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541 556

2014 Chinese Ocean Engineering Society and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

DOI 10.1007/s13344-014-0044-1 ISSN 0890-5487

a

University of Engineering & Technology, Lahore, Pakistan

b

University of Engineering & Technology, Taxila, Pakistan

(Received 17 December 2012; received revised form 27 May 2013; accepted 23 July 2013)

ABSTRACT

In this paper, vortex-induced vibrations of a cylinder are simulated by use of ANSYS CFX simulation code. The

cylinder is treated as a rigid body and transverse displacements are obtained by use of a one degree of freedom spring

damper system. 2-D as well as 3-D analysis is performed using air as the fluid. Reynolds number is varied from 40 to

16000 approx., covering the laminar and turbulent regimes of flow. The experimental results of (Khalak and Williamson,

1997) and other researchers are used for validation purposes. The results obtained are comparable.

Key words: vortex-induced vibrations; ANSYS CFX; flow induced vibrations; fluid structure interaction

1. Introduction

Vortex-induced vibrations (VIVs) occur when fluid crosses over a cylinder due to transverse and

inline forces that are generated due to vortex formation. Vortices are formed at a certain frequency and

if the vortex shedding frequency coincides with the natural frequency of the cylinder, resonance will

occur. VIVs occur in different engineering structures such as heat exchangers which are subjected to

VIV as a result of cross flow induced vibrations over the exchanger tubes. Offshore risers in petroleum

exploration also suffer from vortex-induced vibrations. Different researchers have contributed to the

prediction and analysis of VIV in literature like Brika and Laneville (1993), Khalak and Williamson

(1997) and Bearman (2000). Khalak and Williamson (1997) obtained the response of an elastic

cylinder with a low mass ratio of 2.4. They identified two separate regimes of high amplitude

resonance labeled as upper and lower branches of response in contrast to a single amplitude response

curve which was previously supposed by Sarpkaya (1979). Bearman (2000) gave a detailed review of

experimental work on VIV and addressed the VIVs from bluff bodies and showed that vortex shedding

frequency coincides with natural frequency of the structure over a wider band of reduced velocities if

displacement is high. Bearman (2000) conducted study on free and forced vibrations and stated that

forced vibration experiments allow the individual control of reduced velocities and displacement ratios.

VIVs depend upon several parameters including mass ratio (ms), added mass and mass damping

parameter (ms). Khalak and Williamson (1997) obtained data for three different mass ratios from low

to high and concluded that the range of reduced velocity is narrowed with the increasing mass ratio.

The damping effect was also studied with different damping ratios, and high upper branch amplitude

was observed with lower damping ratio. Khalak and Williamson (1997) also studied the effect of

combined mass damping parameters (ms) on the response and observed that upper branch amplitude

542 Abu Bakar IZHAR et al. / China Ocean Eng., 28(4), 2014, 541 556

has a larger dependence upon the combined mass damping parameter while lower branch amplitude

does not show much dependence. The distinction between the lower and upper branch of Khalak and

Williamson (1997) is attributed to different modes of oscillation as given by the study of Williamson

and Roshko (1979). Khalak and Williamson (1997) observed from the plot of non-dimensional

frequency response versus reduced velocity that for higher damping ratios the frequency ratio (ratio of

frequency of oscillation to the natural frequency of cylinder) was close to 1 but for lower damping

ratios (e.g 2.4) the ratio was roughly around 1.5. Williamson and Roshko (1979) identified two modes

of oscillation in synchronization region i.e 2P and 2S modes. In the 2S mode, one vortex is formed in

each half cycle of vibration and occurs during initial branch of the response and is associated with

large amplitudes whereas for 2P mode two vortices are formed at each half cycle and occurs at upper

and lower branch. Khalak and Williamson (1997) showed that for low (ms) type transition from initial

to upper branch is hysteretic and from upper to lower branch is intermittent. For high ms the transition

from initial branch to lower branch is hysteretic. These transitions are associated with jump in

displacement and frequency.

Wanderley et al. (2008) performed a numerical simulation of vortex-induced vibrations using a

two-dimensional numerical scheme by solving RANS (Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes) equations.

