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1.

(a) (i) isotopes of elements are chemically identical but have different atomic
masses / OWTTE / same number of protons in the nucleus but different
number of neutrons / OWTTE; 1
(ii) proton / 11 H / p+; 1

(b)


The data p oints at 4 10 and
10
four data points covering 3 half - lives;
0.5 10 must be s hown.
10


correct plotting of data points;
line of best-fit to 1.8 104 years; 3

1.9 4 10 10
(c) (i) number of atoms = 0.8 10 10 ; 1
9 .6
(ii) from the graph age = 1.3 104 years; 1
Allow ECF from (b) and from (c)(i).
[7]

IB Questionbank Physics 1
2. (a) (i) fuel enrichment means that the amount of uranium-235 present in
the fuel is increased / OWTTE;
this means that more U-235 available for fission;
therefore the reaction can be sustained; 3
(ii) enriched fuel can be used in the manufacture of nuclear weapons;
so possibly threatening World peace; 2

(b) (i) (energy released) = 2.1895 105 (1.3408 + 0.83749 + 0.0093956) 105;
= 181.44 180 MeV 1
(ii) kinetic; 1

N A 1000
(c) (i) number of atoms in 1 kg of carbon = and number in 1 kg
12
N A 1000
of U-235 = ;
235
4N A
energy per kg carbon = keV and per kg
12
1.8 10 8 N A
U-235 = keV ;
235
therefore, ratio = 2.3 106; 3

(ii) a much higher energy density implies that uranium will produce more
energy per kg / smaller quantity of uranium needed to produce same
amount of energy / OWTTE; 1

6.0 10 26
(d) (i) no of atoms = 6.7 10 24 ;
90


0.69
7.6 10 10 s 1 ;
9.110 8

activity = 7.6 1010 6.7 1024;


= 5.1 1015 Bq 3
(ii) = 0.024 yr1;
activity = 5.1 1015 e0.024 70;
= 9.6 1014 Bq; 3

IB Questionbank Physics 2
(e) initial activity is very high;
it is still highly radioactive after 70 years;
thereby posing a severe health risk / causing problems of disposal / OWTTE; 3
[20]

3. (a) Look for an argument that considers destructive interference between


light from elements of the slit e.g.
consider light from the top edge of the slit and light from X then for

a destructive interference at M the path difference between them is ;
2
this will be true for all elements of the slit that are paired with
elements below X / OWTTE;
some conclusion e.g. for this to be true then l must equal ; 3

(b)

same value maximum as maximum of S2 coincides with minimum of S1;


minimum of S2 coincides with maximum of S1;
Deduct [1] if curve does not touch axis. 2

(c) since the wavelength of radio waves is relatively large to get good
resolution the aperture must be large / OWTTE;
this is achieved by having large dish-like receivers/by separating
the receivers by large distances; 2

2 10 12

(d) angular separation of sources = = 6.7 105 (rad);

3 10
16

0.21 4
angle at which sources are resolved = 1.22 1.22 = 8.5 10 (rad);
b 300
some statement about angles to show that they cannot be resolved; 3
[10]

4. (a) circular wavefronts around source, equally spaced;

IB Questionbank Physics 3
moving observer intercepts more wavefronts per unit time / the time
between intercepting successive wavefronts is less;
hence observes a higher frequency / f > f;
or
circular wavefronts around source, equally spaced;
the velocity of the sound waves with respect to the observer is greater;
v
since f = , observed frequency is also greater; 3

v u0 330 15
(b) f = f 300 ;
v 330
= 314 Hz;
Award [0] for use of moving source formula.
Award [1] for use of v-uo to give 286 Hz. 2
[5]

5. Electromagnetic induction
(a) the induced emf is induced in such a direction that its effect is to oppose
the change to which it is due / OWTTE; 1

(b) description:
on opening the switch, the reading on the voltmeter will deflect to the
left and then drop to zero;
explanation:
when the switch is opened the field drops to zero so again a time
changing flux;
which will induce an emf in the opposite direction as the emf will now
be such as to oppose the field falling to zero / Lenzs law;
when the current reaches zero, there will no longer be a flux change; 4
[5]

6. (a) in boiling, energy is required to break bonds (in vaporization) and


to separate molecules;
in melting, (more) energy available to overcome bond energies
of molecules without large separation; 2

(b) (i) evaporation at surface of liquid, boiling occurs throughout liquid;


evaporation occurs at all temperatures, boiling at boiling pt only;
boiling: vapour pressure = atmospheric;
evaporation: vapour pressure < atmospheric; 2 max

IB Questionbank Physics 4
(ii) attempt to equate energy gained by milk to energy lost by steam;
minimum energy required = 0.30 3800 62 = (70680 J);
energy supplied = [steam mass] [2.3 106 + 4200 20];
minimum steam mass = 0.030kg; 4

(iii) energy required to heat cup;


energy lost to surroundings / steam escapes from system; 2
[10]

7. Gravitational potential
(a) the work done per unit mass;
in bringing a small/point mass;
from infinity to the point (in the gravitational field); 3

(b) from the graph V0 = 3.9 (0.2) 107 J kg1;


V0 39
g0 ;
R0 5

= 7.8(2) N kg1; 3

(c) 2.0 107 m above surface is 2.5 107 m from centre;


V between surface and 2.5 107m = (3.9 0.80) 107
= 3.1(0.2) 107 J kg1;

2 mV
v 2 V ;
m

= 6.2 10 7 7.9 0.2 10 3 m s 1 ; 4


Award [3 max] if the candidate forgets that the distances are
from the centre (answer 3.2 103 m s1), ie the candidate must
show V.
[10]

8. (a) F cos 25 = 470;


520 N; 2

(b) (i) work done 470 2500;


1.2 MJ;
Award [1 max] for power of 10 error. 2

IB Questionbank Physics 5
1.2 10 6
(ii) ;
1.2 60 60
270 W; 2
Allow correct solution from power = F v.

(c) work still done against friction ;


work done raising load vertically / increase in gravitational potential energy; 2
[8]

6.6 10 34 3 10 8
9. (a) (i) eV =
4.9 10 7 1.6 10 19
energy = 2.5 eV; 2

(ii) 490nm excites energy level transitions;


from n = 2 to n = 4;
energy removed from beam;
re-emitted in other directions/at other wavelengths as
electrons returned to energy state; 4

(b) Schrdinger suggests that electron has wave properties;


this (probability) wave has to conform to boundary conditions;
only certain wavelengths that lead to a standing wave are
allowed (by these boundary conditions);
energy is determined by wavelength of electron / standing wave
determines electron energy; 4
[10]

10. (a) standing wave formed;


by superposition/interference of (forward) wave and reflected wave;
maximum where interference is constructive / minimum where
interference is destructive;
maxima where waves in phase;
minima where waves are completely/180//half wavelength out of phase; 4 max

(b) (i) 130 mm = 9 half wavelengths;


29 mm; 2

c
(ii) f= ;

= 10 GHz; 2

IB Questionbank Physics 6
(c) place a metal grid/analyser between source and detector;
electric field vector (of the microwaves) vibrates in only one
direction/plane;
rotate the metal grid/detector;
until minimum signal is detected; 3 max
or
electric field vector vibrates in only one direction/plane;
rotate transmitter through an angle;
need to rotate receiver through same angle to restore signal in transmitter;
[11]

IB Questionbank Physics 7