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You are on page 1of 7

(a) (i) isotopes of elements are chemically identical but have different atomic

masses / OWTTE / same number of protons in the nucleus but different

number of neutrons / OWTTE; 1

(ii) proton / 11 H / p+; 1

(b)

The data p oints at 4 10 and

10

four data points covering 3 half - lives;

0.5 10 must be s hown.

10

correct plotting of data points;

line of best-fit to 1.8 104 years; 3

1.9 4 10 10

(c) (i) number of atoms = 0.8 10 10 ; 1

9 .6

(ii) from the graph age = 1.3 104 years; 1

Allow ECF from (b) and from (c)(i).

[7]

IB Questionbank Physics 1

2. (a) (i) fuel enrichment means that the amount of uranium-235 present in

the fuel is increased / OWTTE;

this means that more U-235 available for fission;

therefore the reaction can be sustained; 3

(ii) enriched fuel can be used in the manufacture of nuclear weapons;

so possibly threatening World peace; 2

(b) (i) (energy released) = 2.1895 105 (1.3408 + 0.83749 + 0.0093956) 105;

= 181.44 180 MeV 1

(ii) kinetic; 1

N A 1000

(c) (i) number of atoms in 1 kg of carbon = and number in 1 kg

12

N A 1000

of U-235 = ;

235

4N A

energy per kg carbon = keV and per kg

12

1.8 10 8 N A

U-235 = keV ;

235

therefore, ratio = 2.3 106; 3

(ii) a much higher energy density implies that uranium will produce more

energy per kg / smaller quantity of uranium needed to produce same

amount of energy / OWTTE; 1

6.0 10 26

(d) (i) no of atoms = 6.7 10 24 ;

90

0.69

7.6 10 10 s 1 ;

9.110 8

= 5.1 1015 Bq 3

(ii) = 0.024 yr1;

activity = 5.1 1015 e0.024 70;

= 9.6 1014 Bq; 3

IB Questionbank Physics 2

(e) initial activity is very high;

it is still highly radioactive after 70 years;

thereby posing a severe health risk / causing problems of disposal / OWTTE; 3

[20]

light from elements of the slit e.g.

consider light from the top edge of the slit and light from X then for

a destructive interference at M the path difference between them is ;

2

this will be true for all elements of the slit that are paired with

elements below X / OWTTE;

some conclusion e.g. for this to be true then l must equal ; 3

(b)

minimum of S2 coincides with maximum of S1;

Deduct [1] if curve does not touch axis. 2

(c) since the wavelength of radio waves is relatively large to get good

resolution the aperture must be large / OWTTE;

this is achieved by having large dish-like receivers/by separating

the receivers by large distances; 2

2 10 12

(d) angular separation of sources = = 6.7 105 (rad);

3 10

16

0.21 4

angle at which sources are resolved = 1.22 1.22 = 8.5 10 (rad);

b 300

some statement about angles to show that they cannot be resolved; 3

[10]

IB Questionbank Physics 3

moving observer intercepts more wavefronts per unit time / the time

between intercepting successive wavefronts is less;

hence observes a higher frequency / f > f;

or

circular wavefronts around source, equally spaced;

the velocity of the sound waves with respect to the observer is greater;

v

since f = , observed frequency is also greater; 3

v u0 330 15

(b) f = f 300 ;

v 330

= 314 Hz;

Award [0] for use of moving source formula.

Award [1] for use of v-uo to give 286 Hz. 2

[5]

5. Electromagnetic induction

(a) the induced emf is induced in such a direction that its effect is to oppose

the change to which it is due / OWTTE; 1

(b) description:

on opening the switch, the reading on the voltmeter will deflect to the

left and then drop to zero;

explanation:

when the switch is opened the field drops to zero so again a time

changing flux;

which will induce an emf in the opposite direction as the emf will now

be such as to oppose the field falling to zero / Lenzs law;

when the current reaches zero, there will no longer be a flux change; 4

[5]

to separate molecules;

in melting, (more) energy available to overcome bond energies

of molecules without large separation; 2

evaporation occurs at all temperatures, boiling at boiling pt only;

boiling: vapour pressure = atmospheric;

evaporation: vapour pressure < atmospheric; 2 max

IB Questionbank Physics 4

(ii) attempt to equate energy gained by milk to energy lost by steam;

minimum energy required = 0.30 3800 62 = (70680 J);

energy supplied = [steam mass] [2.3 106 + 4200 20];

minimum steam mass = 0.030kg; 4

energy lost to surroundings / steam escapes from system; 2

[10]

7. Gravitational potential

(a) the work done per unit mass;

in bringing a small/point mass;

from infinity to the point (in the gravitational field); 3

V0 39

g0 ;

R0 5

= 7.8(2) N kg1; 3

V between surface and 2.5 107m = (3.9 0.80) 107

= 3.1(0.2) 107 J kg1;

2 mV

v 2 V ;

m

Award [3 max] if the candidate forgets that the distances are

from the centre (answer 3.2 103 m s1), ie the candidate must

show V.

[10]

520 N; 2

1.2 MJ;

Award [1 max] for power of 10 error. 2

IB Questionbank Physics 5

1.2 10 6

(ii) ;

1.2 60 60

270 W; 2

Allow correct solution from power = F v.

work done raising load vertically / increase in gravitational potential energy; 2

[8]

6.6 10 34 3 10 8

9. (a) (i) eV =

4.9 10 7 1.6 10 19

energy = 2.5 eV; 2

from n = 2 to n = 4;

energy removed from beam;

re-emitted in other directions/at other wavelengths as

electrons returned to energy state; 4

this (probability) wave has to conform to boundary conditions;

only certain wavelengths that lead to a standing wave are

allowed (by these boundary conditions);

energy is determined by wavelength of electron / standing wave

determines electron energy; 4

[10]

by superposition/interference of (forward) wave and reflected wave;

maximum where interference is constructive / minimum where

interference is destructive;

maxima where waves in phase;

minima where waves are completely/180//half wavelength out of phase; 4 max

29 mm; 2

c

(ii) f= ;

= 10 GHz; 2

IB Questionbank Physics 6

(c) place a metal grid/analyser between source and detector;

electric field vector (of the microwaves) vibrates in only one

direction/plane;

rotate the metal grid/detector;

until minimum signal is detected; 3 max

or

electric field vector vibrates in only one direction/plane;

rotate transmitter through an angle;

need to rotate receiver through same angle to restore signal in transmitter;

[11]

IB Questionbank Physics 7

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