Their results agreed well with the results of previous researchers at the initial and upper branch of

displacement response, but not so close to the lower branch level, and they attributed this disagreement

to the three-dimensional effects, the addition of artificial dissipation term, and the turbulence scheme

used. In a subsequent work, Wanderley et al. (2008) solved RANS equations using an upwind and

TVD (Total Variation Diminishing) scheme of Roe (1984) and Sweby (1984). They verified the code

results by duplicating the data and flow conditions of Khalak and Williamson (1997), by taking a

damping ratio of 0.00542 and mass ratio of 2.4. The reduced velocity was varied from 2 to 15

corresponding to a Reynolds number varying from 2000 to 12000. The present work is an attempt to

simulate VIV for flow over an elastic rigid cylinder by taking the same flow parameters as that of

Khalak and Williamson (1997) using ANSYS CFX. These results are validated to the experimental and

numerical results of previous researchers. ANSYS CFX is a commercially available CFD (Computational

Fluid Dynamics) simulation package having advanced turbulence schemes and numerical algorithms

and can accurately predict the experimental data by employing the latest CFD and FSI (Fluid Structure

Interaction) techniques. Previously, not many papers are found in literature in which CFX is used to

validate VIV data. Kuehlert et al. (2008) validated the data for a single tube with 2-DOF (Degree of

Freedom) flow induced vibration with experimental results of Hover et al. (1998) by employing RANS

turbulence scheme in 2D. Kuehlert et al. (2008) varied the fluid properties and free stream velocity

while increasing the reduced velocity and keeping Reynolds number constant at 3800. Spring and

damper combination was used to support the tube. Their simulated data for the displacement and

frequency response agreed well to that of Hover et al. (1998).

2. Non-Dimensional Parameters

The following non-dimensional parameters used in this simulation are listed in Table 1.

Abu Bakar IZHAR et al. / China Ocean Eng., 28(4), 2014, 541 556 543

Description Formulae

Obtained by taking the structural frequency and U

Reduced velocity Ur

diameter of cylinder into account for generalization fn d

4m

Specific mass ratio of mass of the cylinder to that of displaced fluid ms

d 2 l

Ud

Reynolds number Ratio of inertia force to viscous force Re

fs d

Strouhal number Measure of the predominant shedding frequency fs St

U

Ratio of damping coefficient to critical damping c

Damping ratio

coefficient ccrit

Dimensionless Ratio of y displacement of the cylinder to the diameter y

A

displacement of the cylinder d

Parameter that quantifies drag or resistance of an object Fx

Drag coefficient Cd

in a fluid medium 0.5 U 2 dl

1Lift coefficient Cl

to dynamic pressure in flowing fluid 0.5 U 2 dl

Note: U= free stream velocity; fn= natural frequency of cylinder; d= diameter of cylinder; m= mass of cylinder;

= density of fluid; l = length of cylinder; = dynamic viscosity of fluid; fs= vortex shedding frequency

stationary cylinder; c= damping coefficient; ccrit= critical damping coefficient; y= transverse displacement

of cylinder; Fx=drag force; Fy=lift force.

3. 2D Simulation

The laminar case was setup in CFX with an extruded 2D mesh. CFX meshing was used to mesh

the domain. The domain and the mesh are shown in Fig. 1. The mesh is refined in the wake region while

coarser mesh is used near the outer walls of the domain. The mesh is extruded one element in z

direction. ANSYS CFX is intrinsically a 3D solver and therefore 2D planar geometries cannot be

imported into ANSYS CFX. This can be called a quasi 2D case. For this simulation, the length in the

extruded direction is almost equal to the diameter of the cylinder. This convention provides reasonable

accuracy. This should be noted that 2D simulation is intrinsically a 3D simulation. 2D simulation

should be referred here as quasi-2D simulation, because certain length of cylinder is considered in z

direction which can calculate the drag and lift coefficients using the projected area (diameter of

cylinder multiplied by length of cylinder) and the projected force at the fluid structure boundary using

CFX force functions. The data in Table 2 is obtained using the quasi-2D simulation not planar 2D

simulation. Inflation layers were used at the cylinder wall and the outer walls to resolve the boundary

layer at the walls. No slip condition at cylinder wall is used while free slip condition is used at the

upper and lower boundaries. Front and back sides of the domain are given symmetry conditions which

make this setup two dimensional. The left side was specified as velocity inlet while the right side as the

outlet pressure. An initial velocity profile was also specified for the domain that helps in achieving the

steady state efficiently. The fluid properties and velocity were varied to keep the Reynolds number

constant. This setup was run for five cases with Reynolds numbers equal to 40, 100, 200 and 1000.

544 Abu Bakar IZHAR et al. / China Ocean Eng., 28(4), 2014, 541 556

The lift and drag coefficients were obtained using the intrinsic force function in CFX.

