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# Step 1: Development of Design Input

Detail
Average Traffic Daily, ADT = 1350
Percentage of Commercial Vehicle, PVC = 16%
Load Equivalent Factor, LEF = 3.5
Lane Distribution Factor, L = 1.0
Terrain Factor, T = 1.1
Design Life = 20
Annual Growth Rate, TGF = 4
= 29.78
Step 2: Determine Design Traffic (Traffic Category)
ESALY1(Base Year) = ADT x 365 x PCV x LEF x L x T
= 303,534.00
= 0.304

## Design Traffic over 20 years; ESALDES = ESALY1 x TGF

= 9.04
= Traffic Catergory T3

## Step 3: Determine Sub-grade Strength (sub grade Category)

Results from Sub-grade testing:-
CBR Mean = 18.5
CBR Standard Deviation = 4.4
Probability 85% (Normal Deviate) = 1.282

## Characteristic CBR value used for design;

= 18.5% - 1.282 x 4.4%
= 18.5% - 5.6%
= 12.9
= Subgrade Category SG2

Step 4: Select one of the pavement structure from Figure 3.3 (T3, SG2)
Remark Reference
vehicles on one direction, 24hour period
% (no detailed break-down by vehicle type) Table 2.1
Commercial Traffic (Mixed) Table 2.1
(One Lane in One Direction) Table 2.2
(Rolling) Table 2.3
years
%
Table 2.4

PCV x LEF x L x T

million

million
Table 2.5

%
%
Table 2.5

%
tegory SG2 Table 2.6
Step 1: Development of Design Input
Detail
Average Traffic Daily, ADT = 7286
ADT based on HPU survey (0600 - 2200 HR):-
CV1 = 749
CV2 = 547
CV3 = 379
CV4 = 122

## Load Equivalent Factor, LEF1 = 0.1

LEF2 = 4
LEF3 = 4.4
LEF4 = 1.8
Lane Distribution Factor, L = 0.9
Terrain Factor, T = 1.0
Design Life, n = 20
Assumed Annual Growth Rate, r = 4.5
Annual Growth Rate, TGF = [(1+r)n - 1] / r
= 31.37
Step 2: Determine Design Traffic (Traffic Category)
ESALY1(Base Year) = (ADTCV1 x LEF1) + (ADTCV2 x LEF2) + (ADTCV3 x LEF3) + (ADTCV4 x LEF4) x 365 x L x T
= 1,364,089.68
= 1.364

## Design Traffic over 20 years; ESALDES = ESALY1 x TGF

= 42.79
= Traffic Catergory T5

## Step 3: Determine Sub-grade Strength (sub grade Category)

Results from Sub-grade testing:-
CBR Mean =
CBR Standard Deviation =
Probability 85% (Normal Deviate) =

=
=
=
=

## Step 4: Select one of the pavement structure from Figure 3.5

Remark Reference

For result based on 16hr survey, multiplied by 1.2 Table 2.1 & Clause 2.3 1.2
vehicles per 24-hour period Small lorries, van (2axle)
vehicles per 24-hour period Large Lorries (2-4axle)
vehicles per 24-hour period Articulated Lorries ( 3 or more axle)
vehicles per 24-hour period Buses (2 or 3 axle)

Table 2.1

## (Two Lane in One Direction) Table 2.2

Flat Table 2.3
years
%
Table 2.4

1
) + (ADTCV2 x LEF2) + (ADTCV3 x LEF3) + (ADTCV4 x LEF4) x 365 x L x T

million

million
Table 2.5
%
%
Table 2.5

%
Table 2.6
Step 1: Development of Design Input
Detail
Average Traffic Daily, ADT = 7286
ADT based on HPU survey (0600 - 2200 HR):-
C = 500
CV1 = 45
CV2 = 45
CV3 = 48
CV4 = 5

## Load Equivalent Factor, LEF = 0

Load Equivalent Factor, LEF1 = 0.1
LEF2 = 4
LEF3 = 4.4
LEF4 = 1.8

## Lane Distribution Factor, L = 1.0

Terrain Factor, T = 1.1
Design Life, n = 20
Assumed Annual Growth Rate, r = 4.5
Annual Growth Rate, TGF = [(1+r)n - 1] / r
= 31.37
Step 2: Determine Design Traffic (Traffic Category)
ESALY1(Base Year) = (ADTC x LEF)+(ADTCV1 x LEF1) + (ADTCV2 x LEF2) + (ADTCV3 x LEF3) + (ADTCV4 x LEF4)
= 162,487.05
= 0.162

## Design Traffic over 20 years; ESALDES = ESALY1 x TGF

= 5.10
= Traffic Catergory T5
Step 3: Determine Sub-grade Strength (sub grade Category)
Results from Sub-grade testing:-
CBR Mean = 18.5
CBR Standard Deviation = 4.4
Probability 85% (Normal Deviate) = 1.282

## Characteristic CBR value used for design;

= 18.5% - 1.282 x 4.4%
= 18.5% - 5.6%
= 12.9
= Subgrade Category SG2

Step 4: Select one of the pavement structure from Figure 3.3 (T3, SG2)
Remark Reference

For result based on 16hr survey, multiplied by 1.2 Table 2.1 & Clause 2.3 1.2
vehicles per 24-hour period Cars and taxi
vehicles per 24-hour period Small lorries, van (2axle)
vehicles per 24-hour period Large Lorries (2-4axle)
vehicles per 24-hour period Articulated Lorries ( 3 or more axle)
vehicles per 24-hour period Buses (2 or 3 axle)

CV1 Table 2.1
CV2 Table 2.1
CV3 Table 2.1
CV4 Table 2.1

## One Lane in One Direction Table 2.2

Rolling Table 2.3
years
%
Table 2.4

## +(ADTCV1 x LEF1) + (ADTCV2 x LEF2) + (ADTCV3 x LEF3) + (ADTCV4 x LEF4) x 365 x L x T

million

million
Table 2.5
%
%
Table 2.5

%
tegory SG2 Table 2.6