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# Thermodynamics 2

## 1. This question is about an ideal gas.

(a) The pressure P of a fixed mass of an ideal gas is directly proportional to the kelvin
temperature T of the gas. That is,

P T.

## (i) pressure P and the volume V for a change at constant temperature.

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## (ii) volume V and kelvin temperature T for a change at a constant pressure.

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(b) The ideal gas is held in a cylinder by a moveable piston. The pressure of the gas is P1, its
volume is V1 and its kelvin temperature is T1. The pressure, volume and temperature are
changed to P2, V2 and T2 respectively. The change is brought about as illustrated below.

## heated at constant volume to heated at constant pressure to

pressure P2 and temperature T volume V2 and temperature T2
State the relation between

## (i) P1, P2, T1 and T .

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## (ii) V1, V2, T and T2.

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(c) Use your answers to (b) to deduce, that for an ideal gas

PV = KT,

where K is a constant.

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(Total 8 marks)
2. This question is about thermodynamics.

The PV diagram shows the expansion of a fixed mass of an ideal gas, from state A to state B.

## (a) Calculate the temperature of the gas in state B.

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(b) (i)Calculate the work done by the gas in expanding from state A to state B.

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(ii) Determine the amount of thermal energy transferred during the expansion from
state A to state B.

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(c) The gas is isothermally compressed from state B back to state A.

(i) Using the PV diagram axes above, draw the variation of pressure with volume for
this isothermal compression.
(1)

(ii) State and explain whether the magnitude of the thermal energy transferred in this
case would be less than, equal to or greater than the thermal energy transferred in
(b)(ii).

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(Total 8 marks)

## 3. This question is about changes of state of a gas.

(a) A cylinder fitted with a piston contains 0.23 mol of helium gas.

The following data are available for the helium with the piston in the position shown.
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Volume = 5.2 10 m
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Pressure = 1.0 10 Pa
Temperature = 290 K

(i) Use the data to calculate a value for the universal gas constant.

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## (ii) State the assumption made in the calculation in (a)(i).

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(b) The gas is now compressed isothermally by the piston so that the volume of the gas is
reduced. Explain why the compression must be carried out slowly.

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(c) After the compression, the gas is now allowed to expand adiabatically to its original
volume. Use the first law of thermodynamics to explain whether the final temperature
will be less than, equal to or greater than 290 K.

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(Total 9 marks)
4. This question is about gases and thermodynamic processes.

(a) State one way in which a real gas differs from an ideal gas.

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(b) The diagram shows how the pressure p varies with volume V of an ideal gas that
undergoes a cyclic change of state.

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AB and CD are adiabatic changes of state. The pressure at point B is 1.8 10 Pa and the
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change in volume of the gas between B and C is 4.8 10 m.

## (i) State what is meant by an adiabatic change of state.

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(ii) The change in volume of the gas between B and C takes 0.020 s. Determine the
power developed during this change of state.

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(iii) State during which part of the cycle thermal energy is transferred from the gas to
the surroundings.

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(c) The energy transferred is degraded. Explain what is meant by degraded energy.

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(d) Discuss how your answer to (c) relates to the second law of thermodynamics.

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(Total 10 marks)
5. This question is about thermodynamics.

(a) The first law of thermodynamics can be written as the following equation.

Q = U + W

## Identify the symbols in this equation.

Q ..................................................................................................................................

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U ...............................................................................................................................

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W .................................................................................................................................

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(b) A fixed mass of an ideal gas is contained in a cylinder by a piston. The friction between
the piston and cylinder wall is negligible.

Two procedures are carried out on the gas. The thermal energy input to the gas is the
same in both procedures.

Procedure 1 The gas is heated and expands at constant pressure with the piston free to
move. The temperature of the gas increases by 21 K.

Procedure 2 The gas is now brought back to its initial state and again heated with the
piston fixed in position. The temperature of the gas increases by 35 K.

## (i) State the name of the process in procedure 2.

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(ii) Explain why the temperature change is greater in procedure 2 than in procedure 1.

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## (iii) In procedure 1, U changes by 120 J. Use the first law of thermodynamics to

calculate the missing values in the table below.

Procedure 1
Procedure 2
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(Total 11 marks)
6. This question is about an ideal gas.

(a) The graph shows a pressure-volume (PV) relationship for a fixed mass of an ideal gas.

## (i) Identify the isochoric (isovolumetric) change of state.

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(ii) Use data from the graph to show that the change AB is isothermal.

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(iii) State the two changes for which thermal energy is transferred from the gas.

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(iv) Calculate the work done by the gas in the change BC.

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## (b) The amount of gas in part (a) is 0.74 mol.

Calculate the maximum temperature of the gas during the cycle in part (a).

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(c) The fixed mass of gas is heated from temperature T1 to T2 at constant volume. Explain
why, if this fixed mass of gas is heated from T1 to T2 at constant pressure, the amount of
energy required is different.

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(3)
(Total 14 marks)

## 7. This question is about ideal gases.

(a) The atoms or molecules of an ideal gas are assumed to be identical hard elastic spheres
that have negligible volume compared with the volume of the containing vessel.

(i) State two further assumptions of the kinetic theory of an ideal gas.

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(ii) Suggest why only the average kinetic energy of the molecules of an ideal gas is
related to the internal energy of the gas.

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(3)

## (b) An ideal gas is contained in a cylinder by means of a frictionless piston.

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At temperature 290 K and pressure 4.8 10 Pa, the gas has volume 9.2 10 m .

## (i) Calculate the number of moles of the gas.

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(2)

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(ii) The gas is compressed isothermally to a volume of 2.3 10 m . Determine the
pressure p of the gas.

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(iii) The gas is now heated at constant volume to a temperature of 420 K. Show that the
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pressure of the gas is now 2.8 10 Pa.

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(c) The gas in (b)(iii) is now expanded adiabatically so that its temperature and pressure
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return to 290 K and 4.8 10 Pa respectively. This state is shown below as point A.

(i) Using the axes above sketch a pressure-volume (p-V) diagram for the changes in
(b)(ii), (b)(iii) and (c).
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(ii) On your diagram in (c)(i), identify with the letter H any change or changes where
the gas does external work on its surroundings.
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(iii) Describe how a p-V diagram may be used to estimate a value for the useful work
done in one cycle of operation of an engine.

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(2)
(Total 16 marks)