaning of Words through Context.
The readers should infer the meaning of an unfamiliar word byusing
context clues. It includes the new word is defined by using these
sentence itself, comprehend an unknown word that is linked to a
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familiar term and understand an unknown word because they know


the opposite.

The explanations above are skill that students have to have in order to help
them to comprehend the text. By knowing the sequences of idea may help the
readers know where main topic will show up. Then, Semantic and syntax aspects
also have contribution for reader comprehension. It is not only focus on language
feature and word order aspects, but also punctuation makes different interpretation
of comprehending. A sentence ends with full stop will have different meaning
compare with sentence ends with comma.

There are some components in reading comprehension which should be


focused on comprehending a reading text. King and Stanly in Darlis (2004:8) state
that reading has five components contained in reading texts, which are appropriate
with the junior high school curriculum. They are:
1. Finding factual information
Factual information requires readers to scan specific details. The factual
information questions are generally prepared for students and those which appear
with WH question word. There are many types of questions; reason, purpose,
result, time, comparison, etc in which of the answer can be found in the text.
2. Finding main ideas.
Recognition of the main idea of a paragraph is very important because it
helps you not only understand the paragraph on the first reading, but also helps
you to remember the content later. The main idea of a paragraph is what the
paragraph develops. An efficient reader understands not only the ideas but also the
relative significance as expressed by the writer. An efficient reader understand not
only the ideas but also their relative significance, as expressed by the author, in
other words, some of the ideas as super ordinate while other subordinate.
3. Finding the meaning of vocabulary in context
It means that the reader could develop his or her guessing ability to the
word which is not familiar with him or her, by relating the close meaning of
unfamiliar words to the text and the topic of the text that is read. The words have
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nearly equivalent meaning when it has it or nearly the same meaning as another
word.
4. Identifying references
In English, as in other language, it would be clumsy and boring to have and repeat
the same word or phrase every time you used it. Instead of repeating the same
word or phrase several times, after it has been used we can usually refer to it than
repeat it. For this purpose, we use reference words. Recognizing reference words
and being able to identify the word to which they refer to will help the reader
understand the reading passage. Reference words are usually short and very
frequently pronoun, such as; it, she, he, they, this, etc.
5. Making inferences
Inference is a skill where the reader has to be able to read between lines.
King and Stanley divide into two main attentions, draw logical inferences and
make accurate prediction.
According the clarification and explanation above, it have relationship
with this study, in order to comprehend the text, the students have to know what is
reading comprehension is first, and to achieve this focus of study, the writer also
has to know what reading comprehension is.

3. The Nature of News Item Text

In general, text is an article we often read. We know that human beings are
different from other creatures. We live in a world of words. When these words are
put together to communicate a meaning, a piece of text is created. A text is any
stretch of language which is held together cohesively through meaning, Susan
Feez and Helen Joyce (2002). It means that when we use language to write, we are
creating and constructing a text. When we read, we are interpreting texts.
Moreover, when we talk and listen, we are also creating and interpreting texts.
In this research the writer focuses the writer focuses on news item text
only. In line of Macken (1990:34) News item text is a factual text and it is also
called as News Story. Adrian Santoso in his website defines news item text is a
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type of the text that has the main function or communicative purpose to inform
readers or listeners or viewer about events of the day that are considered
newsworthy or important. The main function of news item is telling stories or
informing about events in chronological order. The order in the narration can be
based of time, place and the events them selves.
Garot and Wignell (1995) states that news item text informs readers,
listener of viewer about newsworthy or important event in newspaper, magazine,
television, radio of other media. It includes the newsworthy event, the background
event, and the sources. In the other words, news item is spoken or written
information about what is happened. News item tells information about event of
the day which is considered newsworthy or important. The generic structure of
news item text:
a. Newsworthy event : recounts the events in summary form
b. Background events : elaborate what happen, to whom, in what
circumstances.
c. Sources : comments by participants in, witnesses to and
authorities expert on the events.
In order to understand the whole of news item text, the reader is expected to
recognize the generic structure of news item text.
Pardiyono(2007) states that there are four element of generic structure in
order to comprehend news item text. The first one is headline or title. It is a
reduced clause and more than noun phrase. It is usually in present tense form with
omitted be. Be omitted also in passive form. Try to avoid in using article the
and a.
The second one is summary of events or known as newsworthy events. It
contains about summary of news or events. It is always in simple past tense, past
perfect tense and past continuous tense. But sometimes it is written in present
perfect but simple past tense is more dominant.
The third one is background events. It is about detail or reality that
happening or events. It is always in simple past tense, past perfect tense, past
continuous and present perfect tense form. In a news item text usually contain
some of background events and each background events has one source.
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The fourth one is source. It contains about comment of eyewitness,