Fig. 2 shows the contours of streamlines over the cylinder for Re=40. The two vortices are formed

due to boundary layer separation at Re=40 while pressure gradients are clearly visible at the leading

and trailing edge of the cylinder. Fig. 2 shows the development of laminar vortices pair at Re=40.

These elliptic vortices have clearly defined the boundary with characteristic dimensions. a is the

distance from the trailing edge of the cylinder to the center of the vortex, l is the recirculation length of

vortex, and b is the center to center distance of the vortex pair. The characteristic dimensions of the

vortices have much significance in the dynamics of the vortex. These parameters are used in the

calculation of average velocity of the vortex ring, as this is not the focus of the current research topic, a

comprehensive description is avoided. The parameters are quoted for the validation of CFD results.

The reader can consult Akhmetov (2009) and Green (1995) for further details. These dimensions are

measured from the present simulation and they are comparable to the results of Wanderley et al. (2008)

and that of previous researchers as given in Table 2, which gives a comparison of these dimensions

with data in literature and it can be seen that data compares well with those of previous researchers.

Fig. 3 shows a plot of lift and drag coefficients obtained for Re=200 from the present study. Fig. 4

shows the contours of velocity for Re=100. The convergences from one of the cases for Re=2000 and

3D are shown in Fig. 20 and Fig. 21 in Appendix B.

Table 2 Characteristic dimensions of two vortices formed at Re=40 from previous researchers and present study

Reference Cd l/d a/d b/d () Comments

Sphaier and Rengel (1999) 1.610 2.23 0.7200 0.579 54.06 FVM

Wanderley et al. (2008) 1.560 2.29 0.7300 0.600 53.79 FDM

Present 1.546 2.20 0.7147 0.590 52.40 CFX

Table 3 shows a comparison of drag (Cd) and lift (Cl) coefficients from the present study and

previous literature for Reynolds numbers 100, 200 and 1000. It can be seen from Table 3 that results

for Cl for Re=100 and 200 are closer to the results of Li et al. (2011) while Cd and Cl at Re=100 agrees

well with the data of Wanderley et al. (2008). Values of Cd obtained from the present simulation are a

little larger than those of previous researches (Wanderley et al., 2008; Norberg, 2003).

Abu Bakar IZHAR et al. / China Ocean Eng., 28(4), 2014, 541 556 545

Fig. 3. Dynamic plot of drag and lift coefficients for Re=100 (present simulation).

From the plots of Cd and Cl, we can perform a discrete FFT analysis to find the frequencies. The

frequencies of Cd and Cl can be observed from the frequency amplitude plot at Re=100 shown in Fig. 5.

The peak of Cl corresponds to the amplitude axes on the left while Cd peak corresponds to the

amplitude axes on the right and it can be observed from the plot that the frequency for Cd signal is

546 Abu Bakar IZHAR et al. / China Ocean Eng., 28(4), 2014, 541 556

about twice that of Cl signal. The Strouhal frequency at Re=2000 is determined in a similar manner by

using DFT (Discrete Fourier Transform) for velocity signal and it can be seen from Fig. 6 that a peak

is formed at the frequency of 4.66 Hz.

Table 3 Data comparison from previous researches at Re=100, 200 and 1000

Reynolds

Reference Cd Cl Comments

number

100 1.30 0.25

Wanderley et al.

200 1.27 0.51 FDM

(2008)

1000 0.96 0.22

100 0.32

Norberg (2003) 200 0.53 Experimental

1000 0.08

100 1.36 0.32

Sphaier and Rengel FEM

200 1.35 0.67

(1999) (10079 nodes)

1000 1.60 1.70

100 1.350 0.363

Li et al. (2011)

200 1.342 0.690

100 1.49 0.20

Present study 200 1.34 0.46 CFX

1000 1.04 0.52

The Reynolds number for the flow over cylinder in our case is defined as:

Ud

Re , (1)

Abu Bakar IZHAR et al. / China Ocean Eng., 28(4), 2014, 541 556 547

where is the fluid density (kg/m3), d is the diameter (m) of the cylinder over which the fluid flows

externally, U is the incoming free stream velocity of the fluid (m/s), and is the dynamic viscosity of

the fluid (Pa-s).

For the case of Re=2000, the free stream inlet velocity was taken as 22 m/s. The diameter of the

cylinder was taken as 2 m. Therefore, substituting these values into Eq. (2) yields the Strouhal number

fd 4.66 1

St 0.2119 , (2)

U 22

where f is the Strouhal frequency.

