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# Thermodynamics 3

## d. Estimate the area ABCD. What does it represent?

2) a) An ideal gas is contained in a cylinder by means of a piston, as shown below.

## The piston is pushed quickly into the cylinder.

For the resulting change of state of the gas:

## i) state, and explain, whether the change is isovolumetric, isobaric or adiabatic

ii) use the molecular model of an ideal gas to explain why the temperature of the gas
changes.

## b) A heat engine operates between a high-temperature source and a sink at a lower

temperature, as shown below.

The overall efficiency of the engine is 15%. The engine transfers 680 J of energy to the sink.

## i) Determine the work W done by the engine.

ii) There is a gain in entropy as a result of the engine doing work W. Identify two further
entropy changes and, by reference to the second law of thermodynamics, state how the three
changes are related.

## 3) a) State what is meant by isobaric change.

b) The diagram below shows the pressure volume (p-V) changes for one cycle of the
working substance of a refrigerator.

## (ii) label with the letter A an isobaric change

(iii) label with the letter B the change during which energy is transferred to
the working substance because of a temperature difference.

c) Use data from the diagram in (b) to estimate the work done during one cycle of the
working substance.
d) (i) By reference to entropy change, state the second law of thermodynamics.

(ii) The cycle of the working substance in (b) reduces the temperature inside the
refrigerator. Explain how your statement in (d)(i) is consistent with the
operation of a refrigerator.