opinion of the experts and etc. source writes after background events. It always
uses declarative sentence and on reported speech. Based on Otong Setiawan
Djuhari (2007), state that news item contains factual information, up to date
information and another important knowledge. The purpose of news item text is to
make reader know about important event or information and also can improve
their knowledge. Achmad doddy et al points out that the characteristic of news
item text are; generally using past tense (simple past, past progressive and past
perfect), action verb, saying verb or direct and indirect speech and adverb (adverb
of time, place and manner).

The example of news item text:

Growing Number of High School Student Smoking


Headline or Title

Surakarta A survey has found about 13 percent of first-time


Newsworthy Events smokers in the country are junior high school students. It also revealed
89 percent of young female employees were smokers.The survey was
conducted in five major cities across the country, including Surakarta in
Background events Central Java.

Muhammad Syahril Mansyur, the Surakarta Health Agencys


respiratory illness division, said that the finding of the survey showed an
alarming growth rate of Indonesian smokers. "This situation is a cause
for concern, he said. It appears the countrys younger generation is
uneducated about the health risks of smoking. The Indonesian anti-
Source tobacco campaign has reportedly been deemed as ineffective as the
government refuses to sign the international convention on tobacco
control. It said that cigarette producers contributed to a large amount to
state revenue and gave jobs to thousands of workers.

www.thejakartapost.com/news/2009/11/12/growing-number-school-
students-smoking.html
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Where:
Green = saying verb
Blue = action verb in simple past
Yellow = Passive Voice

H. Related Studies

There are some studies about comprehending text and news item that is
conducted by the previous researcher. The previous researchers have done
studies related to this research, A Study on The Ability of The First Year
Student of SMAN 2 Kuok In Comprehending News Item Text.
Asmad Badu (2015) conducted a research A descriptive study on
students reading comprehension through English newspaper text in second
grade of SMAN 2 Kwandang. The objective of this research is to find out
how good the ability of the student in this school in comprehending English
newspaper text. This is a qualitative research. The writer collects data from
giving tests and interviews the students. According test 1 and 2 that researcher
given to the students, it can be concluded that the students ability in
comprehending English newspaper is good. But based on interview the writer
found some conclusion that reveal: the students are lack of vocabulary, they
are difficult to interpret the question given, they cannot understand the whole
content of the text. The writer suggests to English Teacher to include English
newspaper in teaching and learning process in the classroom. The similarity
of Asmad Badus research with this research is same in terms of focus to find
out reading comprehension ability in news item text. However, the writer
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conducts the research to find out students ability in comprehending news