4. 3D Simulation

The 3D model representation is clearly shown in Fig. 7. One way unsteady coupling was

implemented between fluid and structure fields to calculate the displacements. The structural solver

was implemented in Mathematics. Runge K-5 solution routine for ordinary differential equations was

developed. The details are given in Appendix A. The fluid force data at each step was imported from

CFX to Mathematica where structural field was calculated using Eq. (16). The step size for the

structural case was calculated by dividing the period of oscillation of the cylinder into 20 steps for

numerical accuracy. This should be clear that flexibly rigid cylinder was assumed with an equivalent

system stiffness and damping and hence deflection profile along the span of cylinder was not

considered.

This should be cleared here that 2D simulation is intrinsically a 3D simulation. 2D simulation

(Section 3) should be referred here as quasi-2D simulation, because certain length of cylinder is

considered in z direction which can calculate the drag and lift coefficients using the projected area

(diameter of cylinder multiplied by length of cylinder) and the projected force at the fluid structure

boundary using equations in Table 1. The data in Table 2 are obtained using the quasi-2D simulation

not planar 2D simulation. Similar is the case of 3D simulation in Section 4, the mass of the cylinder

was calculated by use of the length and mass ratio of the cylinder. Therefore, 3D and 2D simulations

are not differentiated in geometric sense.

A three-dimensional case was setup using the flow and mass-damping parameters of Khalak and

Williamson (1997) for validation purpose. Rigid tube was simulated using a mass-spring-damper

system for one-degree-of-freedom in the transverse direction of the flow. Fig. 7 shows the representation

of the distributed spring damper system that is implemented in three-dimensional simulation.

The natural frequency of the cylinder is calculated by treating the cylinder as a free-free beam, as

shown in Fig. 8.

Free-free beam conditions can be applied to the cylinder. The natural frequency of the cylinder

using the above beam analogy is calculated. For more details of the formulation of natural frequency,

reader can consult Irvine (2012). The solution of Euler Bernoulli beam equation as represented by Eq. (3)

is employed as:

548 Abu Bakar IZHAR et al. / China Ocean Eng., 28(4), 2014, 541 556

4 yL 2 yL

EI A 0, (3)

xL4 t 2

where xL is the direction along the length of the beam, yL is the direction of displacement perpendicular

to xL, and A is dimensionless displacement. From the separation of variables, the solution to Eq. (3) can

be written as:

yL ( xL , t ) X ( xL )T (t ) , (4)

where t is temporal variable.

Fig. 7. Distributed spring damper system for a free-free beam for 3D analysis.

EI 4

2 k . (5)

A

The general solution for xL function is represented by Eq. (6):

yL xL L1 sin kxL L2 cos kxL L3 sinh kxL L4 cosh kxL . (6)

For free condition, the shear force and the bending is taken as zero, hence by applying these

conditions on each boundary and some arrangement, the following equation holds

cosh kl cos kl 1 , (7)

where L1, L2, L3, and L4 in Eq. (6) are constants of integration and l in Eq. (7) is the length of the beam

under consideration.

The transcendental equation represented by Eq. (7) can be solved to find the values of knl, where n

Abu Bakar IZHAR et al. / China Ocean Eng., 28(4), 2014, 541 556 549

kl 4.73 . (8)

By substituting the length of cylinder l into Eq. (8), k can be calculated and hence from Eq. (5) the

circular frequency is found which then yields natural frequency fn in Hz.

The specific mass (ms) of the cylinder i.e. mass per unit length of the cylinder is represented as:

4m

ms . (9)

d 2 l

The mass of the cylinder (m) can be calculated from Eq. (9) with different values of specific masses

such as 2.4 and 10.3.

The added mass is calculated from Eq. (10) below

ma r 2 . (10)

The natural frequency (fn) and spring constant (ksp) of the system are related as given by

1 ksp

fn . (11)

2 m ma

By rearranging Eq. (11) and substituting for fn , the spring constant is calculated as:

ksp 4 2 f n2 (m ma ) . (12)

Therefore, by substituting the values of natural frequency, the mass of the cylinder and the added

mass of the spring constant of the system can be calculated.

The damping ratio was taken approx. equal to 0.00542. From this damping ratio, the damping

constant c is calculated as follows:

c 2 ksp (m ma ) . (13)

Therefore, we have calculated the values of damping constant and spring stiffness of the spring

damper system.