item text on first grade students in SMAN 2 Kuok.
Hasan Basri (2011) did a research entitle teaching writing news item text
through documentary video at the tenth grade of SMAN 1 Kaliwungu Kendal.
The aims of this research is to know how effective using documentary video
as media to improve students ability in writing news item text at the tenth
grade students of SMAN 1 Kaliwungu Kendal. This is an experimental
research. The research data was taken in pre-test and post-test, and the
analysis data was used t-test to find out the significance difference between
students score in experimental group and control group. After doing a
research, the writer can come to the conclusion that documentary video has an
effectiveness as a media in improving writing skill students of news item text
in SMAN 1 Kaliwungu Kendal. The writers suggested to English Teacher to
include English newspaper in teaching learning process in the classroom. The
similarity is that the research is focus on English newspaper text as
instrument and focus to find out comprehending of student to news item text.
However the writer conducted the research to find out students ability in
comprehending news item text on first grade in SMAN 2 Kuok.
Zhi-Hong (2007) conducted a research entitle The Effect of Learning
Strategies on Reading Comprehension. The objective of the research was to
know the relationship between learning strategies and reading
comprehension. The instrument used in gathering the data for the research
were reading comprehension test and one questioner in second year student of
Xdian University, China. It was experimental study. The students were asked
to answer the question based on passage and questioner given. The finding of
this research showed that learning strategies have closely related to reading
comprehension. The writer also conducted a research on reading
comprehension. Although, the writer focused on news item text and the object
were the third year students of SMAN 2 Kuok.
Hrvjoe Bacan (2003) conducted a research with title Automated News
Item Categorization. The objective of this research is how to make a good
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news item document. The instrument of this research is with doing the step
that writer make. It was an experimental study. The writer makes some steps
to make a good news item document. The people at International Press
Telecommunications Council (IPTC) do the steps. The finding of this
research show how good this step to make news item text/document. The
writer conducted a research on reading comprehension and the object was the
third year students of SMAN 2 Kuok

I. Research Methodology

1. The Location and Time of the Research


The research will conduct at SMAN 2 Kuok. It is located on Jalan Trans-
ad Kuok, Kampar. The research will be hold from August until september.

2. Research Design
This research is a descriptive study which has only one variable. Gay
(1987; 189) states that descriptive study is useful for investigating a variety of
educational problems. In addition, in many cases the descriptive research is
used to describe particular phenomena in order to learn more about them.
Moreover, he explains that a descriptive research involves collecting data to
test hypothesis or to answer question concerning the status of the study. It
means that the descriptive research is used to summarize the distribution of a
variable or more but limited to sample data only, not to be generalized to
population. Meanwhile, Sudjana and Ibrahim (1999; in Syafii, 2007; 173)
states that descriptive study is an investigation, which tries to describe the
existing condition, phenomena, events, and so forth.
Because of one of the research question for this study is how good the
ability students in comprehending news item text, therefore, descriptive
research design will used. In other word, this research will only describe the
ability of the first year student of SMAN 2 Kuok in comprehending news
item texts.
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3. The Population and Sample of The Research

The subject of the research is the second year students of SMAN 2 Kuok-
Kampar Regency. To clarify the subject of the research, the researcher
explains the following research:

a Population:
Population was the larger group to which one hopes apply the
result (Fraenkel & Wallen, 2008). The population of the research is
the first year students at SMAN 2 Kuok - Kampar Regency academic
year 2015/2016. The total population of this research is 70 students.

a. Sample:
A sample in a research was the group on which information is
obtained (Fraenkel & Wallen, 2008). The most important steps in the
research were the selection of the sample or who was the participants
of the research. The classes in first grade are 2 classes, in which
every class consist of 35 students. Since the population is not too
large, therefore, total sampling procedure is used to get the data.
Total sampling is a process when all of the population become is
chosen to be sample (Sugiyono: 2007). One class as try out class and
the other as the class for data analysis. The writer will use lottery to
decide which class for try-out items and others for collecting data.

4. Data and Instrument

The data used in this research is quantitative data. The researcher


constructed the instrument in multiple choices. The text that will be
instruments will be adopted from English newspaper. For example, Jakarta
Post, Indonesian Times, etc. The researcher used a test as an instrument to
collect the data and the tests consist of 40 items. The test consists of 40
questions based on 5 kinds of news item text that will be adopted from
English newspaper. The duration time for doing the test is 90 minutes.
19

Component of reading comprehension for News item text:

Components of reading comprehension of News Item text The items


number
No Components for Reading Components for News Ite
Comprehension Item text ms
1. Main idea Newsworthy events 5 1 , 9, 17, 25, 33
2. Finding factual information Background events. 5 2, 10, 18, 26, 34
3. Source. 5 3, 11, 19,27, 35
4. Finding meaning of vocabulary Language feature 5 4, 12, 20, 28, 36
5. Language feature 5 5, 13, 21, 29, 37
6. Finding reference 5 6, 14, 22, 30, 38
7. Finding inference 5 7, 15, 23, 31, 39
8. Social function 5 8, 16, 24, 32, 40

(Harris in Al Rahmat: 2016)

5. Data Collection Technique


Before collects the data, the writer make an appointment with the
principal to ask permission to conducts the research in SMAN 2 Kuok, after
gets the official permission, the writer discusses with English teacher about
something appropriate. After that, before giving the test to the sample, the
writer conducted the Try-out to determine that the instrument of test is valid
and reliable. The first grade in SMAN 2 Kuok consists of 2 classes, so, 1
class will be given Try-out items and the other class will be given the test
items. According in Heaton (1975:172) stated that the test item will be
accepted if the score is between 0,30 0,70 and they will rejected if score is
below 0,30 and above 0,70.
20

In order to conduct this study, the researcher will do activities as


follows:

Table of steps for Collecting Data.

STEPS ACTIVITIES
Steps 1 Observation
Steps 2 Making agreement with the school
Steps 3 Doing Try-Out Test
Steps 4 Doing test
Steps 5 Analysis the data

To analyze the data in this study, the researcher used the formula as
follows:

a) The difficulty level on the items will show how easy of difficulty the particular
items provided in the test. It is expressed as the percentage of the students
answer the item correctly. In calculating it, the following formula will be used:
To know the difficulty level
R
F .V
N
Where:
F.V = difficulty level
R = the number of correct answer
N = the number of the students

(Adopted Heaton, 1991)

b) Items discrimination shows the extent to which the items discriminated


between the students separating the more able students and the less able
students. It was calculated by using the formula:

To know the discrimination index


21

correctU CorrectL
D= n

Where:

D = discrimination index

U = upper group answering

L = lower group answering

n = number of candidates in one group

(Adopted Heaton, 1991)

c) After knowing the difficulty level of the try out test items, the writer will
measure the central tendency by calculating the mean score. To know the
average score of the students ability in reading comprehension, the writer
presented the data by using the formula:
To know mean score
fx
M= N

Where:
M = the mean score in each topic
fx = the sum of the respondents scores
N = the number of the respondents
(Adopted Hatch and Farhady, 1982)

d) The mean score describes an individual students ability but it does not tell
about the highest and the lowest scores and the spread of the scores. To know
about them, the researchers will use Standard Deviation (s.d) formula. The
Standard Deviation is one way to show the spread of marks. The Standard
Deviation formula is:
To know standard deviation

SD = d 2
N 1

Where:
22

SD = standard deviation

d = the total mean of the test

N = the number of the students

(Adopted Heaton, 1975)

According to Heaton (1975), reliability is a necessary characteristic of any


good test. A test is said valid when it is reliable as a measuring instrument. The
reliability of whole test will be calculated by using the formula:

a To know the reliability

N m(N M )
Rii= N 1 [1 NX 2 ]

Where:

Rii = the reliability of the test

N = the number of the items in the test

M = the mean score on the test for all the tests

X2 = the standard deviation of all the test

scores

(Adopted Heaton, 1991)

6. Data Analysis Technique

To analyze the quantitative data, the writer will use procedures as follows:

a To know each of students score individually, the data will calculate by


using the following formula:
X
M = n x 100
23

Where:
M = individual score

X = correct answer

n = number of items
(Wayan and Sumartana, 1986)
b After getting all of students score, the students ability can be seen. Next,
to find out the mean score of the students in reading comprehension, the
following formula is used:

fx
M= N

Where:
M = the mean score of each topic
fx = the sum of the respondents scores
N = the number of the respondents
(Adopted Hatch and Farhady, 1982)

Furthermore, the level of the students score will be classified into five
levels of mastery. The classification can be seen in this following table

Table 3.3.TheClassification of Students Score

No. Scores Category


1. 81 100 Excellent
2. 61 80 Good
3. 41 60 Mediocre
4. 21 40 Poor
5. 0 20 Very Poor
(Adopted Harris,1974)

c To know the percentage of the classification of the students ability in answering


question, the following formula can be used:
X
P = N x 100 %

Where:
24

P = percentage of the students per group/level


X = the number of frequency in one level
N = the number of students

Adopted Hatch and Farhady (1982).


25

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