The forces on the cylinder wall are obtained for a given reduced velocity by using the intrinsic

force function in CFX. The displacement of the rigid elastic tube is obtained by numerically integrating

Eq. (14).

my cy ksp y Fy . (14)

This should be clear here from Fig. 9 that X is the direction of flow i.e. positive X direction. Y is

perpendicular to X, Z is perpendicular to X and Y and is directed into the paper. We are taking Fy as the

lift force acting in Y direction and y is the displacement in Y direction due to force Fy. This should be

noted that displacement y is a small letter while the direction Y is a capital letter. The fluid forces were

obtained at each step and were transferred to structural side to determine the displacement of the

cylinder. The displacement of the cylinder was not transferred to the fluid side.

550 Abu Bakar IZHAR et al. / China Ocean Eng., 28(4), 2014, 541 556

The 3D simulation was run for different reduced velocities from 2 to 15 with Reynolds numbers

varying from 2000 to 12000. SAS-SST turbulence scheme was employed in CFX. It is a class of

URANS (Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes) method and it can provide LES (Large Eddy

Simulation) like behavior in detached flow regions. SAS is based on including the von Karman length

scale into the turbulence scale equation. Von Karman length scale allows SAS technique to

dynamically adapt to the resolved structures in a URANS simulation which provides an LES like the

behavior in unsteady regions of flow and simultaneously gives standard RANS capabilities in steady

flow field. SAS-SST is particularly suited to flows with large separation zones and vortex formations

as described in ANSYS (2012).

Fig. 10 shows a comparison of the normalized displacement A versus the reduced velocity from

the present study and previous literature. It can be observed from Fig. 10 that initial branch is close to

the response from previous authors like Khalak and Williamson (1997) who used experimental

technique and Iwan and Blevins (1974) who employed analytical methods. The upper branch is not as

clearly visible as in Khalak and Williamson (1997) or Iwan and Blevins (1974). It is also noted from

Fig. 10 that the maximum amplitude from different researchers is varying. The maximum amplitude

obtained through the present simulation is close to that of Iwan and Blevins (1974) and Wanderley et

al. (2008). The reduced velocity (Ur) value at which the maximum amplitude occurs is approx. 4.6 in

the present case while that of Wanderley et al. (2008) and Khalak and Williamson (1997) is around 5.5.

The lower branch of response is a little lower than that of Khalak and Williamson (1997) and Parra

(1996). The desynchronization branch from the present simulation, Khalak and Williamson (1997),

Meneghini et al. (1997) and Parra (1996) is a little non uniform while that of Wanderley et al. (2008)

and (Iwan and Blevins, 1974) are more uniform.

Figs. 11 and 12 show the dynamic behavior of non-dimensional displacement and lift coefficient

for Ur=4 and 6, respectively. It is evident from these figures that the response for Ur=4 is much more

periodic than the response for Ur=6. Fig. 12 shows presence of different frequencies. It is also clear

from these plots that as the reduced velocity increases, the phase difference between the lift and

displacement responses also increases as shown in Fig. 13 which shows a comparison of phase lag

between the lift and displacement responses of the current simulation and the results of Wanderley et

al. (2008) and Guilmineau and Queutey (2004). Fourier function in Mathematica was used which finds

the discrete Fourier transform. The argument of the transformed data at the peak position of each

signal was found in radians. The difference in these two argument values was converted into degrees to

find the phase difference between the lift and displacement signals. A sudden increase in the phase

difference is seen near Ur=4 and this sudden increase is attributed to a switching of vortex formation

mode from 2S to 2P. Brika and Laneville (1993) first showed the evidence of 2P mode from free

vibration of a cable and confirmed the results of Williamson and Roshko (1979). The initial branch

therefore corresponds to 2S mode while the upper and lower branches are associated with 2P mode as

is obvious from Fig. 14 which shows the 2P vortex shedding pattern at Ur=7.6 from the present

Abu Bakar IZHAR et al. / China Ocean Eng., 28(4), 2014, 541 556 551

simulation. As the reduced velocity increases, the speed reaches a value at which fs (vortex shedding

frequency) becomes closer to fn (natural frequency) of the structure which causes the frequencies to

synchronize. The vortex shedding frequency (fs) and the tube oscillation frequency (f) becomes close to

the natural frequency (fn) and the ratio f*=f/fn becomes close to unity which is known as lock-in or

synchronization phenomenon.

Fig. 10. Comparison of present calculated data with previous researches found in literature.

552 Abu Bakar IZHAR et al. / China Ocean Eng., 28(4), 2014, 541 556

Fig. 13. Phase lag between the lift and displacement as function of reduced velocity (Ur).

This behavior can be seen in Fig. 15 which shows a plot of frequency ratio versus the reduced

velocity. With reference to Fig. 15, the line with triangles is the frequency ratio of vortex shedding of

stationary cylinder normalized with the natural frequency of cylinder in air, the line with diamonds is

the frequency ratio for vibrating cylinder of specific mass of 2.4 and the line with squares is the

frequency ratio of vibrating cylinder of specific mass of 10.3 normalized with the natural frequency in

air. Similarly, Fig. 16 shows the plot of frequency ratios obtained by normalizing the frequencies with

the natural frequency of cylinder in water (fnw). It is obvious from Fig. 15 and Fig. 16 that as the

specific mass increases, the frequency response becomes closer to the natural frequency and the ratio

gets closer to unity. This behavior is evident from the plots of Fig. 17 and Fig. 18 taken from Khalak

and Williamson (1997). Fig. 19 shows the amplitude profile as a function of the reduced velocity for a

specific mass of 10.3 from the present study and Khalak and Williamson (1997). It can be seen that

upper and lower branches from the present simulation and Khalak and Williamson (1997) are not

much close whereas the initial branch and the desynchronization branches of the response are

comparable and a generalized trend of amplitude response can be seen. This is also obvious from Fig.

19 that upon increasing the specific mass the range of the reduced velocity over which the response

(upper and lower branches) extends is clearly reduced when compared to amplitude response at

specific mass of 2.4 in Fig. 10.

Abu Bakar IZHAR et al. / China Ocean Eng., 28(4), 2014, 541 556 553

Fig. 15. Frequency ratio (normalized with fna) for ms=2.4 from the present simulation.

Fig. 16. Frequency ratio (normalized with fnw) for ms=2.4 from the present simulation.

Fig. 17. Frequency ratio from Khalak and Williamson (1997) for ms=2.4.

Fig. 18. Frequency ratio from Khalak and Williamson (1997) for ms=10.3 and 20.4.

554 Abu Bakar IZHAR et al. / China Ocean Eng., 28(4), 2014, 541 556

Fig. 19. Comparison of amplitude profile against reduced velocity for ms=10.3.

5. Concluding Remarks

It can be concluded after observing the data obtained from this simulation that ANSYS CFX can

predict the vortex-induced vibrations behavior considerably well. The SAS-SST turbulence scheme

available in CFX used for this simulation is well suited to this type of case. It can be seen from this

study that a better amplitude response could be achieved if small increments in the reduced velocity

were used along with a finer grid but these could be used at the case of computationally expensive cost.

Future work can be extended to fluid structure interaction simulation available in CFX using rigid

body solver along with a grid refinement study.

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mounted circular cylinder using an upwind TVD two-dimensional numerical scheme, Ocean Eng., 35(14-15):

15331544. doi:10.1016/j.oceaneng.2008.06.007.

Williamson, C. H. K. and Roshko, A., 1979. Vortex formation in the wake of an oscillating cylider, J. Fluid.

Struct., 2(4): 355381.

Appendix A

The structural side was solved by employing Runge K5 method for the system of the first order

ordinary differential equations. Eq. (14) was represented by a system of the first order ODE. The

system is as follows:

F cv ku

f1 x, u , v v; f 2 x, u , v . (15)

m

The displacement u and velocity v are calculated as:

7 k11 32k31 12k41 32k51 7k61

ui1 ui 90

(16)

v v 7 k12

32 k 32

12 k42 32k52 7k62

i1 i

90

where,

k1i hf i x, u , v ;

h k k

k2 i hf i x , u 11 , v 12 ;

2 2 2

h 3k11 k21 3k12 k22

k3i hf i x , u ,v ;

4 16 16

h k k

k4 i hf i x , u 31 , v 32 ;

2 2 2

556 Abu Bakar IZHAR et al. / China Ocean Eng., 28(4), 2014, 541 556

k5i hf i x , u ,v ;

4 16 16

k 4k21 6k31 12k41 8k51 k12 4k22 6k32 12k42 8k52

k6 i hf i x h, u 11 ,v , (17)

7 7

where h is the step size.

Appendix B

Fig. 21. Turbulence and wall scale convergence for Ur=3. (3D case).

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